CN101678455B - 用于生成三维产品的方法和设备 - Google Patents

用于生成三维产品的方法和设备 Download PDF

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CN101678455B
CN101678455B CN2008800159400A CN200880015940A CN101678455B CN 101678455 B CN101678455 B CN 101678455B CN 2008800159400 A CN2008800159400 A CN 2008800159400A CN 200880015940 A CN200880015940 A CN 200880015940A CN 101678455 B CN101678455 B CN 101678455B
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乌尔夫·阿茨凯利德
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阿卡姆股份公司
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/30Auxiliary operations or equipment
    • B29C64/386Data acquisition or data processing for additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/393Data acquisition or data processing for additive manufacturing for controlling or regulating additive manufacturing processes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • B22F10/20Direct sintering or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/10Processes of additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/141Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials
    • B29C64/153Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials using layers of powder being selectively joined, e.g. by selective laser sintering or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/10Processes of additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/188Processes of additive manufacturing involving additional operations performed on the added layers, e.g. smoothing, grinding or thickness control
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/20Apparatus for additive manufacturing; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • B29C64/264Arrangements for irradiation
    • B29C64/268Arrangements for irradiation using laser beams; using electron beams [EB]
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/30Auxiliary operations or equipment
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y10/00Processes of additive manufacturing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y30/00Apparatus for additive manufacturing; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y40/00Auxiliary operations or equipment, e.g. for material handling
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y50/00Data acquisition or data processing for additive manufacturing
    • B33Y50/02Data acquisition or data processing for additive manufacturing for controlling or regulating additive manufacturing processes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2998/00Supplementary information concerning processes or compositions relating to powder metallurgy
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2999/00Aspects linked to processes or compositions used in powder metallurgy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

