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使用带非线性过程模型的非线性△∑调节器的控制系统

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CN101675593B
CN101675593B CN 200880014472 CN200880014472A CN101675593B CN 101675593 B CN101675593 B CN 101675593B CN 200880014472 CN200880014472 CN 200880014472 CN 200880014472 A CN200880014472 A CN 200880014472A CN 101675593 B CN101675593 B CN 101675593B
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nonlinear
modulator
system
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delta
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约翰·L·梅兰松
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塞瑞斯逻辑公司
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M3/00Conversion of analogue values to or from differential modulation
    • H03M3/30Delta-sigma modulation
    • H03M3/458Analogue/digital converters using delta-sigma modulation as an intermediate step
    • H03M3/476Non-linear conversion systems
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M1/00Details of apparatus for conversion
    • H02M1/42Circuits or arrangements for compensating for or adjusting power factor in converters or inverters
    • H02M1/4208Arrangements for improving power factor of AC input
    • H02M1/4225Arrangements for improving power factor of AC input using a non-isolated boost converter
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. INCLUDING HOUSING AND APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B70/00Technologies for an efficient end-user side electric power management and consumption
    • Y02B70/10Technologies improving the efficiency by using switched-mode power supplies [SMPS], i.e. efficient power electronics conversion
    • Y02B70/12Power factor correction technologies for power supplies
    • Y02B70/126Active technologies
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P80/00Climate change mitigation technologies for sector-wide applications
    • Y02P80/10Efficient use of energy
    • Y02P80/11Efficient use of energy of electric energy
    • Y02P80/112Power supplies with power electronics for efficient use of energy, e.g. power factor correction [PFC] or resonant converters

Abstract

控制系统包括一个非线性Δ∑调节器,而此非线性Δ∑调节器包括一个非线性过程模型,用于模拟诸如非线性设备等信号处理系统中的非线性过程。该非线性Δ∑调节器包括一个反馈模型,用于模拟受控的非线性过程,并且便于进行频谱整形,将噪声移出非线性过程响应信号的频谱范围内的基本频带。在至少一个实施例中,该非线性Δ∑调节器属于控制系统的一部分,该控制系统控制开关功率转换器的功率因数校正和输出电压。该控制系统对控制功率因数校正和输出电压水平的控制信号的脉冲宽度和周期进行控制。在至少一个实施例中,该该非线性Δ∑调节器产生一个信号,对该控制信号的脉冲宽度进行控制。

Description

使用带非线性过程模型的非线性ΛΣ调节器的控制系统

[0001] 优先权要求和相关专利申请

[0002] 本专利申请要求依据35 U.S.C.§ 119 (e)和37 C.F.R.§ 1.78享有2007年5月2日递交名为“功率因数校正(PFC)控制器装置和方法”的60/915,547号美国临时专利申请的权益,其通过引用被整体纳入本专利申请。

技术领域

[0003] 一般来说,本发明涉及信号处理领域,更具体地讲,本发明涉及使用非线性Λ Σ调节器的控制系统,该系统利用非线性反馈模型模拟非线性过程。

背景技术

[0004] 许多电子系统使用非线性过程产生输出信号。例如,伺服控制系统和功率转换系统等设备系统经常使用非线性过程。功率转换系统通常使用开关功率转换器将交流(AC)电压转换为直流(DC)电压或进行DC至DC转换。开关功率转换器通常包括一个非线性能量传递过程,向负载提供经过功率因数校正的能量。

[0005] 图1所不为一台设备和控制系统100,它包括有一个开关功率转换器102和一台设备104。例如,设备104是一个伺服控制系统或一个供电系统。开关功率转换器102向负载112提供恒压电源。开关功率转换器102按照非线性过程在断续电流模式下工作。一个全二极管桥式整流器103对交流电源101提供的交流电压Vin(t)进行整流,产生经过整流的时变输入电压Vx (t)。开关功率转换器102的开关108调节经整流的时变输入电压Vx (t)通过电感器110到电容器 106的能量传递。峰值输入电流iin与开关108的‘接通时间’成正比,而传递的能量与‘接通时间’的平方成正比。因此,能量传递过程是非线性过程的一个实施例。在至少一个实施例中,控制信号Cs是一个脉冲宽度调制信号,而开关108是一个η-通道场效应晶体管,当Cs的脉冲宽度处于高电平时导通。此外,开关108的‘接通时间’是由控制信号Cs的脉冲宽度决定的。因此,传递的能量与控制信号Cs的脉冲宽度的平方成正比。二极管111防止反向电流流进电感器110。从电感器110传递来的能量储存在电容器106中。向负载112提供电流时,电容器106的电容足以保持大致恒定的电压Vc。在至少一个实施例中,开关功率转换器102是一种升压型转换器,即电压V。比峰值输入电压Vx (t)大。

