CN101788451A - Silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment and method - Google Patents

Silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101788451A
CN101788451A CN201010108850A CN201010108850A CN101788451A CN 101788451 A CN101788451 A CN 101788451A CN 201010108850 A CN201010108850 A CN 201010108850A CN 201010108850 A CN201010108850 A CN 201010108850A CN 101788451 A CN101788451 A CN 101788451A
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silt
permeability
water
simulation
water inlet
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CN201010108850A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101788451B (en
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杨迎晓
徐根洪
陈华
王一旻
平梁忠
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浙江树人大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to soil property measuring equipment and method, aiming at providing silt anti-permeability strength testing equipment and method. The silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment comprises a permeation container with a built-in cutting ring, the top of the permeation container is a top cap, and the bottom is a base; and a water inlet is connected with a water supply pipe and a water inlet pipe through a tee-joint valve, the water supply pipe is connected to a water level adjusting device, and the water inlet pipe is connected to a varying head device. The measuring equipment and method can be used for measuring the permeation deformation development law and characteristic of silt under the conditions of different geological conditions, grain composition, hydraulic conditions and different preventing and controlling measures as well as the critical state index of the silt when permeation failure occurs so as to provide references for preventing and controlling the permeation failure of a silt foundation. The invention has great significance on the researches of the permeation deformation, the critical hydraulic gradient and the anti-permeability strength of the silt. In addition, the invention can realize the simultaneous analysis of multiple samples, which greatly shortens the measuring time and improves the work efficiency.

Description

Silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment and method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of soil function testing apparatus and method.More particularly, the present invention relates to a kind of silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment and method.
Background technology
Silt is between sand and cohesive soil, plasticity index I p≤ 10 and particle diameter be no more than the soil of full weight 50% greater than the granule content of 0.075mm.Because structure and glacier activity are considered to be rich in the sedimental geologic epoch of silt the Quaternary period.In the area that lives through glacier activity or alluviation, silt is very general in the world.
Silt has special engineering character, and the silt structure is responsive, easily disturbance, acting on cohesive soil and tangible difference is arranged in sand between water and the soil.The ability of soil body opposing seepage failure is called anti-permeability strength, i.e. the unit soil body limit seepage force γ that can bear wJ FJ FFor destroying hydraulic gradient or ratio of resistance seepage slope, also can be as anti-permeability strength.Silt very easily produces seepage deformation under the effect of underground water flowing pressure, cause geologic hazard and engineering problem very outstanding, and is therefore significant to the research of silt anti-permeability strength.
The silt seepage deformation is a very complicated problems, its form and generation development and silt geological condition, grain composition, hydraulics, factors such as water (flow) direction are relevant, usually can be summed up as and be following 4 kinds: (1) stream soil: the particle swarm of the soil body starts simultaneously under seepage effect and takes away, it can be a globality, it also can be locality: (2) piping: under seepage effect, particle moves or is taken away by current along pore channel: (3) contact scour: when seepage flow flows along the surface of contact of different medium, particle is taken away: (4) contact stream soil: when the vertical surface of contact with different medium of seepage flow flows, the particle of one deck wherein is moved in another layer goes.In actual engineering, the form that seepage deformation takes place can be that single form occurs, and also can be that several formal adjoints come across different parts.
Make a general survey of domestic and international seepage failure present Research, it is more to concentrate on dam infiltration piping aspect, and great majority are at cohesiveless soil or cohesive soil, and vertical seepage deformation instrument also only is applicable to vertical infiltration coefficient and the seepage deformation of measuring coarse-grained soil.Therefore, at silt characteristic development silt anti-permeability strength determinator, measure the seepage deformation rule of development and the feature of silt under different geological conditions, grain composition, hydraulics and different prophylactico-therapeutic measuress, be in the index of critical conditions during silt generation seepage failure, for the prevention and control of silt foundation seepage failure provide reference.For the seepage deformation of silt, significant to the research of the critical hydraulic gradient of silt, silt anti-permeability strength.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is, overcomes deficiency of the prior art, provides a kind of silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment and based on the assay method of this equipment.
