CN101797479B - Method and device for distillating vacuum film by directly utilizing vapor compression heat pump - Google Patents

Method and device for distillating vacuum film by directly utilizing vapor compression heat pump Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101797479B
CN101797479B CN2010101135436A CN201010113543A CN101797479B CN 101797479 B CN101797479 B CN 101797479B CN 2010101135436 A CN2010101135436 A CN 2010101135436A CN 201010113543 A CN201010113543 A CN 201010113543A CN 101797479 B CN101797479 B CN 101797479B
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preheater
flow control
control valve
links
storage tank
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CN2010101135436A
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CN101797479A (en
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赵之平
刘文芳
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北京理工大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/10Relating to general water supply, e.g. municipal or domestic water supply
    • Y02A20/124Water desalination
    • Y02A20/126Water desalination characterized by the method
    • Y02A20/128Evaporation methods, e.g. distillation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/30Wastewater or sewage treatment systems with climate change mitigation effect characterised by the origin of the energy
    • Y02W10/37Wastewater or sewage treatment systems with climate change mitigation effect characterised by the origin of the energy using solar energy

Abstract

The invention discloses a method and a device for distillating a vacuum film by directly utilizing a vapor compression heat pump. The method adopts a vapor compression machine to directly compress the vapor of a transmission side of a film assembly, the compressed high-temperature high-pressure vapor passes through a heater and a preheater in sequence, and the raw materials also pass through the heater and the preheater. In the process, the heat exchange is carried out between the temperature of the vapor and the raw materials to realize the condensation, temperature reduction and heat release of the vapor, so that the additional refrigeration working medium and the evaporator and the condenser thereof are not needed, and a vacuum pump is saved by using the negative pressure formed by the vapor compression machine during absorption of the vapor as a vacuum source; and simultaneously the concentrate from the film assembly exchanges heat with the raw materials through the preheater. The invention saves energy, simplifies the heat pump system, reduces the equipment cost, and can be applied to the purifying and recycling of waste water, water desalination of sea water, bitter water and salt water, concentration of juice and traditional Chinese medicine extract and the like.

Description

A kind of method and device that utilizes the live (open) steam compressing hot pump to carry out vacuum membrane distillation

Technical field

The invention belongs to the film distillation technology field, relate to a kind of method and device that utilizes the live (open) steam compressing hot pump to carry out vacuum membrane distillation.

Background technology

Film distillation is a kind of cheapness, new membrane isolation technics efficiently, and the cheap energy such as solar energy capable of using, underground heat, waste heat of plant carry out under normal pressure or negative pressure, and equipment is simple, easy to operate.Has application widely at aspects such as seawater, bitter desalination potable water and drink water purifying, high purity water preparation, wastewater treatment and fruit juice, Chinese medicine concentrate.

The film distillation is the film separation process that membrane technology combines with evaporation process, and its used film is not by the hydrophobic microporous membrane of pending solution-wet.One side of film directly contacts (being called hot side) with the pending solution of heat, and opposite side is direct or indirect to contact (being called cold side) with the cold aqueous solution.Volatile component through film and get into cold side, is condensed into liquid phase in face place vaporization in the hot side solution, and other components then are blocked in hot side by hydrophobic membrane, thereby realize the purpose of mixture separation or purification.The motive force of mass transfer sees through the steam pressure difference of component for the film both sides, thereby need not solution is heated to boiling point, as long as the suitable temperature difference is kept in the film both sides or steam pressure difference can carry out.

According to the difference that is diffused into film condensation side steam condensing mode, film distillation can be divided into direct contact membranes distillation, the distillation of air gap film, gas and sweep the distillation of formula film, permeable membrane distillation and vacuum membrane distillation.Vacuum membrane distillation is that a side of film directly contacts with feed liquid, vacuumize at the opposite side of film, but the pressure of inlet side is less than feed liquid side form hole liquid-vaqor interface water saturation vapour pressure, and the water vapour that under differential pressure action, sees through film is drawn out of the assembly condensation.Because there is negative pressure in the opposite side of film, has increased driving force, so permeation flux is bigger, not only can handle the aqueous solution, also is easy to the separating volatile organic substance.

