CN101693282B - Method for producing voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch by V-process - Google Patents

Method for producing voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch by V-process Download PDF

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CN101693282B
CN101693282B CN2009100662190A CN200910066219A CN101693282B CN 101693282 B CN101693282 B CN 101693282B CN 2009100662190 A CN2009100662190 A CN 2009100662190A CN 200910066219 A CN200910066219 A CN 200910066219A CN 101693282 B CN101693282 B CN 101693282B
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film
sand
sandbox
tank
pouring
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CN2009100662190A
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CN101693282A (en
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徐通生
赵松庆
王宏伟
杨焕乔
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南阳市汇森精密仪器铸造有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for producing a voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of an ultra-high voltage switch by a V-process, comprising the following steps: model making, thin film heating, thin film shaping (film absorbing), coating spraying, sandbox placing, ram-jolting by adding sand , back film covering, film loosening, core setting, box folding, pouring, removing box and shakingout. After the process is improved, an intermediate frequency furnace is utilized to melt and a crucible heat preserving furnace is utilized to modify and refine. When melting in the intermediate frequency furnace, microelements such as tombarthite and the like are replenished and a new non-stirring melting and refining technology is adopted so as to reduce oxide inclusion content in alloy liquid. Modification and refining treatment in the crucible heat preserving furnace ensures high purity degree and high component precision of aluminum liquid, and using pure aluminum alloy liquid can increase the ratio of acquiring qualified pressure-proof tank body foundry products.

Description

The method of V method Foundry Production voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch
Technical field
The invention belongs to the aluminum alloy tank body casting technology field, be specifically related to a kind of method of V method Foundry Production voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch.
Background technology
Voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch is a high voltage power transmission and transforming equipment critical component, and withstand voltage aluminum alloy tank body foundry goods overall quality requires high.Because high voltage power transmission and transforming device equipment required do not overhaul in 15 years, stock trick art regulation will be carried out hydraulic pressure, Air Pressure Test For Strength and SF6 air-tightness leak test by part to foundry goods.This kind part material is aluminium alloy ZL101A-T6.Wall thickness is between 10-14mm, and volume is between 1800 * 1500 * 800.Belong to large thin-wall element.The inside is full of SF6 gas during work.So its external inherence is organized and do not allowed defective, especially flange sealing surface does not allow to exist less than the pin hole of φ 0.1mm.Withstand voltage aluminum alloy tank body can only and cast two kinds of explained hereafter with welding, and withstand voltage, the sealing of weldment and outward appearance is all less than cast member because its volume is big.
The technology that can produce the withstand voltage tank body of Birmasil has: traditional clay-bonded sand moulding, recent phenolic sand molding.With the moulding of V method.At present, because the technology of the withstand voltage tank body of Birmasil do not pass a test, so the super-pressure pressure hull partly adopts weldment.And the enterprise that can produce the withstand voltage tank body of aluminium alloy, employing be the clay-bonded sand moulding, and phenolic sand molding.Product quality is not high, and yield rate is low.On the high side.Not satisfying the autoclave body technique requires and the environment needs.Particularly domestic several big high voltage switch gear factory needs more than withstand voltage tank body 1,000,000 covers of Birmasil every year approximately.Traditional technology does not obviously satisfy needs, and the task of top priority is to find a kind of method that can produce the withstand voltage tank body of Birmasil.
V method casting is the abbreviation of vacuum sealed molding or vacuum moulding casting technique, and its principle is to utilize plastic sheeting to cover the model type and seal sandbox, relies on air in the vavuum pump extraction type, causes in the type case external pressure poor, makes the dry sand consolidation, forms required die cavity.The sharpest edges of V method casting are that molding sand does not use binding agent, and knockout is easy, makes the consumption of Modeling Material drop to bottom line, reduce antiquated sand, have improved working condition.Its dry sand reclamation rate is up to more than 95%, and cast(ing) surface quality and dimensional accuracy improve greatly, reduced the energy consumption of foundry goods, is a kind of environmental protection casting technique.At present, the casting of V method is mainly used in large and medium-sized parts such as cast steel and cast iron.The difficult point of V method Foundry Production aluminium alloy castings is that the gas that plastic sheeting burning and resin sand core produce makes foundry goods that casting flaws such as pore, cinder hole and pin hole be arranged.V method Foundry Production cast steel and cast iron part, because its smelting temperature height, its gas energy rapid evaporation is not so can produce above-mentioned defective.And aluminum alloy part is because fusing point is low, so be easy to generate above-mentioned defective.The foundry goods that above-mentioned defective is arranged can be done general structural member and use.But do not reach the requirement of voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch far away.Withstand voltage tank body foundry goods overall size is bigger, and die cavity wall thickness and flange wall thickness differ greatly, and easily produces draw, shrinkage porosite is caused poor air-tightness, and there is arc surface dispersivity pin hole and the large stretch of netted gas defective that contracts in the tank body place.How fix the defect waits further research.The appropriate process method of Foundry Production voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch does not also have successful case.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of method of V method Foundry Production voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch, the key issue that the present invention mainly solves: how the moulding of V method is used for the casting of voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch, key issue is that the quality of aluminum alloy tank body satisfies problems such as superhigh pressure technique and environmental requirement and yield rate are low, the research of voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch V method casting technique just.
