CN101650866A - Fire detecting system applied to unmanned helicopter and fire detecting method thereof - Google Patents

Fire detecting system applied to unmanned helicopter and fire detecting method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101650866A
CN101650866A CN200910192469A CN200910192469A CN101650866A CN 101650866 A CN101650866 A CN 101650866A CN 200910192469 A CN200910192469 A CN 200910192469A CN 200910192469 A CN200910192469 A CN 200910192469A CN 101650866 A CN101650866 A CN 101650866A
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fire
infrared image
risk point
data
unmanned plane
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CN200910192469A
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Chinese (zh)
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裴海龙
王思嘉
刘馨
刘富春
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华南理工大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a fire detecting system applied to an unmanned helicopter and a fire detecting method thereof. The system comprises infrared image acquiring equipment and a signal processing flow network, wherein the signal processing flow network comprises an input layer, a middle layer and an output layer; the temperature gradient operator calculation is respectively carried out in the vertical direction, the horizontal direction, the direction of plus 45 degrees and the direction of minus 45 degrees in the center of a suspected area, and a calculation result is a basis of judging fire flame; a differential algorithm adopting interframe time difference as the time change rate is carried out by a method for subtracting absolute values of adjacent interframe pixel gray values, anda calculation result is used as a basis of judging a fire high-risk point. The invention rapidly recognizes the fire flame and the fire high-risk point by a platform with low cost and high efficiencyof the unmanned helicopter through an infrared camera, early warns a fire accurately in time and has the characteristics of manoeuvrability, high efficiency and no dead angle. A fire flame and fire high-risk point detecting algorithm designed by aiming at the detection of an infrared image is efficient, simple, practical and effective.

Description

A kind of fire detection system and fire detection method thereof that is applied to unmanned plane

Technical field

The present invention relates to fire detection system, be meant a kind of fire detection system and fire detection method thereof that is applied to unmanned plane especially.

Background technology

Forest fire is one of great disaster that people's lives and properties are brought about great losses, and is the important component part of fire prevention to the detection early warning of forest fire always.At present, the forest fire prevention is divided into following several: 1, hand inspection; 2, pyrotechnics sensor, the camera of fixed position; 3, use various civilian aircraft patrols, check fiery point.

Manually patrol the mountain and check, with low cost, be to use more forest fire precautionary approach, but the naked eyes identification capability is extremely limited, to not forming the incipient fire agnosia power of flame as yet, can't reach the incipient fire quick identification.

Be installed in the pyrotechnics sensor of fixed position, can effectively cover large-area forest, mountain region, stronger flame pre-alerting ability is arranged.But owing to limited by the landform in forest, mountain region, the installation site of pyrotechnics sensor has been subjected to restriction to a certain degree, thereby can't avoid occurring observing the possibility at dead angle.In addition, obtain effective fire detection effect and need the huge sensor of quantity, the high maintenance cost of these sensors has also increased the fireproof cost.

Various civilian aircraft are patrolled and examined, though can be effectively and also the discovery forest fire, do not exist and observe the dead angle, but the rent of civilian aircraft is with high, the cost that causes preventing fires is very high, and to the high-risk point of obducent fire is arranged, it is limited to patrol and examine checking ability.

Along with the development of unmanned plane technology, unmanned plane is all being played the part of the role who becomes more and more important in a lot of fields, but uses the unmanned plane fire detection of infrared camera still to belong to blank.In addition, in the fire detection algorithm field, it all is comparatively ripe flame detection algorithm that flame detection algorithm based on coloured image, pyrotechnics detection algorithm, luminance brightness detection algorithm etc. are arranged, but these flame detection algorithms all only are applicable to the fire detection of coloured image, and can't obtain desirable detection effect aspect the fire detection of infrared image.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is to overcome above-mentioned the deficiencies in the prior art part, provide a kind of depopulated helicopter cost that utilizes low, the platform that efficient is high, design is at the fire detection system and the fire detection method thereof of infrared image, thereby the high-risk point of quick identification fire disaster flame and fire, timely, accurate early warning fire.

A kind of fire detection system that is applied to unmanned plane comprises inertial navigation system, positioning system, it is characterized in that: also comprise infrared image acquiring equipment and signal processing flow network,

Described infrared image acquiring equipment comprises:

Embedded computer is used for collecting and stores infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and latitude altitude information, and communicates by wireless router and wireless network and land station computing machine and to be connected;

Image pick-up card, the infrared image that is used for collecting changes digital signal into;

Infrared camera is used to gather open-air infrared image;

Described signal processing flow network comprises:

Input layer: input infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and latitude altitude information;

Middle layer: by infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and three kinds of input quantities of latitude altitude information are carried out the computing of temperature threshold values, thermograde and differential;

Output layer: whether the threshold values data of the fire characteristic in the operation result of temperature threshold values and thermograde and the program variable, obtaining is the result of fire disaster flame or the high-risk point of fire if being compared.

