CN101700871B - Copper-indium-selenium nanowire array and preparation method and application thereof - Google Patents

Copper-indium-selenium nanowire array and preparation method and application thereof Download PDF

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CN101700871B
CN101700871B CN2009102365748A CN200910236574A CN101700871B CN 101700871 B CN101700871 B CN 101700871B CN 2009102365748 A CN2009102365748 A CN 2009102365748A CN 200910236574 A CN200910236574 A CN 200910236574A CN 101700871 B CN101700871 B CN 101700871B
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etching
annealing
copper
indium
electrochemical deposition
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CN101700871A (en
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朱长飞
张中伟
刘伟丰
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University of Science and Technology of China USTC
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Abstract

The invention discloses a copper-indium-selenium nanowire array and a preparation method thereof. The method comprises the following steps: preparing a metal electrode layer on a glass or silicon slice substrate, using an ordered nano-template as growing mask to prepare the ordered nanowire structure copper-indium-selenium P-type absorbing layer material array on the metal electrode layer of the substrate through electrodeposition, and partly removing the template from top to bottom through chemical corrosion or physical etching method to expose the nanowire array. The array of the invention can be used to prepare the heterojunction solar cell with photoelectric translating performance.

Description

Copper-indium-selenium nanowire array and preparation method thereof and application
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of thin-film solar, relate to a kind of copper-indium-selenium nanowire array and preparation method thereof and application.
Background technology
Become the bottleneck of restriction international community and Chinese Economy Development day by day along with energy problem; The development heliotechnics has become one of most important problem of the energy and investigation of materials field; The photovoltaic cell imperative (M.A.Green, Progress in Photovoltaics:Research andApplications 9 123-35 (2001)) of development low cost, high efficiency, excellent in stability.Thin film semiconductor's photovoltaic cell is studied the manufacturing cost that is used for reducing battery component; Promote the development (A.Barnett of photovoltaic cell manufacturing industry; A.Rothwarf; Thin-film solarcells:A unified analysis of their potential, IEEE Trans.Electron Devices 27 615-630 (1980)).In typical thin film planar battery design, the collection of photo-generated carrier with material to sunshine be absorbed in one above the direction, the thickness of light absorbing material wants can guarantee incident sunshine (N.B.Raghu, M.F.Arturo, the CuIn of absorption more than 90% at least 1-xGa xSe2-based photovoltaic cells fromelectrodeposited precursor films; Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 76 331-337 (2003)); Because will moving sufficiently long distance in light absorbent, photo-generated carrier just can arrive the pn knot by collection effectively; So the requirement of this thickness has increased restriction also just for the crystalline quality and the purity of material, thereby has increased the cost of producing preparation.
The nanostructured of utilizing high aspect ratio then can workout cost-efficient this to contradiction.People (B.M.Kayes such as the Kayes B.M. of Caltech; H.A.Atwater and N.S.Lewis; Comparison of the device physicsprinciples of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells; J.Appl.Phys.97 114302 (2005)) and the people (Y.Zhang such as Zhang Y. of U.S. regenerative resource laboratory (NREL); L.W.Wangand A.Mascarenhas; " Quantum Coaxial Cables " for Solar Energy Harvesting, Nano Lett.7 1264-9 (2007)) from the angle proof of theoretical modeling for the material of those minority diffusion lengths much smaller than the optical length of absorbed, utilize nuclear-shell nano wire radially the pn junction structure can significantly improve the efficient of solar cell.Heterogenous pn junction constitutes solar battery structure to utilize the shell-nuclear nano wire of high aspect ratio to form radially; This structure can provide enough length to absorb the sunshine of incident in a longitudinal direction; The few son of photoproduction then need just can get into the pn interface through very short distance at horizontal and swept away by electric field; Photo-generated carrier is significantly reduced by compound probability, reach effective separation in electronics-hole, improve the collection efficiency of battery photo-generated carrier.Even under the situation of low crystalline quality material, this structure Design also makes collects photo-generated carrier effectively and becomes possibility, thereby route feasibilities of those low-cost preparation battery materials are improved greatly.This periodic nanostructured can reduce the reflectivity to the incident sunshine through rational design simultaneously, thereby increases the ratio of incident light, helps improving battery efficiency.Charles Lieber (B.Z.Tian, X.L.Zheng, the T.J.Kempa of Harvard University; Y.Fang, N.F.Yu, G.H.Yu; J.L.Huang and C.M.Lieber, Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cellsand nanoelectronic power sources, Nature 449 885-U8 (2007)) and German people (V.Sivakov such as Sivakov V.; G.Andr, A.Gawlik, A.Berger; J.Plentz, F.Falk and S.H.Christiansen, Silicon Nanowire-Based Solar Cells on Glass:Synthesis; Optical Properties, and Cell Parameters, Nano Lett.9 1549-1554 (2008)) prepare the silicon nanometer line solar battery that certain conversion efficiency is arranged and pointed out its battery performance leeway that is significantly improved.
