CN101694163B - Determination method of deep tunnel roof support forms and support depth - Google Patents

Determination method of deep tunnel roof support forms and support depth Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101694163B
CN101694163B CN2009100192848A CN200910019284A CN101694163B CN 101694163 B CN101694163 B CN 101694163B CN 2009100192848 A CN2009100192848 A CN 2009100192848A CN 200910019284 A CN200910019284 A CN 200910019284A CN 101694163 B CN101694163 B CN 101694163B
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structural belt
structural
support
zone
depth
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CN2009100192848A
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CN101694163A (en
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谭云亮
宁建国
李海涛
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山东科技大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a determination method of deep tunnel roof support forms and support depth, which comprises the steps of using an intelligent drill imager to measure inner wall lithology of different depth drill holes, fracture distribution and images and data of abscission layer consitions, treating data and image edit, achieving the alternate interval attitudes and space distribution conditions of wall rock inner fracture zones and intact zones of each drill hole, and adopting anchor rods, anchor ropes or unite support forms and depth of anchor rods and anchor ropes under the conditions of construction zones with different thickness. When the support depth of anchor rods and anchor cables is designed in the invention, completely scientific bases are achieved to support parameters to be more economic and rational, and the best support effect can be achieved under the most economic conditions. The invention can scientifically and quantitatively determine anchoring forms of deep tunnels and length of top plate anchor rods and anchor cables, can achieve the deep high-stress tunnel anchoring support quantitative design, and guarantee the top plate safety of deep tunnels to be provided with important promotion value.

Description

Definite method of the deep tunnel roof support form and the supporting degree of depth

Technical field

The present invention relates to deep colliery tunnel support technical field.

Background technology

Behind the coal mine roadway driving, can break original rock stress equilibrium state, thereby cause country rock to deform and destroy; Need certain supporting means to prevent that surrouding rock deformation from preventing to destroy, at present, roadway support has several different methods; As build combined supporting between arch supporting, bolt support, bolt-spary supports, anchor net spray supporting, cable bolting, metal arch bracket support, work stone supporting, steel concrete supporting and all kinds of supporting etc., in deep mining, roadway support is except adopting aforesaid way; Also adopt bolt-grouting support, in above-mentioned anchor pole, cable bolting, all rule of thumb choose the length of anchor pole, anchor cable; Scientific basis is insufficient; As choose and oversizely cause very expense, as choose too shortly, do not reach supporting effect again.The supporting method relevant with the present invention is anchor rod support method, bolt-spary supports method, the spray of anchor net supporting method, cable bolting method and bolt-grouting support method.In these supporting method, all be to be the basis with the bolt support, at first on roadway surrounding rock, arrange boring during supporting, in boring, fix anchor pole again.At present when arranging anchor pole; The length of anchor pole (being the supporting degree of depth) is all chosen by type design; Type design comes from common experience; Scientific basis is insufficient, because the geological conditions rock in each location in each ore deposit is composed all differences to some extent of the situation of depositing, so each is different for the degree of depth that surrouding rock deformation destroys.If choose anchor pole by present type design, bring following deficiency, if choose oversize, cause great in constructing amount, waste anchor pole material; As choose too shortly, and do not reach supporting effect again, surrouding rock deformation still can take place to be destroyed.Up to the present, also do not form a kind of generally acknowledged scientific method and come quantitatively to confirm anchor pole or the anchor cable length under the different surrounding rock situation.

