CN101760215B - Step-by-step quality-improving processing technique and processing system for low-level coal - Google Patents

Step-by-step quality-improving processing technique and processing system for low-level coal Download PDF

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CN101760215B
CN101760215B CN2008101882988A CN200810188298A CN101760215B CN 101760215 B CN101760215 B CN 101760215B CN 2008101882988 A CN2008101882988 A CN 2008101882988A CN 200810188298 A CN200810188298 A CN 200810188298A CN 101760215 B CN101760215 B CN 101760215B
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coal
low
temperature
drying
reactor
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CN101760215A (en
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魏远
宾文锦
何曙光
曾劲松
夏吴
张志伟
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Hunan Huayin Energy Technology Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention provides a step-by-step quality-improving processing technique for low-level coal. The processing technique includes the following steps: (1) the step of drying: raw coal particles are fed into a drying reactor to carry out anoxic hot gas drying under normal pressure, and moisture in the raw coal particles is physically removed; (2) the step of low-temperature dry distillation (thermal decomposition): the dry coal particles which are processed by the step (1) are fed into the dry distillation (thermal decomposition) reactor, anoxic gas is filled under normal pressure to carry out heating and dry distilling, and volatile matters in raw coal overflow in gaseous state through chemical changing. The invention further provides a step-by-step quality-improving processing system for the low-level coal, which comprises the drying reactor and the dry distillation reactor. The dry distillation reactor is arranged at the lower part of the drying reactor. By adopting the step-by-step processing method of drying and low-temperature dry distilling, the invention overcomes the singleness of the domestic quality-improving technology for the low-level coal in the treatment of coal varieties, thereby realizing the diversity of the quality-improving coal varieties.

Description

A kind of substep quality-improving processing technique and system of processing of low-rank coal
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of upgrading treatment process that low-rank coal is carried out drying and dehydrating-low-temperature pyrolysis, the invention still further relates to a kind of system of processing of low-rank coal being carried out drying and dehydrating-low-temperature pyrolysis.
Background technology
Low-rank coal comprises sub-bituminous coals such as mud coal, brown coal and long-flame coal, bottle coal, weakly caking coal, accounts for 50% of world's coal resources reserves, and same low-rank coal is also extremely abundant at China's reserves, accounts for more than 60% of coal in China reserves greatly.Mainly be distributed in provinces such as Yunnan, the Inner Mongol, northeast, Sichuan.Be characterized in that water cut is high, generally accounts for (as received basis) more than 20%; Fugitive constituent is high, about 30~50% (dry ash-free basises); Calorific value is low, at 2500~4500 kilocalories/kilogram.
The exploitation of the coal resources of China at present and to utilize with hard coal and bituminous coal be main, the exploitation of low-rank coal and utilize level very low mainly is as power plant's power fire coal.Because it is moisture higher, there is the shortcoming that burning is difficult, thermo-efficiency is low when directly burning.Along with the continuous increase of China to energy demand, and the resource that hard coal and bituminous coal resource overexploitation cause is nervous, and the low-rank coal development and utilization is more and more important.High to the low-rank coal reactive behavior, be prone to spontaneous combustion, be difficult for long-distance transport; The shortcoming that water cut is big, calorific value is low, one of emphasis of low-rank coal exploitation should be the dryings and conversion upgrading of himself.
Traditional technology to transformation and quality improvement of low-rank coal mainly contains at present: two kinds of drying and upgrading and low-temperature pyrolysis (pyrolysis) process for upgrading.