In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
The invention provides a kind of silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment, comprise that main body is the permeability vessel of annular casing, a built-in cutting ring; The top of described permeability vessel is the top cover that is provided with gap, and its bottom is for being provided with the base of gas outlet and water inlet; Described water inlet links to each other with water inlet pipe with feed pipe through T-valve, and feed pipe is connected to water level control apparatus, and water inlet pipe is connected to the varying head device; Described water level control apparatus is a cistern that has water level gauge, and feed pipe is communicated with cistern bottom outlet valve; Described varying head device comprises the varying head pipe of band milliliter scale and the fixed support of band millimeter rule, and water inlet pipe is communicated with varying head pipe bottom.
As a kind of improvement, establish pipe clamp on the described water inlet pipe.
As a kind of improvement, described gap, gas outlet and water inlet are provided with valve respectively.
As a kind of improvement, described cistern is located on the crane.
As a kind of improvement, described permeability vessel is located on the pedestal, and is furnished with the transparent water receptacle.
As a kind of improvement, establish O-ring seal between described cutting ring and top cover and the base.
As a kind of improvement, the top and bottom of described cutting ring are provided with impervious layer of simulation and simulation subjacent bed respectively; The impervious layer of described simulation is geotextile or ballast material; Described simulation subjacent bed is permeable stone or sand.
As a kind of improvement, described silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment comprises two groups of above permeability vessels and varying head device, each permeability vessel all is connected to the varying head device supporting with it by pipeline and T-valve, and is communicated with the outlet valve of same water level control apparatus.
As goal of the invention further, the present invention also provides the silt anti-permeability strength assay method based on aforementioned silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment, may further comprise the steps:
(1) water inlet with the permeability vessel base is communicated with water level control apparatus; Check permeability vessel, require to be sealed to water-tight air tight; Place the simulation subjacent bed on the permeability vessel base, the simulation subjacent bed is permeable stone or sand;
(2) cutting ring that the silt sample will the be housed permeability vessel of packing into; Because silt structure sensitivity, after the sample upper end adds the protection screen cloth, put into upper dankness stone again and lid presses closer lid; The tracheae that begins to rehearse is got rid of the air of permeability vessel bottom;
(3) saturated: close gas outlet, it is saturated to carry out sample with the head of varying head device; The gap of permeability vessel is a zero water level, regulates the height of water level of cistern, and the valve of opening the water inlet pipe in the varying head device makes water level communicate with the varying head pipe, and saturated head should guarantee not occur saturated destruction according to silt content; When the gap continuous effluent, illustrate that the silt sample is fully saturated, the high more saturation time of silt content is of a specified duration more;
(4) the impervious layer of simulation is set: close the valve of water inlet pipe, open top cover and take out upper dankness stone; After the needs of measuring according to silt anti-permeability strength are provided with the impervious layer of simulation, cover top cover again, when gap water outlet again, test; The impervious layer of described simulation is geotextile or ballast material;
(5) test: select initial hydraulic gradient, hydraulic gradient increment value and water percolating capacity according to the grain composition of silt, prophylactico-therapeutic measures etc.; Regulate the water level of cistern, treat varying head pipe stable level, the record head height; Close varying head pipe pipe clamp, when gap has water to overflow, start stopwatch immediately, survey the predetermined needed time of water percolating capacity of note; By water delivering orifice and transparent water receptacle, examine the water outlet situation, when beginning to beat, taken out of powder by water, reach critical hydraulic gradient J Cr
Destroy hydraulic gradient JF: continue to increase with head, water delivering orifice water outlet muddiness, the osmotic flow quantitative change is big, and head is increased to sample and loses anti-permeability strength at this moment, and the hydraulic gradient JF that obtains according to formula (a) is ratio of resistance seepage slope or anti-permeability strength;
J = Δh L - - - ( a )
In the formula (a), J is the hydraulic gradient of silt seepage flow; Δ h is the infiltration head difference, and varying head pipe fixed level is to gap height (cm) under every grade of hydraulic gradient; L is a permeation pathway, i.e. soil sample height (cm).
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
With respect to prior art, sensing equipment provided by the invention can be used for measuring the seepage deformation rule of development and the feature of silt under different geological conditions, grain composition, hydraulics and different prophylactico-therapeutic measuress with assay method, be in the index of critical conditions during silt generation seepage failure, for the prevention and control of silt foundation seepage failure provide reference.For the seepage deformation of silt, significant to the research of the critical hydraulic gradient of silt, silt anti-permeability strength.In addition, the present invention can realize that a plurality of samples analyze simultaneously, has reduced minute greatly, has improved work efficiency.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of single shell type silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment among the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the structure enlarged diagram of permeability vessel among Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is the scheme of installation of many shell types silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment.