Compound semiconductor CIS (CuInSe with yellow copper structure 2, be called for short CIS) or mix CIGS (Cu (In, Ga) Se that gallium forms 2, being called for short CIGS) and miscible crystal is the direct band gap material, CIGS material (I.Repins, M.A.Contreras, B.Egaas, C.DeHart, J.Scharf, C.L.Perkins, B.To and R.Noufi, 19.9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe 2Solar Cell with 81.2% Fill Factor, Progress inPhotovoltaics:Research and Applications 16 235 (2008)) since its excellent optical absorption characteristics with receive irradiation stability to receive everybody's very big concern, thought the most potential thin-film solar cells material by everybody; Yet existing CIGS solar cell nowadays is portion (Li Junfeng seldom in whole solar cell market; Wang Sicheng, Zhang Minji, Ma Lingjuan; China's photovoltaic development report-2007; P9-13, China Environmental Science Press (Beijing)), main cause is that every watt of manufacturing cost of battery is higher.Utilize nanostructured CIS (CIS) to realize the solar cell of high-efficiency and low-cost as the P type absorbed layer of battery, be of great immediate significance the future more and more severeer at the energy.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention provides a kind of copper-indium-selenium nanowire array and preparation method thereof and application.
The method for preparing copper-indium-selenium nanowire array provided by the invention comprises the steps:
1) preparation layer of metal conductive layer on substrate;
2) utilize the ordered nano template as growing mask, selenizing again behind heat treatment of electrochemical deposition after annealing or the electrochemical deposition, the said growing mask of etching obtains said copper-indium-selenium nanowire array to exposing copper-indium-selenium nanowire array more afterwards;
Said electrochemical deposition after annealing heat treatment method is: as anode, metal conducting layer is a negative electrode with platinized platinum, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, to contain Cu 2+, In 3+And Se 4+Solution as electrolyte solution, electrochemical deposition is carried out in energising, the copper-indium-selenium nanowire that deposits is in vacuum, argon gas atmosphere or contain annealing in process under the atmosphere of selenium;
Behind the said electrochemical deposition again the method for selenizing be: as anode, metal conducting layer is a negative electrode with platinized platinum, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, to contain Cu 2+And In 3+Solution as electrolyte solution, the energising carry out electrochemical deposition, obtain copper indium nano-wire array, under the atmosphere that contains the selenium element, carry out selenizing again.
In the step 1) of this method, the material of said formation substrate is glass or silicon chip; The thickness of glass substrate is 1.2~3.0 millimeters in the said substrate, and the thickness of silicon chip is 0.45~0.55 millimeter; The material of said formation metal conducting layer is selected from least a among Mo, W, Ta, Nb, Ti and the Au; The thickness of said metal conducting layer is the 500-2000 nanometer; The said method for preparing metal conducting layer is magnetically controlled sputter method or electron-beam vapor deposition method; In the said magnetically controlled sputter method, sputtering power is 80~140W, preferred 100~120W; Sputtering pressure is 0.15~1.4Pa;
Said step 2) in, the aperture of said ordered nano template is the 40-500 nanometer, and preferred 50~250 nanometers, the spacing at adjacent holes center are the 100-1000 nanometer, preferred 100~500 nanometers, and thickness is the 50-8000 nanometer, preferred 500~5000 nanometers; The material of the organic nano-form of said formation is selected from least a in photoresist and the photoresist after photo-etching machine exposal develops after the preparation of anodic oxidation aluminium formwork, nano impression; The material of said formation metal conducting layer is selected from least a among Mo, W, Ta, Nb, Ti and the Au.
