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CN101765574A - 使卤化氢可逆性俘获与释放相结合的区域反应器 - Google Patents

使卤化氢可逆性俘获与释放相结合的区域反应器 Download PDF

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CN101765574A
CN101765574A CN 200880017028 CN200880017028A CN101765574A CN 101765574 A CN101765574 A CN 101765574A CN 200880017028 CN200880017028 CN 200880017028 CN 200880017028 A CN200880017028 A CN 200880017028A CN 101765574 A CN101765574 A CN 101765574A
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迈克尔·J.·韦斯
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Abstract

提供使烃原料转化成较高级烃类的改进方法和区域反应器。该反应器中的第一区含有能够释放卤化氢(HX)的材料和碳-碳偶联催化剂;第二区最初是空的或含有卤化和/或卤氧化催化剂;而第三区含有碳-碳偶联催化剂和能够俘获HX的材料。将空气和氧引入第一区,将原料引入第二区,并且在第三区产生产物。在反应过程中所生产的HX在区1和区3进行可逆的俘获和释放。

Description

使鹵化氢可逆性俘获与释放相结合的区域反应器

技术领域

[0001] 本发明涉及将烃原料转化成较高级烃的一种方法和装置。

背景技术

[0002] 美国专利号6, 525, 230披露了将烷类转化成醇类和/或醚类的一种方法,以及由 一个空心的、非隔离而内部限定了第一区、第二区和第三区的区域反应器。在其第一实施 方案中,空气或氧与金属溴化物在第一区中反应以提供溴;溴与一种或多种烷在第二区中 反应以形成烷基溴化物;并且这些烷基溴化物与金属氧化物在第三区反应以形成相应的产 物。来自第三区的金属溴化物通过容器输送到第一区,而来自第一区的金属氧化物再循环 至第三区。其第二实施方案与该第一实施方案的区别在于金属氧化物通过容器从第一区输 送到第三区,而金属溴化物从第三区再循环至第一区。其第三实施方案中,经过容器的气流 被逆转以将金属氧化物转化回金属溴化物并且将金属溴化物转化回金属氧化物。

发明内容

[0003] 本发明提供了将烃原料转化成一种或多种较高级烃类的改进的区域反应器和一 种生产方法。在一个实施方案中,一个改进的区域反应器包括具有第一区、第二区、以及第 三区的容器,其中该第一区含有能够释放卤化氢(HX)的材料和碳-碳偶联催化剂;该第二 区最初是空的(但不是大气环境)或含有卤化和/或卤氧化催化剂;而该第三区含有碳-碳 偶联催化剂和能够俘获HX的材料。气体可以分别流过第一区、第二区、和第三区。优选地, 在第一区、第二区和第三区各自配置一个气体进口和/或出口,包括在第二区中用于引入 气态烃原料的一个进口。

[0004] 在本发明的另一个方面,一种将烃原料转化成较高级烃的改进方法包括,在空气 或氧存在下,通过加热能够释放HX的材料以形成HX ;根据需要,可将碳_碳偶联催化剂 除焦;使烃原料与HX在空气或氧的存在下反应以形成烷基卤化物;使这些烷基卤化物在 碳-碳偶联催化剂的存在下反应以形成较高级烃和HX(以及并不希望生成的焦炭);并且 通过使HX与能够俘获HX的材料反应以俘获HX。优选将该方法重复多次,其中HX可交替释 放和俘获,而偶联催化剂的结焦和除焦也交替进行。在一个实施方案中,HX是通过将部分 卤化的烯烃或聚烯烃脱卤化氢而释放,并且通过使烯烃或聚烯烃加卤化氢而将其俘获。

附图说明

[0005] 当结合附图理解时,本发明以上这些方面和其他方面及其特征将变得更加清晰, 其中:

[0006] 图1是根据本发明的一个实施方案的区域反应器的示意图。

[0007] 图2是根据本发明的另一个实施方案的改进区域反应器的第二区示意图。具体实施方式

[0008] 本发明提供将烃原料转化成一种或多种有用的产物,S卩"较高级的烃"的方法和改 进的区域反应器。总体上,该方法包括通过在空气或氧中加热能够释放HX的材料,以形成 卤化氢的第一气流或第一分量;通过使烃原料与该HX的第一气流在空气或氧中反应以形 成烷基卤化物;通过使这些烷基卤化物在第二碳-碳偶联催化剂的存在下反应以形成较高 级的烃和卤化物的第二气流或第二分量;并且通过使HX的第二气流与能够俘获HX的材料 反应以俘获该HX的第二气流。