Along with development of science and technology; The borehole television technology is very ripe; So-called borehole television technology is to be exactly to utilize intelligence boring imager to observe images such as rock crack distribution in the boring, absciss layer; Its built-in control module is gathered, handles, edits, shows, is stored and transmit image, thereby obtains measuring the peripheral lithology and the initial fissure distribution situation of borehole wall.Concrete method of work is: utilize guide rod to advance the colour imagery shot of intelligence boring imager along the boring axle center; And write down the propelling degree of depth simultaneously by depth counter, up to foot of hole, in progradation; Rock stratum image in the colored camera probe observation boring; Built-in module is handled, is edited image, and by video transmission line with video signal transmission to the main frame LCDs, on display screen, can show boring inwall absciss layer, break, situation such as dislocation, variation of lithological.This technological accuracy of observation is high, accurate positioning, and execute-in-place is simple, has been widely used in departments such as engineering geology, geological prospecting, geotechnical engineering, mine, but also has not been applied in the bolt support.Adopt these new technologies to can be bolt support the reliable technique design considerations is provided.

Summary of the invention

For advancing the progress of coal mine roadway bolt support technology; The applicant has born national 973 projects " dynamic disaster mechanism in the coal deep mining and control basic research "; In the development test of carrying out this project, invented a kind of " confirming the method for the deep tunnel roof support form and the supporting degree of depth ".In the said method, comprise that confirming is bolt support, cable bolting or anchor shaft anchor cable combined supporting, and the supporting degree of depth.The supporting degree of depth of confirming according to the present invention can further be confirmed the length of anchor pole and the length of anchor cable.

Technical scheme of the present invention is taked following steps:

The first step: the confirming of measured hole

Vertical scar is to the hole of drilling, country rock deep on the deep tunnel roof that has tunneled, drill holes drift section near the axis on.Because the general width of coal mine roadway is no more than 5 meters, highly is no more than 3 meters.Under this drift section size, the top plate thickness scope that roadway support is had a significant effect is no more than 3 times of head-room.Simultaneously, for same the tunnel of arranging along bearing, general geological condition in the length range of 80-100 rice tunnel can be represented the geological condition of whole tunnel.Therefore, move towards every interval 15-20 rice along the tunnel and arrange a hole, 10 meters of drilling depths are arranged six holes continuously, with 100 meters tunnel length as measurement zone.

Second step: the detection of measured hole

In the tunnel, arrange intelligence boring imager, adopt the borehole television technology that direction, the gap length distance of borehole wall lithology, initial fissure are surveyed, its detection process is:

(1) open intelligence boring imager, make it be in recording state, and zero clearing;

(2) utilize guide rod to advance camera,,, can extend by outer guide rod if boring is dark up to foot of hole along the axle center of holing;

(3) rock stratum image in colored camera probe actual measurement is holed in progradation; By video transmission line with video signal transmission to the main frame LCDs; Be advanced to the degree of depth of boring by depth counter recording colour camera, on display screen, demonstrate different depth boring inwall lithology, the crack distributes and the image and the data of absciss layer situation.

The 3rd step: the confirming of the zone of fracture

Go on foot data and the image that obtains according to second; Utilize the Computer Image Processing software of intelligent drilling television imager that image is carried out editing and processing; Thereby obtain each boring country rock implosion band and complete tape alternation occurrence and spatial distribution situation at interval, promptly the number of plies and the thickness thereof of each boring implosion band and complete band stipulate more than or equal to the non-cracked structural belt of 30cm thickness to be complete band; Count from the aperture and to be called first structural belt, second structural belt successively; The 3rd structural belt, the rest may be inferred, and the thickness that again all borings is in same layer structural belt addition respectively on average obtains surveying the average thickness of each structural belt in the district;

Above-mentioned structural belt comprises the alternatively distributed complete band and the zone of fracture, and distribution form has two kinds, that is:

When first structural belt was complete band, second structural belt was the zone of fracture, and the 3rd structural belt is complete band, and the rest may be inferred;

When first structural belt was the zone of fracture, second structural belt was complete band, and the 3rd structural belt is the zone of fracture, and the rest may be inferred;

The 4th step: confirm the support form and the supporting degree of depth

(1) when first structural belt be during greater than 3 meters complete band, without anchoring support, can adopt other support forms such as simple frame supporting;

