CN101710449A - Traffic flow running rate recognizing method based on bus GPS data - Google Patents

Traffic flow running rate recognizing method based on bus GPS data Download PDF

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CN101710449A
CN101710449A CN 200910217952 CN200910217952A CN101710449A CN 101710449 A CN101710449 A CN 101710449A CN 200910217952 CN200910217952 CN 200910217952 CN 200910217952 A CN200910217952 A CN 200910217952A CN 101710449 A CN101710449 A CN 101710449A
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road
speed
traffic
sub
traffic flow
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CN 200910217952
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姜桂艳
常安德
张玮
李琦
牛世峰
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吉林大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a traffic flow running rate recognizing method based on bus GPS data and relates to a traffic information collecting and processing technology in the field of intelligent traffics. The method comprises the following solving steps of: carrying out grade division on an urban road section by a GIS; confirming a speed threshold value K1 and a speed threshold value K2 of all grades of roads; carrying out sub-road section division on the urban roads by the GIS; obtaining an average value of the speed that all buses pass through a sub-road section in a certain time interval, which is collected by a bus vehicle-mounted GPS system; comparing the average value of the speed with the threshold value K1 and the threshold value K2 of the sub-road section and confirming the traffic flow running rate of the sub-road section. The traffic flow running rate recognizing method based on bus GPS data can obviously improve the recognizing precision of the traffic flow running rate, reduce the time delay and provide the type of traffic jam simultaneously, thereby providing a basis for selecting more convenient traveling line for a traveler and proving more powerful decision support for establishing a jam facilitating scheme for a traffic management department.

Description

基于公交车GPS数据的交通流运行状态识别方法 Traffic running state recognition method based on GPS data bus

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及智能交通领域中的交通信息采集与处理技术,具体是一种基于公交车GPS数据的交通流运行状态识别方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to a traffic information collection and processing technology in the field of intelligent transportation, in particular based on GPS data bus status recognition method for operating traffic.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 伴随交通拥堵而来的出行延误增加、燃油消耗增大、交通事故频繁、环境质量恶化等一系列问题,严重影响着城市的协调发展和人们的日常生活。 [0002] associated with traffic congestion from increased travel delays, fuel consumption increases, traffic accidents are frequent, deterioration of environmental quality and other issues, a serious impact on the coordinated development of urban and people's daily life. 获得准确、实时、充足的动态交通信息,并以此识别出路网当中已经发生或者即将发生的交通拥堵,同时给出交通拥堵的性质,对于制定合理有效的拥堵疏导策略具有重要意义。 Obtain accurate, real-time, plenty of dynamic traffic information and use it to identify network congestion way out of them has occurred or is about to occur, but given the nature of traffic congestion, to develop reasonable and effective strategy to ease congestion is significant. 由于公交车的运营机制具有较强的时空稳定性,从而便于发现交通流的异常运行状态,可以准确地识别出交通拥堵。 Since the operating mechanism of the bus with a strong temporal stability, thereby facilitating the abnormal operating state of the traffic flow, can accurately identify the traffic jam. 另外,近年GPS与GIS技术在公交车辆监控调度系统中的应用,已为基于公交车GPS数据的交通信息采集技术的实现奠定了良好的基础。 In addition, in recent years, the application of GPS and GIS technology in public transportation vehicle monitoring and dispatching systems, has laid a good foundation for the realization of traffic information collection technology based on GPS data bus.

[0003] 目前,基于公交车GPS数据的交通流运行状态识别方法的研究现状,以及存在的主要问题可以归结如下:我国《城市道路交通管理评价指标体系》中只规定了利用行程速度评价城市主干路交通流运行状态的标准,而未涉及其它等级道路交通流运行状态的评价标准;通常认为公交车的路段行程速度即为交通流的路段行程速度,没有充分考虑不同类型车辆运行特点的差异;通常采用公交线路相邻交叉口位置或者相邻公交站点位置作为边界划分路段,没有考虑路段长度、道路线形变化、道路功能变化等因素;通常假设公交车辆匀速经过路段边界,从而估算单车路段行程速度,没有考虑城市道路车辆运行速度的非稳定性;通常假设公交车辆连续经过公交站点,从而估算路段行程速度,忽略了公交车辆停车服务时间对所得路段平均行程速度获取结果的影响 [0003] Currently, the status of recognition of research-based bus GPS data traffic flow state, and the main problems can be summarized as follows: China's "urban road traffic management evaluation system" only provides for the use of travel speed evaluation of urban trunk standard operating state of the road traffic flow, without involving the evaluation standard operating state of the other levels of road traffic; usually considered to link travel speed of the bus is the link travel speed of traffic flow, there is no full account of differences in the operating characteristics of different types of vehicles; usually adjacent to the intersection of the bus lines adjacent to the position or location of bus stops divided section as a boundary, no considerations link length, road alignment changes, roads and other functional changes; typically assume a constant speed through the road boundary buses, to estimate link travel speed of the bicycle without considering the non-stability of the urban road vehicle running speed; influence is generally assumed buses in a row after the bus station to estimate link travel speed, ignoring the buses parking time average travel speed on income sections get results ;通常只是输出交通流运行状态的类型,而没有对识别结果的可靠性进行必要的分析。 ; Usually only output type of traffic flow operating state, without the necessary analysis of the reliability of the recognition result.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0004] 本发明要解决的技术问题是提供一种基于公交车GPS数据的交通流运行状态识别方法。 [0004] The present invention is to solve the technical problem of providing a GPS data bus based on the operating state recognition traffic.