[0009] 在图IA和IB中示意性地描述了改进的区域反应器的一个实施方案的操作模式和 总体特征。以总体上空心的容器的形式存在的区域反应器IO,包括第一区l,该第一区1进 一步细分成两个亚区1A和IB ;第二区2 ;以及第三区3,该第三区3进一步细分成亚区3A 和亚区3B。

[0010] 如以下所描述的,最初,区1A含有能够释放HX的材料。区IB含有碳-碳偶联催 化剂,该催化剂催化碳_碳键形成以及较高级烃的生成。虽然并不受理论束缚,但是相信 碳_碳键形成是经由烷基卤化物分子的分子间的、以及可能甚至是分子内的复分解反应而 进行。如以下所描述的,在图中,在区lB中的催化剂已被焦炭覆盖和/或浸渍。但当反应 器为它的初始运转进行装填时,并不存在焦炭。区2或者是空的或者含有一种卤化和/或 卤氧化催化剂或催化反应剂。区3B也含有碳-碳偶联催化剂,而区3A含有能够俘获HX的 材料。

[0011] 在反应器的左端的第一开口或进口 4使空气或氧进入容器。反应器中间的第二开 口或进口 5可以使气态的烃原料加入,而在容器的右端的第三开口或进口 6使产品可以排 出。此外,各个区和亚区在允许气流进入相邻的区的边界7处相遇。在一个实施方案中,容 器内部无隔断,并且相连的区和亚区彼此没有物理分隔。在一个实施方案中,相连的区和亚 区是通过筛网,或通过壁或其他分隔件而分离,该分隔件具有置于其中的至少一个敞口从 而允许气体从一个区或亚区流到下一个区或亚区。各种加热器和/或冷却器(没有示出) 直接地或间接地热偶连于容器,从而使得每个区和亚区的温度控制变得容易。 [0012] 如图1A所示,最初,反应器从左到右运行,空气或氧通过气体进口 4进入区1A,使 得其中所含的原料释放气态的HX。加热的空气或氧以及来自区1A的HX进入区1B并且与 碳-碳偶联催化剂接触。空气或氧与先前积存在催化剂之中或之上的任何焦炭反应并且将 它转化成C02。在过量的空气或氧的存在下,所形成的任何CO也将转化为C02。 [0013] 在区2中,气态的烃原料经过第二气体进口 5进入容器,并且使其在空气或氧以及 优选的一种卤化和/或卤氧化催化剂或催化反应剂的存在下与HX反应。这导致了一种或 多种烷基卤化物(RX)和蒸气的形成,这些卤化物和蒸气连同存在的任何HX—起被带到了 区3B。那里,这些烷基卤化物在碳_碳偶联催化剂的存在下反应而转化成较高级烃和HX。 该反应还可能(实际一般都会)导致焦炭的形成,其中焦炭颗粒作为涂层沉积在碳-碳偶 联催化剂上和/或沉积在催化剂的间隙中。所形成的HX然后与能够俘获它的材料在区3A 中反应。气态烃产物、(A、残留的空气(或它的贫氧成分)、以及可能的其他种类通过第三 口 6带出反应器容器,并且可以收集、分离并且纯化、进一步反应、和/或以一些其他的方式 进行处理。

[0014] 图1B表示准备用于从右到左的逆向运行的区域反应器。反应器10仍然含有区1-3和亚区1A、1B、3B和3A,但现在,当在空气或氧中加热时,区3A中的材料是能够释放HX 的(即当反应器正向运行时它们已经被氢卤化)。相似地,区3B中的催化剂现在是被焦炭 包覆和/或浸渍的,而区1B中的催化剂具有少许焦炭或无焦炭(理想状态)。区1A中的材 料是准备与HX反应的,并且由此俘获而储存HX。空气或氧通过区3A中的第三入口 6进入, 并且使其中所含的材料释放HX,其中HX连同空气或氧一起流入区3B。空气或氧气氧化已 经沉积在碳_碳偶联催化剂上的焦炭。使HX和空气或氧顺流到达区2,在那里,它们与烃原 料反应以形成烷基卤化物和蒸气,烷基卤化物和蒸气进入区1B。这些烷基卤化物在碳-碳 偶联催化剂的存在下在区1B中反应,并且形成烃产物、HX、以及焦炭,焦炭沉积在催化剂之 上和/或之中。HX、C(^、空气或它们的成分、蒸气、以及可能的其他气体然后进入区1A,并且 HX与其中所含的材料反应并且被它俘获。产品和残留的气体通过第一口4离开。反应器按 正向再次准备运行。通过正向和逆向之间循环,反应器可以连续地运行。 [0015] 在另一个实施方案中,气态反应物流一直保持在相同的方向,并且反应区是稳定 的。然而,固体是连续再生的。由于耗尽了在区1A中所含的卤化物,固体从那个区以恒定 的速率排出,并且输送到区3A。相似地,完全再生的固体不断地从区3A排出并且输送回区 1A。在区1A与3A之间的固体输送通过重力、气动输送、和其他机械方式(例如传送机)、或 这些方法的组合而变得便捷。以相似的方式,在区1B中再生的碳-碳偶联催化剂不断地排 出并且输送到区3B,并且将焦化的碳-碳偶联催化剂从区3B输送到1B用于再生。偶联催 化剂的输送通过重力、气动输送、其他机械方式、或这些方法的组合而变得容易。 [0016] 如在这里和权利要求里所用的,关于一种化合物、催化剂或其他材料的单数或复 数,并不旨在将该物质限制在具体的分子量数或质量数,也不旨在限制物质的具体的不同 类型数,除非另外指出。例如,"较高级的烃"可以包括占优势的一种化合物,或确切存在的 一种化合物(例如大量的异辛烷),或者可以是两种或多种不同的化合物(例如,丁烷、苯、 丙烯等)。相似地,"烯烃类"是指占大多数的单一烯烃,或者可以是两种或多种不同的烯烃; "沸石类"是指占大多数的一种沸石,或者可以是多种不同的沸石等。