Common drying and upgrading technology is used for moisture higher brown coal coal upgrading more, and its principle mainly is the method through physics, like modes such as elevated temperature, pressurizations, makes that moisture becomes the gasiform form rapidly in the raw coal, and discharges, thereby reaches the purpose that removes.Worldwide low-rank coal drying and upgrading technology has a variety of, comprises fixed bed, fluidized-bed, rotary kiln and carries system etc. secretly, and each all has its advantage.German patent DE-PS359440, DE19946517A1; Japanese Patent JP9255968A; The technology that relates among the Chinese patent CN101294765A all is non-pressurized evaporative process; Equipment is simple, energy consumption is little, be easy to large industrialized, and that the product moisture content of coal content of handling is dropped to is very low, and calorific value increases.The aqueous method of a kind of reduction low-rank coal is disclosed among the Chinese patent CN96108263A; This method need be carried out gas and steamed processing in the seal-off pressure chamber; Secondly utilize extrusion that moisture machinery is extruded into steam and discharge, can guarantee the product coal water of not reverting to take drugs, equipment requirements precision is high.
Well-knownly be; After the shortcoming of drying and upgrading technology is through physical method coal moisture to be removed; Considerable change does not take place in the pore space structure of coal and chemical structure; Coal sample after the processing very easily absorbs moisture and returns to the water cut before handling from surrounding environment, and the very easily spontaneous combustion of the aerial coal dust of long-term exposure.And the major cause that causes spontaneous combustion has two kinds: the one, single remove moisture after, coal grain surface pore is flourishing, oxygen carries out the physical adsorption faster on the surface of carbon; Organism in oxygen and the coal reacts; And oxidizing reaction is a thermopositive reaction, and every mole oxygen solid/liquid/gas reactions will finally be emitted the heat of 120000KJ, and simultaneous temperature raises, and rate of oxidation doubles liter again 10 ℃ the time; The temperature of carbon is raise, spontaneous combustion takes place to the end; A kind of in addition mode that causes spontaneous combustion is suction; The process that absorbs airborne water vapor also is an exothermic process; Water vapour will be emitted about 20000KJ heat when the surface physics of dry coal adsorbs a mole of water; So heat of adsorption has been quickened the oxidation rate of coal, and the increase of oxidation rate will finally cause the spontaneous combustion of coal.
The low-temperature pyrolysis process for upgrading is meant through the pyrolytic mode moisture low sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal is processed into the high-quality solid fuel semicoke, and obtains the combustion gas of certain calorific value and the process of high added value liquid prod coal tar.Its cardinal principle is at a certain temperature raw coal to be carried out destructive distillation (pyrolysis) to handle, and is the process of an artificial charing, belongs to chemical transformation, is main with depolymerization reaction and decomposition reaction.Its detailed process is: the bridged bond fracture in the coal between the aromatic nucleus forms radical; The small molecular weight radical diffuses out from coal particle, produces the inflammable gas of certain calorific value; The radical of larger molecular weight is produced the tar of intermediate molecular weight, and from coal particle, diffuses out by saturated; Meanwhile, the curing of the material of macromolecule is condensed into high heating value solid fuel semicoke.
Present stage, sophisticated industriallization semicoke production technique mainly contained multistage rotary kiln technology and internal heat type gaseous heat-carrier upright furnace technology.A kind of Technology of using rotary kiln to carry out sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal destructive distillation upgrading processing is disclosed among the Chinese patent CN201053004Y; Though it is big that this technology is handled the coal amount, can accomplish scale production, but it is not high to handle the low-rank coal ability; Energy consumption is big; And factory construction is required high, take up an area of bigger, the coordinative composition of equipments system complex.The Technology that a kind of internal thermal upright stove that uses gas carrier carries out weak caking coal destructive distillation upgrading is disclosed among the Chinese patent CN1966612A; This technology can only be used for the upgrading processing of the lower bituminous coal of water cut; Coal requires high, is difficult to realize handling the variation of coal; And this technology is handled coal amount and little in order to guarantee heat transfer efficiency and gas internal circulating load, is difficult to realize plant-scale extension production.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem that the present invention will solve provides a kind of substep quality-improving processing technique and system of processing of multifarious low-rank coal that can the upgrading coal.