[0005] 本发明利用全球定位系统(Global Position System, GPS)采集的GPS信息并从 [0005] The present invention utilizes a global positioning system (Global Position System, GPS) and GPS information gathered from

地理信息系统(Geographic Information System, GIS)获取路网空间信息,研究基于公交 GIS (Geographic Information System, GIS) road network to obtain spatial information, research-based public transport

车GPS数据的交通流运行状态识别方法,具体包括交通流运行状态识别标准确定方法、路 Traffic status recognition method for operating the vehicle GPS data, the method comprises determining the operating state of traffic flow identification criteria, path

段划分方法、路段行程速度估计方法以及交通流运行状态识别方法四个步骤。 Segment division method, the link travel speed running state estimation method, and a method of traffic recognition four steps. 路段划分方 Sections divided party

法主要包括基本路段划分方法和子路段划分方法两个内容;路段行程速度估计方法主要包 Method division method including the basic segment and sub-segment method of dividing two content; link travel speed estimation method of the main bag

括单车路段行程速度估计方法和路段平均行程速度估计方法两个内容;交通流运行状态识 Including cycling link travel speed estimation method and the estimation method of the link average travel speed of the two pieces of content; traffic flow status recognition

别方法主要包括交通流运行状态识别流程和识别结果可靠性分析方法两个内容。 Other methods include the operating state identification process and the recognition result reliability analysis of the contents of two traffic flow.

[0006] 具体实现技术方案的步骤为: [0006] Step particular the technical solution is as follows:

[0007] 1、通过GIS将城市道路段进行等级划分; [0007] 1, the urban road segment classification by GIS;

[0008] 2、确定各等级道路交通流运行状态的识别标准,确定各等级道路速度阈值&和1(2,保存于计算机处理器当中,其中&是道路畅通与阻滞之间的临界速度值,K2是道路阻滞与拥堵之间的临界速度值; [0008] 2, identifying an operating state of each standard level traffic flow, determining different level road speed threshold and an & (2, which is stored in a computer processor, wherein & is the critical flow velocity value between the road and the retard , K2 is the critical velocity values ​​between the block and road congestion;

[0009] 3、再通过GIS将城市道路进行子路段划分; [0009] 3, and then sub-divided into sections by GIS urban roads;

[0010] 4、获得公交车辆车载GPS系统采集的一定时段所有公交车通过子路段速度的平均值,传送至计算机处理器; [0010] 4, to obtain an average value buses Vehicular GPS collected for a certain period of all the sub-sections through the bus speed, to the computer processor;

[0011] 5、公交车通过子路段速度的平均值与该子路段的阈值I^和K2进行比较,确定该子路段的交通流运行状态。 [0011] 5, the average value obtained by the sub-bus link speed and a threshold of the sub-section of the I ^ and K2 are compared to determine the operating state of the sub-traffic segment.

[0012] 其中步骤1是通过相交道路的等级,以及承担交通流量的大小,采用重要性较强的交叉口位置作为边界划分基本路段。 [0012] wherein the step of intersecting roads by 1 level, and to assume the size of the traffic, the importance of using a strong base intersection position as the boundary segment division.

[0013] 步骤2是按照我国城市规划理论普遍采用的分级依据对城市道路进行等级划分,同时对不同等级城市道路的交通流运行特性进行分析;按照我国《城市道路交通管理评价指标体系》(2007版)设置路段交通流运行状态的评价指标及评价标准,并且结合各级城市道路的最高设计速度,递推得到各个等级城市道路交通流运行状态的识别标准,即得到该等级道路速度阈值&和K2,从而为交通流运行状态识别方法的设计提供依据。 [0013] Step 2 is classification of urban roads in accordance with the classification in accordance with urban planning theory of widely used, but for different urban road grade operating characteristics of traffic flow analysis; According to China's "Urban Road Traffic Management Evaluation System" (2007 version) of assessment and standard setting running state road traffic flow, and combined with the highest levels of urban road design speed, recursive get recognition standard operating status of each grade of urban road traffic flow, to obtain the level of road speed threshold and & K2, so as to provide a basis for design and operation of state recognition of traffic flow. [0014] 步骤3是根据道路特性(如车道数量、道路线形等)的变化,以及道路交通条件(如限制速度、公交站点等)的变化,选择位置点进行子路段划分。 [0014] Step 3 is a characteristic change in accordance with changes in the road (e.g., number of lanes, road alignment, etc.), road and traffic conditions (such as speed limits, bus stops, etc.) and choose the position of the sub-sections of divided points.

[0015] 步骤4是当公交车辆经过子路段边界,采用内插的方法利用路段边界两侧的GPS数据估计路段边界时刻,从而获取单车路段行程时间,进而引入路段长度计算得到单车路段行程速度,通过一定时段子路段经过公交车辆的数量,得到公交车通过子路段速度的平均值。 [0015] Step 4 when the vehicle passes through the sub-bus segment boundary, the interpolation method using the GPS data link side of the border segment boundary estimation time, thereby acquiring a bicycle travel time, and thus the introduction of the link length calculated link travel speed of the bicycle, after a certain period by the number of sub-sections of buses, the bus by the sub-average value of the link speed.

[0016] 步骤5是将公交车通过子路段速度的平均值输送至计算机处理器,与该子路段的阈值&和K2通过计算机处理器进行比较,速度的平均值大于阈值&,则反应出道路畅通,速度的平均值小于阈值&同时大于阈值K2,则道路阻滞,速度的平均值小于阈值K2,则道路拥堵,此结果可以传送给交通指挥部门,报告此子路段交通流运行状态,便于交通指挥部门对交通状况及时掌握,并进行及时处理。 [0016] Step 5 is conveyed by the average value of the sub-bus to the computer processor link speed, compared with the sub-segment and the threshold value K2 & computer processor, the average speed is greater than the threshold &, the reaction is out of the way smooth, average speed less than a threshold & simultaneously greater than the threshold value K2, the road block, the average speed is smaller than the threshold value K2, the road congestion, this result may be transmitted to the traffic control authorities to report the sub-link traffic flow condition, facilitating traffic control department of the traffic situation grasp, and timely manner.