(2) when three structural belts and first structural belt only being arranged for the time less than 3 meters but greater than 2 meters complete band, the employing cable bolting, anchor cable should pass second structural belt and be anchored in the 3rd structural belt;

(3) when two structural belts and first structural belt only being arranged for greater than 2 meters the zone of fracture time, adopt cable bolting, the anchorage cable anchoring end should be anchored in second structural belt;

(4) when two structural belts and first structural belt only being arranged for the time, adopt bolt support less than 2 meters the zone of fracture, anchor rod anchored in second structural belt;

(5) when first structural belt is less than 2 meters zone of fractures and has the zone of fracture, plural interval; Need anchor pole, anchor cable combined supporting; Anchor rod anchored end should be anchored in second structural belt, and the anchorage cable anchoring end should pass until being anchored at the complete band thick greater than 50cm from first structural belt.

Good effect of the present invention is: when designing the supporting degree of depth of anchor pole, anchor cable, obtain scientific basis fully, make supporting parameter reasonable more economically, be issued to best supporting effect in most economical condition.The present invention can be scientifically quantitatively confirms anchor type and the roofbolt of deep tunnel, the length of anchor cable, is to realize deep high stress tunnel anchoring support quantitative design, and the roof safety that ensures deep tunnel has important promotion and is worth.

Description of drawings:

Fig. 1 is to be example drill holes generalized section in force with certain colliery.

Fig. 2 is that the application holes and moves towards to arrange sketch map along the tunnel.

Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 are respectively the support form figure under the structural belt different situations.

Among the figure: 1-intelligence boring imager, 2-tunnel, 3-top board, 4-guide rod, 5-colour imagery shot, 6-boring, 7-anchor pole, 8-anchor cable, I-first structural belt, II-second structural belt, III-the 3rd structural belt, IV-the 4th structural belt;

The specific embodiment

Combine accompanying drawing at present and be example, specify technical scheme of the present invention with certain ore deposit.

One, at first according to layout boring illustrated in figures 1 and 2, image is confirmed the structural belt situation with calculating in the actual measurement hole, and is specific as follows:

(1) 2 trends are confirmed 100 meters survey district along the tunnel; On top board 3 axis; A boring 6 is played at a distance from 20m in every interval; In the survey district of 100m, bore six boring 1#, 2#, 3#, 4#, 5#, 6# (like Fig. 2), boring 6 is dark in 10.5m, diameter are 43mm, and in tunnel 2, arranges intelligence boring imager 1.

(2) open intelligence boring imager 1, make it be in recording state, and zero clearing;

(2) utilize guide rod 4 to advance colour imagery shot 5,,, can extend by outer guide rod if boring 6 is dark until being advanced to boring 6 bottoms along 6 axle center of holing;

(3) colour imagery shot 5 is surveyed rock stratum image in the boring 6 in progradation; By video transmission line with video signal transmission to the main frame LCDs of intelligence boring imager 1, by the depth counter of the intelligence boring imager 1 propelling degree of depth of recording colour camera 5 simultaneously.On display screen, demonstrate the structure situation in boring 6 depth boundses.

(4) according to the data and the image that obtain; Utilize the Computer Image Processing software of intelligence boring imager 1 that image is carried out editing and processing; Draw the situation of structural belt; And regulation is complete band during greater than the thick rock crack-free of 30cm, and the zone of fracture that is of breaking is arranged, and the thickness that again six borings is in same layer structural belt addition respectively obtains surveying the average thickness of each structural belt in the district after average; Thereby obtain the zone of fracture and complete tape alternation situation spaced apart, the i.e. number of plies of the thickness of each band and structural belt.Count from the aperture and to be called first structural belt, second structural belt successively, the 3rd structural belt, the rest may be inferred;

Above-mentioned structural belt comprises the alternatively distributed complete band and the zone of fracture, and distribution form has two kinds, that is:

When first structural belt was complete band, second structural belt was the zone of fracture, and the 3rd structural belt is complete band, and the rest may be inferred;

When first structural belt was the zone of fracture, second structural belt was complete band, and the 3rd structural belt is the zone of fracture, and the rest may be inferred;

Two,, confirm the support form and the supporting degree of depth according to the thickness and the distribution situation of above-mentioned each structural belt.Give some instances according to Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 below and describe.