[0017] 很多烃原料都可考虑用于本发明的实践。非限制性实例包括一种或多种轻质烷类 和/或烯烃类,例如,甲烷、乙烷、丙烷、丁烷、乙烯、丙烯、丁烯;天然气;以及烃类的其他混 合物。在大多数实施方案中,原料将在性质上基本是脂肪类的。某些炼油厂加工生产的轻 质烃流(称作"轻尾气",典型地是C1-C3的烃混合物),它们可以在添加或不添加甲烷的情 况下使用。总之,原料是作为一种气体而加入反应器的。

[0018] 区域反应器的产品_ 一种或多种"较高级烃"-将取决于原料、碳_碳偶联催化剂、 以及反应器条件,例如气体流速(它影响反应器停留时间)、温度、和压力。在此所用的术语 "较高级烃"是指具有较高碳数目(每个分子中有较多碳原子数)的烃,和/或与烃原料的 一种或多种成分相比有较高键级的烃。例如,如果原料是纯甲烷(碳数目l,键级l),最终 生产的较高级烃可能是乙烷、丙烷、乙烯、丙烯、更高级的烷类和烯烃类、还可能是炔类、和/ 或芳香族化合物。如果原料是纯乙烷(碳数1 ;键级1),所得的较高级烃可能是丙烷(碳数 3;键级1)、乙烯(碳数2,键级2)等。如果原料是天然气-典型的轻质烃类,其中有占优 势的甲烷、与较少量的乙烷、丙烷和丁烷,以及甚至少量的更长的烃,例如戊烷、己烷等的混 合物,生成的较高级烃可能包括一种或多种C2或更高的烷类,例如乙烷、丙烷、丁烷、C5+烃 类、以及其他轻质挥发油;烯烃类,例如乙烯、丙烯、丁烯等;和/或芳香族烃类。[0019] 某些类型的较高级烃类是特别期望的,包括"汽油范围"的烃类,例如C4-C12的烷类、更优选C5-C10的烷类,有或没有烯属的和/或芳香族的成分。具有高芳香族含量而苯含量较低的C5+烷类作为汽油或汽油掺合剂是特别可取的。其他所希望的产物包括芳香族化合物_苯、甲苯、二甲苯(尤其是对二甲苯)、均三甲苯等_以及尤其是苯含量低的芳香族化合物。在一个实施方案中,产物主要包括苯、或富苯的芳香族化合物。在另一个实施方案中,产物主要包括甲苯、或富甲苯的芳香族化合物。在一个实施方案中,产物的芳香族含量通过将非芳香的成分再循环至固体反应器而富集。在饱和的脂肪族化合物的情况下,这要求再溴化作用,接着在一种偶联催化剂的存在下进行碳-碳偶联,而在此处所描述的偶联催化剂的存在下烯属化合物可以直接偶联。

[0020] 有代表性的卤化氢(HX)包括溴化氢(HBr)和氯化氢(HC1)。还考虑到可以使用氟化氢(HF)和碘化氢(HI),但不一定有等效的结果。与使用氟相关联的一些问题可以通过使用HF的稀释流(例如用氦气、氮气或其他稀释剂携带HF气体)而可能得到解决。然而,可以预期,由于氟-碳键的强度大,烷基氟化物将需要更强的反应条件实现偶联并形成较高级烃。相似地,与HI相关联的问题(例如某些碘反应的吸热性质)可以通过在较高级温度和/或压力下进行卤化和/或偶联反应而可能得到解决。优选使用HBr或HCl,HBr是最优选的。