[0017] 以下描述交通流运行状态识别阈值的确定,将城市道路分为快速路、主干路、次干路和支路四个等级,主干路的交通流运行状态识别阈值根据《城市道路交通管理评价指标体系》中规定的五级速度选取主干路阈值&和K2,四个等级的道路在交通部门设计建设时都确定最高限速,通过各等级道路最高限速与主干路最高限速比值,再乘上主干路的畅通、拥堵临界值,得到各等级道路的阈值I^和K2。 To determine the operating state recognition threshold of traffic flow [0017] The following description will be divided into urban road expressway, traffic flow state recognition threshold trunk road, sub-distributors and four levels, according to branch trunk road "Urban Road Traffic Management predetermined evaluation index system "in the five selected speed threshold & trunk road and K2, are to determine the maximum speed limit when the road transport sector in the four levels of design and construction, through the road maximum speed limit of the ratio of the highest level of speed and trunk road, then multiply unimpeded trunk road congestion threshold to obtain a different level road threshold value I ^ and K2.

[0018] 为了准确地获得子路段速度的平均值,应当剔除因故抛锚等非正常行驶的公交车的单车速度值,根据GPS序列的位置坐标、瞬时速度与航向数据的特点进行车辆运行状态进行识别。 [0018] In order to accurately obtain the average speed of the sub-sections, the bicycle speed value should be removed for any reason the non-normal running anchor waiting for the bus, the position coordinates of the GPS sequence characteristics instantaneous speed and heading data of a vehicle running state recognition.

[0019] 本发明的显著效果在于:本发明提供的基于公交车GPS数据的交通流运行状态识别方法克服了已有方法应用效果不够理想的问题,在降低系统成本的同时,能显著提高交通流运行状态识别精度、减小时间延迟,同时提供交通拥堵的类型,从而可为出行者选择更加便捷的出行路线提供依据,并为交通管理部门制定拥堵疏导方案提供更加有力的决策支持。 [0019] The significant effect of the present invention: The present invention provides a traffic flow status recognition based bus GPS data to overcome the existing method of application not ideal problem, while reducing system costs, can significantly improve traffic flow running state recognition accuracy and reduce the time delay, while providing the type of traffic jams, which can choose a more convenient travel routes provide the basis for travelers and provide more effective decision support for traffic management departments to develop programs to ease congestion. 附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0020] 图1是交通流运行状态识别方法流程图示。 [0020] FIG. 1 is a flow chart recognition method operating state traffic flow. 具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0021] 1)对于不同物理结构、不同功能效用的道路,交通流运行状态识别的标准通常存在差别,因此,需要根据交通流运行状态识别技术的要求对城市道路进行分级,同时对不同等级道路的交通运行特性进行分析。 [0021] 1) for the different physical structure, a road different functional utility, traffic flow state recognition criteria generally there is a difference, therefore, the need for classification of the urban road requested operating state recognition of traffic flow, while the path of the different classes analysis of traffic operating characteristics.

[0022] 按照我国城市规划理论普遍采用的分级方法,以及行业标准《城市道路设计规范》对城市道路级别划分的有关规定,将城市道路分为快速路、主干路、次干路和支路四个等级。 [0022] in accordance with the relevant provisions of the divided city road level of "urban road design" theory of urban planning classification method commonly used, as well as industry standards, urban roads into expressways, trunk roads, secondary roads and slip four levels.

[0023] (1)快速路 [0023] (1) expressway

[0024] 城市快速路又称快速干道,其是城市道路交通的主动脉,也是城市与高速道路的联系通道。 [0024] Also known as urban freeway expressway, which is urban road traffic aorta, the city is also a contact channel with high-speed roads. 我国1991年颁布施行的《城市道路设计规范》对于快速路的定义:"快速路应为城市中运量大、距离长、速度要求高的交通服务。快速路对向车道之间应设中间隔离带,进出口应采用全控制或部分控制措施。"[0025] (2)主干路 Our 1991 promulgated the "Urban road design specifications" for the definition of fast road: "The road should be fast big city traffic, long distance, high speed requirements of the fast road transportation services to the isolation should be located between the middle lane. band, the whole or part of the control and export control measures should be used. "[0025] (2) main road

[0026] 城市主干路又称主干线道路,其与快速路共同构成城市交通的主要骨架。 [0026] city trunk road known as the main arterial roads, which together constitute the main expressway skeleton urban transport. 为了不让进出功能影响道路的通行功能,主干路一般将普通车道与路侧车道进行分离,通常采用行车4车道、路侧2车道的合计6车道的断面形式。 Function of the road in order to prevent passage out of function, the trunk path generally normal lane and the roadside lane separation, usually driving lane 4, lane 6 total cross-sectional form of the roadside lane 2. [0027] (3)次干路 [0027] (3) sub-distributors

[0028] 城市次干路是城市区域性的交通干路,主要为区域交通集散服务,配合主干路组成干道路网。 [0028] sub-distributors city regional transport urban distributors, primarily for regional traffic distribution services, with the trunk road network consisting of a dry road. 次干路主要负担城市中、短出行长度的交通任务,一般设有4个车道,还要设有足够的停车空间。 Sub-distributors in the main burden of the city, traffic to travel the length of the mission short, generally equipped with four lanes, but also has enough parking space. [0029] (4)支路 [0029] (4) branch

[0030] 城市支路又称城市地方性道路,作为次干路和街坊路的连接线,负担城市集散交通的任务负,以服务功能为主。 [0030] Also known as the city branch of urban local roads, as sub-distributors and cable Road neighborhood, city distribution transportation burden of negative task to serve the main function.

[0031] 下面将从时间和空间两个方面,分别对各个等级城市道路的交通流运行特性进行分析。 [0031] The following time and space from two aspects, namely the operating characteristics of various levels of urban road traffic flow analysis.

