CN101781131B - Sludge composting method - Google Patents

Sludge composting method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101781131B
CN101781131B CN201010111644.XA CN201010111644A CN101781131B CN 101781131 B CN101781131 B CN 101781131B CN 201010111644 A CN201010111644 A CN 201010111644A CN 101781131 B CN101781131 B CN 101781131B
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China
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windrow
mud
fermentation
sludge
bacterium
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CN201010111644.XA
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CN101781131A (en
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吴灿东
曾广德
谢小青
陈标
丁国强
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厦门水务集团有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/20Fertilizers of biological origin, e.g. guano or fertilizers made from animal corpses
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention provides a sludge composting method, and relates to a sludge treatment method which comprises the steps of preferable accessory selection, CK21 fungus spraying inoculation, heavy metal passivation and powder granulation, and then three-dimensional composite biological organic fertilizer with organic, inorganic and microbial active constituents is obtained. Mushroom compost and pig manure are used as accessories which are easily obtained and degraded, the stacker fermentation time is short, only one time of fermentation is needed, the C/N ratio can be effectively adjusted, and the water content of the sludge is reduced; and the efficient beneficial bio-fungus community CK21 is adopted. The microbial concentration is high, the secretion ability of the enzyme is strong, organic matters can be quickly decomposed so as to prevent the corruption of the organic matters, no odor exists, sludge is used for CK21 inoculation, fermentation starts fast, and the effect is good; and the product is inoculated with the CK21 fungus secondarily so as to further balance and activate nutrients, and the microbial natural reproduction is utilized to realize the is called flower dipping absorbing of the plants to nutrients. The invention has the advantages of optimizing the composting conditions, shortening the composting time, reducing energy consumption of turning, and reducing the damage of the heavy metal on the ecological environment.

Description

A kind of sludge composting method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of method for sludge treatment, especially relate to a kind of sludge composting method.
Background technology
Along with treatment rate of domestic sewage improves year by year, mud---the municipal sludge that municipal sewage plant produces, also sharply increases.The annual dewatered sludge amount producing of China's urban wastewater treatment firm is large; mud problem of outlet is very outstanding; for example; Fujian Province's aquaculture and mushroom plant husbandry large-scale production proportion have exceeded 50% at present; all kinds of organic solid castoffs of city and country have reached surprising quantity; annual fowl and animal excrement and mushroom residue generation are large; cannot dissolve and bulk deposition; environment is caused to very big harm; if rationally do not utilize; not only can cause a large amount of wastes of organic resources, but also can cause the secondary pollution of environment.How these valuable organic waste utilizations of resources are got up, realize resource regeneration, ensure urban and rural environment grace, thrust zone Economic development, has important theory and practice meaning.Therefore, the recycle of discussion cultivation ight soil and this class high-quality organic resource of mud has become the great demand of local environmental protection industry.
In China, sludge disposal starting is late, because economy, sludge composting technical difficulty, technology imperfection, investment are large, return the reasons such as uncertain, domestic set foot in the enterprise in this field also little, lack the producer that produces sludge composting suite of equipment, in addition policies and regulations, standard and the management system of China aspect sludge disposal is still far from perfect, shortage technology is guided and supported, China's urban sewage sludge compost is still in the preliminary research stage, and mostly concentrates on municipal sludge and garbage hybrid composting technical elements.For reducing compost cost, aspect pure municipal sludge fertilizer, fixed stook fermentation and vertical type fermentation storehouse system are had to certain research; belong to static compost, fermentation time is long, few to the research of municipal sludge aerobic fermentation; and do not form grind-produce-sell streamlined management mode, not yet carry out large-scale production.