A kind of method of V method Foundry Production voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch may further comprise the steps:
A). manufacture model: it comprises that making has the vacuum tank of exhaust chamber and aspirating hole, have the part profile and have the model of aspirating hole, have shape in the part and have the core box of aspirating hole, after during work model and vacuum tank being fixed together, be placed on the bumper, the cast iron chill is placed in flange sealing surface position and thick big position at tank body, and purpose is Quench and prevents that pin hole from producing that the working face of chill stays air discharge duct and brushes and use after tung oil is hung the sand oven dry; Chill will be placed in the film, directly enters flange sealing surface to prevent the gas that film produces;
B). film heating: eva film is placed on Fast Heating on the roasting mould bases, and 100 ℃~150 ℃ of heating-up temperatures make the EVA film occur that minute surface is sagging get final product, will guarantee that when using chill film evenly heats under enough temperature;
C). film forming (suction film): the plastic sheeting that baking is mecystasis covers to have the part profile and has on the model of aspirating hole, this moment, vacuum tank was in the state of vacuumizing, vavuum pump is bled and is made the closely connected moulding on template of film, overlay film then will be swift in motion, allow film be layed onto on the mould as much as possible, before the film cooling, just can fully be out of shape like this, again rising head and gas outlet be fixed on the model with adhesive tape;
D). spray paint: coating is shootd out uniformly on plastic sheeting, and paint thickness is about 0.5mm, with heater coating is dried, and guarantees that coating has good adhesion strength to film;
F). put sandbox: the sandbox of V method moulding is except that wall will seal, and sandbox inside must be installed and be bled, filter, and the sandbox structure adopts the steel plate welding;
G). add sand ram-jolt: filling does not have binding agent and accrete dry sand in sandbox, opens bumper, scrapes off unnecessary sand after borrowing microseism to make sand tight, and sand and sandbox are put down;
H). cover notacoria: put sealing film, open the sandbox valve and take out air in the molding sand, have pressure differential (about 300~400mmHg) inside and outside making casting mold;
I). skinning: close the vacuum in the vacuum tank, carry out molding then on pattern draft is 1 ° basis, molding rear film and dry sand have formed part die cavity, and casting mold will continue to vacuumize till the casting solidification of pouring into a mould;
J). following core:, the resin sand inner core that makes is placed in the counterdie die cavity with counterdie die cavity upset 180 degree;
K). mould assembling: will go up model cavity and the counterdie die cavity lumps together, and fastening;
L) cast: under the prerequisite that guarantees 700-720 ℃ of pouring temperature, melted aluminium liquid is directly hung in the bull ladle that can vert with crucible pour into a mould; Aluminium liquid is poured in the pouring basin during cast, treat that the interior aluminium liquid of pouring basin reaches at 2/3 o'clock and takes out pourer stopper, allow aluminium liquid steadily flow into running gate system and die cavity, poring rate 7~10kg/s, when aluminium liquid rises to its height of 2/3rds in seeing rising head, also should be in each rising head after-teeming high temperature aluminum water;
M). the drawing knockout, treat metal freezing after, stop casting mold being vacuumized, the type internal pressure is during near atmospheric pressure, casting mold is just defeated and dispersed voluntarily, hangs out part then.
The source of four main gases in the casting of V method: the 1) air in the die cavity; 2) gas of thin film evaporation generation; 3) gas of fuse generation; 4) gas in the molten metal.The source type of four main gases should take diverse ways to solve in the casting of V method, gas in the die cavity can be discharged from riser runner and rising head, general size should be 2~3 times of sprue join domain, gas just can be relatively easy to the path effusion from one like this, change the position of venthole, should be positioned in the place that certain distance is arranged apart from the die cavity highest point.The gas that the gas that thin film evaporation produces, fuse produce is because vacuum can be taken the gas that is produced away.Gas problem in the molten metal can solve by correct melting and cast.
