CN1016605B - 带干涉色的建筑镀层 - Google Patents

带干涉色的建筑镀层

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CN1016605B
CN1016605B CN 85108851 CN85108851A CN1016605B CN 1016605 B CN1016605 B CN 1016605B CN 85108851 CN85108851 CN 85108851 CN 85108851 A CN85108851 A CN 85108851A CN 1016605 B CN1016605 B CN 1016605B
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architectural
coating
interference
colors
architectural coating
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CN 85108851
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CN85108851A (zh )
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鲁塞尔·卡德维尔·克里斯
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Ppg工业公司
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Abstract

一种反射太阳能量的透明物体,包含一层由于吸收和干涉效应而呈现出色彩的金属氧化膜和一层高反射金属膜,连同其生产的阴极溅镀方法在此一起予以公开。

Description

本发明总的来说是关于透明镀层的工艺,更具体地说是关于多层有色透明镀层,特别应用于建筑玻璃产品。

随着对加热和冷却的能量需求日趋昂贵,带金属的和/或金属氧化物膜的建筑玻璃产品越发显露出其重要性。镀膜建筑玻璃产品大致分为两大类:太阳能量控制和高透光度,低辐射率的镀膜产品。

太阳能量控制玻璃产品一般是淡色的玻璃基板,镀有一层可见光透光度低的有色膜,这层膜可以减少太阳能量穿过窗户进入建筑物内部的透光度,以此来降低空调的成本。这些产品在热天气尤其有用,常见于商业建筑物中。而在对加热成本更为关注的地区,特别是在居民建筑物中,则希望有高透光度,低辐射率的镀层,以便使进入室内的可见光透光度高,同时将红外辐射反射回去以保持建筑物内部的热量。典型的高透光度,低辐射率的多层膜中有一层象银,金或铜等反射红外线的金属夹在象铋、铟和/或氧化锡等抗反射金属氧化物层之间。另一方面,太阳能量控制膜则是典型的一种或多种象钴、铁、铬、镍、钢等金属或金属氧化物的单层膜。

制作太阳能量控制的金属膜的湿化学法,见之于美国专利3,846,152;4,091,172;3,723,158和3,457,138。制作太阳能量控制的金属氧化物膜的热解法见之于美国专利3,660,061;3,658,568;3,978,272和4,100,330中。

制作高透光度,低辐射率的多层镀层的阴极喷镀技术公开在美国专利4,462,844中。

授予格鲁伯(Grubb)等人的美国专利号4,022,947揭示了一种可透过可见辐射的所希望部分,并可反射入射太阳辐射的大部分的透明板,和制作该板的方法。通过喷镀铁、镍和铬合金而得到的一层透明金属膜,再在氧气环境中,有反应地喷镀同种或类似合金以形成氧化膜。在一个较佳实施例中,金属膜位于基板和金属氧化物膜之间;而在另一个较佳实施例中,金属氧化物膜位于基板和金属膜之间。

本发明介绍了一种通过阴极溅镀(最好是磁控溅镀)而沉积在玻璃等基板上的太阳能量控制膜。这种膜包括一层反射金属和一层有颜色的金属化合物,最好是金属氧化物。金属层提供光亮度和反射性,而金属氧化物层可随相对厚度变化以提供由干涉效应产生的各种反射颜色。此外,因为本发明的金属氧化物在特定波长下显示出显著的光吸收性,所以可由比一般金属氧化物膜还薄的膜来产生所希望的颜色,一般金属氧化物膜是有干涉效应但无显著的光吸收性。

通过阴极溅镀,最好是磁控溅镀给一透明基板,最好是玻璃,镀膜,来制作太阳能量控制产品。该镀层包括至少一层反射金属,象金、铜、铝,最好是银;还包括至少一层金属化合物,它可通过在各种相对厚度的地方的光吸收性和干涉效应产生颜色,象铁合金、镍合金、铜、铁和钴等金属的氧化物和/或氮化物。最理想的金属化合物是不锈钢的氧化物。

在本发明的较佳实施方案中,通过在氧化反应气体中,向一个阴极靶喷镀不锈钢,使玻璃表面首先镀上一层不锈钢氧化物。然后在不反应气体象氩中,通过向阴极靶上喷镀银使不锈钢氧化物镀层的表面进一步镀上一层银。最好,在银层上再沉积一层保护层。在本发明的大部分实施例中,保护层是通过在不反应气体象氩中向阴极靶上喷镀不锈钢而得到沉积的不锈钢。镀层的相对厚度可以变化以产生各种反射色。用相对不吸收材料(象氧化铟或氧化镍)获得干涉色时,就需要用较厚的膜来产生等效于诸如不锈钢氧化物那样的吸收化合物的较薄膜的颜色。例如,要求有大约1375A厚的氧化铟膜来产生相应于大约300-600A的不锈钢氧化物的金色。由于不锈钢氧化物在光谱的兰光波长范围内的光吸收性,其金色的反射光便为较强的颜色。