[0006] 设备和控制系统100还包括一个开关状态控制器114。开关状态控制器114产生控制信号Cs,其目的是使用开关功率转换器102将所需的能量传递到电容器106,进而传递到负载112上。所需的能量取决于负载112的电压和电流要求。为了使功率因数校正接近I,开关状态控制器114设法控制输入电流iin,使输入电流iin能够追踪到输入电压Vx (t)的变化,而同时保持电容器电压V。的恒定。

[0007] 能量从电感器110传递到电容器106的过程即为一个非线性过程。峰值输入电流iin与控制信号Cs (即开关108的‘接通’(导通)时间)的脉冲宽度成正比,而传递到电容器106的能量与控制信号Cs的脉冲宽度的平方成正比,与控制信号Cs的周期成反比。因此能量在电感器110和电容器106之间的传递过程本来就是非线性的。由于开关功率转换器102的能量传递过程是非线性的,产生保持功率校正、效率和稳定输出功率的控制信号Cs自然就更为困难。

发明内容

[0008] 在本发明的一个实施例中,信号处理系统包括一个非线性Λ Σ调节器。该非线性Δ Σ调节器包括一个环路滤波器、一个与环路滤波器耦合的量化器以及一个在环路滤波器和量化器之间耦合的反馈通道,其中反馈通道包括一个非线性反馈模型,该模型模拟了功率因数校正电路非线性过程的非线性。

[0009] 在本发明的另一个实施例中,一种信号处理方法使用了非线性Λ Σ调节器来模拟非线性系统过程的非线性,该方法包括量化器输出信号的生成。该方法还包括将非线性函数应用到非线性△ Σ调节器反馈回路中的量化器输出信号,以产生反馈信号,其中非线性函数模拟非线性过程的非线性,并将反馈信号与非线性△ Σ调节器的输入信号结合起来,产生一个差值信号。

[0010] 在本发明的另一个实施例中,一个包括非线性Λ Σ调节器的控制系统向非线性设备提供控制信号,而非线性设备在其中产生一个响应信号,对此控制信号进行响应。该非线性△ Σ调节器包括一个环路滤波器、一个与环路滤波器耦合的量化器以及一个在环路滤波器和量化器之间耦合的反馈通道,其中反馈通道包括一个非线性反馈模型,该模型模拟非线性设备的非线性设备过程的非线性。在运行时,该非线性△ Σ调节器产生一个量化器输出信号,至少控制该控制信号的一个信号方式,而且非线性△ Σ调节器在响应信号的频谱范围 进行噪声整形。

[0011] 在本发明的另一个实施例中,一种控制非线性过程的方法包括输入信号的接收,在该控制方法中,非线性过程产生一个响应控制系统所产生的控制信号的输出信号。该方法还包括通过非线性△ Σ调节器对输入信号进行频谱整形,将噪声移出非线性过程输出信号的基本频带,并且产生一个非线性△ Σ调节器输出信号,其数值表示输入信号的频谱整形。该方法还包括使用非线性Λ Σ调节器输出信号来产生控制信号。