In order to address the above problem, the substep quality-improving processing technique of a kind of low-rank coal provided by the invention comprises the steps:
(1) drying step: the raw coal grain is sent into dry reactor, and it is dry under normal pressure, to lack the oxygen hot gas, the moisture in the raw coal grain is carried out physics remove;
(2) low-temperature pyrolysis (pyrolysis) step: the dry coal grain that will pass through after the processing of step (1) is sent into destructive distillation (pyrolysis) reactor drum, under normal pressure, feeds weary carrier of oxygen and heats destructive distillation, makes through chemical transformation that fugitive constituent overflows with gaseous form in the raw coal.
Preferably, the drying conditions in the said step (1) is controlled at every kilogram of coal needs 10~50 cubic metres of oxygen level to be lower than the hot gas of 6% (vol), makes the temperature of raw coal grain be controlled at 150~250 ℃, and moisture in coal content is reduced to below 6%.
Preferably; In the said step (2) the low-temperature pyrolysis condition be: the throughput ratio with 1 kilogram of coal/5~50 cubic metre feeds the oxygen deprivation hot gas that the high temperature oxygen level is lower than 3% (vol); The temperature that control gets into the oxygen deprivation hot gas of pyrolysis oven is 400~950 ℃; After making coal and hot gas thorough mixing, temperature reaches 450~680 ℃.
The distribution upgrading system of processing of a kind of low-rank coal provided by the invention comprises: dry reactor and dry distillation reactor device, and the dry distillation reactor device is arranged on the bottom of dry reactor; Wherein,
Said dry reactor and dry distillation reactor device comprise respectively: body of heater, in this body of heater, be provided with rotatable furnace bottom, and be provided with into coal charge mouth and exhaust outlet on the top of said body of heater, also be provided with hot-air inlets in the bottom of said body of heater.
Preferably, in said body of heater, also be provided with the plough formula mechanical stirrer that is used to stir.
The present invention is a kind of drying and upgrading and two kinds of Technology process combined of low-temperature pyrolysis upgrading process of low-rank coal, has following characteristics:
1, separates through drying step that physical change will take place and the destructive distillation step that chemical transformation takes place, thereby the pore space structure in the coal is changed, no longer from environment, absorb moisture, improved the calorific value and the stability of solid phase prod coal, be convenient to long-distance transport.
2, in the low-temperature pyrolysis process, through the difference of pyrolysis temperature, the content that overflows of fugitive constituent in adjustable the economizing on coal is regulated the productive rate of the liquid fuel of high heating value product coal and high added value according to market demand.Improve pyrolysis temperature, make that fugitive constituent overflows with gaseous form as much as possible in the coal, obtain the liquid fuel of the high added value of high yield through condensation; Reduce pyrolysis temperature, combustiblecomponents is more stayed in the coal, thereby improved the productive rate of high heating value product coal.
3, through control feed coal residence time in reactor drum, and gaseous heat-carrier temperature, tolerance, reach by demand and regulate and the purpose of control product moisture in coal and volatile content.
4, through the mode of drying and low-temperature pyrolysis step-by-step processing, overcome the unicity that domestic low-rank coal upgrading technology is handled coal, realized the variety of upgrading coal.This Technology not only applicable to the upgrading processing of moisture high brown coal, process a little less than can also being applicable to by the upgrading of close-burning sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal.
5, the solid phase prod coal of producing through the present invention, calorific value can be brought up to 5500~7000 kilocalories/kilogram; The liquid prod productive rate of high added value is different according to processing requirement, and productive rate can be 5%~12%.
6, through drying being removed the technological process proceed step by step of volatile content in moisture in coal content and the low-temperature pyrolysis control coal; Can overcome domestic low-rank coal upgrading technology is difficult to simultaneously moisture in coal and fugitive constituent control effectively; The shortcoming of product coal stability and productive rate difference, product coal are difficult to realize long-distance transport.Product coal productive rate after the treatment process processing of the present invention is more stable; And it is moderate through product moisture in coal content and volatile content behind the process optimization; The product coal passes through the processing of chemistry and physical change respectively simultaneously, and the pore space structure of product coal also changes, and stability significantly improves; The phenomenon of spontaneous combustion can not appear in long-term exposure in environment, long-distance transport stability is high.
