CN101693943A - High speed steel tool heat treatment method - Google Patents

High speed steel tool heat treatment method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101693943A
CN101693943A CN200910197107A CN200910197107A CN101693943A CN 101693943 A CN101693943 A CN 101693943A CN 200910197107 A CN200910197107 A CN 200910197107A CN 200910197107 A CN200910197107 A CN 200910197107A CN 101693943 A CN101693943 A CN 101693943A
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China
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temperature
steel
quenching
heat treatment
speed steel
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CN200910197107A
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陆卫倩
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Shanghai Dianji University
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Shanghai Dianji University
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Abstract

The invention relates to a high speed steel tool heat treatment method and the method specifically includes the following steps: high-temperature step quenching steel materials to be treated in a quenching medium at the temperature of 1200-1310 DEG C; after quenching, cooling to room temperature and then low-temperature tempering for 1h at the temperature of 80-100 DEG C; cold treating for 2-3h at the temperature of minus 120-minus 80 DEG C; and finally tempering for 1-1.5h at the temperature of 540-560 DEG C, wherein the quenching medium is selected from calcium chloride saturated water solution, polyglycol water solution, polyving akohol water solution or potassium permanganate quenching liquid. The high speed steel tool heat treatment method is simple in process and saves energy, and compared with traditional technology, the mechanical performance and service life of the high speed steel tool are improved by around 20-40 percent.