附图说明

[0012] 参考附图可以更好地理解本发明,还可以使熟悉该技术领域者明白本发明的各种目的、特征和优点。在这些附图中使用相同参考号代表相同或相似要素。

[0013] 图1 (标为先前技术)所示为一个带有功率因数校正级的开关功率转换器。

[0014] 图2所示为一个带有非线性Λ Σ调节器的非线性系统。

[0015] 图3所示为一个非线性Λ Σ调节器。

[0016] 图4所示为一台设备和控制系统。

[0017] 图5所示为一个开关状态控制器。

[0018] 图6所示为一个带有平方非线性系统反馈模型的非线性Λ Σ调节器。

[0019] 图7所示为一个模拟非线性Λ Σ调节器的程序。

[0020] 图8所示为开关状态控制器输入信号随时间变化的曲线图。

[0021] 图9所示为非线性Λ Σ调节器输出信号随时间变化的曲线图。[0022] 图10所示为设备能量传递随时间变化的曲线。

具体实施方式

[0023] 控制系统包括一个非线性Λ Σ调节器,而此非线性Λ Σ调节器包括一个非线性过程模型,用于模拟诸如非线性设备等信号处理系统中的非线性过程。该非线性△ Σ调节器产生一个或多个信号,例如可用于控制非线性过程。常规的△ Σ调节器对△ Σ调节器的输出进行频谱整形,将噪声移出△ Σ调节器输出信号的基本频带,而不是在非线性过程响应信号的频谱范围进行噪声频谱整形。在至少一个实施例中,该非线性Λ Σ调节器包括一个反馈模型,用于模拟受控的非线性过程,并且便于进行频谱整形,将噪声移出非线性过程响应信号的频谱范围中的基本频带。 [0024] 在至少一个实施例中,该非线性△ Σ调节器属于控制开关功率转换器功率因数校正和输出电压的控制系统的一部分。在至少一个实施例中,该开关功率转换器包括一个调节能量从功率因数校正级传递到负载以及调节开关功率转换器输出电压的开关。该开关的导通性受到一个由控制系统产生的脉冲宽度调制控制信号的控制,该控制系统包括一个非线性△ Σ调节器。该控制系统对控制功率因数校正和输出电压水平的控制信号的脉冲宽度和周期进行控制。在至少一个实施例中,该非线性△ Σ调节器产生一个信号以对控制信号的脉冲宽度进行控制,而另一个子系统产生一个信号对控制信号的周期进行控制。

[0025] 图2所示为一台设备和控制系统200。该设备和控制系统200包括控制系统202和设备206。控制系统202产生一个控制信号Cs控制设备206的非线性过程204。为了响应控制信号Cs,该非线性过程204产生一个响应信号Rs。在至少一个实施例中,该非线性过程204是一个平方函数。例如,在至少一个实施例中,设备206是一个功率转换器,而非线性过程204代表从输入级到负载210的一个能量传递过程。负载212可以是任何负载,且包括另一个功率传递级。控制系统202包括一个非线性Λ Σ调节器208,而该非线性Λ Σ调节器208包括一个非线性模型210对非线性过程204的非线性进行模拟。如下文详述,控制系统202使用非线性Λ Σ调节器208产生控制信号Cs。

[0026] 在至少一个实施例中,控制系统202产生控制信号Cs,使响应信号Rs的频谱进行噪声整形,即噪声从响应信号Rs的基本频带移出并进入带外频谱。许多设备具有固有的低通频率响应。因此,噪声整形去除低频噪声并防止噪声转为控制信号Cs的一部分。将噪声移出响应信号Rs的基本频带可从响应信号Rs消除不必要的信号,该信号可以对负载212的运行产生不良影响和/或寄生耦合到设备206的其它电路中。非线性过程模型210通过模拟非线性过程204,有利于响应信号Rs的噪声整形。

[0027] 图3所示为非线性Λ Σ调节器300,是非线性Λ Σ调节器208的一个实施例。非线性λ Σ调节器300在非线性Λ Σ调节器300的反馈通道304中包括一个‘非线性系统’反馈模型302。反馈模型302模拟非线性过程204的非线性。在至少一个实施例中,反馈模型302用f(x)表示。非线性Λ Σ调节器输出信号y(n)经过延时306反馈,而反馈模型302按照f (y(n-l))处理延时的量化器输出信号y(n_l)。并合器308确定代表反馈模型302输出f(y(n-l))和输入信号χ (η)之差的信号差d (n)。kth谐波环路滤波器310滤去信号差d (η),产生环路滤波器输出信号u (η),其中k是大于等于I的整数,而k的数值是一个设计选择。一般来说,增大k的数值会减小基本频带的噪声并增大带外噪声。[0028] 非线性Λ Σ调节器300包括非线性补偿模块312。然而,在至少一个实施例中,非线性补偿模块不作为非线性△ Σ调节器300的一部分。非线性补偿模块312补偿由非线性反馈模型302引入的非线性。在至少一个实施例中,非线性补偿模块312使用补偿函数f1 (x)处理环路滤波器输出信号u (η),该函数是反馈模型302函数f(x)的逆函数,例如,如果f(x) =X2^Ijr1(X) = X1720量化器314量化补偿模块312的输出,以确定非线性Λ Σ调节器300的输出信号y(n)。在至少一个实施例中,补偿模块312的补偿函数F1(X)是非线性系统反馈模型302的逆函数的估算值。在至少一个实施例中,非线性Λ Σ调节器300的前馈通道311中的补偿函数F1(X)可以为所有频率提供噪声整形。在至少一个实施例中,一个不完全补偿函数(即近似PU))在所有频率中允许有更多噪声。在至少一个实施例中,补偿函数F1(X)为非线性Λ Σ调节器300提供稳定性。