Abstract

本发明涉及一种用于使用粉状材料(5)逐层生成三维产品(3)的方法,该粉状材料能够通过用高能量束照射而固化。

Description

用于生成三维产品的方法和设备
技术领域
[0001] 本发明涉及一种用于使用粉状材料逐层生成三维产品的方法,该粉状材料能够通过用高能束照射而固化。
背景技术
[0002] 从例如US4863538、US5647931以及SE524467中已知使用粉状材料来逐层生成三维产品的设备,该粉状材料能够通过利用高能量电磁照射束或高能量电子束来照射而固化或熔合在一起。这种设备包括例如粉末供给源、用于将粉末层施加到能够竖直调节的平台或工作区域上的装置、以及用于将所述束引导到工作区域上的装置。当所述束在工作区域上移动时,粉末烧结或熔化,并且固化。
[0003] 当利用高能量束熔化或烧结粉末时,避免超过粉末的挥发温度是很重要的,因为 否则的话粉末将只是挥发而不形成所期望的产品。US2005/0186538公开了一种致力于该问题的方法。在该方法中,在熔化/烧结阶段中,激光束被反复引导到同一个粉末靶区域,以分段地升高粉末温度。通过这种方式避免了太高的粉末温度。
[0004] 当使用电子束而不是激光束时,情况有些不同。当电子束撞击粉末时,在电子靶区域的周围逐渐形成电荷分布。期望地,该电荷朝地面被引导通过待生产的产品的生成部件和/或粉末床。如果电荷分布密度超过临界限度,那么在照射电子束的位置周围将产生电场强度在预定水平以上的电场。电场强度在预定水平以上的电场称为Emax。电场将使粉末颗粒互相排斥,使颗粒离开颗粒的最上层表面并形成漂浮在该表面上方的颗粒分布。漂浮的颗粒类似于位于表面上方的云。当电场具有Emax以上的电场强度时,电场,即颗粒云,将对设备的分辨度产生负面影响。这部分地是由于颗粒云中的颗粒将使电子束发散。当电场具有Emax以下的电场强度时,电场,即颗粒云,将不会对设备的分辨度有显著的影响。所以低于Emax的电场强度是合乎期望的。
[0005] 由于颗粒带电荷,所以它们将试图触地,所以一些颗粒可能离开颗粒云并污染位于真空室内的设备的不同部分。这种临界电场的结果是将会毁坏粉末表面的结构。对设有电子束的粉末熔化/烧结设备应用根据US2005/0186538的方法用于可能产生较差的结果,因为在这种方法中没有采取措施以避免形成电场强度在所述预定水平以上的临界电场。
[0006] 避免放电问题的一个解决方案为,向粉末添加诸如碳的导电材料,从而提高粉末的电导率。然而这种解决方案的缺点在于,这种粉末混合物的固化过程可能难以控制,并且形成的产品的性能可能受到负面影响。例如,机械强度可能会降低。
发明内容
[0007] 本发明的目的在于提供一种利用粉状材料逐层生成三维产品的方法和设备,该方法和设备能够以受控且适当的方式将粉状材料熔合在一起,并且特别适于电子束。该目的通过独立权利要求中所限定的方法和设备而实现。从属权利要求包含本发明的有利实施方式、进一步改进以及变型。[0008] 本发明涉及一种用于利用粉状材料逐层地生成三维产品的方法,该粉状材料能够通过利用高能量束照射而固化。本发明的特征在于,该方法包括以下步骤:控制存在于高能量束照射粉状材料的位置附近的离子的量。通过控制存在于高能量束附近的离子的量,已经表明形成云的趋势降低了。所以,高能量束,即电子枪,能够以较高的输出功率工作而不会产生所述预定水平以上的电场。该效果是通过高能量束的照射点附近的离子降低了所述附近中的电荷密度实现的。当然,当高能量束是电子枪时离子应该为正离子。离子数量处于将电场强度保持在Emax以下所需的水平以上是有利的,其中Emax是具有预定水平以上的电场强度的电场。通过这种方式中和足够多的粉状材料。
[0009] 在本发明的第一实施方式中,通过使用以下方法步骤来控制设置到高能量束照射位置周围的离子的数量:
[0010] 将辅助气体引入到设备的真空室中,以及
[0011] 将所述气体的压力控制在预定的压力水平,其中所述辅助气体在被高能量束照射时能够产生离子。
[0012] 产生的离子数量处于将电场强度保持在Emax以下所需的水平以上是有利的,其中Efflax是具有预定水平以上的电场强度的电场。通过这种方式中和足够多的粉状材料。
[0013] 适当地,在引入辅助气体之前,真空室具有低于1X10_4毫巴的压力。辅助气体将使真空室中的压力升高到位于IXKT1毫巴至I X 10_4毫巴的区间内。优选地,在引入辅助气体后压力处于10_2毫巴至10_3毫巴之间。较高的压力将使粉末层的表面上具有更多的离子,从而能够接受更高功率的电子枪而不会产生云。另一方面,高压将导致来自电子枪的电子束被发散到更大的范围中,从而得到要制造的部件的分辨度降低。已经显示引入10_2毫巴至10_3毫巴之间的辅助气体将在这两种效应之间达到良好的平衡。
[0014] 在本发明的实施方式中使用了惰性气体。氩气特别适合用于在钛合金的制造中一起使用。也可以考虑使用氦气。氮气能够适当地用于钴-铬合金。
[0015] 在本发明的第二实施方式中,利用以下方法步骤来控制存在于照射高能量束的位置附近的离子的量:
[0016] 将离子引入到设备的真空室中。