The double melting method of intermediate frequency furnace fusing+crucible holding furnace inoculating and refining, the pouring temperature 700-720 of aluminium liquid ℃, raising aluminum alloy melt quality problems extremely people are paid close attention to, and purify aluminium liquid for improving melt quality, should reduce aluminium liquid hydrogen and field trash as far as possible.In general, the most important factor of decision casting quality is the quality of aluminium liquid, even how outstanding each link of follow-up casting is, if aluminium liquid quality just can not have good foundry goods bad.The principal element that influences aluminium liquid quality is: principal component, micro constitutent, air content, field trash, temperature.Improve aluminium liquid quality and at first will pick up, in fusing and the processing of aluminium liquid, cast, stokehold inspection, overall process, strengthen management, guarantee effective enforcement of technology from raw material.
After the process modification with intermediate frequency furnace fusing+crucible holding furnace inoculating and refining.When intermediate frequency furnace melts, add trace elements such as rare earth, adopted and do not stirred fusing and refining new technology, reduce the content of the oxide inclusion in the alloy liquid.Handle to make aluminium liquid degree of purity and composition precision higher at crucible holding furnace inoculating and refining, use clean aluminum alloy melt just can increase the probability that has obtained qualified withstand voltage tank body foundry goods.
By process test research to the withstand voltage tank body foundry goods of V method Molding Casting large aluminum alloy, adopt the double melting method of intermediate frequency furnace fusing+crucible holding furnace inoculating and refining, shortened fusion process, reduced scaling loss, saved the energy, reduce the melting totle drilling cost, can also significantly improve the mechanical property and the foundry goods total quality level of aluminium alloy castings.Adopt V method modeling and adding self-hardening resin core associating casting technique, adopt ladder rising pouring and side to annotate formula running gate system technology, reduced the slag inclusion that aluminium liquid secondary oxidation brings, eliminated flange sealing surface dispersivity pin hole and the large stretch of netted gas defective that contracts, solved because of wall unevenness produces the problem that shrinkage porosite is caused poor air-tightness, the SF6 gas qualification rate of once hunting leak on average reaches 92%.The withstand voltage tank body foundry goods of aluminium alloy with the production of V method casting technique, enhance productivity 2 times and simplified casting process than sand casting process, obtained good economic benefit, provide technical parameter and experience accumulation for we shall produce the withstand voltage tank body foundry goods of aluminium alloy from now on.Comparing with traditional clay-bonded sand moulding with recent phenolic sand molding, producing spray dimensional accuracy height, surface quality is good, the casting cleaning workload is reduced more than 60%, and shorten the production cycle of foundry goods.
Table 1V method and the contrast of resin bonded sand mould foundry engieering index
As can be seen from Table 1, the foundry goods of V method cast has 5 advantages: 1) mechanical property height, dense structure, i.e. inherent quality height; 2) surface roughness value is low, and promptly surface quality is good; 3) size is accurate, and allowance is little, i.e. using rate of metal height, and machined is few man-hour; 4) casting mold is without binding agent and additives, and the auxilliary material usage that disappears reduces, and the amount of labour and freight volume reduce; 5) the vapour pressure qualification rate height of once hunting leak.
Description of drawings
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is described further:
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of casting system among the present invention.
The specific embodiment
Example is further elaborated the inventive method in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Described casting system comprises by die joint 3 system is divided into patrix 2 and counterdie 1, and rising head 4, passage 5 and upright tube 6 are set in the described patrix 2; Ingate 7 is set in the counterdie.The material of the withstand voltage tank body that generates is aluminium alloy ZL101A-T6, and the tank body overall dimension is 1272mm * 862mm * 720mm, casting weight: 167kg, requires surface of internal cavity roughness Ra value to be not more than 6.3 μ m.Design pressure is: 0.6Mpa (20 ℃ of gauge pressures); Proof pressure is: 1.2Mpa (20 ℃ of gauge pressures); Breakdown pressure is: 3Mpa (20 ℃ of gauge pressures); Routine test: fill with SF6 or helium 0.4Mpa (20 ℃ of gauge pressures) quantitative leak, leak rate is not more than 0.5Pa.cm 3/ 3.