[0029] 在至少一个实施例中,非线性补偿模块312纳为量化器314的一部分,而不是作为量化过程之外的独立过程。补偿模块312使量化器314按照量化补偿函数对环路输出信号u(η)进行量化。在至少一个实施例中,量化器补偿函数根据反馈模型302的导数df(x)确定非线性△ Σ调节器的输出信号y(n)。例如,如果非线性系统反馈模型302的函数f(x)等于X2,则量化器的补偿函数是2x。量化器补偿函数可估算为X。量化器314的决定点则为 x+/_V2o

[0030] 图4表示一台设备和控制系统400,这是设备和控制系统200的一个实施例。该设备和控制系统400包括一个开关功率转换器402和一台设备404。设备404代表设备206的一个实施例。开关功率转换器402按照非线性过程在断续电流模式下工作。开关功率转换器402的开关408调节经整流的时变输入电压Vx (t)通过电感器410到电容器406的能量传递。峰值输入电流iin与开关408的‘接通时间’成正比,而传递的能量与‘接通时间’的平方成正比。在至少一个实施例中,控制信号Csi是一个脉冲宽度调制信号,而开关408是一个η-通道场效应晶体管,当Csi的脉冲宽度处于高电平时导通。因此,开关408的‘接通时间’是由控制信号Cs i的脉冲宽度决定的。所以,传递的能量与控制信号Csi的脉冲宽度的平方成正比。因此,能量传递过程是一个平方过程,并代表非线性过程205的一个实施例。二极管412防止反向电流流进电感器410。从电感器410传递来的能量储存在电容器406中。向负载412提供电流时,电容器406的电容足以保持大致恒定的电压Va。在至少一个实施例中,开关功率转换器402是一种升压型转换器,即电压Va比峰值输入电压Vx (t)大。

[0031] 设备和控制系统400还包括一个开关状态控制器414,它代表控制系统202的一个实施例。开关状态控制器414对控制信号Csi的脉冲宽度PW和周期T进行控制。因此开关状态控制器414控制着开关功率转换器402的非线性过程,使得所需的能量被传递给电容器406。所需的能量取决于负载412的电压和电流要求。控制信号的占空比Csi经过设置,以保持所需的电容器电压Va和负载电压\,而且在至少一个实施例中,控制信号Csi的占空比D等于['/(να+')]。当输入电压Vx(t)增大时,能量传递在这一时段也增大。为了调节传递的能量并将功率因数保持在接近1,开关状态控制器414改变控制信号Csi的周期,使得输入电流iin能够追踪到输入电压Vx (t)的变化,并使输出电容器电压Va保持恒定。因此,当输入电压Vx (t)增大时,开关状态控制器414将增大控制信号Csi的周期T ;而当输入电压Vx(t)减小时,开关状态控制器414将减小控制信号Csi的周期。同时,控制信号Csi的脉冲宽度PW经过调节,以保持恒定的占空比D,并使电容器电压Va保持恒定。在至少一个实施例中,开关状态控制器414以远高于输入电压Vx(t)的频率更新控制信号CS1。输入电压Vx⑴的频率一般为50至60Hz。例如,控制信号Csi的频率1/T介于25kHz与IOOkHz之间。等于或高于25kHz的频率避免了音频干扰,等于或低于IOOkHz的频率避免了有较大影响的开关无效性,同时又能保持良好的功率因数校正,比如0.9和I之间的功率因数校正,且电容器电压Va保持近似的恒定值。