[0032] (1)时间范畴 [0032] (1) Time Category

[0033] 对于存在信号交叉口的城市主干路、次干路路段,交通流的速度跟随信号周期发生周期性变化。 [0033] For the urban trunk roads exist signalized intersections, sections of secondary roads, the speed of traffic flow signal period following the occurrence of cyclical changes. 如果交通流运行状态识别的时间间隔小于信号周期,则获取的交通数据具有较强的随机性,难以准确体现交通流运行状态变化的规律性。 If the traffic flow is less than the interval state recognition signal period, the acquired data traffic with strong randomness, it is difficult to accurately reflect the state change traffic flow regularity. 对于城市快速路以及没有信号交叉口的城市支路路段,交通流运行较为平稳,分析时间间隔可以较短。 For urban expressway and city slip road is not signalized intersections, traffic flow is relatively stable, the analysis time interval may be short. [0034] (2)空间范畴 [0034] (2) Space Category

[0035] 快速路多以高架道路的形式建设,即使对于采用平面形式的情况,也需在与其它道路相交的路口采用立体交叉形式,而且受到信号控制措施的影响较小,以便保证车辆可以连续、高速行驶。 [0035] expressway mostly in the form of the construction of the elevated road, even in the case of planar forms, the form also requires the use of interchange at the intersection of intersection with other roads, and less affected by signal control measures to ensure that the vehicle can be continuous , high-speed driving. 因此,快速路路段的划分相对简单,采用均分法即可。 Accordingly, the division section of the expressway is relatively simple, using the average method can be. 对于没有信号交叉口的支路路段也可以采用与快速路相似的划分方法。 For no signal branch road intersections and rapid way similar division method may be employed.

[0036] 本发明将交通流状态划分为畅通状态、阻滞状态和拥堵状态三种。 [0036] The present invention will be divided into a smooth traffic status state, blocking state and a congested state three. [0037] (1)畅通状态 [0037] (1) flow state

[0038] 对于畅通状态,车辆较少,车流密度较小,驾驶员能根据自己的驾驶特性(个人驾驶技巧、驾驶倾向性、身体状况、情绪、出行的紧迫性等)、车辆条件、道路条件及环境条件进行驾驶,基本不受或少受其它运行车辆的影响,通常可以保持较高的车速。 [0038] For the smooth flow of state, fewer vehicles, less traffic density, the driver can according to their own driving characteristics (personal driving skills, driving tendency, physical condition, mood, travel urgency, etc.), vehicle condition, road condition driving and environmental conditions, largely unaffected or less affected by other operation of the vehicle, you can usually maintain a high speed. [0039] (2)阻滞状态 [0039] (2) blocking state

[0040] 阻滞状态是指车辆不能自由的任意行驶,车辆速度受到前车的制约,但是车辆行驶状态比较稳定。 [0040] blocking state refers to any vehicle can not travel freely, vehicle speed by the vehicle in front of the constraints, but the running state of the vehicle more stable. 对于畅通状态,交通流量可以达到通行能力,此时出现的干扰会使车流产生较大的波动,车流抗干扰能力明显下降。 For smooth state, traffic capacity can reach, appears disturbance will produce large fluctuations in traffic, traffic decreased anti-jamming capability. [0041] (3)拥堵状态 [0041] (3) the congestion state

[0042] 对于拥堵状态,车流密度很大,行驶自由度很小,速度受前车制约性很强,车速忽高忽低,稳定性较差,车辆走走停停,驾驶员以及乘客的感觉极差。 [0042] For congested state, a large traffic density, with a small degree of freedom, by the speed of the preceding vehicle strong constraints, speed fluctuated, poor stability, stop and go of the vehicle, the driver and passengers feel very poor. 因此,拥堵状态正是交通工程人员的研究重点。 Therefore, the state of congestion of traffic engineering is the focus of research personnel.

[0043] 我国《城市道路交通管理评价指标体系》(2007版)设置了与路段交通流运行状态有关的基本指标,指建成区早、晚交通流高峰时段主干路机动车的平均行程车速,即车辆通过某段道路的长度与通过道路所需的时间之比(包括中间停车时间和延误时间),平均行程车速是所测车辆样本行程速度的算术平均值。 [0043] China's "Urban Road Traffic Management Evaluation System" (2007 edition) set the basic operating status indicators and road traffic-related, refers to built-up areas early, average travel speed evening rush hour traffic trunk road motor vehicles, namely certain length of the road vehicle by the ratio of the time required by the road (including an intermediate parking time and delay time), the average travel speed of the vehicle is the arithmetic mean of the samples measured travel speed.

[0044] 由于我国《城市道路交通管理评价指标体系》已经在城市道路交通管理评价中得到了广泛应用,结合其关于主干路平均车速分级指数的规定,本发明将高于第一级最高速度对应的交通流运行状态定义为顺畅,第一、第二级速度对应的交通流运行状态定义为阻滞,第三、第四、第五级速度对应的交通流运行状态定义为拥堵。 [0044] Due to China's "urban road traffic management evaluation system" has been widely used in the evaluation of urban road traffic management, combined with its provisions graded index of average speed on main road, the present invention will be higher than the first level corresponding to the maximum speed traffic flow is defined as a smooth operation state, first, traffic flow speed stage corresponding to the second state is defined as block, a third, a fourth, a fifth traffic-speed running state is defined as corresponding to the congestion.