在大多数较佳实施例中,不锈钢氧化物,银和不锈钢层是结合使用来生产丰富的金色镀层。本发明可从下列对专门的例子的描述中得到更好的理解。

例Ⅰ在下述条件中,依次在多个阴极下一次通过,而在一玻璃基板上沉积带不锈钢保护层的多层不锈钢氧化物和银的镀层。一块干净的玻璃基板放置在4微米压力的有50%氧和50%氩气体的真空室中,用两个功率为每个43千瓦的不锈钢阴极板上,并以每分钟100英寸(2.54米)的线速度沉积-300至600A的不锈钢氧化物镀层,将玻璃的光透射度从约90%降至约75%。接着在氩惰性气体中向一银阴极进行喷镀。以同样的线速度和6千瓦的功率,在不锈钢氧化物镀层上沉积大约200至250A的银镀层,进而将光透射度减少至14%。最后,由于暴露的银膜特别易于磨损,再通过向氩惰性气体中的不锈钢阴极进行喷镀,而在银层上沉积一层非常薄的保护膜。以同一线速度和大约1千瓦的最小功率将不锈钢保护层沉积为大约10A到50A厚,结果最终的光透射度约为12%。减薄保护层,以减小透光度的降低,以及银层的反射率的降低。从玻璃一侧看去,镀膜物体具有光亮的金色外表,这取决于不锈钢的氧化物的干涉效应和吸光性能。它吸收大约30%的4000A波长的光,但只吸收5%的5500A以上波长的光。用于这一实例中的不锈钢化合物是316合金,它包含约68%的铁,17%的铬,12%的镍和2.25%的钼。镀膜物体的光反射率为从镀层表面反射的67.7%;和从玻璃侧反射的52.9%。反射色所具有的主波长为579和576nm,色纯度分别为从镀层和玻璃表面的15.2和42.4。在一个双面镀膜的单元中,镀膜物体提供了一个0.17的遮荫系数和0.30的夏季和冬季的U值。

实例Ⅱ-Ⅹ可反射出从黄绿经黄,黄橙,橙,红橙和红色到紫色的范围内各种颜色的镀层物体可通过象例Ⅰ中沉积不锈钢氧化物,银和不锈钢至不同厚度时得到。而厚度不是直接测出的,在每次喷镀步骤之后的透光率,便为各层厚度的象征。厚度的改变是通过改变阴极的功率和/或经过该阴极的次数来实现的。在下表中,表示出沉积了第一层不锈钢氧化物(SS氧化物),一层银和一层不锈钢保护层(SS)后的透光率。该表也标明了从镀层侧R1和玻璃侧R2的光反射率。

表实例    透光率    反射率(%)    颜色SS氧化物银 SS R1R2R2Ⅱ    62.1    45.0    29.4    37.4    9.5    橙Ⅲ    55.3    40.4    28.7    40.5    6.1    红Ⅳ    51.8    37.3    26.8    43.3    5.8    紫Ⅴ    58.2    16.1    11.4    62.9    27.6    黄橙Ⅵ    62.9    17.7    13.0    62.3    34.2    黄Ⅶ    70.0    17.6    13.3    63.6    45.9    黄Ⅷ    77.8    21.3    12.4    78.9    62.8    绿黄Ⅸ    77.9    25.8    14.9    53.6    47.2    绿黄Ⅹ    78.3    16.2    14.6    51.5    46.3    金实例Ⅱ至Ⅳ的较薄的银膜产生来自涂层侧的高反射率,而实例Ⅴ至Ⅸ的较厚的银膜却产生来自玻璃侧的高反射率。

上面的实例仅用来说明本发明。可产生干涉色的各种其他的吸收金属氧化物和氮化物,象镍合金的,铜的,铁的和钴的氧化物和氧化物,可以连同其他象金,铜或铝的高反射金属一起使用。并可用任何适当的透明保护层。本发明的范围用下列权利要求予以确定。

Claims (10)

1.反射太阳能量的镀层物体,包括一个透明基底,其特征为:在所说基底的表面沉积有一金属化合物的透明膜,由于吸收和干涉效应呈现出色彩,和一个沉积在所说金属化合物的有色膜上的高红外反射透明金属膜。
2.按照权利要求1的物体,其特征在于基底是玻璃。
3.按照权利要求1的物体,其特征在于反射金属膜包括银、金、铜或铝,或其混合物。
4.按照权利要求1,2或3的镀层物体,其特征为有一透明的保护膜沉积在该高反射膜上。
5.按照权利要求4的物体,其特征为透明保护层为不锈钢。
6.按照权利要求1,2或3的物体,其特征为有色膜的金属化合物是不锈钢的氧化物或氮化物,或是镍合金的,铜的,铁的,钴的或其混合物的氧化物或氮化物。
7.按照权利要求6的物体,特征为金属化合物有色膜包括不锈钢氧化物。
8.按照权利要求7的物体,其特征在于所说物体从玻璃表面的反射中呈现金色。
9.按照权利要求7或8的物体,其特征为不锈钢包括约68%的铁,17%的铬,12%的镍和2.25%的钼。
10.按照权利要求1,2或3的物体,其特征为透明反射的有色膜是通过阴极喷镀制作的。
CN 85108851 1984-12-17 1985-12-12 带干涉色的建筑镀层 CN1016605B (zh)

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