Heat pump techniques is that a kind of high potential that utilizes makes heat flow to the technology of high-grade thermal source from low-grade heat source; This novel refrigerating and heat-supplying technology has obvious social and economic benefit at a specified future date; In today that the energy and environmental problem become increasingly conspicuous, carry out heat pump techniques research and have significant meaning with application.Press the operation principle of heat pump, can be divided into steam compression heat pump, absorption heat pump, chemical heat pump, steam jet heat pump, thermoelectric heatpump etc.Steam compression heat pump is a kind of form of the most generally and widely using in the heat pump; In this type heat pump; Heat pump fluid normally circulates in the system that is made up of parts such as compressor, condenser, throttling arrangement and evaporimeters, and realizes low grade heat energy is pumped into the purpose of high-grade humidity province through the state variation and the phase transformation of working medium.

Heat pump techniques is mainly used in air conditioner industry at present, uses seldom in other field.Because big characteristics of film distillation technology can be utilized low-grade energy exactly; And a large amount of latent heat that shortcoming is a steam to be discharged in condensation process have wasted; On energy consumption, comparing with the film separation process of other no phase transformation does not have advantage, if utilize heat pump recovered steam condensation latent heat and be used for heating feed liquid, just in time can remedy the deficiency of film distillation technology; Energy savings has been widened this The Application of Technology scope greatly.But the research of the at present both at home and abroad relevant this respect that heat pump is used for the film distillation seldom, and the particular type of heat pump is not described mostly.

Chinese patent 200810059179.2 discloses a kind of film distilling seawater desalination system that utilizes economical energy resources; Comprise membrane module, seawater storage tank and fresh water storage tank; The concentrated seawater outlet and the steam (vapor) outlet of membrane module are connected in same heat pump, realize the recovery to steam heat, but concentrate the back seawater through heat pump; Flow back to this mode that indirectly seawater is heated of seawater storage tank then and remain, and do not have to explain to be the heat pump that adopts which kind of type in certain problem.Owing to be provided with the porous distributor in the membrane module, the use of only suitable direct contact type film distillation, the complexity and the manufacturing cost of against vacuum formula film distillation having increased on the contrary membrane module.When adopting the distillation of vacuum type film, its use be vavuum pump.

Chinese patent 00267615.X discloses a kind of water treatment facilities of pressure reducing film distillation, comprises that driving liquid pump, latent heat recovery unit, membrane module, vavuum pump and posttreatment filter and infusion pipeline and vacuum line forms.Wherein, latent heat recovery unit is made up of the heat exchanger that fuses, heat pump and condenser.In the downstream of condenser, still use vavuum pump to keep the required vacuum of pressure reducing film distillation.

European patent 2009073921-A1 discloses a kind of device of concentrated fluid, comprises a film distillation unit, and a heat pump is used for drawing cold from cold-producing medium and comes condensed steam.But should invention need to use special cold-producing medium, and what take is that the direct contact type film distills, but not vacuum membrane distillation.

Building merit etc. for domestic is producing with the pressure reducing film distillation technology in the process of pure water; Adopt compression heat pump recycle-water steam condensation latent heat; But what adopt is the indirect type both vapor compression, promptly utilizes refrigeration working medium but not the phase change of water vapour realizes heating and cooling, the technology relative complex.And used vavuum pump to keep the required vacuum of pressure reducing film distillation.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is to propose a kind of method and device that utilizes the live (open) steam compressing hot pump to carry out vacuum membrane distillation in order to overcome the defective of prior art.

The technical scheme that this method adopted is: directly the steam of membrane module through side is compressed through adopting a vapour compression machine; High temperature and high pressure steam after the compression successively through a heater and a preheater, is also passed through heater and preheater with raw material simultaneously.In this process; Utilize the temperature and the raw material of this steam to carry out heat exchange; Promptly realize condensation, the cooling release heat of steam; Thereby do not need extra refrigeration working medium and evaporimeter thereof and condenser, and utilize negative pressure that vapour compression machine forms when sucking steam, thereby saved vavuum pump as vacuum source.Simultaneously, will carry out heat exchange through a preheater and raw material, and need not special to heat, cooling system from the concentrate that membrane module comes out.

For realizing said method; The present invention proposes a kind of device that utilizes the live (open) steam compressing hot pump to carry out vacuum membrane distillation, comprises feed liquid storage tank, feed pump, electric heater, first flow control valve, second flow control valve, the 3rd flow control valve, the 4th flow control valve, membrane module, vapour compression machine, heater, first preheater, second preheater, condensed water storage tank and concentrate storage tank.