[0045] 然而,《城市道路交通管理评价指标体系》没有规定城市主干路之外其它级别道路的交通流运行状态评价标准,本发明将根据主干路的评价标准给定其它类型道路交通拥堵的评价标准。 [0045] However, the "urban road traffic management evaluation system" does not provide for operating state evaluation criteria other levels of road traffic outside the city trunk road, the present invention will be given evaluate other types of road traffic congestion based on the evaluation criteria of the trunk road standard. 由于特定类型城市的各级道路设计速度是一个标准值,可取各级城市道路的最高设计速度,然后计算城市主干路路段交通流运行状态评价标准与相应的设计速度最高值之比,作为递推其它等级道路交通流运行状态评价标准的基础。 Due to the design speed of the road at all levels of a particular type of city is a standard value, it is desirable urban roads at all levels of the maximum design speed, and then calculate the specific sections of the city trunk road running state of the evaluation criteria and the maximum value of the traffic flow corresponding to the design speed as recursive the basis of the operating state of evaluation criteria other grades road traffic flow.

[0046] 2)对于城市快速路而言,由于快速路一般采用高架形式或是在交叉口处采用立交形式,车辆可以连续的行驶,受到控制信号措施的影响较小,同时城市快速路的出入口是城市快速路的重要组成部分,起着连接城市快速路网和其他等级道路的功能,因此可以采用快速路的出入口匝道之间的道路定义为快速路的基本路段。 [0046] 2) for urban expressway, since the elevated expressway commonly used form or using the form of interchange at the intersection, the vehicle can continue driving, less affected by the measures of control signals, while the city expressway entrances and exits It is an important part of urban expressway, connecting the city plays a functional road network and other fast road grade, it can be defined using the road between the freeway entrance ramp as the basic sections of expressway.

[0047] 按照快速路主路与辅路之间出入口的不同组合,可以将快速路基本路段分为四类,即入口_出口、出口_入口、入口-入口和出口-出口四种。 [0047] The different combinations between the entrance roads and expressways the main road can be divided into four sections of Highway Basic, i.e. _ inlet outlet inlet outlet _ inlet - outlet and inlet - outlet four. 快速路基本路段的长度是以匝道入口(或匝道出口)前的位置为起点到出口匝道(或入口匝道)前的位置为终点。 Fast path length substantially links is a position before the inlet ramp (ramp or outlet) to the starting position before the exit ramp (Ramp or) as the end point. [0048] 对于其它等级的城市道路,由于存在大量的交叉口,而且交叉口多为信号交叉口,导致到达的车辆在时间上容易出现分离,并且由于交叉口处的各种管制措施,使得车辆在经过交叉口前发生频繁的加减速、停车及换车道等行为。 [0048] For other grades of city roads, due to the large number of intersections and intersections mostly signalized intersection, causing the vehicle to reach prone to separation in time, and a variety of control measures at intersections, so that the vehicle after frequent acceleration and deceleration, parking and changing lanes and other acts occurred before the intersection. 因此,可以采用交叉口区域作为基本路段划分的分界点。 Therefore, the intersection area may be used as a demarcation point substantially divided segment.

[0049] 然而,仅对基本路段进行划分还不能满足交通流运行状态识别技术的要求。 [0049] However, only the basic sections of divided not meet the requirements of the operating state recognition of traffic flow. 一方面,如果基本路段过长,当交通处于拥堵状态的时候,车辆的行驶速度很低,车辆从驶入路段到离开路段需要很长的时间,使得采集得到的数据产生延误,无法满足交通流运行状态识别实时性的要求;另一方面,交通管理部门不仅需要获得路段的交通流运行状态,同时希望能得到发生交通拥堵的具体位置,以及拥堵的空间传播过程。 On the one hand, if the basic segment is too long, when traffic congestion in the state, the vehicle speed is low, the vehicle from leaving the road into the road to take a long time, so that the data collected to produce the resulting delays, can not meet the traffic flow working - state real-time requirements; on the other hand, traffic management departments not only need to get traffic running state of the road, hoping to get the specific location of the occurrence of traffic congestion, and congestion of space propagation process. 因此,需对基本路段继续进行分解,形成子路段。 Thus, the need for basic decomposition segment continues, forming a sub-sections.

[0050] 对于子路段的划分,不需考虑道路的等级,重点考虑特定路段的道路特性、交通条件以及交通流运行状态识别实时性的需要,子路段分界点的选择主要包括如下三种情况:[0051] (1)从道路特性考虑:车道数发生变化的地点;道路平纵线形变化显著的地点。 [0050] For the division of the sub-sections, without regard to the level of the road, key consideration characteristics specific sections of road, traffic conditions and traffic flow state recognition requires real-time, select the sub-sections of the demarcation point include the following three conditions: [0051] (1) from the road characteristic considered: change in number of lanes occurrence location; Roads'Plane vertical alignment significant change places. [0052] (2)从交通条件考虑:车道功能发生变化的地点(例如某条车道的部分作为公交专用车道等);设置有公交车站的地点。 [0052] (2) from the traffic conditions to consider: Location Function lane changes (for example, a portion of lanes as bus lanes, etc.); provided with a location of the bus stop.

[0053] (3)从交通流运行状态识别实时性的需要考虑:子路段不可过长,否则获取的GPS数据时间延迟过大,会影响交通流运行状态识别的实时性。 [0053] (3) the identification of the need to consider the real-time traffic flow from running state: sub-section should not be too long, otherwise acquire GPS data time delay is too large, it will affect the real-time operational status identified traffic flow.

[0054] 3)传统的单车路段行程速度获取方法假设公交车辆匀速经过路段边界,从而估算单车路段行程速度,没有考虑城市道路车辆运行速度的非稳定性。 [0054] 3) The traditional cycling road travel speed acquisition method assumes constant speed buses through sections of the border, to estimate the speed of a bicycle road trip, did not consider the non-stability of the urban road vehicle running speed. 本发明假设公交车辆保持匀加(减)速经过路段边界,采用内插的方法利用路段边界两侧的GPS数据估算路段边界时刻,进而获取单车路段行程速度。 The present invention assumes that remains absorbed buses plus (minus) the speed through the boundary link, using the interpolation method using the GPS data on both sides of the boundary link timing estimation road boundary, and then obtain the link travel speed bicycle. 如果v(t) = v(tl),则路段边界时刻按照公式(1)计算,否则按照公式(2)计算。 If v (t) = v (tl), the segment boundary times, (1) is calculated according to the formula, or (2) is calculated according to the formula.