[0021] 许多材料能够可逆地俘获和释放HX,并且特别是HC1和HBr。作为第一实例,这类材料包括中长链的烯烃类,即每个分子具有10-100、优选15-80、更优选20-50个碳原子的烯烃类。总体上,这类烯烃每个分子将具有一个以上的碳-碳双键。非限制性的特定的实例包括1-十二烯、1, 12-十二碳二烯、以及1- 二十烷。不饱和烯烃经过与HX的加成反应以形成部分卤化的烯烃或烷烃,并且由此"反应性地俘获"HX。当加热该材料时,它们会释放HX并且复原至烯烃。

[0022] 作为第二实例,不饱和的有机聚合物可以俘获HX以形成部分卤化的有机聚合物,这些有机聚合物然后可以释放HX。非限制性实例包括聚乙炔、经部分脱氢的聚乙烯、经部分脱氢的聚丙烯、以及它们的混合物。聚乙烯和聚丙烯可以根据本领域的普通技术人员所熟知的方法,例如通过卤化反应接着再脱卤化氢而脱氢。聚丁二烯是可以用于俘获并且然后释放HX的不饱和有机聚合物的另一个实例。

[0023] 烯烃和不饱和有机聚合物通过与HX反应来俘获HX以形成部分卤化的化合物。在空气或氧存在下,通过加热这些材料该反应可以逆向进行。以下反应式是该基本方案的非限制性实例:[0024]

R

+uv 获.

释放 hf

伴获

R^v^v^R' + 靈

释放

[0025] 在一个实施方案中,不饱和材料携载于载体上,例如硅石、钛,或耐热的、无机的、

8总体上惰性的类似材料。作为一个实例,将硅石球粒与聚乙烯混合,将混合物加热到聚乙烯的玻璃化转变温度,这样聚乙烯便包覆在硅石粒料上,然后将卤素加到这些球粒中并且使该组合物暴露于紫外光下,由此该聚合物发生卤化反应。

[0026] 在区2中,烷基卤化物是通过使烃原料与HX和02反应(卤氧化反应),和/或通过使烷基卤化物与&反应(卤化反应)而形成的。UV光和/或热可以推进该反应。在一个优选的实施方案中,该反应是在一种卤化和/或卤氧化催化剂或催化反应剂的存在下发生的。非限制性实例包括金属氧化物类,例如氧化铜(CuO),和金属卤化物类,例如CuC^、CuBi^等。可以使用多种催化剂的混合物。催化的材料可以是加载的或不加载的。[0027] 在图1中,催化剂遍布整个区2。在图2所示的另一个实施方案中,卤化和/或卤氧化催化剂是限制在区2的下游和上游区域8的,留下一个空的中心区域9。[0028] 在区1B和区3B中,碳-碳偶联催化剂用于使烷基卤化物转化成较高级烃类变得容易。在此所用的术语"碳_碳偶联催化剂"是指能够催化碳_碳键形成的一种材料,可包括"真正的"催化剂,据推测这种催化剂是在机械学的水平上参与到反应中的,其在过程中不被消耗;也包括"催化反应剂",所述催化反应剂在反应过程中会被化学转化,但它们可以经由再生反应回复到它们的原始形式。例如,在碳-碳偶联反应过程中,其催化反应剂中的氧原子便由卤原子代替了 ,但在随后的再生步骤中它又被再生(即卤素再被氧取代),例如通过将空气或氧经过该已发生转化的催化反应剂材料而使其再生。碳_碳偶联催化剂还可以称作"低聚反应"催化剂,或简称为"偶联催化剂"。

[0029] 偶联催化剂的非限制性实例包括非结晶的铝硅酸盐类(无定形的固体酸)、钨/氧化锆超酸、硫酸化的锆、磷酸铝类例如SAP0-34以及其骨架取代的类似物(例如用Ni或Mn取代)、沸石,例如ZSM-5和其离子交换的类似物,以及骨架取代的ZSM-5(用Ti、Fe、Ti+Fe、B或Ga取代),以及其他微孔矿石。催化剂可以是天然的或合成的、掺杂的或未掺杂的、负载的或非负载的。