[0017] 通过使用诸如溅射设备或等离子设备的离子源将离子引入到真空室中,能够控制真空室中带电离子的数量。因此,能够降低电子枪散射效应,这是因为能够在低压下工作的同时仍能够获得足够数量的带电离子。能够通过控制引入到真空室中的离子数量来获得离子浓度。优选地,沿朝向粉状材料的方向引导离子。根据粉末床中的颗粒的电荷,引入的电荷或者带负电荷,或者带正电荷。最常见的情况是粉末床带负电荷时,在这种情况下将使用带正电荷的离子。
[0018] 适当地,根据高能量束的输出功率来控制引入到真空室中的离子的数量。由于大部分由电子枪提供的电子将通过制成的产品的部分和/或粉末床而排到大地,因此只需要补偿一小部分由电子枪提供的电子。所以,优选将引入到真空室中的离子的速率保持将电场强度保持在Emax以下所需的水平以上,其中Emax是具有预定水平以上的电场强度的电场。
[0019] 本发明还涉及一种使用粉状材料逐层生成三维产品的设备,该粉状材料能够通过用高能量束照射而固化,该设备适于通过上述方法中的至少一种控制存在于高能量束照射粉状材料的位置附近的离子的量。附图说明
[0020] 下面将参照附图描述本发明,在附图中:
[0021] 图I以示意图示出了用于生成三维产品的已知设备的示例,以及
[0022] 图2以示意图示出了能够应用本发明方法的第一实施方式的用于生成三维产品的设备的示例,以及
[0023] 图3以示意图示出了能够应用本发明方法的第二实施方式的用于生成三维产品的设备的示例。
[0024] 图4以示意图示出了具有带电颗粒云的粉状材料的表面的示例。
具体实施方式 [0025] 图I示出了用于生成三维产品的已知设备I的示例。设备I包括能够竖向调节的工作台2,在工作台2上将生成三维产品3 个或多个粉末分配器4 ;装置28,该装置28设置成分配薄的粉末层到工作台2上以形成粉末床5 ;电子枪形式的照射枪6,其用于向粉末床5输送能量,从而将粉末床5的多个部分熔合在一起;偏转线圈7,其用于将照射枪6发射的电子束引导到所述工作台2上;以及控制单元8,其设置成用以控制设备I的各个部分。在典型的工作循环中,工作台被降低,新的粉末层被施加到粉末床5上,然后电子束扫过粉末床5的上层5'的选定部分。原则上,该循环重复进行直到产品完成。本领域技术人员熟知图I所示的这种类型的用于生成三维产品的设备的总体功能和组成。整个装置I将构成真空室,在该真空室中通过真空泵(未示出)实现低压。真空室中的压力优选保持在10_4毫巴以下的压力水平。
[0026] 在使用电子束的情况下,必须考虑电子撞击粉末床5时在粉末中产生的电荷分布。本发明至少部分地基于电荷分布密度取决于以下参数这一认知,这些参数为:电子束电流、电子速度(由加速电压确定)、电子束扫描速度、粉状材料以及粉末的电导率,即主要是粉末颗粒之间的电导率。后者又是多个参数的函数,如温度、烧结程度以及粉末颗粒的尺寸/尺寸分布。
[0027] 因此,对于给定的粉末(即具有某种颗粒尺寸分布的某种材料的粉末)和给定的加速电压,能够通过改变电力束电流(从而改变电子束功率)以及电子束扫描速度来影响电荷分布。
[0028] 通过以受控的方式改变这些参数,能够通过升高粉末温度而逐渐提高粉末的电导率。高温的粉末具有高的多的电导率,使得电荷分布的密度较低,这是因为电荷能够迅速扩散到较大的区域。如果允许在预热过程中使粉末轻微地烧结,则能够加强这种效果。当电导率已经变得足够高时,能够利用任意值的电子束电流和电子束扫描速度将粉末熔合到一起,即熔化或者完全烧结。
[0029] 用于在任意扫描过程中描述在粉末中形成的电荷密度的通用函数是时间和电子束位置的相当复杂的函数,这是因为如果没有在空间和时间上将扫描路径很好地分隔开,那么沿一条扫描路径产生的电荷密度将受到沿另一条扫描路径产生的电荷密度的影响。所以,必须考虑不同路径之间的综合效应。
[0030] 图2示出了用于生成三维产品的设备21的示例,本发明方法的第一实施方式能够应用在该设备中。设备21除了包括图I所述的部分外,还包括进气口 22,辅助气体能够被弓I入该进气口并被弓I入到设备的真空室中。该进气口由能够被控制单元8控制的可控阀23调节。能够关于真空室中的压力而控制可控阀23,从而控制真空室中的气体压力。真空室中的压力可以利用连接于控制单元8的压力传感器24来测量。
[0031] 图3示出了用于生成三维产品的设备31的示例,本发明方法的第二实施方式能够应用在该设备中。设备31除了包括图I所述的部分外,还包括溅射设备32,通过该溅射设备能够将离子引入到设备的真空室中。溅射设备32可由控制单元8来控制。溅射设备32中使用的用于产生离子的气体优选为惰性气体,如氩气。真空室中的压力被保持在预定的水平,优选地在10_4毫巴以下。真空室中的压力能够利用连接于控制单元8的压力传感器34来测量。
[0032] 图4示出了具有带电颗粒云41的粉状材料的粉末床5的上层5'。该颗粒云被聚集在电子束42照射粉状材料的位置的周围。当电场较高时,在照射点周围将出现较大的云。所以,本发明的目的是为了限制颗粒云的尺寸,即高度。因此,引入到真空室中或在真 空室中产生的离子的数量应当在预定水平以上,从而中和颗粒云中足够多的电荷。该预定水平应当选择为将电场强度保持在Emax以下。通过这种方式来中和足够多的粉状材料。
[0033] 本发明不应被视为受限于以上所述的实施方式,能够在权利要求的范围内做出多种另外的变型和改型。