[0055] [0055]

<formula>formula see original document page 7</formula> <Formula> formula see original document page 7 </ formula>

[0056] [0056]

<formula>formula see original document page 7</formula> <Formula> formula see original document page 7 </ formula>

[0057] (2) [0057] (2)

[0058] 式中:t〃 (t)——路段终点边界时刻; [0058] wherein: t〃 (t) - link end time border;

[0059] t〃 (t+l)——下游路段起点边界时刻; [0059] t〃 (t + l) - downstream segment starting edge time;

[0060] t(t)、t(t-n4(t))——GPS与前一GPS数据的定位时刻; [0060] t (t), t (t-n4 (t)) - GPS positioning time before a GPS data;

[0061] V(t)、V(t-n4(t))——GPS与前一GPS数据的瞬时速度; [0061] V (t), V (t-n4 (t)) - GPS instantaneous speed of the previous GPS data;

[0062] L' (t)——GPS与路段终点边界的距离。 [0062] L '(t) - from the end of segment boundary and GPS.

[0063] 由于公交车的运行特性,车辆会出现中途停车的情况,例如公交车在各个公交站点需要停车进行乘客上下车服务等。 [0063] Since the operating characteristics of the bus, the vehicle will stop in the middle of the case, such as the bus stop at all bus stops need to be to get off on the passenger service and so on. 然而,公交车站点停车服务耗费的这一部分时间并不是由交通拥堵所引起,而是由公交车本身的运行特性所决定,因此,这部分时间的存在导致公交车的运行状态不能很好的反映道路交通流的运行特性,同时这部分时间的大小由个人习惯、上下客的数量等随机因素密切相关,导致其是一个不确定的值,因此,有必要对公交车辆的停车进行识别,以便剔除停车服务时间。 However, the bus station parking cost of this part of the time is not caused by traffic congestion, but is determined by the operating characteristics of the bus itself, so there is this part of the time led to the operating state of the bus are not well reflect operating characteristics of road traffic flow, while the size of this part of the time is closely related to the personal habits, such as the number of passengers up and down the random factors, resulting in a value that is uncertain, and therefore, it is necessary to identify the parking of buses, in order to eliminate parking time.

[0064] GPS接收设备采集的车辆空间状态数据主要包括位置坐标、瞬时速度、航向。 [0064] Space vehicle status data collected by the GPS receiving apparatus includes position coordinates, the instantaneous speed, heading. 同时,根据GPS序列的位置坐标、瞬时速度与航向数据的特点能够进行车辆运行状态识别。 Meanwhile, the position coordinates of the GPS sequence characteristics instantaneous speed and heading data of the vehicle operating condition can be identified. 对于车辆停车状态,GPS序列通常表现为位置坐标集中分布,或者瞬时速度持续偏低,或者航向变化幅度较大。 The vehicle stop state, GPS position coordinate sequence manifests itself concentrated or consistently low instantaneous velocity, heading or big variations. 另外,为了避免停车状态误判情况的发生,进行方法设计的过程中应引入持续检验环节。 In addition, in order to avoid the parking state misjudgment of the situation, a method of introducing the design process should continue testing links. 本发明依据GPS序列的位置坐标、瞬时速度以及航向数据分别设计车辆停车状态判断方法。 The present invention is based on the position coordinate of the GPS sequences, respectively instantaneous speed and heading data of the vehicle parking state determination method of designing. 不同的道路环境(路网结构、周围建筑特点、气候情况等),以及不同型号的GPS接收设备,GPS数据的特点(数据精度、缺失情况、GPS数据采样时间间隔等等)通常有所差别,此时应该根据实际条件确定更加有效的车辆停车状态判断方法。 Different road environment (network structure, the characteristics of the surrounding buildings, weather conditions, etc.), as well as the characteristics of different models of GPS receiver, GPS data (data accuracy, missing cases, GPS data sampling interval, etc.) are usually different, At this point it should be determined more efficient vehicle stop state determination method according to the actual conditions. 例如,对于中小城市,由于周围建筑设施规模较小,使得GPS位置数据的精度较高,同时数据缺失情况较少,因此一般适于采用基于位置坐标的停车状态判断方法。 For example, small cities, due to the smaller buildings around, so that high accuracy of GPS position data, while less missing data, and is therefore adapted stopped state based method for determining the position coordinates. 除此以外,如果经过实验证明,GPS位置坐标、瞬时速度以及航向不止一项数据精度满足要求,此时上述多种方法可以融合使用。 In addition, experiments show that if after, GPS position coordinates, the instantaneous speed and heading data of more than a required accuracy, the above-described case can be fused using a variety of methods. 得到停车持续时间以后,然后将停车持续时间与最大红灯时长比较,经验值可取120s。 After getting parking duration, and then stop long duration compared with the maximum red, experience desirable 120s. [0065] 本发明利用按照公式(3)进行路段平均行程速度的估算。 [0065] The present invention takes advantage of (3) the average link travel speed is estimated according to the formula.

<formula>formula see original document page 8</formula>[0067] 式中:n表示单车路段行程速度数据个数A表示第i个单车路段行程速度数据;L表示路段长度。 <Formula> formula see original document page 8 </ formula> [0067] in which: n represents the number of data cycling link travel speed A denotes the i th bicycle travel speed data link; L represents the length of the link.