In recent years, domestic many researchists have carried out a large amount of research for the condition control in composting process, have obtained a lot of valuable achievements.Wei Yuan send etc. that (Wei Yuan send, Li Chengqiang, Fan Yaobo, Deng. the impact [J] of different draft types on sludge composting. environmental science, 2001,22 (3): the water ratio that 54~59) has also confirmed windrow has a strong impact on sludge composting process, and think that the initial aqueous rate of windrow should not exceed 80%.(the Zhang Xueying such as Zhang Xueying, Zhang Yufeng, Xu Yanhua, etc. the impact [J] of different leavening agents on municipal sludge forced aerating still pile system. Nanjing University of Technology's journal, 2003,25 (5): 68~71.) studied the impact of different leavening agents on municipal sludge forced aerating still pile system.Mud and leavening agent are mixed for 1: 3 by volume, the in the situation that of forced ventilation deficiency, in conjunction with artificial turning weekly, can realize During High-Temperature Composting.(the Zhao Lijun such as Zhao Lijun, Yang Yidong, Hu Zhenling. urban sewage sludge compost technical study [J]. Chinese water supply and drainage, 1999,15 (9): 58~60.) think that early stage ventilation can improve rapidly heap temperature, maintains optimum temperuture for making to pile temperature, can utilize collapse of setting and add atm number, particularly, in the compost later stage, make the heat of accumulation in heap layer by the absorption of moisture content, evaporative heat loss prevents from piling temperature rise.He Pinjing (He Pinjing. municipal sludge is processed and application [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2003.107~112.) to point out, the suitable proportion of Sewage Plant dewatered sludge and municipal wastes hybrid composting is 26%~38% (wt); The suitable proportion of Sewage Plant dewatered sludge and pipeline mud and municipal wastes is 30%~40% (wt).(the Chen Tongbin such as Chen Tongbin, Huang Qifei, Gao Ding, Deng. urban sewage sludge compost temperature dynamic change procedure and stratification [J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2002,22 (5): 736~741.) draw by experiment, in the time that amendment ratio is high, heap body heats up, rate of temperature fall is all very fast, and high-temperature duration is short; But as the backflow that the adds suitable proportion mud that becomes thoroughly decomposed, heap body can be more than 50 DEG C the required time of continuous high temperature sterilization.
Compared with abroad, the composting technical matters of China is comparatively simple, develops comparatively slowly, and the agricultural Resource analysis theory and practice of municipal sludge is all differed greatly.At present, it is also few that domestic sludge composting is processed case history, according to domestic sludge composting applicable cases, mainly contains direct oven drying method, secondary drying method, simple fermentation-comminution granulation, Puli's method and polynary comprehensive process for preparing fertilizer etc.Directly oven drying method is that dewatered sludge is directly dried with drying machine.Dried mud is irregular particle shape, without granulation, and directly packaging.In its drying course, stink is larger, and dust removal problem needs to solve, and fertilizer product is poorly soluble, easily goes mouldy.Secondary drying method is to pulverize granulation after dewatered sludge is dried, then secondary drying, and in its drying course, stink is larger, and dust removal problem also needs to solve, and energy consumption is high, and fertilizer product is poorly soluble, easily goes mouldy.Simple fermentation-comminution granulation is dewatered sludge blending flyash by a certain percentage, reduces water ratio, and adds the things such as stalk and carry out compost fermentation as swelling agent.Mud is after compost fermentation, and organism becomes thoroughly decomposed stable, eliminates egg parasitoid and germ, improves the fertilizer efficiency of mud.This method stench is few, and germ is eliminated substantially by fermentation, but floor space is large, and product is poorly soluble.Puli's method technique is on secondary drying method basis, increases and adds biological inoculum operation at mixing portion.This process energy consumption and mechanical wear are large; Puli's powder is genus bacillus, activates rejuvenation condition harshness, and after drying, number of viable is very little, is difficult to bring into play microbic activity function.Polynary comprehensive process for preparing fertilizer technique is developed by Secondary Fermentation composting process, utilize heap fermentation technique, add subsidiary material, access VT biological inoculum, adds heavy metal deactivator, in fermenter, ferments, can efficiently remove moisture by rolling turning and air blast, spray expanded granulation finally by high temperature, hot high pressure, secondary connects bacterium, obtains mud finished product fertilizers.This process using auxiliary material adds, connects the polytechnics combinations such as bacterium, fermentation and granulation, and dewatered sludge is after this processing, and pathogenic bacteria disappearance, organic humus, heavy metal are stablized, solubleness increases, and nutrient balance improves.But VT bacterium fermentation starting is slower, heat spray granulation needs High Temperature High Pressure, condition harshness, and energy consumption is large.
In sum, directly oven drying method, secondary drying method, fermentation-comminution granulation all exist and cause nutrient cannot reach the shortcoming of release request because solvability is low; Puli's rule is because energy consumption is high, loss causes processing cost too high greatly, and biological activity deficiency.Polynary comprehensive rule is taked corresponding measure targetedly according to the character of Sewage Plant dewatered sludge, has avoided the deficiency of other method.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to and compost time large for existing heap formula turning compost energy consumption the problem such as grows, and a kind of sludge composting method is provided.