In the said electrochemical deposition after annealing heat treatment method, in the said electrolyte aqueous solution, anion is selected from least a in copper sulphate, indium sulfate, copper chloride, inidum chloride and the selenous acid; Cu 2+, In 3+And Se 4+Concentration be respectively 2~15 mMs/liter, 2~15 mMs/liter and 2~15 mMs/liter; With at least a solution in lithium sulfate, lithium chloride, potassium sulfate and the potassium chloride serves as to support liquid; The temperature of electrochemical deposition is a room temperature, and the time is 20-90 minute, and voltage is-0.5~-0.7 volt; In the said annealing steps, the background vacuum pressure of vacuum annealing is 1.0*10 -3Pa~3.0*10 -3Pa, annealing temperature is 300~550 ℃, annealing time is 10~50 minutes; The condition of argon annealed is that the background vacuum is 1.0*10 -3Pa~3.0*10 -3Pa, ar pressure are 10~3000Pa, and annealing temperature is 300~550 ℃, and annealing time is 10~50 minutes; The condition of annealing under the selenium atmosphere is that the background vacuum is 1.0*10 -1Pa~3.0*10 -1Pa, annealing temperature is 300~550 ℃, annealing time is 10~50 minutes;
Behind the said acid copper indium nano wire in the selenizing method, in the said electrolyte aqueous solution, anion is selected from least a in copper sulphate, indium sulfate, copper chloride and the inidum chloride; Cu 2+, In 3+Concentration be respectively 2~15 mMs/liter, 2~15 mMs/liter, serve as to support liquid with at least a solution in lithium sulfate, lithium chloride, potassium sulfate and the potassium chloride, the temperature of electrochemical deposition is a room temperature, the time is 20-90 minute, voltage is-0.5~-1.0 volt; In the said selenizing step, background vacuum pressure is 1.0*10 -1Pa~3.0*10 -1Pa, the selenizing temperature is 300~550 ℃;
In the said etch step, the method for etching is for to carry out etching or reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) method with sodium hydrate aqueous solution; Wherein, the mass percent concentration of said sodium hydrate aqueous solution is 1-8%, and the time of etching is 1-10 minute, and the temperature of etching is 10-25 ℃; In the said reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) method, etching gas is argon gas and CHF 3Mist, wherein, the flow of said argon gas is 1-10sccm, preferred 5sccm, CHF 3Flow be 1-10CHF 3Flow be 4sccm, preferred 4sccm, operating air pressure is 200-300mTorr, preferred 250mTorr; Power is 200-300W, preferred 250W; The time of etching is 1-15 minute, preferred 10 minutes; The temperature of etching is 10-25 ℃.
The application in the preparation solar cell of the copper-indium-selenium nanowire array for preparing according to the method described above and this array also belongs to protection scope of the present invention.
Nano-wire array provided by the invention is a kind of one-dimensional inorganic nano thread structure P type absorbing layer materials array that can be used for thin-film solar cells, and this P type absorbing layer materials is the most potential current thin-film solar cells material CIS.This P type nano wire absorbing layer materials array can be formed the nanostructured hetero-junctions with opto-electronic conversion performance with N type Window layer.The heterojunction solar battery that utilizes nano-wire array P type absorbed layer provided by the invention to constitute can prepare according to conventional method, and its performance meets industry standard, compares with traditional plane pn joint solar cell, has the following advantages:
1) capable of usingly vertically provide enough thickness to absorb most of incident light; It is collected to utilize the migration distance of the less size shortening photo-generated carrier of nanostructured to be collected electrode at horizontal direction; Thereby improve the photo-generated carrier collection efficiency, improve the conversion efficiency of whole solar cell;
2) can improve the junction area of battery greatly;
3) orderly relatively periodic structure can reduce the reflectivity to the incident sunshine through rational design, thereby increases the ratio of incident light, helps improving battery efficiency.
Nano-wire array provided by the invention is suitable for preparing high efficiency, solar cell cheaply very much, has very application prospects.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the section structure sketch map of copper-indium-selenium nanowire array provided by the invention.
The electromicroscopic photograph that is embedded in the copper-indium-selenium nanowire array section in the nano-form that Fig. 2 provides for the embodiment of the invention 1.
Fig. 3 provides for the embodiment of the invention 1 removes the plane electromicroscopic photograph of copper-indium-selenium nanowire array behind the part nano-form from top to bottom.