[0032] 图5所示为开关状态控制器500,它代表开关状态控制器414的一个实施例。开关状态控制器500产生控制信号CS1,以对开关功率转换器402的非线性能量传递过程进行控制。非线性Δ Σ调节器300接收到输入信号V (η),该输入信号显示控制信号Csi在下一周期所需的能量传递,以保持所需的负载电压非线性Λ Σ调节器300处理该输入信号V (η),并产生量化器输出信号QPW。非线性Λ Σ调节器300的非线性反馈模型302(图3)模拟开关功率转换器402的非线性能量传递过程,使得量化器的输出信号Qpw发出的控制信号Csi脉冲宽度与电容器406所需能量传递以保持负载电压'的恒定。输入信号v(n)将结合图4进行更详细的讨论。

[0033] 在至少一个实施例中,输入信号Vx (t)是整流电压,因此随着时间变化而上升和下降。开关状态控制器500追踪输入信号Vx(t)的变化并调节控制信号Csi的周期,使之随输入信号Vx(t)的增大而增大,并随输入信号Vx(t)的减小而减小。为了确定控制信号Csi的每个周期,开关状态控制器500包括一个输入信号估算器502,该估算器估算控制信号Csi在每个周期的输入电压Vx (t)的瞬时值,并产生一个估算的电压值e (η)。估算器502的输入信号Vx可以是输入电压Vx(t)的实际值或比例值或者是输入电压Vx(t)的取样值。开关状态控制器500包括一个常规△ Σ调节器504,用于处理估算电压值e(n)并将估算的电压值e(n)转换为量化器输出信号QT。量化器输出信号Qt代表一个控制信号Csi周期,用于输入电压Vx(t)的估算值。常规Δ Σ调节器的典型设计和运行请参见Schreier和Temes的著作 Understanding Delta-Sigma DataConverters (了解 Δ Σ 数据转换器),IEEE Press,2005,ISBN 0-471-46585-2ο

[0034] 开关状态控制器500包括一个脉冲宽度调节器506,该调节器将量化器输出信号Qpw(η)转换为脉冲宽度,并且将量化器输出信号Qt(η)转换为控制信号Csi的周期,其中η可以是表示相关变量的特定实例的数字。为了进行此转换,在至少一个实施例中,脉冲宽度调节器506包括一个计数器。量化器输出信号QPW(n)显示脉冲控制信号Csi的计数,而量化器输出信号Qt(η)显不控制信号Csi的周期计数。脉冲宽度调节器506将量化器输出信号Qpw(η)和量化器输出信号Qt(η)的计数转换为控制信号Csi的相应脉冲宽度和周期。在至少一个实施例中,开关状态控制器500使用数字技术执行。在其它实施例中,开关状态控制器500可使用模拟或者数字与模拟混合技术执行。

[0035] 对于图3、4和5,当非线性Δ Σ调节器300作为开关状态控制器(如开关状态控制器500(图5))的一部分使用时,为了保持功率因数的校正,输入信号ν(η)与(l_(Vx(t)/Vci).Κ成正比。“Vx(t)”和“VC1 ”如图4所述。“K”是一个常数,表示负载412的功率需求,由一个比例积分补偿器(未显示)决定,该补偿器将负载电压'(图4)与标准电压进行比较,并将输出电压误差的积分和比例函数组合确定为反馈信号。比例积分补偿器的一个例子请参见Alexander Prodi0的著作Compensator Designand Stability Assessment for FastVoltage Loops of Power Factor CorrectionRectif iers (功率因数校正整流器的快速电压环路的补偿器设计与稳定性评价),IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics (IEEE电力电子学汇刊)2007年9月,第22卷,第5册,以及Erickson和Maksomovi0的著作,Fundamentals of Power Electronics (功率电子基础),第 2 版,Boston, MA:Kluwer, 2000年。对输入信号v(n)进行限制以确保开关功率转换器402在断续电流模式下运行。

[0036] 图6所示为非线性Λ Σ调节器600,是非线性Λ Σ调节器300的一个实施例。开关功率转换器402的非线性能量传递过程可以模拟成平方函数χ2。非线性△ Σ调节器600包括一个非线性系统反馈模型602,用X2表示。因此,反馈模型602的输出是下一循环的量化器输出信号QPW(n)的平方,即[Qpff (n-1) J20非线性Λ Σ调节器600与非线性Λ Σ调节器300 —样,包括一个独立于量化器314的补偿模块604。非线性补偿模块604使用平方根函数x1/2处理环路滤波器310的输出信号u (η)。补偿模块604的输出c (η)通过量化器314进行量化,从而产生量化器输出信号QPW(n)。