Structural belt distribution situation shown in Figure 3 is: the first structural belt I is complete band, 2.1 meters of thickness; The second structural belt II is a zone of fracture, 2.5 meters of thickness; The 3rd structural belt III is complete band, and thickness is greater than 4.6 meters; Belonging to first structural belt is less than 3 meters complete band situation greater than 2 meters; So adopt anchor cable 8 supportings; Anchor cable 8 anchored end are anchored among the 3rd structural belt III, and the supporting degree of depth is a 2.5+2.1=4.6 rice, and anchor cable is long for 4.6+0.8 (anchorage length)+0.1 (protruded length)=5.5 meter.

Structural belt distribution situation shown in Figure 4 is: the first structural belt I is the zone of fracture of 2.5 meters of thickness; The second structural belt II is the complete band greater than 2.5 meters, and two structures are only arranged, and belongs to the first structural belt I less than 3.0 meters situation greater than 2.0 meters; So adopt anchor cable 8 supportings; Anchor cable 8 anchored end are anchored among the second structural belt II, and the supporting degree of depth is 2.5 meters, anchor cable length 2.5+0.8 (anchorage length)+0.1 (protruded length)=3.4 meter.

Structural belt distribution situation shown in Figure 5 is: the first structural belt I is the zone of fracture of 1.5 meters of thickness; The second structural belt II is the complete band greater than 8.5 meters; Belonging to only has two structural belts and the first structural belt I less than 2.0 meters zone of fracture situation, so adopt anchor pole 7 supportings, anchor pole 7 anchored end should be anchored among the second structural belt II; The supporting degree of depth is 1.5 meters, and anchor pole 7 length are 1.5+0.4 (anchorage length)+0.1 (protruded length)=2.0 meter.

Structural belt distribution situation shown in Figure 6 is: the first structural belt I is 1.5 meters thick zone of fractures; The second structural belt II is 0.4 meter thick complete band; The 3rd structural belt III is 0.45 meter thick zone of fracture, and the 4th structural belt IV is the complete band greater than 7.65 meters, and belonging to the first structural belt I is less than 2.0 meters zone of fractures; And have the situation of the zone of fracture, interval more than two, so adopt anchor pole 7 and anchor cable 8 combined supportings.Anchor pole 7 is anchored among the second structural belt II; Anchor pole 7 length are got 1.5+0.4+0.1=2.0 rice; Anchor cable 7 should pass the first structural belt I, the second structural belt II, the 3rd structural belt III and be anchored among the 4th structure band IV, and anchor cable length is 1.5+0.4+0.45+0.8 (anchor is dark)+0.1 (exposing)=3.25 meter.

Claims (1)