[0030] 用于生产室温液态烃类的优选催化剂包括其所含SiO乂A1^3比例小于300 : 1、优

选小于ioo : 1、最优选为30 : l或更小的离子交换的zsM-5。优选的交换离子的非限制

性实例包括Ag、 Ba、 Bi、 Ca、 Fe、 Li、 Mg、 Sr、 K、 Na、 Rb、 Mn、 Co、 Ni、 Cu、 Ru、 Pb、 Pd、 Pt和Ce的离子。这些离子可以作为纯盐或作为盐的混合物而交换。掺杂的沸石的制备以及它们作为碳-碳偶联催化剂的用途,在专利公开号2005/0171393 Al中的4_5页描述过,该专利通过引用它的全文结合于本文中。

[0031] 沸石可从各禾中来源获取,包括Zeolyst International (Valley Forge,PA)。具体实例包括掺杂的ZSM-5和掺杂的丝光沸石(其中,例如钙和/或镁是掺杂剂)。在本发明的一个实施方案中,使用其Si02/Al203之比为30的Mn交换的ZSM-5作为偶联催化剂。在一定工艺条件下,用它可以生产选择性预先设定的液体烃产物。

[0032] 产品分布可以通过改变沸石或其他催化剂的特性向有利于形成更多的芳香族含量、或较少的芳香族含量、汽油等级材料方面变换。可预期孔径大小和酸度对反应很重要。酸度可以用于控制产品的链长度和官能度,而孔径大小可以控制链长度和官能度。具有特定孔径的沸石可以选择性地生产苯、甲苯、对二甲苯、邻二甲苯、间二甲苯、混合的二甲苯、乙苯、苯乙烯、直链的烷基苯、和/或其他芳香族产物。也可以预期孔径大小会影响非芳香族产物的形成。

9[0033] 在本发明的不同的方面,空气和氧是用于完成所希望的结果,例如,除焦、卤氧化、HX释放、催化反应剂再生等。本文中的术语"空气或氧",可理解为包括大量基于氧的或含氧的气流的任何一种。非限制性实例包括普通的空气、纯的氧气(02)、含有较小量的其他气态成分的氧气、在载气(例如氦)中稀释的氧气流、富氧的空气等。

[0034] 为了使HX俘获或释放、催化剂除焦、卤化和/或卤氧化、以及形成产物的不同步骤变得容易,反应器中的不同的区是在合适的压力和温度下运行的,同时考虑了原料、催化剂、气体流速、以及所希望的产物。在一个实施方案中,反应器是在(或稍微大于)大气压力下运行的。将区1A或3A加热到从0到500°C 、优选100到400°C 、更优选200到300°C的温度从而使HX释放变得容易。将区3A或区1A加热到稍微较低的温度,例如0到400°C、优选100到30(TC、更优选150到25(TC,从而使HX俘获变得容易。偶联催化剂的除焦是通过将区1B或3B加热到较高级温度,例如约50(TC而变得容易。烃原料的卤化和/或卤氧化发生在区2,将该区加热到150到60(TC、优选400到60(TC、更优选450到515。C的温度。产物形成(碳_碳偶联)是通过将区3B或1B加热到150到600°C 、优选275到425°C的温度而变得容易。有很多可替代的实施方案来实施本发明。例如,代替限定三个区的单一容器,区域反应器可以包括三个分离的容器,各自限定一个分离的区,1、2、或3。作为另一个实例,某些反应器的设计提供了改进热传递的可能性。因此,反应器可以配置为一系列的小管(内径小于6英寸,优从2到4英寸)。作为一个第三实例,代替串联构型,这些管可以并联安排,并且附在一个较大的容器内,合适的热传递流体在其中循环。此外,可以有空气或另一种惰性气体定向越过这些管束表面,从而使冷却和/或加热变得容易。[0035] 在一些应用中,其中从区2排除的物料必须在进入产品形成(复分解)区(区1B或3B)之前进行冷却,则可以使用预冷器。在一个实施方案中,预冷器包括空气冷却的管束或附在一个壳内的多个管子,该壳内有合适的热传递流体在这些管周围循环。使用预冷器可以减少复分解区中所需的反应器容量。在复分解过程中除热的要求可以很强地影响反应器的设计。

[0036] 另一个替代方案是在反应器自身内部使用惰性的热载体。例如,可以加入过量的烷原料以分散热,由此使反应器形成填充床构型而不是管-壳布局。使用内部的热载体可以使反应器绝热地运行。也可以使用容易从反应产物流中分离出来的惰性流作为此构型中的热载体。绝热填充床方案预期可以显著地降低反应器成本。