The specific embodiment
The nano-wire array that the present invention proposes, its section structure sketch map is as shown in Figure 1, and wherein, 1 is substrate, and the material that constitutes this substrate is glass or silicon chip, and 2 is metal conducting layer, and 3 is the ordered nano template, and 4 is copper-indium-selenium nanowire array.
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment the present invention is described further, but the present invention is not limited to following examples.
Embodiment 1, preparation copper-indium-selenium nanowire array
1) be that 0.52 millimeter silicon chip is substrate with thickness, adopt direct current magnetron sputtering process to prepare the Mo metal conducting layer, sputtering power is 120W, and sputtering pressure is 0.15Pa, and sputtering time is 26 minutes, and gained Mo layer thickness is 800nm.
2) be that 50 nanometers, adjacent holes center distance are that 120 nanometers, thickness are that the Mo metal conducting layer of the ordered nano template of 1200 nanometers is a negative electrode to be covered with the aperture; The material that constitutes this organic nano template is an anodic oxidation aluminium formwork; With the platinized platinum is anode, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, contains Cu 2+, In 3+, Se 4+And Cl -, SO 4 2-Ion the aqueous solution as electrolyte solution, Cu 2+, In 3+And Se 4+Concentration be respectively 2 mMs/liter, 2 mMs/liter and 4 mMs/liter, control voltage is-0.5 volt, electro-deposition is 90 minutes under the room temperature, obtains length and be 1 micron copper-indium-selenium nanowire array, and is as shown in Figure 2.
3) copper-indium-selenium nanowire array of said electrochemical deposition preparation is annealed in a vacuum, and background vacuum pressure is 1.0*10 -3Pa, annealing temperature is 550 ℃, annealing time is 10 minutes.
4) the use mass percent concentration is 1% sodium hydroxide solution; From top to bottom to said inorganic nano template etching 10 minutes at normal temperatures; Expose copper-indium-selenium nanowire array, obtain copper-indium-selenium nanowire array provided by the invention, the plane electromicroscopic photograph of this array is as shown in Figure 3.
Embodiment 2, preparation copper-indium-selenium nanowire array
1) be that 0.52 millimeter silicon chip is substrate with thickness, adopt direct current magnetron sputtering process to prepare the W metal conducting layer, sputtering power is 120W, and sputtering pressure is 0.3Pa, and sputtering time is 25 minutes, and gained W layer thickness is 800nm.
2) be that 90 nanometers, adjacent holes center distance are that 150 nanometers, thickness are that the W metal conducting layer of the ordered nano template of 1600 nanometers is a negative electrode to be covered with the aperture; The material that constitutes this nano-form is an anodic oxidation aluminium formwork; With the platinized platinum is anode, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, contains Cu 2+, In 3+, Se 4+And Cl -, SO 4 2-The aqueous solution of ion is as electrolyte solution, Cu 2+, In 3+And Se 4+Concentration be respectively 5 mMs/liter, 10 mMs/liter and 10 mMs/liter, control voltage be-0.6 volt, electro-deposition is 20 minutes under the room temperature; Obtain length and be 1.5 microns copper-indium-selenium nanowire array; Its electromicroscopic photograph and Fig. 2 do not have essential difference, and just length is different, no longer endures here and states.
3) copper-indium-selenium nanowire array of said electrochemical deposition annealing in process in argon gas, the background vacuum pressure of annealing is 1.0*10 -3Pa, ar pressure are 300Pa, and annealing temperature is 400 ℃, and annealing time is 30 minutes.
4) the use mass percent concentration is 4% sodium hydrate aqueous solution; From top to bottom to said nano-form etching 3 minutes at normal temperatures; Expose copper-indium-selenium nanowire array; Obtain copper-indium-selenium nanowire array provided by the invention, plane electromicroscopic photograph and Fig. 3 of this array do not have essential difference, no longer endure here and state.
Embodiment 3, preparation copper-indium-selenium nanowire array
1) be that 1.2 millimeters sheet glass is substrate with thickness, adopt direct current magnetron sputtering process to prepare the Mo metal conducting layer, sputtering power is 80W, and sputtering pressure is 1.4Pa, and sputtering time is 20 minutes, and gained Mo layer thickness is 800nm.