Wherein, the film that uses in the said membrane module is hydrophobic porous film, can be hollow-fibre membrane, also can be flat sheet membrane or tubular membrane.

The annexation of above-mentioned part is following:

Link to each other through the 4th flow control valve between the outlet of the inlet of said membrane module and the cold side of heater, the feed liquid side outlet of membrane module links to each other with the hot side entrance of first preheater.

The inlet of said vapour compression machine links to each other with the side outlet that sees through of membrane module, and the outlet of vapour compression machine links to each other with the hot side entrance of heater.The hot side outlet of heater links to each other with the hot side-entrance of second preheater.The cold side inlet of heater links to each other with the cold side outlet of second preheater.

The hot side outlet of said second preheater links to each other with the inlet of condensed water storage tank.

The cold side inlet of said first preheater links to each other with the feed liquid delivery side of pump through the first flow control valve, and the inlet of feed pump links to each other with the outlet of feed liquid storage tank.The cold side outlet of first preheater links to each other with the cold side inlet of second preheater.

The hot side entrance of said first preheater links to each other with the feed liquid side outlet of membrane module, and the hot side outlet of first preheater links to each other with the inlet of concentrate storage tank.

The inlet of said electric heater links to each other with the outlet of feed liquid storage tank through feed pump, and the outlet of electric heater links to each other with the 3rd flow control valve, the 4th flow control valve respectively through second flow control valve.The other end of the 3rd flow control valve links to each other with the feed liquid storage tank.

The course of work of this device is following:

Before the work of this device, all flow control valves all are in closed condition.During work, at first start feed pump, open the first and the 3rd flow control valve then, the raw material in the feed liquid storage tank is circulated back in the feed liquid storage tank through behind the heater, first preheater, second preheater.

Then, close the first flow control valve, open second flow control valve, raw material is looped back in the feed liquid storage tank through electric heater.

At this moment, start electric heater.When the raw material of the electric heater of flowing through be heated to temperature required after, start vapour compression machine, open the 4th flow control valve simultaneously, close the 3rd flow control valve, begin to carry out the film distillation.

In membrane module, because the film that uses of membrane module is hydrophobic porous film, there is steam pressure difference in the film both sides, thereby make the vapour transmission fenestra of volatile components, under the suction function that vapour compression machine work is produced, in its suction vapour compression machine.Steam after compression, temperature and pressure raises, the steam of this HTHP gets into heater.

Simultaneously, raw material flows into heater through first preheater, second preheater, carries out heat exchange with the steam of above-mentioned HTHP, make the raw material that flows into be heated, and steam is condensed.The high-temp liquid that generates after the condensation gets into second preheater, proceeds heat exchange with the raw material that flows into second preheater from first preheater.After high-temp liquid further was condensed, the liquid that obtains was collected in the condensed water storage tank.

In said process, the concentrate that from membrane module, comes out has higher temperature, it is sent into first preheater carry out heat exchange with the raw material that flows in first preheater, makes and can when reducing the concentrate temperature, also carry out preheating to raw material.Concentrate after cooling is collected in the concentrate storage tank.

After liquid occurring in the condensed water storage tank; Reduce the aperture of second flow control valve gradually, increase the aperture of first flow control valve simultaneously gradually, after the vapour compression machine working stability; Close the electric heater and second flow control valve, thereby carry out the film distillation circular treatment under the stable state.

Beneficial effect

The present invention contrasts prior art, has the following advantages:

(1) utilizes the working medium of film distillation steam, do not need special refrigeration working medium as heat pump;

(2) saved evaporimeter and the condenser of realizing Working fluid phase changing;

(3) suction inlet of compressor directly links to each other with the steam (vapor) outlet of membrane module, and can be provides negative pressure in the membrane module, has saved the required vavuum pump of vacuum membrane distillation;

(4), make the various used heat (comprising high-temperature steam, high temperature condensed fluid, the concentrate of uniform temperature) that produce in the film still-process obtain abundant rational Application through technological design.

Through above-mentioned technological means, the present invention has practiced thrift the energy, has simplified heat pump, has reduced equipment cost.The purification that can be applicable to waste water is reclaimed, seawater, hardship, desalination, the concentrating etc. of fruit juice, Chinese medicine extract.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the structure composition frame chart of apparatus of the present invention.

The specific embodiment

Elaborate below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing specific embodiments of the invention.