[0037] 图7所示为一个Mathematica®程序,该程序模拟非线性Λ Σ调节器300用于非线性反馈模型302以及非线性补偿模块312的函数f(x) = χ2,该函数作为量化器补偿函数使用,表不x+/-1/^的量化器决定点给出f (χ)的更改导数。该Mathmatica®程序可从Wolfram Research, Inc.获得,其总部位于伊利诺斯州香槟市。

[0038] 图8所示为开关状态控制器输入信号V (η)随时间变化的曲线图800。该开关状态控制器的输入信号ν(η)随时间变化呈线性,可跟踪时变输入电SVx(t)的变化,使得开关功率转换器402的能量传递可跟踪输入电压Vx (t)的变化。

[0039] 图9所示为非线性Λ Σ调节器600(图6)的非线性Λ Σ调节器输出信号Qpw(η)随时间变化的曲线图900 。非线性△ Σ调节器600进行一次平方根运算,使得输出信号Qpff (η)的平均值如虚线902所示,是开关状态控制器输入信号V (η)的平方根。

[0040] 图10所示为曲线图1000,显示当非线性过程203有一个X2变换函数时,设备206的非线性过程204对曲线图900所示输入图案资料群集的响应信号Rs。由于非线性Λ Σ调节器600包括了模拟开关功率转换器402的能量传递过程平方的非线性系统反馈模型602,响应信号Rs如虚线1002。

[0041] 所示,是线性的。因此,该非线性Λ Σ调节器包括一个反馈模型,用于模拟受控的非线性过程,并且便于进行频谱整形,将噪声移出非线性过程响应信号的频谱范围中的基本频带。

[0042] 尽管已经对本发明作了详细描述,但应明白,在不偏离所附权利要求中定义的本发明之范围和精神情况下仍可以进行多种变化、替代和更改。

Claims (24)