Description

High speed steel tool heat treatment method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of heat treating method of steel, relate in particular to a kind of heat treating method of speedy steel cutting-tool.
Background technology
Present China uses widely, and speedy steel cutting-tool mainly is that tungsten is that W18Cr4V (being called for short 18-4-1) steel and tungsten are W6Mo5Cr4V2 (being called for short 6-5-4-2) steel.These two kinds of Heat Treatment Of Steel technologies mainly contain two kinds: the one, prior heat treatment process: need three tempering in a underhardening scope behind the quench hot: the 2nd, cryogenic treatment process: after putting into deep cooling medium (196 ℃ liquid nitrogen) after quench hot, the tempering again and being incubated for some time again through two to three tempering.Adopt prior heat treatment process, the red hardness of speedy steel cutting-tool (hardness performance during cutting high temperature) is relatively poor.Though and cryogenic treatment process can reach high rigidity, high red hardness and high-wearing feature, need repeatedly tempering and cryogenic temperature also lower usually, from energy-conservation also undesirable with the production cost angle.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of high speed steel tool heat treatment method, to overcome the above-mentioned defective that prior art exists.
High speed steel tool heat treatment method of the present invention comprises the steps:
Pending steel is high temperature grading quenching in quenchant under 1200~1310 ℃ of temperature; The quenching postcooling is to room temperature, and 80~100 ℃ of low-temperaturetemperings are 1 hour again;-120~-80 ℃ of deepfreezes 2~3 hours; Last 550 ℃ of tempering 1 hour;
Described quenchant is selected from calcium chloride saturated aqueous solution, the polyglycol aqueous solution, polyvinyl alcohol water solution or potassium permanganate hardening liquid, organic hardening liquids such as the preferred polyglycol aqueous solution, polyvinyl alcohol water solution;
Described marquenching is meant: Jiang Wen twice marquenching method one by one, the hierarchical temperature of marquenching is generally 600~650 ℃, 500~550 ℃.
The rolling rapid steel of the preferred little steel ingot cogging of steel.
Preferably deepfreeze 2~3 hours in-110~-90 ℃ of temperature ranges.
When steel was W18Cr4V, quenching temperature was 1260~1300 ℃.
When steel was W6Mo5Cr4V2, quenching temperature was 1200~1240 ℃.
Because the final transition point Mf of martensite of high speed steel grade is very low, for example the Mf of W18Cr4V steel point is~100 ℃ approximately, therefore quench cooled is understood residual a large amount of austenite to room temperature, and residual more austenite is deleterious in the steel, can reduce hardness, wear resistance and the work-ing life of steel.Now the speedy steel cutting-tool after the quench cooled is placed in-120~-80 ℃ of temperature ranges, so a large amount of retained austenites can change martensite into; Volume effect appears in speedy steel cutting-tool simultaneously, be oversaturated meta martensite partly decompose and on dislocation surface diffusion-precipitation, size only be 30~60A and keep the ultra tiny carbide of coherence relation with matrix, this ultra tiny carbide particle amount is many and disperse is even, increase about 8% as the W18Cr4V steel approximately through carbide particle after the deepfreeze, the carbide particle that the W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel is separated out increases about 36% approximately, and matrix has also obviously obtained refinement.Because the ultra tiny carbide particle of separating out is evenly distributed on the martensitic matrix, weakened the crystal boundary katalysis, the refinement of matrix has simultaneously also weakened impurity element and has brought into play the grain-boundary strengthening effect in the poly-partially degree of crystal boundary, thereby improved the mechanical property of rapid steel, hardness, red hardness and wear resistance have all been had significantly improve.Be increased to 62~63HRC, red hardness and wear resistance as hardness by 60~61HRC and significantly improve (improving about 20~40% than traditional technology), every mechanical performance index is near sub-zero treatment.Deepfreeze is the same with sub-zero treatment in addition is the whole performance that improves speedy steel cutting-tool, so speedy steel cutting-tool re-uses after repairing behind the cutting abrasion.
Embodiment
Quenching apparatus can be an also vacuum oven etc. of salt bath furnace, and preferably salt liquid furnace of the present invention quenches.Adopt salt bath furnace to be because the heating medium of salt bath furnace is liquid fused salt, so rate of heating is fast and evenly, workpiece oxidation, decarburization are few, can reduce distortion.One fixed gap should be arranged between the cutter when quenching heating, too closely pile-up to be to guarantee the abundant through hardening of cutter.
Deepfreeze equipment can be that cold treatment room also can be a low temperature deepfreeze case, if device temperature can reach-120~-80 ℃ can both be as deepfreeze equipment.-120 degree industrial low-temperature processing tankes that for example adopt Wuxi bright damp physics and chemistry apparatus company limited to produce, model: GY-A215.
In the selection of pending material, because rapid steel belongs to Ledeburitic steel and contains a large amount of alloying elements, have a large amount of once eutectic carbides and proeutectoid carbide after the smelting, these carbide hards and crisp can cause stress concentration and become quenching crack.Therefore preferably select the rolling starting material of little steel ingot cogging for use; Should change forging to defective starting material, smash the eutectic carbides in the material, make eutectic carbides unevenness≤3 grade;
The pretreatment technology that the quenching step must take high temperature grading to quench.For large-scale cutter, owing to the surface different with the center thickness can formation temperatures poor, cause volumetric expansion and the different quenching internal stresss that produce of contraction, so to select for use C curve (time temperature transformation curve) flex point place at steel cold soon and below C curve, sentence near martensite under the quenching medium (as calcium chloride saturated aqueous solution, the polyglycol aqueous solution, polyvinyl alcohol water solution, potassium permanganate hardening liquid etc.) of slow cooling as quenching medium.
The temperature of deepfreeze need not further reduction in-120~-80 ℃ of temperature ranges, have slightly the raising because temperature reduces except that wear resistance again, and the raising of hardness, red hardness is also not obvious.Preferably cutter is put into room temperature water after the deepfreeze and heat up, to eliminate the secondary quenching stress of deepfreeze.
Tempering should be in special atmosphere oven, vacuum electric furnace and tempering in the salt bath furnace of fully deoxidation, in case the oxidation decarburization; Also but low temperature (≤100 ℃) is gone into the stove tempering, slowly is warming up to 〉=be warming up to 550 ℃ of temperature of required tempering with stove again after 300 ℃, and the air cooling of coming out of the stove then is to room temperature.In process air cooler, should avoid water-cooled, oil cooling, prevent to produce big secondary quenching stress.
Embodiment 1
The W6Mo5Cr4V2 rapid steel is made Tapper tap. thermal treatment process is: (Heating temperature 1200-1240 ℃ of insulation 2 hours is quenched to room temperature at 600-650 ℃ and 500-550 ℃ of secondary) → low-temperaturetempering of quenching (80-100 ℃ low-temperaturetempering 1 hour) →-110~-90 ℃ deepfreeze is 2~3 little → last 550 ± 10 ℃ of tempering 1 hour;
The contrast experiment adopts traditional technology (three tempering of primary quenching) and cryogenic treatment process to handle.
Screw tap after the processing is contained on the rig floor.Machined material is the 40Cr steel, hardness 190HB, and cutting speed is 5.2m/min, depth of cut 6mm, cooling fluid (emulsion) flow is 5L/min.Behind overtesting, find: High speed steel screw tap adopts traditional technology on average to process 45.2 holes, 62.2 holes of average processing after the sub-zero treatment, 61.8 holes of average processing after the deepfreeze.The work-ing life that this shows screw tap after the deepfreeze than traditional technology improve 36.7%, with work-ing life of sub-zero treatment down about.
Embodiment 2
The W18Cr4V rapid steel is made Auger bit. thermal treatment process is: (Heating temperature 1260-1300 ℃ of insulation 2 hours is quenched to room temperature at 600-650 ℃ and 500-550 ℃ of secondary) → low-temperaturetempering of quenching (80-100 ℃ low-temperaturetempering 1 hour) →-120~-80 ℃ deepfreeze 2~3 hours; Last 550 ± 10 ℃ of tempering 1.5 hours;
The contrast experiment adopts traditional technology (three tempering of primary quenching) and cryogenic treatment process to handle.
Auger bit after the processing is contained on the rig floor of Z305 drilling machine, and machined material is the 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel, hardness 200HB, and cutting speed adopts 4.8m/min, and drilling degree of depth 7mm, coolant rate are 5L/min.Behind overtesting, find: Auger bit can be processed 27.8 holes without deepfreeze, can process 40.2 holes after the sub-zero treatment, can process 39.9 holes after the deepfreeze.The work-ing life that this shows auger bit after the deepfreeze than traditional technology improve 43.5%, with work-ing life of sub-zero treatment down about.