As shown in Figure 1; A kind of device that utilizes the live (open) steam compressing hot pump to carry out vacuum membrane distillation comprises feed liquid storage tank 1, feed pump 2, electric heater 6, first flow control valve a, the second flow control valve b, the 3rd flow control valve c, the 4th flow control valve d, membrane module 7, vapour compression machine 8, heater 5, first preheater 3, second preheater 4, condensed water storage tank 9 and concentrate storage tank 10.

Wherein, the film that uses in the said membrane module 7 is hydrophobic porous film, can be hollow-fibre membrane, also can be flat sheet membrane or tubular membrane.

The annexation of above-mentioned part is following:

Link to each other through the 4th flow control valve d between the cold side outlet of the inlet of said membrane module 7 and heater 5, the feed liquid side outlet of membrane module 7 links to each other with the hot side entrance of first preheater 3.

The inlet of said vapour compression machine 8 links to each other with the side outlet that sees through of membrane module 7, and the outlet of vapour compression machine 8 links to each other with the hot side entrance of heater 5.The hot side outlet of heater 5 links to each other with the hot side-entrance of second preheater 4.The cold side inlet of heater 5 links to each other with the cold side outlet of second preheater 4.

The hot side outlet of said second preheater 4 links to each other with the inlet of condensed water storage tank 9.

The cold side inlet of said first preheater 3 links to each other through the outlet of first flow control valve a and feed pump 2, and the inlet of feed pump 2 links to each other with the outlet of feed liquid storage tank 1.The cold side outlet of first preheater 3 links to each other with the cold side inlet of second preheater 4.

The hot side entrance of said first preheater 3 links to each other with the feed liquid side outlet of membrane module 7, and the hot side outlet of first preheater 3 links to each other with the inlet of concentrate storage tank 10.

The inlet of said electric heater 6 links to each other with the outlet of feed liquid storage tank 1 through feed pump 2, and the outlet of electric heater 6 links to each other with the 3rd flow control valve c, the 4th flow control valve d respectively through the second flow control valve b.The other end of the 3rd flow control valve c links to each other with feed liquid storage tank 1.

The course of work of this device is following:

Before the work of this device, all flow control valves all are in closed condition.During work, at first start feed pump 2, open first flow control valve a and the 3rd flow control valve c then, be circulated back in the feed liquid storage tank 1 after making raw material in the feed liquid storage tank 1 through heater 5, first preheater 3, second preheater 4.

Then, close first flow control valve a, open the second flow control valve b, raw material is looped back in the feed liquid storage tank 1 through electric heater 6.

At this moment, start electric heater 6.When the raw material of the electric heater 6 of flowing through be heated to temperature required after, start vapour compression machine 8, open the 4th flow control valve d simultaneously, close the 3rd flow control valve c, begin to carry out the film distillation.

In membrane module 7, because the film that uses of membrane module 7 is hydrophobic porous film, there is steam pressure difference in the film both sides, thereby make the vapour transmission fenestra of volatile components, under vapour compression machine 8 is worked the suction function that is produced, in its suction vapour compression machine 8.Steam after compression, temperature and pressure raises, the steam of this HTHP gets into heater 5.

Simultaneously, raw material flows into heaters 5 through first preheater 3, second preheater 4, carries out heat exchange with the steam of above-mentioned HTHP, make the raw material that flows into be heated, and steam is condensed.The high-temp liquid that generates after the condensation gets into second preheater 4, proceeds heat exchange with the raw material that flows into second preheater 4 from first preheater 3.After high-temp liquid further was condensed, the liquid that obtains was collected in the condensed water storage tank 9.

In said process, the concentrate that from membrane module 7, comes out has higher temperature, it is sent into first preheater 3 carry out heat exchange with the raw material that flows in first preheater 3, makes and can when reducing the concentrate temperature, also carry out preheating to raw material.Concentrate after cooling is collected in the concentrate storage tank 10.

After liquid occurring in the condensed water storage tank 9; Reduce the aperture of the second flow control valve b gradually; Increase simultaneously the aperture of first flow control valve a gradually; After the vapour compression machine working stability, close the electric heater 6 and the second flow control valve b, carry out the film distillation circular treatment under the stable state.