Technical scheme of the present invention is on Yuan Tiaodui formula compost basis, by selecting high-quality auxiliary material, employing is turned over and is cast the standby compost turning of carrying out, in spraying inoculation CK21 bacterium, the fast rotten heat of aerobic compost, biological high nitrogen source fermentation, phosphoric acid and the Sludge Composting complete set technology that forms such as softening and heavy metal passivation, the granulation of compost powder.
The present invention includes following steps:
1) step of a preferred auxiliary material:
In mud, add auxiliary material, obtain mud and the mixture that adds auxiliary material, claim mud windrow;
2) step of a CK21 bacterium spraying inoculation;
3) aerobic compost step of rotten heat, biological high nitrogen source fermentation fast:
Mud windrow after spraying inoculation CK21 bacterium is carried out to aerobic fermentation, obtain Powdered windrow;
4) step of a heavy metal passivation:
In the Powdered windrow of aerobic fermentation gained, add fixing agent;
5) step of a powder granulation:
Dry, broken by adding the Powdered windrow of aerobic fermentation gained after fixing agent, add nutritive element, then access for the second time CK21 bacterium, broken after granulation, moulding, obtains the three-dimensional compound biological organic fertilizer of organic and inorganic-microorganism effective constituent.
In step 1) in, described auxiliary material is organic amendment and raising agent, described auxiliary material is selected from wood chip, rice bran, at least one in straw etc., described organic amendment is the organic waste in production or life, optional from animal excrement, at least one in offal etc., described raising agent is selected from mushroom residue and dry pig manure slag etc., by mass percentage, mud can be 50%~80%, mushroom residue is 20%~50%, be preferably mud 70%, mushroom residue 30%, the add-on of described organic amendment can be 25%~35% of mud by mass percentage, be preferably 30% of mud, the addition of dry pig manure slag can be 1%~5% of mud by mass percentage, is preferably 3% of mud, the carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of described mud windrow can be 20~30, the water ratio of auxiliary material can be 25%~35%, is preferably 30%, the water ratio of described mud windrow can be 55%~65%, is preferably 60%, the heap volume density of described mud windrow can be 0.5%~0.9%t/m 3, be preferably 0.8t/m 3.Described organic amendment is a kind of organically material, adds after matrix to regulate raw mixture character the material comparing etc. as moisture, quality, C/N.
The quality that density refers to material is calculated divided by its shared volume, conventionally material to be checked can be put into after the container of a known volume and quality by its natural stacking state, weighs the quality of filling material container and tries to achieve.Density=(containers qualities-empty receptacle quality of filling)/container volume.
In step 2) in, the concrete steps of described CK21 bacterium spraying inoculation can be directly CK21 bacterium to be spread between expanded good mud windrow particle surface and expanded gap, the amount of described spraying inoculation can be 2%~5% of material total mass, is preferably 3%; The CK21 bacterium adopting can adopt solid state microbial inoculum.
In step 3) in, the described aerobic fermentation that carries out can carry out in semiclosed workshop, is preferably in and in solar energy greenhouse, carries out aerobic fermentation, the Powdered windrow of aerobic fermentation gained preferably piles leg-of-mutton bar shaped buttress, the width of bar shaped buttress can be 5m, and the length of bar shaped buttress can be 120m, and the height of bar shaped buttress can be 2.4m, cast standby stirring by turning over, the frequency of earlier fermentation turning can be 2 days 1 time, and the fermentation middle and later periods can be 3 days 1 time, and fermentation time can be 10~15 days; The temperature of described aerobic fermentation can be 60~75 DEG C, is preferably 65~68 DEG C; The water ratio of described Powdered windrow can be 25%~35%, and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) can be≤and 20: 1.
In step 4) in, described fixing agent can adopt the basic materials such as lime, flyash, basic iron vanadine, and the dosage of described fixing agent can be 0.6%~0.7% of Powdered windrow by mass percentage, is preferably 0.63% of Powdered windrow.
Soil pH value is the main factor that affects bioavailability of heavy metals and plant uptake rate.In sludge composting process, by basic materials such as feeding lime, flyash, basic iron vanadine, improve on the one hand pH value, make heavy metal form insoluble carbonate in thermophilic stage, on the other hand as fixing agent, heavy metal adsorption, to basic material, is effectively reduced to water-soluble state and the exchange state of heavy metal, thereby reach the object that reduces metal validity and fixing heavy metal.