[0068] 4)对于多数城市,由于公交车辆数量较大,基本可以覆盖整个城市路网,并且分布较为均匀;城市公交车辆行驶过程中与出租车、私人车辆相比,灵活性小,公交车辆是按照固定线路运行,沿线设有固定的站点,而且公交车发车时间、发车间隔相对固定,所以采集的数据适于和历史趋势数据进行对比分析,从而容易发现异常的交通流运行状态。 [0068] 4) For most cities, due to the large number of buses, which can cover the entire road network, and more uniform distribution; urban public transport vehicle is running and taxis, private vehicles compared to small flexibility, buses is a fixed line running along a fixed site, and the bus departure time, departure interval is relatively fixed, adapted data acquisition and historical data trends were analyzed, so easy to find abnormal state traffic flow. 交通流运行状态识别方法流程如图1所示。 Traffic operating state recognition process shown in Figure 1.

[0069] (1)如果基于公交车的路段平均行程速度、(t)大于阈值Kn则可认为路段i顺畅;如果Vi(t)大于阈值K2,小于阈值K"则可认为路段i阻滞;如果Vi(t)小于阈值1(2,则可认为路段i发生拥堵,其中&和K2根据实施方式1)中的交通流运行状态识别标准进行确定; [0069] (1) if, based on the link average travel speed of the bus, (t) is greater than the threshold value Kn may be considered to link i smooth; If Vi (t) is greater than the threshold value K2, less than the threshold value K "can be considered to link i block; If Vi (t) is smaller than the threshold value 1 (2, i can be considered to link congestion occurs, and wherein & K2 according to embodiment 1) for determining the operating state of the traffic flow identification criteria;

[0070] (2)如果路段处在拥堵状态,则输入不同星期同一日期(周一、周二、…、周日)同一时段的历史趋势数据,然后按照公式(4)计算路段平均行程速度实测数据与历史趋势数据的差值A、(t)。 [0070] (2) If the road is in the congested state, then enter the same date in different week (Monday, Tuesday, ..., Sunday) Historical trend data for the same period, the average travel speed and road measured data (4) and is calculated according to the formula a difference between the historical trend data, (t).

[0071] <formula>formula see original document page 8</formula> [0071] <formula> formula see original document page 8 </ formula>

[0072] 式中:Vi(t)表示路段平均行程速度的实测数据;V' t (t)表示路段平均行程速度 [0072] Where: Vi (t) represents the measured data link average travel velocity; V 't (t) represents the average link travel speed

的历史趋势数据。 The historical trend data.

[0073] (3)按照公式(5)进行判断,如果公式成立则可认为路段i发生了偶发性拥堵,否则发生了常发性拥堵。 [0073] (3) the determination according to equation (5), that link may be established if the formula i sporadic congestion occurs, Recurrent or congestion occurs.

<formula>formula see original document page 8</formula> <Formula> formula see original document page 8 </ formula>

[0075] 式中:AVi(tT)表示当天前一时段路段平均行程速度实测数据与历史趋势数据的差值,K3需要通过分析实测数据进行确定。 [0075] wherein: AVi (tT) represents a difference between the period before the average link travel speed measured data with historical trend data on the day, K3 need to be determined by analyzing the measured data.

[0076] 当路段上公交车的数量大于最小样本量时,可以满足交通流运行状态识别的精度要求。 [0076] When the number of links on the bus than the minimum sample size to meet the operating state recognition accuracy of the traffic flow. 然而,由于许多路段的公交车数量达不到最小样本量的要求,导致行程速度数据的精度降低,使得交通流运行状态识别结果的可靠性降低。 However, since the number of buses in many sections reach the minimum sample volume requirements, resulting in reduced accuracy of the travel speed data, so that the reliability of the recognition result of reduced operating state of traffic flow. 公交车的样本量不足时的交通流运行状态识别的结果不是完全不可靠,因此,除了需要给出交通流运行状态识别结果以外,还应给出识别结果的可靠度。 Traffic flow state recognition result of insufficient sample size when the bus is not completely reliable, and therefore, in addition to the need to give state recognition results run traffic flow, should be given the reliability of the identification results.

[0077] 浮动车最小样本量的确定是一件非常复杂的工作,受到路段长度、路段划分方式、信号控制方式、道路线形变化等多种因素的影响。 Determining a minimum sample size of the [0077] floating car is a very complex task, a number of factors affected by the length of the link, the link division manner, control signals, such as road alignment change. 如果综合考虑各种因素对每条路段逐一进行确定,则工作量之大、成本之高导致研究工作难以接受。 If you are considering various factors determined individually for each link, the large amount of work, leading to high cost of research unacceptable. 因此,本发明利用统计分析手 Accordingly, the present invention utilizes the statistical analysis of hand

[0074] [0074]

& (5)段采用行程时间相对误差作为评价指标,同时区分不同道路等级进行浮动车最小样本量的确定。 & (5) using the travel time period relative error as an evaluation index to distinguish between different road class at the same time determines the minimum sample size for floating car. 本发明采用路段平均行程速度作为划分交通流运行状态的依据。 The present invention employs link average travel speed as the division of traffic flow based on the operating state.

[0078] 如果浮动车样本数量满足最小样本数量的要求,则可认为交通流运行状态识别结果比较可靠,否则获取结果的可靠程度有所降低。 [0078] If the number of floating cars samples meet the minimum number of samples required, may be considered traffic flow state identification result more reliable, or else get the results of reliability decreased.

[0079] —些学者认为浮动车样本数量N近似服从均匀分布,并且依此计算交通流运行状态识别结果的可靠度,显然这种假设不够合理。 [0079] - Some researchers believe that the number of floating cars is approximately uniform distribution of samples N, and so to calculate the reliability of the recognition result the operating state traffic flow, obviously this assumption is not reasonable. 本发明假设每周同一日期同一时段的N近似服从正态分布,并且按照公式(6)计算交通流运行状态识别结果的可靠度。 The present invention assumes the same days of the week in the same period of N approximate normal distribution, and calculates the degree of reliability of the recognition result the operating state traffic flow according to Equation (6).