Use the gas carrier internal thermal upright to stir rotary hearth furnace in the technology of the present invention feed coal carried out drying and low-temperature pyrolysis processing, have following characteristics:
1, adopt rotary hearth furnace to carry out convective heat exchange as drying and destructive distillation unit; Through hot gas being sent to a grooved rotary fire grate to heat the feed coal on it; The rotating speed of grooved rotary oven fire grate can be regulated, and can guarantee the residence time of feed coal in stove according to practical situation.
2, the design thickness of coal seam only has 0.3m on the grooved rotary fire grate, has added a plough formula mechanical stirrer, can improve the heat exchange between hot gas and the coal charge, and heat transfer efficiency is high.
3, the discharging setting of rotation makes the device discharge convenient, rapid.
4, upright furnace design is taken up an area of and is required for a short time, and the raw coal treatment capacity is big, and material filling is simultaneously mainly accomplished through action of gravity with discharging, and equipment constitutes simple, and enlargement of scale is produced only needs suitable increase converter diameter to realize.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the process flow sheet of low-rank coal substep quality-improving processing technique of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is adopted drying-pyrogenous system of processing structural representation by the present invention;
Fig. 3 is used for the structural representation of the gas carrier internal thermal upright stirring rotary hearth furnace of dry and low-temperature pyrolysis for the present invention.
Wherein:
1-enters the coal charge storehouse
The 2-dry reactor
3-destructive distillation (pyrolysis) reactor drum
4-product coal refrigerating unit
5-product coal Passivation Treatment device
6-product coal discharging hopper
7-product coal haulage system
The 8-gas burner
9-pyrolysis gas disposal unit
10-liquid prod storage tank
The 11-hot-air inlets
The 12-exhaust outlet
The 13-discharge opening
At the bottom of the 14-rotary oven
15-plough formula mechanical stirrer
The 16-water seal
Embodiment
As shown in Figure 1; The flow process of the whole technology of the present invention is: enter coal charge storehouse 1 through the feed coal process of pulverizing and screening is handled; Join in the dry reactor 2; In dry reactor 2, use weary oxygen hot gas that the raw coal grain is carried out the direct heat transfer drying, dried coal sample enters into low-temperature pyrolysis reactor drum 3, and pyrolytic reaction takes place under the heating of weary oxygen hot gas; High molecular weight olefin part is condensed in pyrolysis gas disposal unit 9 and generates high added value liquid prod (coal tar) and be collected in the storage tank 10 in the gas that produces in the pyrolytic reaction process; Remaining gas by being lighted, fully is used as heated air circulation once more in technology after the burning in gas burner 8, and coal charge is discharged into product coal refrigerating unit 4 through discharge system and cools off in the pyrolysis reactor; Cooled coal charge carries out Passivation Treatment in product coal Passivation Treatment device 5; Coal sample after the processing is discharged in the product coal discharging hopper 6, through product coal discharging hopper 6 the product coal being discharged in the product coal haulage system 7, sells then and stores.
In the drying process of the present invention; Preferred drying conditions is controlled at every kilogram of coal needs 10~50 cubic metres of oxygen level to be lower than the hot gas of 6% (vol); Make the temperature of raw coal grain be controlled at 150~250 ℃, different according to coal, moisture in coal content is reduced to below 6%.
In the low-temperature pyrolysis technology of the present invention; Throughput ratio with 1 kilogram of coal/5~50 cubic metre feeds the oxygen deprivation hot gas that the high temperature oxygen level is lower than 3% (vol); The temperature that may command gets into the oxygen deprivation hot gas of pyrolysis oven is 400~950 ℃; After making coal and hot gas thorough mixing, temperature reaches 450~680 ℃.