2) be that 90 nanometers, adjacent holes center distance are that 150 nanometers, thickness are that the Mo metal conducting layer of the ordered nano template of 1600 nanometers is a negative electrode to be covered with the aperture; The material that constitutes this organic nano template is an anodic oxidation aluminium formwork; With the platinized platinum is anode, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, contains Cu 2+, In 3+, Se 4+And Cl -, SO 4 2-Ion the aqueous solution as electrolyte solution, Cu 2+, In 3+And Se 4+Concentration be respectively 10 mMs/liter, 10 mMs/liter and 15 mMs/liter, control voltage be-0.5 volt, electro-deposition is 30 minutes under the room temperature; Obtain length and be 1.5 microns copper-indium-selenium nanowire array; Its electromicroscopic photograph and Fig. 2 do not have essential difference, and just length is different, no longer endures here and states.
3) copper-indium-selenium nanowire array of said electrochemical deposition annealing in process under selenium atmosphere, the background vacuum pressure of annealing is 1.0*10 -2Pa, annealing temperature is 300 ℃, annealing time is 10 minutes.
4) the use mass percent concentration is 8% sodium hydroxide solution; From top to bottom to said nano-form etching 1 minute at normal temperatures; Expose copper-indium-selenium nanowire array; Obtain copper-indium-selenium nanowire array provided by the invention, plane electromicroscopic photograph and Fig. 3 of this array do not have essential difference, no longer endure here and state.
Embodiment 4, preparation copper-indium-selenium nanowire array
1) be that 2.0 millimeters sheet glass is substrate with thickness, adopt direct current magnetron sputtering process to prepare the W metal conducting layer, sputtering power is 120W, and sputtering pressure is 0.3Pa, and sputtering time is 25 minutes, and gained W layer thickness is 800nm.
2) be that 250 nanometers, adjacent holes center distance are that 500 nanometers, thickness are that the W metal conducting layer of the ordered nano template of 3500 nanometers is a negative electrode to be covered with the aperture; The material that constitutes this nano-form is an anodic oxidation aluminium formwork; With the platinized platinum is anode, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, contains Cu 2+, In 3+, Se 4+And Cl -, SO 4 2-The aqueous solution of ion is as electrolyte solution, Cu 2+, In 3+And Se 4+Concentration be respectively 5 mMs/liter, 10 mMs/liter and 10 mMs/liter, control voltage be-0.6 volt, electro-deposition is 50 minutes under the room temperature; Obtain length and be 3 microns copper-indium-selenium nanowire array; Its electromicroscopic photograph and Fig. 2 do not have essential difference, and just length is different, no longer endures here and states.
3) copper-indium-selenium nanowire array of said electrochemical deposition is annealed in argon atmospher, and the background vacuum pressure of annealing is 1.0*10 -3Pa, ar pressure are 1000Pa, and annealing temperature is 450 ℃, and annealing time is 20 minutes.
4) the use mass percent concentration is 4% sodium hydrate aqueous solution; From top to bottom to said nano-form etching 5 minutes at normal temperatures; Expose copper-indium-selenium nanowire array; Obtain copper-indium-selenium nanowire array provided by the invention, plane electromicroscopic photograph and Fig. 3 of this array do not have essential difference, no longer endure here and state.
Embodiment 5, preparation copper-indium-selenium nanowire array
1) be that 3.0 millimeters sheet glass is substrate with thickness, adopt direct current magnetron sputtering process to prepare the W metal conducting layer, sputtering power is 120W, and sputtering pressure is 0.3Pa, and sputtering time is 25 minutes, and gained W layer thickness is 800nm.
2) be that 250 nanometers, adjacent holes center distance are that 500 nanometers, thickness are that the W metal conducting layer of the ordered nano template of 3500 nanometers is a negative electrode to be covered with the aperture; The material that constitutes this nano-form is an anodic oxidation aluminium formwork; With the platinized platinum is anode, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, contains Cu 2+, In 3+And Cl -, SO 4 2-The aqueous solution of ion is as electrolyte solution, Cu 2+And In 3+Concentration be respectively 5 mMs/liter, 15 mMs/liter, control voltage be-0.7 volt, electro-deposition is 20 minutes under the room temperature, obtains length and be 1.5 microns copper indium nano-wire array, its electromicroscopic photograph and Fig. 2 do not have essential difference, are the length difference, no longer endure here and state.
3) selenizing in selenium atmosphere of the copper indium nano-wire array of said electrochemical deposition is handled, and the background vacuum pressure of selenizing is 1.0*10 -1Pa, the selenizing temperature is 450 ℃, the selenizing time is 30 minutes.