In step 5) in, described nutritive element can be selected from least one in the needed nitrogen of plant-growth (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) etc., described nutritive element also can add trace element, and described trace element can be selected from least one in manganese, iron etc.; The described inoculum size that accesses for the second time CK21 bacterium, by mass percentage, can be 0.1% of Powdered windrow.
Compared with existing polynary comprehensive process for preparing fertilizer, the present invention has following outstanding advantages:
1) compost auxiliary material adopts mushroom residue and pig manure, be easy to get, and easily degraded, windrow fermentation time is short, only needs one time fermentation, and can effectively regulate C/N ratio and reduce moisture percentage in sewage sludge.
2) adopt efficient beneficial organism flora CK21 bacterium.Microorganism concn is high, and ferment secretion capacity is strong, and decomposing organic matter rapidly prevents organism corruption, odorless, and sludge seeding CK21, fermentation starting is fast, effective; Product secondary access CK21 bacterium, further balance activation nutrient, utilizes the natural propagation of microorganism to realize the synchronous absorption of plant to nutrient.
3) improve traditional bar heap formula composting technology, equipment Imported From German EMH Company advanced person turn over cast standby---turnover throwing machine, carry out windrow turning, the effect of turnover throwing machine be carry out mud mix with auxiliary material, give windrow oxygen supply and broken windrow, make it have good free-running property, ventilation property and the property shed, optimize composting conditions, shorten the compost time, reduce turning energy consumption.
4) adopt mud softening technology and heavy metal passivating technique.In the aerobic composting process that enriches soil ulmin, suitably add rich phosphate fertilizer and heavy metal passivating material can form, softening mud, discharges nutrient, by organic and inorganic huge legendary turtle cooperation with making heavy metal passivation, thereby alleviate the destruction of heavy metal to ecotope.
5) adopt totally enclosed granulation process, envrionment conditions is good.
Embodiment
The present invention is further illustrated for following examples.
1) step of a preferred auxiliary material: the object of adding auxiliary material is to adjust water ratio and the carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of dewatered sludge is added bacterial classification to promote that fermenting process carries out fast simultaneously.Moisture controlled is very important, if sludge water content is too high, stops up windrow space, affects oxygen supply, causes anaerobically fermenting, and temperature sharply declines; If moisture too low (< 40%), is unfavorable for microbial growth.Main method is to add organic amendment and raising agent, controlling mud windrow (mud and the mixture that adds auxiliary material) water ratio is 55%~65%, improve the C/N ratio of windrow, C/N ratio is preferably (20~30): 1, to reduce proportion, and strengthening porousness, the contact area of increase and air, is conducive to aerobic fermentation.Conventional sludge composting auxiliary material additive mainly contains wood chip, rice bran, plant straw (such as straw etc.) etc., and in the straws such as wood materials and rice bran such as wood chip, difficult decomposition composition is many, need to carry out long Secondary Fermentation.Consider local condition, the raising agent adopting in the present invention is from the mushroom residue of surrounding area and dry pig manure slag.Mushroom residue is a kind of loose solid aggregation, is generally slight alkalinity, and pH value is 8~9.And adopt discarded mushroom residue, dry pig manure slag etc. to do auxiliary material, and adjust moisture percentage in sewage sludge, do not need mud to carry out again drying and dehydrating, solve the problem of sludge dewatering difficulty.Mushroom residue and pig manure are all easy to get, and also easily decompose, and can greatly shorten fermentation time, thereby reduce composting cost.According to composting test research, generally, adopt dosing ratio to be: 70% mud+30% mushroom residue, sludge fermentation is effective.In the time that in mud, organic matter reduces, supplement a small amount of (5% left and right) pig manure slag, can reach same effect.
After auxiliary material adds, need mix with mud Venus modifiedly, to adjust water ratio and the C/N ratio of dewatered sludge, reduce material proportion, and strengthen porousness, increase and the contact area of air, add bacterial classification simultaneously and carry out fast with promotion fermenting process.
2) step of a CK21 bacterium spraying inoculation.CK21 bacterium is the microorganism species of Japanese Zhu Shi stone Mr. ball of Shi Wan institute of microbiology of commercial firm exploitation.Having many uses of it, can be used for producing feed, fertilizer fermentation, sewage purification, organic sludge fermentative production fertilizer etc.This technology is in ground application popularization such as Japan, Korea S, Taiwan, and develops very fast.