<formula>formula see original document page 9</formula>[0081] 式中:1表示当交通流运行状态识别结果的可靠度;f (X)表示随机变量N的正态分布概率密度函数。 <Formula> formula see original document page 9 </ formula> [0081] wherein: 1 represents the operating state when the reliability of the recognition result traffic flow; f (X) represents a random variable of the normal distribution N probability density function.

Claims (3)

  1. 一种基于公交车GPS数据的交通流运行状态识别方法,其特征在于包括如下步骤:(1)通过GIS将城市道路段进行等级划分;(2)确定各等级道路交通流运行状态的识别标准,确定各等级道路速度阈值K1和K2,保存于计算机处理器当中,其中K1是道路畅通与阻滞之间的临界速度值,K2是道路阻滞与拥堵之间的临界速度值;(3)再通过GIS将城市道路进行子路段划分;(4)获得公交车辆车载GPS系统采集的一定时段所有公交车通过子路段速度的平均值,传送至计算机处理器;(5)公交车通过子路段速度的平均值与该子路段的阈值K1和K2进行比较,确定该子路段的交通流运行状态;其中步骤(1)是通过相交道路的等级,以及承担交通流量的大小,采用重要性较强的交叉口位置作为边界划分基本路段;步骤(2)是按照我国城市规划理论普遍采用的分级依据对城市道路进行等级划分, Method for operating a traffic state recognition bus based on GPS data, comprising the steps of: (1) the urban road segment classification by GIS; (2) determining the respective operating state identification criteria level traffic flow, determining different level road speed threshold K1 and K2, which is stored in a computer processor, wherein K1 is a value between the critical speed and the flow path block, K2 is a value between the critical speed path block and congestion; (3) further GIS by the urban road sub-divided into sections; (4) buses get on-board GPS system to acquire a certain period of time all the buses by the average speed of sub-sections, to the computer processor; (5) bus speed by sub-section the average value is compared with a threshold value K1 and K2 of the sub-sections, determining the operating state of the sub-traffic road section; wherein the step (1) is obtained by intersecting roads level, and to assume the size of the traffic, the importance of using a strong cross mouth position as border demarcation basic sections; step (2) is carried out in accordance with the classification of urban roads graded in accordance with urban planning theory of widely used, 时对不同等级城市道路的交通流运行特性进行分析;按照我国设置路段交通流运行状态的评价指标及评价标准,并且结合各级城市道路的最高设计速度,递推得到各个等级城市道路交通流运行状态的识别标准,即得到该等级道路速度阈值K1和K2;步骤(3)是根据道路特性的变化,以及道路交通条件的变化,选择位置点进行子路段划分;步骤(4)是当公交车辆经过子路段边界,采用内插的方法利用路段边界两侧的GPS数据估计路段边界时刻,从而获取单车路段行程时间,进而引入路段长度计算得到单车路段行程速度,通过一定时段子路段经过公交车辆的数量,得到公交车通过子路段速度的平均值;步骤(5)是将公交车通过子路段速度的平均值输送至计算机处理器,与该子路段的阈值K1和K2通过计算机处理器进行比较,速度的平均值大于阈值K1,则反应出道路畅 When operating characteristics were different levels of urban roads traffic flow analysis; evaluation in accordance with the operating states of Traffic Flow in China and evaluation criteria, and combined with the maximum design speed urban roads at all levels, recursive get various levels of urban road traffic flow identifying the standard state, i.e., to obtain the level of road speed threshold K1 and K2; step (3) is a change in the road characteristics, as well as changes of road traffic conditions, select points sub-sections divided; step (4) when the buses after the sub-sections of the boundary, the interpolation method using GPS data on both sides of the road boundary estimation road boundary times so as to obtain a bicycle travel time, and thus the introduction of the link length calculated stroke speed road bike, by a certain period after the sub-link buses of number, the average value obtained by the sub-link bus speed; step (5) is conveyed by the average value of the sub-bus to the computer processor link speed, compared with the threshold value K1 and K2 of the sub-sections by a computer processor, the average speed is greater than the threshold value K1, then the reaction out of the way Chang ,速度的平均值小于阈值K1同时大于阈值K2,则道路阻滞,速度的平均值小于阈值K2,则道路拥堵。 The average speed is less than the threshold value K1 while K2 is greater than the threshold value, blocking the road, the average speed is smaller than the threshold value K2, the road congestion.
  2. 2. 根据权利要求1所述的交通流运行状态识别方法,其特征在于:各等级道路阈值I^ 和&的确定方法是将城市道路分为快速路、主干路、次干路和支路四个等级,主干路的交通流运行状态识别阈值根据《城市道路交通管理评价指标体系》中规定的五级速度选取主干路阈值&和K2,四个等级的道路在交通部门设计建设时都确定最高限速,通过各等级道路最高限速与主干路最高限速比值,再乘上主干路的畅通、拥堵临界速度值,得到各等级道路的阈值Ki和K2。 The traffic flow status recognition method according to claim 1, wherein: & ^ and method for determining the threshold value I each grade road is divided into urban expressway road, main road, roads and slip four times traffic flow state recognition threshold levels, trunk road selected trunk roads threshold value & and K2 in accordance with the provisions of the "urban road traffic management evaluation system" in the five speed, road four grades are determined highest in the design and construction of the transport sector speed, maximum speed limit by each grade roads and trunk road speed limit ratio, multiplied by the smooth trunk road congestion critical speed value to obtain a different level road threshold Ki and K2.
  3. 3. 根据权利要求1所述的交通流运行状态识别方法,其特征在于:根据GPS序列的位置坐标、瞬时速度与航向数据的特点进行车辆运行状态进行识别,剔除非正常行驶公交车的单车速度值。 The traffic flow status recognition method according to claim 1, wherein: the position coordinate of the GPS sequence characteristics instantaneous speed and heading data of a vehicle operating state recognition, excluding non-normal cycling rate Buses value.
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