4) the use mass percent concentration is 8% sodium hydrate aqueous solution; From top to bottom to said nano-form etching 1 minute at normal temperatures; Expose copper-indium-selenium nanowire array; Obtain copper-indium-selenium nanowire array provided by the invention, plane electromicroscopic photograph and Fig. 3 of this array do not have essential difference, no longer endure here and state.
Embodiment 6, preparation copper-indium-selenium nanowire array
1) be that 2.0 millimeters sheet glass is substrate with thickness, adopt direct current magnetron sputtering process to prepare the W metal conducting layer, sputtering power is 120W, and sputtering pressure is 0.3Pa, and sputtering time is 25 minutes, and gained W layer thickness is 800nm.
2) be that 250 nanometers, adjacent holes center distance are that 500 nanometers, thickness are that the W metal conducting layer of the ordered nano template of 3500 nanometers is a negative electrode to be covered with the aperture; The material that constitutes this nano-form is an anodic oxidation aluminium formwork; With the platinized platinum is anode, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, contains Cu 2+, In 3+And Cl -, SO 4 2-The aqueous solution of ion is as electrolyte solution, Cu 2+And In 3+Concentration be respectively 3 mMs/liter, 10 mMs/liter, control voltage is-0.65 volt, electro-deposition is 30 minutes under the room temperature, obtains length and be 1.5 microns copper indium nano-wire array.
3) selenizing in selenium atmosphere of the copper indium nano-wire array of said electrochemical deposition is handled, and the background vacuum pressure of selenizing is 1.0*10 -2Pa, the selenizing temperature is 450 ℃, the selenizing time is 30 minutes.
4) utilize reactive ion beam etching technique, to said nano-form etching 10 minutes at normal temperatures, etching gas is Ar and CHF from top to bottom 3Mist, the flow of Ar gas is 5sccm, CHF 3Flow be 4sccm, operating air pressure is 250mTorr, power is 250W.Expose copper-indium-selenium nanowire array, obtain copper-indium-selenium nanowire array provided by the invention, plane electromicroscopic photograph and Fig. 3 of this array do not have essential difference, no longer endure here and state.

Claims (11)

1. copper-indium-selenium nanowire array is to prepare according to the method that comprises the steps:
1) preparation layer of metal conductive layer on substrate;
2) utilize the ordered nano template as growing mask, selenizing again behind heat treatment of electrochemical deposition after annealing or the electrochemical deposition, the said growing mask of etching obtains said copper-indium-selenium nanowire array to exposing copper-indium-selenium nanowire array more afterwards;
Said electrochemical deposition after annealing heat-treating methods is: as anode, metal conducting layer is a negative electrode with platinized platinum, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, to contain Cu 2+, In 3+And Se 4+Solution as electrolyte solution, electrochemical deposition is carried out in energising, the copper-indium-selenium nanowire that deposits is in vacuum, argon gas atmosphere or contain annealing in process under the atmosphere of selenium;
Behind the said electrochemical deposition again the method for selenizing be: as anode, metal conducting layer is a negative electrode with platinized platinum, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, to contain Cu 2+And In 3+Solution as electrolyte solution, the energising carry out electrochemical deposition, obtain copper indium nano-wire array, under the atmosphere that contains the selenium element, carry out selenizing again.
2. array according to claim 1 is characterized in that: in the said step 1), the material of said formation substrate is glass or silicon chip; The thickness of glass substrate is 1.2~3.0 millimeters in the said substrate, and the thickness of silicon chip is 0.45~0.55 millimeter; The material of said formation metal conducting layer is selected from least a among Mo, W, Ta, Nb, Ti and the Au; The thickness of said metal conducting layer is the 500-2000 nanometer;
Said step 2) in, the aperture of said ordered nano template is the 40-500 nanometer, and the spacing at adjacent holes center is the 100-1000 nanometer, and thickness is the 50-8000 nanometer; The material of the orderly nano-form of said formation is selected from least a in photoresist and the photoresist after photo-etching machine exposal develops after the preparation of anodic oxidation aluminium formwork, nano impression; The material of said formation metal conducting layer is selected from least a among Mo, W, Ta, Nb, Ti and the Au.
3. array according to claim 2 is characterized in that: said step 2), the aperture of said ordered nano template is 50~250 nanometers, and the spacing at adjacent holes center is 100~500 nanometers, and thickness is 500~5000 nanometers.