Claims (5)

1. high speed steel tool heat treatment method is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
Pending steel is high temperature grading quenching in quenchant under 1200~1310 ℃ of temperature; The quenching postcooling is to room temperature, and 80~100 ℃ of low-temperaturetemperings are 1 hour again;-120~-80 ℃ of deepfreezes 2~3 hours; Last 540~560 ℃ of tempering 1~1.5 hour;
Described quenchant is selected from calcium chloride saturated aqueous solution, the polyglycol aqueous solution, polyvinyl alcohol water solution or potassium permanganate hardening liquid.
2. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, steel is the rolling rapid steel of little steel ingot cogging.
3. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, the deepfreeze temperature is-110~-90 ℃.
4. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, when steel was W18Cr4V, quenching temperature was 1260~1300 ℃.
5. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, when steel was W6Mo5Cr4V2, quenching temperature was 1200~1240 ℃.
CN200910197107A 2009-10-13 2009-10-13 High speed steel tool heat treatment method Pending CN101693943A (en)

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Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102453797A (en) * 2010-11-01 2012-05-16 贵州航天风华精密设备有限公司 One-time heat treatment method of integral high-speed steel cutter
CN103276183A (en) * 2013-06-14 2013-09-04 沈阳飞机工业(集团)有限公司 Heat treatment process for high-speed steel sheet side and face milling cutter
CN103834781A (en) * 2014-03-20 2014-06-04 何萌 Metal piece treatment method
CN103849748A (en) * 2012-11-28 2014-06-11 大连圣特金属新材料研发有限公司 Heat treatment method of high speed steel tool used for military
CN104175083A (en) * 2014-07-29 2014-12-03 成都亨通兆业精密机械有限公司 Turning tool manufacturing technology capable of reducing heat damage and facilitating processing
CN104191188A (en) * 2014-07-29 2014-12-10 成都亨通兆业精密机械有限公司 Cutting tool manufacturing method capable of conveniently reducing austenite residue
CN104259798A (en) * 2014-07-29 2015-01-07 成都亨通兆业精密机械有限公司 Turning tool machining technology facilitating reduction of heat treatment defects
CN105063320A (en) * 2015-09-21 2015-11-18 长沙天和钻具机械有限公司 Method for preparing high air pressure impactor piston
CN105177259A (en) * 2015-07-29 2015-12-23 北京科技大学 Method for rapidly promoting deformation to induce martensite transformation
CN106191392A (en) * 2016-08-15 2016-12-07 谢光玉 A kind of heat treatment method of cutter steel
CN106381376A (en) * 2015-07-27 2017-02-08 中国石油天然气股份有限公司 Processing method of stainless steel plate for cutting tool, cutting tool and processing method of cutting tool
CN108359785A (en) * 2018-03-19 2018-08-03 盐城工学院 A kind of strengthening and toughening treatment method of W6Mo5Cr4V2 high-speed steel broaches
CN112481472A (en) * 2020-11-27 2021-03-12 上海天竺机械刀片有限公司 Heat treatment process of alloy tool steel blade
CN112553548A (en) * 2020-11-12 2021-03-26 淮阴工学院 Method for improving obdurability of aluminum-magnesium alloy welding wire
CN112795762A (en) * 2020-12-29 2021-05-14 滁州科诺帝电器有限公司 Processing technology of grinding knife of soybean milk machine