Claims (20)

1. 一种用于使用粉状材料(5)逐层生成三维产品(3)的方法,所述粉状材料(5)能够通过用高能量束照射而固化,其特征在于,所述方法包括以下步骤: 将辅助气体引入到设备的真空室中, 将所述气体的压力控制在预定的压力水平, 所述辅助气体能够在被所述高能量束照射时产生预定数量的离子。
2.如权利要求I所述的方法,其特征在于,在引入所述辅助气体之前,所述真空室具有低于IXKT4毫巴的压力。
3.如权利要求I所述的方法,其特征在于,在引入所述辅助气体后,所述真空室中的压力处于I X KT1毫巴至IX 10_4毫巴之间的区间内。
4.如权利要求I所述的方法,其特征在于,所述辅助气体是惰性气体。
5.如权利要求4所述的方法,其特征在于,所述惰性气体是氩气。
6.如权利要求4所述的方法,其特征在于,所述惰性气体是氦气。
7.如权利要求1、5和6中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述真空室中的压力是根据所述高能量束的输出功率来控制的。
8. 一种用于使用粉状材料(5)逐层生成三维产品(3)的方法,所述粉状材料(5)能够通过用高能量束照射而固化,其特征在于,所述方法包括以下步骤: 将离子引入到设备的真空室中,以便控制存在于所述高能量束照射所述粉状材料的位置附近的离子的量。
9.如权利要求8所述的方法,其特征在于,使用离子源用于将离子引入到所述真空室中。
10.如权利要求9所述的方法,其特征在于,所述离子源是溅射离子源。
11.如权利要求9所述的方法,其特征在于,所述离子源是等离子体离子源。
12.如权利要求8至11中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所引入的离子带正电荷。
13.如权利要求8至11中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所引入的离子带负电荷。
14.如权利要求8至11中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述真空室在引入所述离子之前具有低于I X IO-4毫巴的压力。
15.如权利要求8至11中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述离子是利用惰性气体产生的。
16.如权利要求15所述的方法,其特征在于,所述惰性气体是氩气。
17.如权利要求15所述的方法,其特征在于,所述惰性气体是氦气。
18.如权利要求8至11以及16、17中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,引入到所述真空室中的离子的数量是根据所述高能量束的输出功率来控制的。
19.如权利要求8至11以及16、17中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,引入到所述真空室中的离子被导向所述粉状材料。
20. 一种用于使用粉状材料(5)逐层生成三维产品(3)的设备(I),所述粉状材料(5)能够通过用高能量束照射而固化,其特征在于,所述设备适于通过如以上权利要求中任一项所述的方法中的一种控制存在于所述高能量束照射所述粉状材料的位置附近的离子的量。
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