4. according to the arbitrary described array of claim 1-3, it is characterized in that: in the said step 1), the said method for preparing metal conducting layer is magnetically controlled sputter method or electron-beam vapor deposition method; In the said magnetically controlled sputter method, sputtering power is 80~140W; Sputtering pressure is 0.15~1.4Pa;
Said step 2) in, in the said electrochemical deposition after annealing heat-treating methods, in the said electrolyte aqueous solution, anion is selected from least a in copper sulphate, indium sulfate, copper chloride, inidum chloride and the selenous acid; Cu 2+, In 3+And Se 4+Concentration be respectively 2~15 mMs/liter, 2~15 mMs/liter and 2~15 mMs/liter; With at least a solution in lithium sulfate, lithium chloride, potassium sulfate and the potassium chloride serves as to support liquid; The temperature of electrochemical deposition is a room temperature, and the time is 20-90 minute, and voltage is-0.5~-0.7 volt; In the said annealing steps, the background vacuum pressure of vacuum annealing is 1.0*10 -3Pa~3.0*10 -3Pa, annealing temperature is 300~550 ℃, annealing time is 10~50 minutes; The condition of argon annealed is that the background vacuum is 1.0*10 -3Pa~3.0*10 -3Pa, ar pressure are 10~3000Pa, and annealing temperature is 300~550 ℃, and annealing time is 10~50 minutes; The condition of annealing under the selenium atmosphere is that the background vacuum is 1.0*10 -1Pa~3.0*10 -1Pa, annealing temperature is 300~550 ℃, annealing time is 10~50 minutes;
Behind the said electrochemical deposition again in the method for selenizing, in the said electrolyte aqueous solution, anion is selected from least a in copper sulphate, indium sulfate, copper chloride and the inidum chloride; Cu 2+, In 3+Concentration be respectively 2~15 mMs/liter, 2~15 mMs/liter, serve as to support liquid with at least a solution in lithium sulfate, lithium chloride, potassium sulfate and the potassium chloride, the temperature of electrochemical deposition is a room temperature, the time is 20-90 minute, voltage is-0.5~-1.0 volt; In the said selenizing step, background vacuum pressure is 1.0*10 -1Pa~3.0*10 -1Pa, the selenizing temperature is 300~550 ℃;
In the said etch step, the method for etching is for to carry out etching or reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) method with sodium hydrate aqueous solution; Wherein, the mass percent concentration of said sodium hydrate aqueous solution is 1-8%, and the time of etching is 1-10 minute, and the temperature of etching is 10-25 ℃; In the said reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) method, etching gas is argon gas and CHF 3Mist, wherein, the flow of said argon gas is 1-10sccm, CHF 3Flow be 1-10sccm, operating air pressure is 200-300mTorr; Power is 200-300W; The time of etching is 1-15 minute; The temperature of etching is 10-25 ℃.
5. array according to claim 4 is characterized in that: in the said step 1), in the said magnetically controlled sputter method, sputtering power is 100~120W;
In the said reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) method, the flow of said argon gas is 5sccm, CHF 3Flow be 4sccm, operating air pressure is 250mTorr; Power is 250W; The time of etching is 10 minutes.
6. a method for preparing the arbitrary said copper-indium-selenium nanowire array of claim 1-5 comprises the steps:
1) preparation layer of metal conductive layer on substrate;
2) utilize the ordered nano template as growing mask, selenizing again behind heat treatment of electrochemical deposition after annealing or the electrochemical deposition, the said growing mask of etching obtains said copper-indium-selenium nanowire array to exposing copper-indium-selenium nanowire array more afterwards;
Said electrochemical deposition after annealing heat-treating methods is: as anode, metal conducting layer is a negative electrode with platinized platinum, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, to contain Cu 2+, In 3+And Se 4+Solution as electrolyte solution, electrochemical deposition is carried out in energising, the copper-indium-selenium nanowire that deposits is in vacuum, argon gas atmosphere or contain annealing in process under the atmosphere of selenium;
Behind the said electrochemical deposition again the method for selenizing be: as anode, metal conducting layer is a negative electrode with platinized platinum, and saturated calomel electrode is a reference electrode, to contain Cu 2+And In 3+Solution as electrolyte solution, the energising carry out electrochemical deposition, obtain copper indium nano-wire array, under the atmosphere that contains the selenium element, carry out selenizing again.