CK21 bacterium is made up of 4 kinds of microorganism species: high temperature, middle gentle low-temperature aerobic bacterium and amphimicrobe.In flora, microorganism concn is very high, and on carrier, bacterium number is 10 6individual/mL.Its bacterial classification composition refers to table 1.The CK21 bacterium decomposing organic matter that can ferment.This microorganism species has the ability of very strong secretion ferment, can prevent organism corruption, decomposing organic matter, and odorless rapidly.Evidence, sprays CK21 bacterium to be inoculated in sludge bar, mixes laggard windrow fertilizer through turnover throwing machine, compares with VT bacterium, and the fermentation starting time is taken fast 3~5 days, and ferment effect is good.
Table 1
Total count ??1.6×10,000,000
1. fungi Eumycetes ??1.1×10,000,000
2. actinomycetes Actinomycetes ??1.4×1,000,000
3. milk-acid bacteria Lactic acid bacteria ??1.3×1,000,000
4. aerobic sporeformer Aerobic endospore ??1.3×1,000,000
3) aerobic compost step of rotten heat, biological high nitrogen source fermentation fast.In the present invention, the C/N of dewatered sludge is 10 left and right, is undertaken modifiedly by adding high-quality auxiliary material mushroom residue and pig manure, regulates C/N to 20~30, and access CK21 biological flora carries out aerobic fermentation in solar energy greenhouse.Fermentation is carried out in semiclosed workshop, and mud and auxiliary material are piled up neatly by the bar shaped of forklift layered arrangement triangulation, wide 5m, and length is 120m.Stirred by turnover throwing machine, turning frequency is 2 days 1 time, and the middle and later periods is 3 days 1 time, the effect of turning over throwing be by windrow mix, fragmentation, the more important thing is that fermentation provides the oxygen amount needing to windrow, make material quick fermentation, the reaction times is short, only need carry out one time fermentation, fermentation time is only 10~15 days, and heap temperature rises fast, and summer was at the 3rd day, just can reach 65~68 DEG C at 3rd~4 days winter, effectively pathogenic microbe killing and roundworm egg.Add auxiliary material apart from conditioning of mud water ratio, improve C/N ratio, reduce nitrogen loss; Add CK21 bacterium, make the quick rotten heat of windrow carry out aerobic fermentation, shorten the compost time, reduce NH 3volatilization, take away the material containing N without percolate, carry out dual guarantor's nitrogen, reach the fast object of rotten heat, biological high nitrogen source fermentation of sludge aerobic compost.
4) step of a heavy metal passivation.One aspect of the present invention, by compost, reduces activity and the toxicity of Heavy Metals in Sludge, has improved the environmental safety of agricultural sludge; On the other hand, adopt lime stabilization technology, in composting process, add heavy metal passivating material lime and improve pH value as fixing agent, make heavy metal form insoluble carbonate in thermophilic stage, again using lime as fixing agent, the carbonate absorption that heavy metal is formed, reduces water-soluble state and the exchange state of heavy metal, thereby fixes heavy metal and reduce bioavailability of heavy metals.According to forefathers' result of study, during using lime as passivator, best lime dosing rate is 0.63%.Use through compost repeatedly by this dosing rate, compost is effective, and in windrow, microorganism and enzymic activity are not obviously affected, and therefore lime dosing rate also adopts 0.63%.
5) step of a powder granulation
The Powdered windrow of aerobic fermentation gained, after dry, cooling system, crushing system, feed proportioning system, mixing system and granulating system, can obtain work in-process, but not yet reach the particulate state requirement of standard, need spray bacterium and secondary granulation, screening can obtain granular biological organic fertilizer through secondary.Secondary access CK21 bacterium beneficial microbe colony, further balance activation nutrient, utilizes the natural propagation of microorganism to realize the synchronous absorption of plant to nutrient,
1. dry, cooling system: drying machine, cooler adopt rotating cylinder shape, and suitability is strong, and cleaning is convenient.Dry, refrigerating work procedure, taking large ventilation, cryodrying as principle, adopts 3 grades to be dried, and 1 grade of process for cooling, had both removed the excessive moisture in fertilizer, can effectively preserve again beneficial organism.
2. crushing system: first pulverized and sieved by pulverizer before thick material composting, after screening, thick material returns and pulverizes, and thin material enters next process.