Through the solid phase prod coal that the present invention produces, calorific value can be brought up to 5500~7000 kilocalories/kilogram; The liquid prod productive rate of high added value is different according to processing requirement, and productive rate is 5%~12%.
Fig. 2 the system of processing structural representation that heats up in a steamer by the present invention of employing dry-thousand; Fig. 3 is used for the structural representation of the gas carrier internal thermal upright stirring rotary hearth furnace of dry and low-temperature pyrolysis for the present invention.
Like Fig. 2, shown in 3, the system of processing that the present invention adopts comprises: dry reactor 2 and dry distillation reactor device 3, dry distillation reactor device 3 is arranged on the bottom of dry reactor 2.Dry reactor 2 is identical with the structure of dry distillation reactor device 3; Like Fig. 2, shown in 3, comprise respectively: body of heater 21 is provided with rotatable furnace bottom 14 in body of heater 21; Be provided with into coal charge mouth 22 and exhaust outlet 12 on the top of body of heater 21, also be provided with hot-air inlets 11 in the bottom of body of heater 21.Also be provided with the plough formula mechanical stirrer 15 that is used to stir in the body of heater 21.In advancing of dry reactor 2 into coal charge storehouse 1 is installed on the coal charge mouth 22, the discharge port 17 of the furnace bottom 14 of dry reactor 2 is arranged on advancing on the coal charge mouth 22 of dry distillation reactor device 3.
Like Fig. 2, shown in Figure 3; Technical process and the principle of using gas carrier internal thermal upright stirring rotary hearth furnace to carry out dry and low-temperature pyrolysis (pyrolysis) are: warp was located the raw coal of reason through entering coal charge storehouse 1; Join in the dry reactor 2, the later coal sample of drying treatment gets into carries out destructive distillation (pyrolysis) processing in the dry distillation reactor device 3.What dry reactor 2 and dry distillation reactor device 3 used all is that the gas carrier internal thermal upright stirs rotary hearth furnace; Coal sample is added at the bottom of the rotary oven of rotary hearth furnace 14 and handles; In furnace bottom 14 rotary courses, 15 pairs of coal samples of plough formula mechanical stirrer are taken off divisional processing, make coal sample more even distribution in the stove groove of rotary hearth furnace; Improve heat exchange efficiency with hot gas; And heated air heats later tail gas from the processing of exhaust outlet 12 discharges carrying out subsequent technique from the coal sample that hot-air inlets 11 entering reactor drum heating warp plough formula mechanical stirrers 15 evenly spread out, and the product coal sample after the processing gets in the next processes through the furnace bottom discharge opening 13 that rotates.Whole plant adopts water shut off treatment to come the assurance device resistance to air loss.
Concrete example:
Example 1; Will be after crushing and screening processing moisture about 30%, fugitive constituent is about 25%, thermal value is that the brown coal coal grain of 4000 kcal/kg is sent in the dry reactor of upright rotary hearth furnace; Drying conditions is controlled at per 1 kilogram of coal needs 50 cubic metres of hot gass; Weary oxygen hot gas oxygen level is 3%, guarantees that the temperature of raw coal grain is controlled at about 220 ℃, and the coal grain water cut after the process drying treatment of certain time rating is about 5%.Raw coal grain after again drying process being handled is sent into the pyrolysis reactor of upright rotary hearth furnace; Flow with 35 cubic metres in 1 kilogram of coal in pyrolysis gas feeds the weary oxygen hot gas that oxygen level is lower than 1% (vol); Guarantee that coal grain temperature is controlled at about 520 ℃; The calorific value of gained solid coal is 5800 kcal/kg; Volatile content is about 10% in the solid coal, and the productive rate of solid phase prod coal is about 52%, and the productive rate that the technology manufacture gas that pyrolysis is produced obtains the high added value liquid prod after through dedusting and 71 ℃ of condensations is about 6%.