1. definite method of the deep tunnel roof support form and the supporting degree of depth is characterized in that it may further comprise the steps:
The first step: the confirming of measured hole
Vertical scar is to the hole of drilling, country rock deep on the deep tunnel roof that has tunneled; Drill holes drift section near the axis on, move towards every interval 15-20 rice along the tunnel and arrange a hole, 10 meters of drilling depths; Arrange continuously six holes, with 100 meters tunnel length as measurement zone;
Second step: the detection of measured hole
In the tunnel, arrange intelligence boring imager, adopt the borehole television technology that direction, the gap length distance of borehole wall lithology, initial fissure are surveyed, its detection process is:
(1) open intelligence boring imager, make it be in recording state, and zero clearing;
(2) utilize guide rod to advance camera along the boring axle center, up to foot of hole, if boring is dark, outer guide rod lengthening;
(3) rock stratum image in colored camera probe actual measurement is holed in progradation; By video transmission line with video signal transmission to the main frame LCDs; Be advanced to the degree of depth of boring by depth counter recording colour camera, on display screen, demonstrate different depth boring inwall lithology, the crack distributes and the image and the data of absciss layer situation;
The 3rd step: the confirming of the zone of fracture
Go on foot data and the image that obtains according to second; Utilize the Computer Image Processing software of intelligent drilling television imager that image is carried out editing and processing; Thereby obtain each boring country rock implosion band and complete tape alternation occurrence and spatial distribution situation at interval, promptly the number of plies and the thickness thereof of each boring implosion band and complete band stipulate more than or equal to the non-cracked structural belt of 30cm thickness to be complete band; Count from the aperture and to be called first structural belt, second structural belt successively; The 3rd structural belt, the rest may be inferred, and the thickness that again all borings is in same layer structural belt addition respectively on average obtains surveying the average thickness of each structural belt in the district;
Above-mentioned structural belt comprises the alternatively distributed complete band and the zone of fracture, and distribution form has two kinds, that is:
When first structural belt was complete band, second structural belt was the zone of fracture, and the 3rd structural belt is complete band, and the rest may be inferred;
When first structural belt was the zone of fracture, second structural belt was complete band, and the 3rd structural belt is the zone of fracture, and the rest may be inferred;
The 4th step: confirm the support form and the supporting degree of depth
(1) when first structural belt be during greater than 3 meters complete band, without anchoring support, only adopt simple frame supporting;
(2) when three structural belts and first structural belt only being arranged for the time less than 3 meters but greater than 2 meters complete band, the employing cable bolting, anchor cable should pass second structural belt and be anchored in the 3rd structural belt;
(3) when two structural belts and first structural belt only being arranged for greater than 2 meters the zone of fracture time, adopt cable bolting, the anchorage cable anchoring end should be anchored in second structural belt;
(4) when two structural belts and first structural belt only being arranged for the time, adopt bolt support less than 2 meters the zone of fracture, anchor rod anchored in second structural belt;
(5) when first structural belt is less than 2 meters zone of fractures and has the zone of fracture, plural interval; Need anchor pole, anchor cable combined supporting; Anchor rod anchored end should be anchored in second structural belt, and the anchorage cable anchoring end should pass until being anchored at the complete band thick greater than 50cm from first structural belt.
CN2009100192848A 2009-10-14 2009-10-14 Determination method of deep tunnel roof support forms and support depth CN101694163B (en)

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CN103389521B (en) * 2013-07-26 2016-08-10 山东大学 Deep laneway surrounding rock subregion ruptures in-situ measurement system and detection method
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DE102005040737A1 (en) * 2005-08-15 2007-02-22 Walter Stucke Anti-corrosion protection for rock anchors and fittings exposed to water, e.g. in tunnel building, involves using an epoxy resin-based multilayer coating for natural gas pipelines with an outer layer of thermoplastic material
CN101004136A (en) * 2006-06-27 2007-07-25 孔祥清 Supporting installation in underground mining of coal mine

Patent Citations (5)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5462391A (en) * 1994-01-24 1995-10-31 Scott Investment Partners Mine roof support cribbing system
JP3516187B2 (en) * 1995-09-29 2004-04-05 清水建設株式会社 Fixing method of PS anchor
CN1400378A (en) * 2002-08-28 2003-03-05 李庆才 Mine roadway steel reinforcement support anchoring method
DE102005040737A1 (en) * 2005-08-15 2007-02-22 Walter Stucke Anti-corrosion protection for rock anchors and fittings exposed to water, e.g. in tunnel building, involves using an epoxy resin-based multilayer coating for natural gas pipelines with an outer layer of thermoplastic material
CN101004136A (en) * 2006-06-27 2007-07-25 孔祥清 Supporting installation in underground mining of coal mine

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