3. feed proportioning system: this system, by electronic batching scale, is pressed preset proportion automatic gauge in batches by the trace elements such as nutritive element and Fe, Mn, B and Zn such as various interpolation N, P, K etc., adds mixing machine to mix.
4. mixing system: the various materials that measure enter mixing machine through transfer roller, mixing machine adopts double-shaft paddle formula high efficient mixer, and mixing period is 3~4min.
5. granulating system: after having prepared burden, send into granulator granulation.Tablets press can directly cause circle by the organic materials of water ratio 30%~40% after fermentation; granulation is front without dry, pulverizing; without adding binding agent; it can be 100% pure organic granulation; this equipment utilization organism proportion little, the characteristic that gap is large, under certain External Force Acting; by the principle that can inlay between fibrous nits, make solid circular granular.
6. screening system: cooled material enters vibrating screen classifier screening through handling equipment, and screen underflow enters next process, and screen overflow sieves after fragmentation again.
7. secondary spray bacterium and secondary granulation system: screen underflow is sent into pelletizing machine by transfer roller, entering before pelletizing machine, first sprays bacterium and makes biological bacteria can fully enter the granule interior of expansion, and the particle after spray bacterium through the whole grain of applying powder, enters into dehumidification system again.
8. dehumidification system: the particle water ratio after spray bacterium face powder is higher, can not directly store, unaffected for ensureing biological bacteria, finished product and small pellets enter three-stage drying operation, through cryodrying, the moisture in particle are removed, reach preservation requirement, send into metering packing system.
9. metering packing system: dried particle, enter finished bin, enter electronic packing scale by drawing-in device material, carry out on request automatic gauge and sealing, complete wrapping process, send into stockyard.
Two, sludge aerobic compost processing parameter and sludge composting quality control standard
(1) composting process parameter
The factors such as the kind of sludge composting speed and become thoroughly decomposed degree and mud and character, water ratio, oxygen-supplying amount, C/N, temperature are closely related.Through composting test, compost main technologic parameters is determined as follows.
1. mix modified significant parameter
Sludge quality: water ratio is 76%~80%;
Auxiliary material dosing ratio: 70% dewatered sludge+30% mushroom residue;
Additive water ratio is about 30%;
Mixture water ratio is 55%~65%, and density is about 0.8t/m 3;
2. significant parameter ferments
Cycle: 15d;
Water ratio: 55%~65%;
Carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N): (20~30): 1;
Control temperature: 65~68 DEG C (top temperature ≯ 75 DEG C);
Turn over throwing frequency: within every two days, turn over throwing once;
Bar heap maximum height: 2.4m;
Bar heap width: 5m.
3. index is ended in fermentation
Water ratio: 25%~35%;
Carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) :≤20: 1.
Oxygen consumption rate tends towards stability
(2) sludge composting quality control standard
Because of without sludge composting production quality control standard, with reference to " decontamination of human excreta hygienic standard " GB7959-87 and rubbish standard " the agricultural control criterion of the townm refuse " limit value that GB8172-87 specifies, composting production is brown, odorless.
The limit value specifying according to " decontamination of human excreta hygienic standard " GB7959-87 and rubbish standard " the agricultural control criterion of townm refuse " GB8172-87, wherein 1~9 whole eligible of table just can be applied to farmland; In 10~15, if any one defective, other 5 eligibles, can suitably relax, but nonconformance object numerical value, must not be lower than the mean values of China's rubbish.Be that organic matter is no less than 8%, total nitrogen is no less than 0.4%, and total phosphorus is no less than 0.2%, and total potassium is no less than that 0.8%, pH value is the highest is no more than 9, is minimumly not less than 6, and moisture content is no more than 40%.
If final matured compost heavy metals exceeding standard, only should be used for afforestation, should not directly enter food chain.Also can in matured compost, add lime with stabilization heavy metal class material, reduce heavy metal available state content.
Three, composting production examining report and application test
Taking Xiamen island mud as raw material, adopt above-mentioned technique to carry out compost, gained biological organic fertilizer send respectively station, national municipal drainage monitoring net Xiamen, Ministry of Agriculture's agricultural product quality and safety inspection center (Xiamen) to detect, and examining report is as follows.According to fertilizer examining report, the organic all > 30% of composting production, the equal < 20% of moisture, total nutrient (nitrogen+P 2o 5+ K 2o) > 4%, meets the requirement of organic fertilizer standard (NY525-2002).