Claims (2)

1. a device that utilizes the live (open) steam compressing hot pump to carry out vacuum membrane distillation comprises feed liquid storage tank (1), feed pump (2), electric heater (3), membrane module (7), vapour compression machine (8), condensed water storage tank (9) and concentrate storage tank (10);
It is characterized in that, also comprise heater (5), first preheater (3), second preheater (4), first flow control valve a, the second flow control valve b, the 3rd flow control valve c, the 4th flow control valve d;
Wherein, the film that uses in the said membrane module (7) is hydrophobic porous film;
The annexation of above-mentioned part is following:
Link to each other through the 4th flow control valve d between the cold side outlet of the inlet of said membrane module (7) and heater (5), the feed liquid side outlet of membrane module (7) links to each other with the hot side entrance of first preheater (3);
The inlet of said vapour compression machine (8) links to each other with the side outlet that sees through of membrane module (7), and the outlet of vapour compression machine (8) links to each other with the hot side entrance of heater (5); The hot side outlet of heater (5) links to each other with the hot side-entrance of second preheater (4); The cold side inlet of heater (5) links to each other with the cold side outlet of second preheater (4);
The hot side outlet of said second preheater (4) links to each other with the inlet of condensed water storage tank (9);
The cold side inlet of said first preheater (3) links to each other through the outlet of first flow control valve a and feed pump (2), and the inlet of feed pump (2) links to each other with the outlet of feed liquid storage tank (1); The cold side outlet of first preheater (3) links to each other with the cold side inlet of second preheater (4);
The hot side entrance of said first preheater (3) links to each other with the feed liquid side outlet of membrane module (7), and the hot side outlet of first preheater (3) links to each other with the inlet of concentrate storage tank (10);
The inlet of said electric heater (6) links to each other with the outlet of feed liquid storage tank (1) through feed pump (2), and the outlet of electric heater (6) links to each other with the 3rd flow control valve c, the 4th flow control valve d respectively through the second flow control valve b; The other end of the 3rd flow control valve c links to each other with feed liquid storage tank (1).
2. method of using the said device of claim 1 to carry out vacuum membrane distillation is characterized in that may further comprise the steps:
Before the work of this device, all flow control valves all are in closed condition; During work, at first start feed pump (2), open first flow control valve a and the 3rd flow control valve c then, the raw material in the feed liquid storage tank (1) is circulated back in the feed liquid storage tank (1) through behind the heater (5), first preheater (3), second preheater (4);
Then, close first flow control valve a, open the second flow control valve b, raw material is looped back in the feed liquid storage tank (1) through electric heater 6;
At this moment, start electric heater (6); When the raw material of the electric heater of flowing through (6) be heated to temperature required after, start vapour compression machine (8), open the 4th flow control valve d simultaneously, close the 3rd flow control valve c, begin to carry out the film distillation;
In membrane module (7), the vapour transmission fenestra of volatile components in the raw material is under the suction function that vapour compression machine (8) work is produced, in its suction vapour compression machine (8); Steam after compression, temperature and pressure raises, the steam of this HTHP gets into heater (5);
Simultaneously, raw material flows into heater (5) through first preheater (3), second preheater (4), carries out heat exchange with the steam of above-mentioned HTHP, make the raw material that flows into be heated, and steam is condensed; The high-temp liquid that generates after the condensation gets into second preheater (4), proceeds heat exchange with the raw material that flows into second preheater (4) from first preheater (3); After high-temp liquid further was condensed, the liquid that obtains was collected in the condensed water storage tank (9);
In said process; The concentrate that from membrane module (7), comes out is sent into first preheater (3) and is carried out heat exchange with the raw material that flows in first preheater (3); Make and can when reducing the concentrate temperature, also carry out preheating to raw material, the concentrate after cooling is collected in the concentrate storage tank (10);
After liquid occurring in the condensed water storage tank (9); Reduce the aperture of the second flow control valve b gradually; Increase simultaneously the aperture of first flow control valve a gradually; After the vapour compression machine working stability, close the electric heater (6) and the second flow control valve b, carry out the film distillation circular treatment under the stable state.
CN2010101135436A 2010-02-25 2010-02-25 Method and device for distillating vacuum film by directly utilizing vapor compression heat pump CN101797479B (en)

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CN102910694B (en) * 2012-10-31 2013-11-20 南京紫晶藤节能科技有限公司 System and method for continuous production two-stage heat pump sea water desalinization
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CN104190260B (en) * 2014-09-19 2016-01-20 天津工业大学 Decompression combination air gap membrane distillation method and device thereof
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