7. method according to claim 6 is characterized in that: in the said step 1), the material of said formation substrate is glass or silicon chip; The thickness of glass substrate is 1.2~3.0 millimeters in the said substrate, and the thickness of silicon chip is 0.45~0.55 millimeter; The material of said formation metal conducting layer is selected from least a among Mo, W, Ta, Nb, Ti and the Au; The thickness of said metal conducting layer is the 500-2000 nanometer;
Said step 2) in, the aperture of said ordered nano template is the 40-500 nanometer, and the spacing at adjacent holes center is the 100-1000 nanometer, and thickness is the 50-8000 nanometer; The material of the orderly nano-form of said formation is selected from least a in photoresist and the photoresist after photo-etching machine exposal develops after the preparation of anodic oxidation aluminium formwork, nano impression; The material of said formation metal conducting layer is selected from least a among Mo, W, Ta, Nb, Ti and the Au.
8. method according to claim 7 is characterized in that: said step 2), the aperture of said ordered nano template is 50~250 nanometers, and the spacing at adjacent holes center is 100~500 nanometers, and thickness is 500~5000 nanometers.
9. according to the arbitrary described method of claim 6-8, it is characterized in that: in the said step 1), the said method for preparing metal conducting layer is magnetically controlled sputter method or electron-beam vapor deposition method; In the said magnetically controlled sputter method, sputtering power is 80~140W; Sputtering pressure is 0.15~1.4Pa;
Said step 2) in, in the said electrochemical deposition after annealing heat treatment method, in the said electrolyte aqueous solution, anion is selected from least a in copper sulphate, indium sulfate, copper chloride, inidum chloride and the selenous acid; Cu 2+, In 3+And Se 4+Concentration be respectively 2~15 mMs/liter, 2~15 mMs/liter and 2~15 mMs/liter; With at least a solution in lithium sulfate, lithium chloride, potassium sulfate and the potassium chloride serves as to support liquid; The temperature of electrochemical deposition is a room temperature, and the time is 20-90 minute, and voltage is-0.5~-0.7 volt; In the said annealing steps, the background vacuum pressure of vacuum annealing is 1.0*10 -3Pa~3.0*10 -3Pa, annealing temperature is 300~550 ℃, annealing time is 10~50 minutes; The condition of argon annealed is that the background vacuum is 1.0*10 -3Pa~3.0*10 -3Pa, ar pressure are 10~3000Pa, and annealing temperature is 300~550 ℃, and annealing time is 10~50 minutes; The condition of annealing under the selenium atmosphere is that the background vacuum is 1.0*10 -1Pa~3.0*10 -1Pa, annealing temperature is 300~550 ℃, annealing time is 10~50 minutes;
Behind the said electrochemical deposition again in the method for selenizing, in the said electrolyte aqueous solution, anion is selected from least a in copper sulphate, indium sulfate, copper chloride and the inidum chloride; Cu 2+, In 3+Concentration be respectively 2~15 mMs/liter, 2~15 mMs/liter, serve as to support liquid with at least a solution in lithium sulfate, lithium chloride, potassium sulfate and the potassium chloride, the temperature of electrochemical deposition is a room temperature, the time is 20-90 minute, voltage is-0.5~-1.0 volt; In the said selenizing step, background vacuum pressure is 1.0*10 -1Pa~3.0*10 -1Pa, the selenizing temperature is 300~550 ℃;
In the said etch step, the method for etching is for to carry out etching or reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) method with sodium hydrate aqueous solution; Wherein, the mass percent concentration of said sodium hydrate aqueous solution is 1-8%, and the time of etching is 1-10 minute, and the temperature of etching is 10-25 ℃; In the said reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) method, etching gas is argon gas and CHF 3Mist, wherein, the flow of said argon gas is 1-10sccm, CHF 3Flow be 1-10sccm, operating air pressure is 200-300mTorr; Power is 200-300W; The time of etching is 1-15 minute; The temperature of etching is 10-25 ℃.
10. method according to claim 9 is characterized in that: in the said step 1), in the said magnetically controlled sputter method, sputtering power is 100~120W;
In the said reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) method, the flow of said argon gas is 5sccm, CHF 3Flow be 4sccm, operating air pressure is 250mTorr; Power is 250W; The time of etching is 10 minutes.
11. the application of the arbitrary said copper-indium-selenium nanowire array of claim 1-5 in the preparation solar cell.
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