[0037] 在本发明的另一个实施方案中,区域反应器与用ZSM-5沸石或能使汽油范围的烃类生成变得容易的其他材料填充的后反应器床联合使用的。例如,区域反应器可以用于形成轻质烯烃,这些烯烃然后进料到沸石床,从而使轻质烯烃偶联成汽油范围内的烃类变得容易。

[0038] 很多构建材料可以用于增加区域反应器的寿命。非限制性实例包括哈司特镍基合金、富铝和富铬的金属合金,钛、锆、钽和镍金属以及它们的合金,包覆的硅石、氧化铝、以及氧化锆的金属,以及传导热的陶瓷材料例如碳化硅。反应器容器还可以由绝缘的、抗腐蚀的材料构成,例如铝、硅石、和锆,或各自有抗腐蚀的内衬。但不一定用耐温的材料,例如聚四氟乙烯。在一些条件下,容器可以等温地运行,其中由热转移流体提供加热和/或冷却,而这些热转移流体,由以上列出的不同类型的热传导材料制成的管路来输送。此外,反应器也可以绝热地运行。[0039] 实施例

[0040] 以下是本发明的非限制性实施例。[0041] 能够释放并俘获HBr的材料的制备[0042] 试剂A和B

[0043] 高表面积(> 300m2/g)硅石粒料,通过混合粒料和聚乙烯并将其加热到高于聚乙烯的玻璃化转变温度的温度而使聚乙烯包覆粒料。将溴加入粒料并且将组合物暴露与UV光下,导致聚合物的溴化作用。将材料的一半进行分离并且加热到225t:,从而释放HBr,由此形成能够俘获HBr的材料,即试剂A。材料的另一半,即试剂B,用作能够释放HBr的材料。[0044] 试剂C禾口 D

[0045] —种吸附剂的形成。高表面积(> 300m2/g)硅石粒料通过混合粒料和聚乙烯,并且将其加热到高于聚乙烯的玻璃化转变温度的温度而使聚乙烯包覆粒料。将氯加入粒料并且将组合物暴露于UV光下,导致聚合物的氯化作用。将材料的一半进行分离并且加热到225t:,从而释放HCl。材料的另一半不作处理,用作含HC1的吸附剂。[0046] 实施例1

[0047] 如图1所示的区域反应器是用以下材料装填的:

[0048] 区IA:试剂B。

[0049] 区IB :ZSM-5偶联催化剂。

[0050] 区2:氧化铜催化剂。

[0051] 区3B :ZSM-5偶联催化剂。

[0052] 区3A:试剂A。

[0053] 在步骤l中,空气在225t:的温度下经过区lA,试剂B转化成试剂A,并且释放HBr。来自区1A的空气和HBr在50(TC的温度下首先进入区1B(在随后的运行中,这将再生(除焦)偶联催化剂),并且然后进入区2,天然气在这里在40(TC被溴氧化。区2的产物在40(rC经过区3B中的偶联催化剂,生产较高级烃和HBr。在区3A中,HBr是在150°C的温度下用试剂A俘获的(试剂A转化为试剂B)。

[0054] 在步骤2中,空气在225°C的温度下经过区3A,试剂B转化成试剂A,并且释放HBr 。来自区3A的空气和HBr在50(TC的温度下进入3B,再生(除焦)偶联催化剂。在区2中,天然气在40(TC被溴氧化。区2的产物在40(TC经过区1B的偶联催化剂,生产较高级烃和HBr。在区A中,HBr是在150°C的温度下用试剂A俘获的(试剂A转化为试剂B)。[0055] 实施例2

[0056] 实施例1的烃产物在350到450°C的温度经过ZSM-5催化剂,从而改变产物的平均分子量。

[0057] 实施例3

[0058] 按照实施例1的程序,但使用氧化鸨和氧化锆的混合物(WZA)代替ZSM-5,作为

碳-碳偶联催化剂。[0059] 实施例4

[0060] 实施例3的烃产物在350到450°C的温度经过ZSM_5催化剂,从而改变产物的平均

分子量。

[0061] 实例5[0062] 如图1所示的区域反应器是用以下材料装填的:

[0063] 区1A:试剂D。

[0064] 区IB :ZSM-5偶联催化剂。

[0065] 区2:氧化铜催化剂。

[0066] 区3B :ZSM-5偶联催化剂。

[0067] 区3A :试剂C。

[0068] 在步骤l中,空气在225t:的温度下经过区1A,试剂D转化成试剂C,并且释放HC1。来自区A的空气和HC1在500°C的温度下进入区IB (在随后的运行中,这将再生(除焦)偶联催化剂),并且然后进入区2,天然气在这里在40(TC被氯氧化。区2的产物在40(TC经过区3B中的偶联催化剂,生产较高级烃和HC1 。在区3A中,HC1是在150°C的温度下用试剂C俘获的(试剂C转化为试剂D)。