Reference numeral among the figure:
1 water level control apparatus, 2 varying head devices, 3 permeability vessels, 4 simulation layers, 5 silt samples, 6 transparent water receptacles, 7 pedestals; 10 cisterns, 11 water level gauges, 12 cranes, 13 outlet valves; 20 varying head pipes, 21 support plates, 22 T-valve, 23 feed pipes, 24 water inlet pipes, 25 pipe clamps, 26 fixed supports; 30 top covers, 31 gaps, 32 O-ring seals, 33 casings, 34 cutting rings (internal diameter 61.8mm, high 40mm), 35 gas outlets, 36 water inlets, 37 bases; The 40 impervious layers of simulation (putting permeable stone when soil sample is saturated), 41 simulation subjacent beds.
Embodiment
With reference to the accompanying drawings, describe the present invention below.
Silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment among the present invention comprises that main body is the permeability vessel 3 of annular casing 33, a built-in cutting ring 34.Described permeability vessel 3 is located on the pedestal, and its top is the top cover 30 that is provided with gap 31, establishes O-ring seal 32 between cutting ring 34 and top cover 30 and the base 37.Permeability vessel 3 bottoms are the base 37 that is provided with gas outlet 35 and water inlet 36, and gap 31, gas outlet 35 and water inlet 36 are provided with valve respectively.Described water inlet 36 links to each other with water inlet pipe 24 with feed pipe 23 through T-valve 22, and feed pipe 23 is connected to water level control apparatus 1, and water inlet pipe 24 is connected to varying head device 2, establishes pipe clamp 25 on the water inlet pipe 24; Described water level control apparatus 1 is a cistern 10 that has water level gauge 11, and feed pipe 23 is communicated with the outlet valve 13 of cistern 10 bottoms, and cistern 10 is located on the crane 12.Described varying head device 2 comprises the varying head pipe 20 of band milliliter scale and the fixed support 26 of band millimeter rule, and varying head pipe 20 is fixed on the fixed support 26 by support plate 21, and water inlet pipe 24 is communicated with the bottom of varying head pipe 20.
Among the present invention, silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment can comprise two groups of above permeability vessels 3 and varying head device 2, each permeability vessel 3 all is connected to the varying head device 2 supporting with it by pipeline and T-valve 22, and is communicated with the outlet valve 13 of water level control apparatus 1.With a plurality of permeability vessels 3 and be unified into many covering devices, can carry out a plurality of silt sample seepage deformations tests (as shown in Figure 3).
Based on foregoing silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment, the present invention also provides a kind of silt anti-permeability strength assay method, may further comprise the steps:
1, simulation subjacent bed 41 is set: the water inlet 36 of permeability vessel 3 bases 37 is communicated with water level control apparatus 1.Check permeability vessel 3, require to be sealed to water-tight air tight.According to the engineering actual conditions, on permeability vessel 3 bases, place simulation subjacent bed 41, simulation subjacent bed 41 is permeable stone or sand.
2, dress sample: the cutting ring 34 that the silt sample will the be housed permeability vessel 3 of packing into.Because silt structure sensitivity after the sample upper end adds the protection screen cloth, is put into upper dankness stone again and is covered to press closer and cover 30; The tracheae 35 that begins to rehearse is got rid of the air of permeability vessel 3 bottoms.
3, saturated: as to close gas outlet 35.It is saturated to carry out sample with the head of varying head device 2.The gap of permeability vessel 3 is a zero water level, regulates the height of water level of cistern 10, and water inlet pipe 24 valves of opening in the varying head device 2 make water level communicate with varying head pipe 20, and saturated head should guarantee not occur saturated breakoff phenomenon according to silt content.When gap 31 continuous effluent, illustrate that the silt sample is fully saturated, the high more saturation time of silt content is of a specified duration more.