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102453797A (en) * 2010-11-01 2012-05-16 贵州航天风华精密设备有限公司 One-time heat treatment method of integral high-speed steel cutter
CN103849748A (en) * 2012-11-28 2014-06-11 大连圣特金属新材料研发有限公司 Heat treatment method of high speed steel tool used for military
CN103276183A (en) * 2013-06-14 2013-09-04 沈阳飞机工业(集团)有限公司 Heat treatment process for high-speed steel sheet side and face milling cutter
CN103276183B (en) * 2013-06-14 2015-09-09 沈阳飞机工业(集团)有限公司 Rapid steel thin slice face and side cutter thermal treatment process
CN103834781B (en) * 2014-03-20 2015-05-27 何萌 Metal piece treatment method
CN103834781A (en) * 2014-03-20 2014-06-04 何萌 Metal piece treatment method
CN104175083A (en) * 2014-07-29 2014-12-03 成都亨通兆业精密机械有限公司 Turning tool manufacturing technology capable of reducing heat damage and facilitating processing
CN104191188A (en) * 2014-07-29 2014-12-10 成都亨通兆业精密机械有限公司 Cutting tool manufacturing method capable of conveniently reducing austenite residue
CN104259798A (en) * 2014-07-29 2015-01-07 成都亨通兆业精密机械有限公司 Turning tool machining technology facilitating reduction of heat treatment defects
CN106381376B (en) * 2015-07-27 2018-04-03 中国石油天然气股份有限公司 A kind of processing method, cutter and its processing method of cutlery stainless steel plate
CN106381376A (en) * 2015-07-27 2017-02-08 中国石油天然气股份有限公司 Processing method of stainless steel plate for cutting tool, cutting tool and processing method of cutting tool
CN105177259A (en) * 2015-07-29 2015-12-23 北京科技大学 Method for rapidly promoting deformation to induce martensite transformation
CN105177259B (en) * 2015-07-29 2018-05-25 北京科技大学 A kind of method for rapidly promoting deformation induced martensite transfor mation
CN105063320A (en) * 2015-09-21 2015-11-18 长沙天和钻具机械有限公司 Method for preparing high air pressure impactor piston
CN105063320B (en) * 2015-09-21 2017-06-16 长沙天和钻具机械有限公司 A kind of preparation method of high-wind pressure impactor piston
CN106191392A (en) * 2016-08-15 2016-12-07 谢光玉 A kind of heat treatment method of cutter steel
CN108359785A (en) * 2018-03-19 2018-08-03 盐城工学院 A kind of strengthening and toughening treatment method of W6Mo5Cr4V2 high-speed steel broaches
CN108359785B (en) * 2018-03-19 2019-12-17 盐城工学院 Strengthening and toughening treatment method for W6Mo5Cr4V2 high-speed steel broach
CN112553548A (en) * 2020-11-12 2021-03-26 淮阴工学院 Method for improving obdurability of aluminum-magnesium alloy welding wire
CN112553548B (en) * 2020-11-12 2021-10-19 淮阴工学院 Method for improving obdurability of aluminum-magnesium alloy welding wire
CN112481472A (en) * 2020-11-27 2021-03-12 上海天竺机械刀片有限公司 Heat treatment process of alloy tool steel blade
CN112795762A (en) * 2020-12-29 2021-05-14 滁州科诺帝电器有限公司 Processing technology of grinding knife of soybean milk machine

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Open date: 20100414