1.一种信号处理系统,它包含: 一个非线性Λ Σ调节器,其中: 该非线性Λ Σ调节器包括: 一个环路滤波器; 一个与环路滤波器耦合的量化器;以及 一个在环路滤波器和量化器之间耦合的反馈通道,其中反馈通道包括一个非线性反馈模型,该模型模拟一个功率因数校正电路的非线性过程的非线性。
2.如权利要求1所述的信号处理系统,其中非线性△ Σ调节器在非线性△ Σ调节器的前馈通道中包括一个补偿模块,用来补偿非线性反馈模型的非线性。
3.如权利要求2所述的信号处理系统,其中的补偿模块包括一个与量化器耦合的逆模型,在其中该逆模型模拟非线性反馈模型的逆函数。
4.如权利要求3所述的信号处理系统,其中非线性反馈模型模拟平方函数,而逆模型模拟平方根函数。
5.如权利要求2所述的信号处理系统,其中补偿模块包含一个或多个量化器元件,用于按照非线性反馈模型的逆函数近似值来确定量化器的输出。
6.如权利要求1所述的信号处理系统,其中功率因数校正电路的非线性过程包含一个来自时变电压源经过该功率因数校正电路的电感器的能量传递过程。
7.如权利要求6所述的信号处理系统,在运行时,其中非线性△ Σ调节器的量化器产生一个输出信号,该输出信号与控制功率因数校正电路中功率因数调节开关的控制信号的脉冲宽度相关,所述信号处理系统还包括一个功率因数校正控制电路,其中的功率因数校正控制电路包含: 一个以时间离散方式产生时变输入信号的估算值的信号估算器; 一个与信号估算器耦合的初始△ Σ调节器,处理时变输入信号的估算值并产生与控制功率因数调节开关的控制信号的周期相关的输出;以及 一个与非线性△ Σ调节器和初始△ Σ调节器耦合的脉冲宽度调节器,产生控制功率因数调节开关的控制信号,其中控制信号的脉冲宽度由非线性△ Σ调节器量化器的输出信号确定,而周期由开关周期信号发生器确定。
8.一种使用非线性△ Σ调节器处理信号的方法,用于模拟一个非线性系统过程的非线性,该方法包含: 产生一个量化器输出信号; 在非线性△ Σ调节器的反馈回路中的量化器输出信号加上一个非线性函数,以产生一个反馈信号,其中非线性函数模拟该非线性过程的非线性;并且 将反馈信号与非线性△ Σ调节器的输入信号结合起来,以产生一个差值信号。
9.如权利要求8所述的方法,它还包含: 过滤差值信号;以及 补偿非线性△ Σ调节器的反馈回路中的非线性函数的应用。
10.如权利要求9所述的方法,其中过滤差值信号产生一个过滤后的差值信号,而补偿非线性Λ Σ调节器的反馈回路中的非线性函数的应用包括量化过滤后的差值信号,按照非线性函数的逆函数近似值确定一个量化器输出。
11.如权利要求10所述的方法,其中非线性函数的逆函数近似值包括该非线性函数的导数。
12.如权利要求9所述的方法,其中过滤差值信号产生一个过滤后的差值信号,而补偿非线性△ Σ调节器的反馈回路中的非线性函数的应用包括: 将非线性函数的逆函数应用到过滤后的差值信号上。
13.如权利要求12所述的方法,其中非线性函数包含一个平方函数。
14.如权利要求8所述的方法,其中反馈信号与非线性△ Σ调节器的输入信号的结合包括从非线性Λ Σ调节器输入信号减去反馈信号。
15.如权利要求8所述的方法,它还包含: 将非线性△ Σ调节器的输出信号转换为时间信号,以确定控制信号的脉冲宽度; 产生一个时间离散方式的时变输入信号估算值; 确定开关频率信号,其中开关频率信号对应于信号发生器处理后的估算值; 产生一个脉冲宽度调制过的开关控制信号,用于按照时间信号控制该开关控制信号的脉冲宽度,并按照开关频率信号控制该开关控制信号的频率;并且 将该开关控制信号应用到开关功率转换器的开关上,用于控制从该开关功率转换器的电感器进出的能量传递。
16.一个向非线性设备提供控制信号的控制系统,其中该非线性设备产生一个与控制信号对应的响应信号,该控制系统包括: 一个非线性Λ Σ调节器,其中: 该非线性Λ Σ调节器包括: 一个环路滤波器; 一个与环路滤波器耦合的量化器;以及 一个在环路滤波器和量化器之间耦合的反馈通道,其中反馈通道包括一个非线性反馈模型,该模型模拟非线性设备的非线性设备过程的非线性;以及 在运行时,其中的非线性△ Σ调节器产生一个量化器输出信号,至少控制该控制信号的一个信号方式,而非线性△ Σ调节器在响应信号的频谱范围内进行噪声整形。
17.如权利要求16所述的信号处理系统,其中的非线性设备包括一个具有功率因数校正电路的开关功率转换器,以及一个模拟该功率因数校正电路的非线性的非线性反馈模型。
18.如权利要求17所述的信号处理系统,其中的非线性反馈模型表示一个平方函数。
19.如权利要求16所述的信号处理系统,其中非线性设备过程控制信号的至少一个信号方式包括非线性设备过程控制信号的脉冲宽度。
20.如权利要求16所述的信号处理系统,在运行时其中的非线性△ Σ调节器将噪声移出响应信号的基本频带。
21.如权利要求16所述的信号处理系统,其中非线性△ Σ调节器在非线性△ Σ调节器的前馈通道中包括一个补偿模块,用来补偿非线性反馈模型的非线性。
22.—种控制非线性过程 的方法,其中非线性过程产生一个输出信号,与控制系统产生的控制信号对应,该方法包括: 接收一个输入信号;使用非线性△ Σ调节器对输入信号进行频谱整形,将噪声移出非线性过程输出信号的基本频带; 产生一个非线性△ Σ调节器输出信号,其数值表示输入信号的频谱整形;以及 使用非线性△ Σ调节器输出信号来产生控制信号。
23.如权利要求22所述的方法,其中使用非线性△ Σ调节器对输入信号进行频谱整形,将噪声移出非线性过程输出信号的基本频带还包含: 将非线性函数应用到刚刚产生的非线性△ Σ调节器的量化器输出信号上,以产生一个量化器反馈信号; 确定一个代表输入信号和量化器反馈信号之差的差值信号; 过滤该差值信号,产生一个过滤后的差值信号;以及 使用补偿函数处理该过滤后的信号,对非线性函数进行补偿。
24.如权利要求22所述的方法,还包含: 将控制信号应用到一个开关功率转换器的开关上,用于控制从该开关功率转换器的电感器进出的能量传递。
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CN 200880014462 CN101730972A (zh) 2007-05-02 2008-05-02 具有在低功率需求水平控制脉宽变异性开关的开关整流器

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