Example 2, will be after crushing and screening processing moisture about 18%, fugitive constituent about 28%; Thermal value is that the weak bonding bituminous coal coal grain of 4800 kcal/kg is sent in the dry reactor of upright rotary hearth furnace; Drying conditions is controlled at per 1 kilogram of coal needs 40 cubic metres of hot gass, and weary oxygen hot gas oxygen level is 3%, guarantees that the temperature of raw coal grain is controlled at about 180 ℃; Coal grain water cut after the process drying treatment of certain time rating is about 5%; Raw coal grain after again drying process being handled is sent into the pyrolysis reactor of upright rotary hearth furnace, and the flow with 35 cubic metres in 1 kilogram of coal in pyrolysis gas feeds the weary oxygen hot gas that oxygen level is lower than 1% (vol), guarantees that coal grain temperature is controlled at about 520 ℃; The calorific value of gained solid coal is 6200 kcal/kg; Volatile content is about 12% in the solid coal, and the productive rate of solid phase prod coal is about 56%, and the productive rate that the technology manufacture gas that pyrolysis is produced obtains the high added value liquid prod after through dedusting and 71 ℃ of condensations is about 8%.
Example 3, will be after crushing and screening processing moisture about 18%, fugitive constituent about 28%; Thermal value is that the weak bonding bituminous coal coal grain of 4800 kcal/kg is sent in the dry reactor of upright rotary hearth furnace; Drying conditions is controlled at per 1 kilogram of coal needs 40 cubic metres of hot gass, and weary oxygen hot gas oxygen level is 3%, guarantees that the temperature of raw coal grain is controlled at about 180 ℃; Coal grain water cut after the process drying treatment of certain time rating is about 5%; Raw coal grain after again drying process being handled is sent into the pyrolysis reactor of upright rotary hearth furnace, and the flow with 50 cubic metres in 1 kilogram of coal in pyrolysis gas feeds the weary oxygen hot gas that oxygen level is lower than 1% (vol), guarantees that coal grain temperature is controlled at about 680 ℃; The calorific value of gained solid coal is 6800 kcal/kg; Volatile content is about 6% in the solid coal, and the productive rate of solid phase prod coal is about 46%, and the productive rate that the technology manufacture gas that pyrolysis is produced obtains the high added value liquid prod after through dedusting and 71 ℃ of condensations is about 11%.
In sum; More than being merely preferred embodiment of the present invention, is not to be used to limit protection scope of the present invention, therefore; All any modifications of within spirit of the present invention and principle, being done, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. the substep quality-improving processing technique of a low-rank coal is characterized in that, drying and upgrading and two kinds of technologies of low-temperature pyrolysis upgrading of low-rank coal are combined, and proceed step by step handles, and it comprises the steps:
(1) drying step: the raw coal grain is sent into dry reactor, and it is dry under normal pressure, to lack the oxygen hot gas, the moisture in the raw coal grain is carried out physics remove;
(2) low-temperature pyrolysis pyrolysis step: the dry coal grain that will pass through after the processing of step (1) is sent into the destructive distillation pyrolysis reactor, under normal pressure, feeds weary carrier of oxygen and heats destructive distillation, makes through chemical transformation that fugitive constituent overflows with gaseous form in the raw coal;
Wherein, the drying conditions in the said step (1) is controlled at every kilogram of coal needs 10~50 cubic metres of oxygen level to be lower than the hot gas of 6% volume, makes the temperature of raw coal grain be controlled at 150~250 ℃, and moisture in coal content is reduced to below 6%; In the said step (2) the low-temperature pyrolysis condition be: the throughput ratio with 1 kilogram of coal/5~50 cubic metre feeds the oxygen deprivation hot gas that the high temperature oxygen level is lower than 3% volume; The temperature that control gets into the oxygen deprivation hot gas of pyrolysis oven is 400~950 ℃; After making coal and hot gas thorough mixing, temperature reaches 450~680 ℃.
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CN102382664B (en) * 2010-08-30 2014-05-28 湖南华银能源技术有限公司 Step purification quality-improving machining equipment of low rank coal
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