4, the impervious layer 40 of simulation is set: close the valve of water inlet pipe 24, open top cover 30 and take out upper dankness stone.The needs of measuring according to silt anti-permeability strength are provided with the impervious layer 40 of simulation.Again cover top cover 30, when gap 31 water outlet again, can test.The impervious layer 40 of described simulation is geotextile or ballast material;
5, test: select initial hydraulic gradient, hydraulic gradient increment value and water percolating capacity according to the grain composition of silt, prophylactico-therapeutic measures etc.Regulate the water level of cistern, treat varying head pipe 20 stable levels, the record head height; Close varying head pipe 20 pipe clamps, when gap 31 has water to overflow, start stopwatch immediately, survey the predetermined needed time of water percolating capacity of note; And the water temperature and the room temperature of survey note water delivering orifice.If continuous water level and the water percolating capacity that records for 3 times is basicly stable, no abnormal again phenomenon can promote the next stage head step by step and destroy until soil sample.Can carry out next record after need stablizing about 10 minutes behind each rising head.Examine the muddy situation of water in gap 31 and the water receiving container 6.Fall near critical ratio, should reduce as one feels fit than falling increment value.Taken out of by water when powder begins to beat, reach critical hydraulic gradient J Cr
7, destroy hydraulic gradient J F: continue to increase with head, water delivering orifice water outlet muddiness, the osmotic flow quantitative change is big, and head is increased to sample and loses anti-permeability strength at this moment, at this moment hydraulic gradient J FBe ratio of resistance seepage slope (anti-permeability strength).Open top cover 30, sop up top water, take silt and destroy form, be described with ear washing bulb.
8, hydraulic gradient computing formula:
J = Δh L - - - ( a )
In the formula (a), J is the hydraulic gradient of silt seepage flow; Δ h is the infiltration head difference, promptly under every grade of hydraulic gradient varying head pipe fixed level to gap height (cm); L is a permeation pathway, i.e. soil sample height (cm).
In addition, adopt secondary saturated, select initial hydraulic gradient and hydraulic gradient increment value according to the silt characteristic; According to actual engineering geological condition simulation subjacent bed 41 is set: can be with the permeable stone of different water permeabilitys to the cohesive soil subjacent bed, can be with the sand of close grating and packing to sandy soil; Impervious requirement is provided with the impervious layer 40 of simulation, the geotextile of available unlike material or ballast material according to engineering.
This device also can be measured the perviousness of silt when measuring anti-permeability strength.Utilize silt to reach critical hydraulic gradient J CrBefore sample intact, under the limpid condition of water outlet, the head under the hydraulic gradients at different levels, water percolating capacity and time keeping can be tried to achieve the infiltration coefficient of silt, the permission difference range of the infiltration coefficient that different heads are measured down is not more than 2 * 10 -nCm/s.
At last, it is also to be noted that what more than enumerate only is specific embodiments of the invention.Obviously, the invention is not restricted to above embodiment, many implementation methods can also be arranged.All implementation methods that those of ordinary skill in the art can directly derive or associate from content disclosed by the invention all should be thought protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment comprises that main body is the permeability vessel of annular casing, and a built-in cutting ring is characterized in that the top of described permeability vessel is the top cover that is provided with gap, and its bottom is for being provided with the base of gas outlet and water inlet; Described water inlet links to each other with water inlet pipe with feed pipe through T-valve, and feed pipe is connected to water level control apparatus, and water inlet pipe is connected to the varying head device; Described water level control apparatus is a cistern that has water level gauge, and feed pipe is communicated with cistern bottom outlet valve; Described varying head device comprises the fixed support of varying head pipe and band rule, and water inlet pipe is communicated with varying head pipe bottom.
2. silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment according to claim 1 is characterized in that, establishes pipe clamp on the described water inlet pipe.
3. silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment according to claim 1 is characterized in that described gap, gas outlet and water inlet are provided with valve respectively.
4. silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment according to claim 1 is characterized in that described cistern is located on the crane.
5. silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment according to claim 1 is characterized in that described permeability vessel is located on the pedestal, and is furnished with the transparent water receptacle.
6. silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment according to claim 1 is characterized in that, establishes O-ring seal between described cutting ring and top cover and the base.
7. silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment according to claim 1 is characterized in that, the top and bottom of described cutting ring are provided with impervious layer of simulation and simulation subjacent bed respectively; The impervious layer of described simulation is geotextile or ballast material; Described simulation subjacent bed is permeable stone or sand.
8. silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, comprise two groups of above permeability vessels and varying head device, each permeability vessel all is connected to the varying head device supporting with it by pipeline and T-valve, and is communicated with the outlet valve of same water level control apparatus.
9. silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment according to claim 8 is characterized in that, the top and bottom of described cutting ring are provided with impervious layer of simulation and simulation subjacent bed respectively; The impervious layer of described simulation is geotextile or ballast material; Described simulation subjacent bed is permeable stone or sand.
10. based on the silt anti-permeability strength assay method of equipment described in any one of the claim 1 to 9, may further comprise the steps:
(1) water inlet with the permeability vessel base is communicated with water level control apparatus; Check permeability vessel, require to be sealed to water-tight air tight; Place the simulation subjacent bed on the permeability vessel base, the simulation subjacent bed is permeable stone or sand;
(2) cutting ring that the silt sample will the be housed permeability vessel of packing into; Because silt structure sensitivity, after the sample upper end adds the protection screen cloth, put into upper dankness stone again and lid presses closer lid; The tracheae that begins to rehearse is got rid of the air of permeability vessel bottom;
(3) saturated: close gas outlet, it is saturated to carry out sample with the head of varying head device; The gap of permeability vessel is a zero water level, regulates the height of water level of cistern, and the valve of opening the water inlet pipe in the varying head device makes water level communicate with the varying head pipe, and saturated head should guarantee not occur saturated destruction according to silt content; When the gap continuous effluent, illustrate that the silt sample is fully saturated, the high more saturation time of silt content is of a specified duration more;
(4) the impervious layer of simulation is set: close the valve of water inlet pipe, open top cover and take out upper dankness stone; After the needs of measuring according to silt anti-permeability strength are provided with the impervious layer of simulation, cover top cover again, when gap water outlet again, test; The impervious layer of described simulation is geotextile or ballast material;
(5) test: select initial hydraulic gradient, hydraulic gradient increment value and water percolating capacity according to the grain composition of silt, prophylactico-therapeutic measures etc.; Regulate the water level of cistern, treat varying head pipe stable level, the record head height; Close varying head pipe pipe clamp, when gap has water to overflow, start stopwatch immediately, survey the predetermined needed time of water percolating capacity of note; By water delivering orifice and transparent water receptacle, examine the water outlet situation, when beginning to beat, taken out of powder by water, reach critical hydraulic gradient J Cr
Destroy hydraulic gradient J F: continue to increase with head, water delivering orifice water outlet muddiness, the osmotic flow quantitative change is big, and head was increased to sample and lost anti-permeability strength this moment, the hydraulic gradient J that obtains according to formula (a) FBe ratio of resistance seepage slope or anti-permeability strength;
J = Δh L - - - ( a )
In the formula (a), J is the hydraulic gradient of silt seepage flow; Δ h is the infiltration head difference, and varying head pipe fixed level is to the gap height under every grade of hydraulic gradient; L is a permeation pathway, i.e. the soil sample height.
CN 201010108850 2010-02-09 2010-02-09 Silt anti-permeability strength measuring equipment and method CN101788451B (en)

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CN103217373A (en) * 2013-05-16 2013-07-24 上海市城市建设设计研究总院 Light-controlled pressurized rapid permeability test device
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CN104819920A (en) * 2015-03-24 2015-08-05 河南理工大学 Varying-head permeability experiment apparatus for indoor freezing and thawing equipment
CN104727265A (en) * 2015-04-07 2015-06-24 董纪全 Risk prediction method for crossing-dyke sluice
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CN106814024A (en) * 2016-08-23 2017-06-09 中国辐射防护研究院 One kind can absorb water lateral spacing constant volume sample box
CN107063972A (en) * 2017-05-23 2017-08-18 山东大学 A kind of integrated osmotic coefficient investigating device of normal varying head and its test method
CN107063972B (en) * 2017-05-23 2019-06-14 山东大学 It is a kind of often-varying head integration osmotic coefficient investigating device and its test method
CN108061696A (en) * 2017-11-29 2018-05-22 河海大学 A kind of device and method of indoor test mud film infiltration coefficient
CN108061696B (en) * 2017-11-29 2021-02-09 河海大学 Device and method for testing permeability coefficient of mud membrane indoors
CN108226008A (en) * 2018-01-18 2018-06-29 西安理工大学 Self-loopa varying head darcy permeability test instrument
CN108226008B (en) * 2018-01-18 2020-12-18 西安理工大学 Self-circulation variable water head Darcy infiltration experimental instrument
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