In order to expand the use range of sludge manure, understanding sludge manure is applied to the feasibility of leaf class food plant, adopts Organic sludge manure to carry out culture experiment to tealeaves and mater convolvulus, and test-results is shown in the examining report of tealeaves and mater convolvulus.According to audit report, tealeaves and mater convolvulus all can meet food hygienic standard, illustrate through this technique compost gained biological organic fertilizer superior in qualityly, are applicable to using of leaf class food plant.

Claims (5)

1. a sludge composting method, is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
1) prepare the step of mud windrow for one: in mud, add auxiliary material, obtain mud and the mixture that adds auxiliary material, claim mud windrow; Described auxiliary material is organic amendment and raising agent, or described auxiliary material is selected from least one in wood chip, rice bran, straw; Wherein said organic amendment is the organic waste in production or life, is selected from least one in animal excrement, offal, and described raising agent is selected from mushroom residue and dry pig manure slag; By mass percentage, mud is 50%-80%, and mushroom residue is 20%~50%; The add-on of described organic amendment is 25%~35% of mud by mass percentage, the add-on of described dry pig manure slag is 1%~5% of mud by mass percentage, the water ratio of described auxiliary material is 25%~35%, the water ratio of described mud windrow is 55%~65%, and the heap volume density of described mud windrow is 0.5%~0.9%t/m 3, the carbon-nitrogen ratio of described mud windrow is 20~30;
2) step of a CK21 bacterium spraying inoculation, the amount of described spraying inoculation is 2%~5% of material total mass;
3) aerobic compost step of rotten heat, biological high nitrogen source fermentation fast: the mud windrow after spraying inoculation CK21 bacterium is carried out to aerobic fermentation, obtain Powdered windrow, in the time carrying out aerobic fermentation, cast standby stirring by turning over, the frequency of earlier fermentation turning is 2 days 1 time, and the fermentation middle and later periods is 3 days 1 time, fermentation time is 10~15 days, the temperature of described aerobic fermentation is 60~75 DEG C, and the water ratio of described Powdered windrow is 25%~35%, and carbon-nitrogen ratio is≤20:1;
4) step of a heavy metal passivation: add fixing agent in the Powdered windrow of aerobic fermentation gained, described fixing agent adopts at least one in lime, flyash, basic iron vanadine, and the dosage of described fixing agent is 0.6%~0.7% of Powdered windrow by mass percentage;
5) step of a powder granulation: dry, broken by adding the Powdered windrow of aerobic fermentation gained after fixing agent, add nutritive element, access for the second time again CK21 bacterium, granulation after broken, moulding, obtains the three-dimensional compound biological organic fertilizer of organic and inorganic-microorganism effective constituent, the described inoculum size that accesses for the second time CK21 bacterium, by mass percentage, be 0.1% of Powdered windrow.
2. a kind of sludge composting method as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that in step 2) in, the concrete steps of described CK21 bacterium spraying inoculation are directly CK21 bacterium to be spread between expanded good mud windrow particle surface and expanded gap.
3. a kind of sludge composting method as claimed in claim 2, it is characterized in that in step 3) in, the described aerobic fermentation that carries out, to carry out in semiclosed workshop, the Powdered windrow of aerobic fermentation gained piles leg-of-mutton bar shaped buttress, the width of bar shaped buttress is 5m, and the length of bar shaped buttress is 120m, and the height of bar shaped buttress is 2.4m.
4. a kind of sludge composting method as claimed in claim 3, is characterized in that in step 5) in, described nutritive element is selected from least one in the needed nitrogen of plant-growth, phosphorus, potassium.
5. a kind of sludge composting method as claimed in claim 4, is characterized in that in step 5) in, described nutritive element adds trace element, and described trace element is selected from least one in manganese, iron.
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CN104098354A (en) * 2014-07-31 2014-10-15 鸡西市食用菌科学研究所 Method for converting fungus dregs into bio-organic fertilizer
CN106278417A (en) * 2015-06-11 2017-01-04 重庆爱家乡控股集团有限公司 A kind of method utilizing municipal sludge to produce biological organic fertilizer
CN105198579A (en) * 2015-09-22 2015-12-30 中国农业科学院草原研究所 Method for utilizing sludge for producing nutrient soil and product
CN105255777B (en) * 2015-11-12 2018-04-03 湖南农业大学 Utilize the method for pig manure and mushroom residue production biological organic fertilizer
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