[0069] 在步骤2中,空气在225°C的温度下经过区3A,试剂D转化成试剂C,并且释放HC1 。来自区3A的空气和HC1在50(TC的温度下进入区3B,再生(除焦)偶联催化剂。在区2中,天然气在40(TC被溴氧化。区2的产物在40(TC经过区1B中的偶联催化剂,生产较高级烃和HC1 。在区1A中,HC1是在150°C的温度下用试剂C俘获的(试剂C转化为试剂D)。[0070] 实例6

[0071 ] 实例5的烃产物在350到450°C的温度下经过ZSM-5催化剂,从而改变产物的平均

分子量。

[0072] 实例7

[0073] 按照实例5的程序,但使用氧化鸨和氧化锆的混合物(WZA)代替ZSM-5 ,作为

碳-碳偶联催化剂。[0074] 实例8

[0075] 实例7的烃产物在350到450°C的温度下经过ZSM-5催化剂,从而改变产物的平均分子量。

[0076] 本发明已经参考不同的实施方案、图、以及实例进行描述,但并非限制于此。本领域的普通技术人员将理解的是,本发明可以按多种方式进行更改而不脱离本发明,本发明仅由附属的权利要求书以及它的等效物来限定。

Claims (43)

  1. 一种用于将烃原料转化成一种或多种产物的反应器,它包括:该反应器中有限定多个区的一个或多个空心的容器,其中,第一区含有能够释放卤化氢的材料和偶联催化剂;第二区与该第一区相连,而第三区与该第二区相连并且含有碳-碳偶联催化剂以及一种能够俘获卤化氢的材料。
  2. 2. 如权利要求1所述的反应器,其中,该反应器包括一个单一的容器,并且第一区位于 该容器的第一端,第二区位于该容器的中间,而第三区位于该容器的第二端,其中,气体可 以从第一区流到第二区再从第二区流到第三区。
  3. 3. 如权利要求l所述的反应器,其中,第一区位于第一容器中,第二区位于第二容器 中,而第三区位于第三容器中,其中,气体可以从第一区流到第二区,再从第二区流到第三 区。
  4. 4. 如权利要求1所述的反应器,其中,能够释放卤化氢的材料位于第一区的第一亚区 中;第一区中的碳-碳偶联催化剂位于第一区的第二亚区中;第三区中的偶联催化剂位于 第三区的第一亚区中;而能够释放卤化氢的材料位于第三区的第二亚区中。
  5. 5. 如权利要求1所述的反应器,其中,该能够释放卤化氢的材料包括部分卤化的烯烃类。
  6. 6. 如权利要求5所述的反应器,其中,这些部分卤化的烯烃每个分子具有10-100个碳 原子。
  7. 7. 如权利要求5所述的反应器,其中,这些部分卤化的烯烃每个分子具有15-80个碳原子。
  8. 8. 如权利要求5所述的反应器,其中,这些部分卤化的烯烃每个分子具有20-50个碳原子。
  9. 9. 如权利要求5所述的反应器,其中,这些部分卤化的烯烃包括部分卤化的l-十二烯、 1, 12-十二碳二烯、和/或1- 二十烷。
  10. 10. 如权利要求5所述的反应器,其中,所述能够后释放卤化氢的材料包括部分卤化的 有机聚合物类。
  11. 11. 如权利要求10所述的反应器,其中,这些有机聚合物选自部分卤化的聚乙炔、经部 分脱氢的和部分卤化的聚乙烯、经部分脱氢的和部分卤化的聚丙烯、以及它们的混合物。
  12. 12. 如权利要求IO所述的反应器,其中,所述部分卤化的有机聚合物包括部分卤化的聚丁二烯。
  13. 13. 如权利要求1所述的反应器,其中,该能够俘获卤化氢的材料包括每个分子具有 10-100个碳原子的烯烃类。
  14. 14. 如权利要求13所述的反应器,其中,这些烯烃每个分子具有15-80个碳原子。
  15. 15. 如权利要求13所述的反应器,其中,这些烯烃每个分子具有20-50个碳原子。
  16. 16. 如权利要求1所述的反应器,其中,该能够俘获卤化氢的材料包括不饱和有机聚合 物类。
  17. 17. 如权利要求16所述的反应器,其中,这些不饱和有机聚合物选自聚乙炔、经部分脱 氢的聚乙烯、经部分脱氢的聚丙烯、以及它们的混合物。
  18. 18. 如权利要求16所述的反应器,其中,所述不饱和有机聚合物包括聚丁二烯。