This foundry goods overall size is bigger, and die cavity wall thickness and flange wall thickness differ greatly, and easily produces defectives such as draw, shrinkage porosite and causes poor air-tightness.To this part, adopted V method moulding+self-hardening resin core casting process scheme.Adopt the double melting method of intermediate frequency furnace fusing+crucible holding furnace inoculating and refining.With the bull ladle cast of can verting, adopt shot-blasting machine that the foundry goods surfaces externally and internally is cleared up behind the casting falling sand.
This part model, core box, vacuum tank adopt wood materials.External mold adopts the vacuo-forming of V method.Inner core adopts V method self-hardening resin sand molding.Each flange of this part and thick big all are provided with rising head, and blow vent.
Determine that main technologic parameters is: reduced scale 1.2%, allowance 3-4mm, 1 ° of pattern draft, pouring temperature 700-720 ℃, poring rate 7-10kg/s.
Well-known casting is a system engineering, and he also comprises Design of Runner System, smelting technology, pouring technology.Wherein each link is unreasonable.All can not pour into a mould qualified foundry goods.
The key of casting is the design of running gate system and the enforcement of casting technique.Adopt ladder rising pouring and side to annotate the formula running gate system according to these part characteristics, i.e. two casees moulding of Cai Yonging, bottom pouring type pouring plus side are annotated the formula scheme, and ingate is introduced from the flange of foundry goods bottom.The sectional area of lower floor's ingate and column must have suitable proportionate relationship with sprue cross section and corresponding pressure head, and its ratio is: in: horizontal stroke: straight=1: 1.8: 3.Increasing foam ceramic filter at nowel die joint place when moulding strengthens side riser and increases fibrous filter net corresponding to netted fault location.Its purpose one is feeding, the 2nd, draw the gas in the die cavity.
Smelting technology: add 2% aluminium rare earth during furnace burdening, half an hour before the cast, fusion temperature reaches 750 ℃~770 ℃, earlier with grain refiner 0.25%, adds 2% alterant then, and sampling is looked into gas, looked into rainbow.With the bull ladle cast of can verting, be 50-60 second the duration of pouring.Watered in rotten back 30 minutes.
The guiding theory that adopts ladder rising pouring and side to annotate the formula running gate system is: during the cast beginning, aluminium liquid is introduced by undermost ingate, rising along with liquid level in the die cavity, when reaching die joint, strengthen because of the ingate cross section, and temperature of aluminum liquid reduction, viscosity increase in the die cavity of bottom, and most of aluminium liquid pours into from the middle level ingate by column; Liquid level continues to rise when reaching the superiors' ingate height in the die cavity, has injected the higher aluminium liquid of temperature from this layer ingate again by column.So not only guaranteed the temperature of aluminum liquid of die cavity top and top rising head, form positive thermograde, help the gas in riser feeding and the die cavity, the come-up and the discharge of slag, whole aluminium liquid all pass through lower impressions when also having avoided rising pouring, cause unnecessary turbulent flow, secondary slag making and die cavity hot-spot, the cast initial stage fills the type stationarity when also having possessed rising pouring simultaneously; Also have a benefit to be exactly, the cast initial instant can be discharged by column because of the gas that fluidised form steadily is not involved in relatively.The moment that begins to pour into a mould can not allow aluminium liquid be full of column, otherwise will advance aluminium liquid simultaneously at this instantaneous upper and lower ingate, and this moment, the die cavity liquid level was also very low, and upper and lower two-layer ingate advances aluminium liquid and causes seriously secondary oxidation, slag inclusion and air-breathing greatly because of drop.Think that through calculating us this running gate system is feasible, and repeatedly this cast casting technology has been verified in trial-production, once passes through through water, gas pressure test.Check to find that this foundry goods eliminated the netted gas defective that contracts fully.The cooling velocity on V method formative technology medium casting surface is faster than wet type.Be 56-60s the duration of pouring of very fast this foundry goods of poring rate when cast, if poured into a mould slow, after evaporating, film portion also do not have motlten metal to substitute the position of film probably, this may cause that casting mold moves (type collapses), because the pressure differential of such casting mold and die cavity just can't continue to keep.Because when molten metal begins to solidify, the gas that sucks when molten metal solidifies may enlarge needle pore defect, and by observing from casting mold top peep hole, it is steady substantially to find to fill type.
Cast properties detects
Sealing surface does not have casting flaw after the foundry goods machined, and it is qualified that foundry goods has carried out three detections of the customary destructive test SF6 gas leak detection of hydraulic pressure, and the result is as shown in table 2.