  19. 19. 如权利要求1所述的反应器,其中,该第二区含有卤化和/或卤氧化催化剂。
  20. 20. 如权利要求1所述的反应器,其中,该卤化和/或卤氧化催化剂包括氧化铜。
  21. 21. 如权利要求1所述的反应器,其中,该卤化和/或卤氧化催化剂包括卤化铜。
  22. 22. 如权利要求1所述的反应器,其中,该卤化铜包括溴化铜或氯化铜。
  23. 23. 如权利要求1所述的反应器,其中,该偶联催化剂包括微孔材料。
  24. 24. 如权利要求23所述的反应器,其中,该微孔材料包括加载型或非加载型沸石类。
  25. 25. 如权利要求24所述的反应器,其中,所述沸石包括掺杂型沸石类。
  26. 26. 如权利要求24所述的反应器,其中,所述沸石包括ZSM-5型沸石类。
  27. 27. 如权利要求l所述的反应器,其中,所有三个区都位于单一的空心容器内部,并且 相邻的区通过其中具有至少一个开口的分隔件而分离。
  28. 28. 如权利要求1所述的反应器,其中,该分隔件包括筛网。
  29. 29. —种用于将烃原料转化成较高级烃类的反应器,它包括:具有第一区、第二区、和第三区的空心容器,其中,第一区含有部分卤化的烯烃和/或 部分卤化的不饱和的有机聚合物以及ZSM-5沸石;第二区与第一区相连,并且含有金属氧 化物;而第三区与第二区相连,并且含有微孔偶联催化剂和中_长链烯烃和/或不饱和有机 聚合物。
  30. 30. 如权利要求29所述的反应器,其中,所述金属氧化物包括氧化铜。
  31. 31. 如权利要求29所述的反应器,其中,该微孔偶联催化剂包括ZSM-5沸石。
  32. 32. 如权利要求29所述的反应器,其中,所述部分卤化的烯烃和/或部分卤化的不饱和 有机聚合物位于第一区的第一亚区中;所述ZSM-5沸石位于第一区的第二亚区中;所述微 孔偶联催化剂位于第三区的第一亚区中;并且所述中_长链烯烃和/或不饱和有机聚合物 位于第三区的第二亚区中。
  33. 33. 将烃原料转化成较高级烃类的方法,它包括: 加热在空气或氧中能够释放HX的材料形成卤化氢的第一气流; 使烃原料与该HX的第一气流在空气或氧中反应形成烷基卤化物; 使这些烷基卤化物在第二碳_碳偶联催化剂的存在下反应形成较高级烃类以及HX的第二气流;并且使HX的第二气流与能够俘获HX的材料反应来俘获该HX的第二气流。
  34. 34. 如权利要求33所述的方法,进一步包括使该第一偶联催化剂和该第二偶联催化剂 除焦。
  35. 35. 如权利要求33所述的方法,其中,该能够释放HX的材料包括部分卤化的烯烃类。
  36. 36. 如权利要求33所述的方法,其中,所述烯烃每分子具有10-100个碳原子。
  37. 37. 如权利要求33所述的方法,其中,该能够释放HX的材料包括部分卤化的有机聚合物。
  38. 38. 如权利要求33所述的方法,其中,所述部分卤化的有机聚合物选自部分卤化的聚 乙炔、聚丁二烯、经部分脱氢和部分卤化的聚乙烯、经部分脱氢和部分卤化的聚丙烯以及它 们的混合物。
  39. 39. 如权利要求33所述的方法,其中,该能够俘获HX的材料包括每分子具有10-100个 碳原子的烯烃。
  40. 40. 如权利要求33所述的方法,其中,该能够俘获HX的材料包括不饱和有机聚合物。
  41. 41. 根据权利要求40所述的方法,其中,所述有机聚合物选自聚乙炔、聚丁二烯、经部 分脱氢的聚乙烯、经部分脱氢的聚丙烯、以及它们的混合物。
  42. 42. 将烃原料转化成较高级烃类的方法,它包括:(a) 在空气或氧中加热能够释放HX的材料形成卤化氢以及一种能够俘获HX的材料;(b) 使烃原料与步骤(a)中形成的HX在空气或氧中反应形成烷基卤化物;(c) 使所述烷基卤化物在偶联催化剂的存在下反应形成较高级烃类以及附加的HX ;并且(d) 用能够俘获HX的材料反应性地俘获步骤(e)中形成的HX而形成能够释放HX的材料。
  43. 43. 如权利要求42所述的方法,进一步包括该偶联催化剂的结焦和除焦步骤。
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