Table 2 cast properties testing result
Pilot project Experiment condition Experimental result
Customary hydrostatic test Pressure 1.72MPa, pressurize 5min does not reveal First-time qualification rate 100%
Destroy hydraulic pressure 0.60 * 5 Pressure 〉=3.0MPa Under 4.8MPa pressure, do not break
The SF6 gas leak detection Pressure 0.60MPa, pressurize 1h does not reveal First-time qualification rate 92%
Tensile strength ≥260MPa 310MPa
Percentage elongation ≥4% 5%
Hardness HB ≥90 95

Claims (1)

1. the method for a V method Foundry Production voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
A). manufacture model: it comprises that making has the vacuum tank of exhaust chamber and aspirating hole, have the part profile and have the model of aspirating hole, have shape in the part and have the core box of aspirating hole, after during work model and vacuum tank being fixed together, be placed on the bumper, the cast iron chill is placed in flange sealing surface position and thick big position at tank body, and purpose is Quench and prevents that pin hole from producing that the working face of chill stays air discharge duct and brushes and use after tung oil is hung the sand oven dry; Chill will be placed in the film, directly enters flange sealing surface to prevent the gas that film produces;
B). film heating: eva film is placed on Fast Heating on the roasting mould bases, and 100 ℃~150 ℃ of heating-up temperatures make the EVA film occur that minute surface is sagging get final product, will guarantee that when using chill film evenly heats under enough temperature;
C). film forming: the plastic sheeting that baking is mecystasis covers to have the part profile and has on the model of aspirating hole, this moment, vacuum tank was in the state of vacuumizing, vavuum pump is bled and is made the closely connected moulding on template of film, overlay film then will be swift in motion, allow film be layed onto on the mould as much as possible, before the film cooling, just can fully be out of shape like this, again rising head and gas outlet be fixed on the model with adhesive tape;
D). spray paint: coating is shootd out uniformly on plastic sheeting, and paint thickness is 0.5mm, with heater coating is dried, and guarantees that coating has good adhesion strength to film;
F). put sandbox: the sandbox of V method moulding is except that wall will seal, and sandbox inside must be installed and be bled, filter, and the sandbox structure adopts the steel plate welding;
G). add sand ram-jolt: filling does not have binding agent and accrete dry sand in sandbox, opens bumper, scrapes off unnecessary sand after borrowing microseism to make sand tight, and sand and sandbox are put down;
H). cover notacoria: put sealing film, open the sandbox valve and take out air in the molding sand, have the about 300~400mmHg of pressure differential inside and outside making casting mold;
I). skinning: close the vacuum in the vacuum tank, on being 1 ° basis, pattern draft carries out molding then, molding rear film and dry sand have formed part die cavity, and each flange of part die cavity and thick big all are provided with rising head and blow vent, and casting mold will continue to vacuumize till the casting solidification of cast;
J). following core:, the resin sand inner core that makes is placed in the counterdie die cavity with counterdie die cavity upset 180 degree;
K). mould assembling: will go up model cavity and the counterdie die cavity lumps together, and it is fastening, guarantee the flange introducing of ingate from the foundry goods bottom, the sectional area of lower floor's ingate and column must have suitable proportionate relationship with sprue cross section and corresponding pressure head, its ratio is: in: horizontal stroke: straight=1: 1.8: 3, when moulding, increase foam ceramic filter and strengthen side riser and increase fibrous filter net corresponding to netted fault location at nowel die joint place;
L) cast: under the prerequisite that guarantees 700-720 ℃ of pouring temperature, adopt ladder rising pouring and side to annotate the formula running gate system, i.e. two casees moulding of Cai Yonging, bottom pouring type pouring plus side are annotated the formula scheme, melted aluminium liquid is directly hung in the bull ladle that can vert with crucible pour into a mould; Aluminium liquid is poured in the pouring basin during cast, treat that the interior aluminium liquid of pouring basin reaches at 2/3 o'clock and takes out pourer stopper, allow aluminium liquid steadily flow into running gate system and die cavity, poring rate 7~10kg/s, when aluminium liquid rises to its height of 2/3rds in seeing rising head, also should be in each rising head after-teeming high temperature aluminum water;
M). the drawing knockout, treat metal freezing after, stop casting mold being vacuumized, the type internal pressure is during near atmospheric pressure, casting mold is just defeated and dispersed voluntarily, hangs out part then.
CN2009100662190A 2009-10-22 2009-10-22 Method for producing voltage-bearing aluminum alloy tank body of ultra-high voltage switch by V-process CN101693282B (en)

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