The fire detection method that adopts the above-mentioned fire detection system that is applied to unmanned plane to realize is characterized in that,

The analog image information of described infrared camera collection inputs to and is converted to digital signal in the image pick-up card, again digital signal is imported embedded computer, is the infrared image gray value data; By attitude angle data that inertial navigation system, positioning system produced and the latitude altitude information on the embedded computer collection unmanned plane;

Described embedded computer is sent to land station computing machine with the form of packet by wireless router and wireless network with infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and latitude altitude information;

Described land station computing machine carries out the calculation process of temperature threshold values, thermograde and differential to infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and three kinds of input quantities of latitude altitude information, whether then the threshold values data of the fire characteristic in the operation result of temperature threshold values and thermograde and the program variable are compared, obtaining is the result of fire disaster flame or the high-risk point of fire; Determine the target location of the high-risk point of fire disaster flame or fire, and be presented on land station's computer screen.

The described operational method that infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and three kinds of input quantities of latitude altitude information are carried out temperature threshold values and thermograde is: in the zone central authorities that doubtful fire or the high-risk point of doubtful fire occur to vertically, level, positive and negative 45 degree four directions are done the computing of thermograde operator respectively, and operation result is as the foundation of judging fire disaster flame.

The described calculation process that infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and three kinds of input quantities of latitude altitude information are carried out differential is meant, the method of using adjacent interframe grey scale pixel value absolute value to subtract each other is carried out with the differential algorithm of interframe mistiming as time rate of change, and operation result is as the foundation of judging the high-risk point of fire.

The present invention compared with prior art has following outstanding advantage and effect:

1, the present invention utilizes the depopulated helicopter cost low, and the platform that efficient is high is by using the infrared image and the feature of infrared camera, the high-risk point of quick identification fire disaster flame and fire, timely, accurate early warning fire.

2, compare the fire detection system that is installed in the fixed position, there is not the dead angle in the present invention, has motor-driven, characteristics of high efficiency.

3, compare various civilian aircraft and patrol and examine, the present invention has reduced the fire detection cost effectively.

4, at the fire disaster flame and efficiently simple and direct, the practicability and effectiveness of high-risk some detection algorithm of fire of the detection design of infrared image of the present invention, use less system overhead to reach higher relatively accuracy of identification, and can effectively filter open-air interfere information such as transformer station, the reflection of sun minute surface etc., reduce false alarm rate, improved the reliability of this system.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a kind of fire detection system hardware configuration synoptic diagram that is applied to unmanned plane;

Fig. 2 is a kind of fire detection system fire data signal procedure process flow diagram that is applied to unmanned plane;

Fig. 3 is a kind of fire detection system fire information handling procedure process flow diagram that is applied to unmanned plane.

Embodiment

The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with embodiment, but embodiments of the present invention are not limited thereto.

The embodiment of the invention adopts the unmanned plane of trial-production of certain research project as platform, and this unmanned plane can be realized autonomous fixed point flight, independently hovers flare maneuvers such as remote manual control flight.Be used to store and the embedded computer that view data is calculated is adopted the PC104 single-borad computer; Use the VFG7350 image pick-up card of RTD company to realize that infrared image changes digital signal; PHOTON FLIR series infrared camera.

As shown in Figure 1, the hardware components that is applied to the fire detection system of unmanned plane mainly comprises unmanned plane and inertial navigation system thereof, positioning system and the infrared image acquiring equipment of being made up of embedded computer, image pick-up card, infrared camera, and their annexation is: the IMU inertial navigation system element on the unmanned plane, GPS GPS element all are connected with the serial data interface of embedded board computer PC 104 speed with 115200bps; Infrared camera is connected by the composite video line with the VFG7350 image pick-up card; Again the VFG7350 image pick-up card is connected with PC104+ slot on the embedded board computer PC 104, be connected with wireless router by the Ethernet interface of netting twine with embedded board computer PC 104, wireless router keeps data communication by wireless network and land station's (computing machine).

The fire detection method that adopts the above-mentioned fire detection system that is applied to unmanned plane to realize comprises:

As shown in Figure 2, input layer in signal processing flow network, analog image information with the infrared camera collection inputs in the VFG7350 image pick-up card in real time, by the SAA7134 of image pick-up card inside picture decoding chip with the input analog signal conversion be digital signal; Again digital signal is imported embedded board computer PC 104, and the view data read module that is embedded in the fire data signal procedure of formula single board computer PC104 collects, be the infrared image gray value data.

Collect the IMU inertial navigation system parts on the unmanned plane, attitude angle data and the latitude altitude information that GPS GPS parts are produced by the attitude read module in the fire data signal procedure on embedded board computer PC 104.

Above-mentioned infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and latitude altitude information be as the raw data of fire algorithm identified computing, by with netting twine the wireless router that the Ethernet interface of embedded board computer PC 104 is connected is sent to land station's (computing machine) to above-mentioned three kinds of raw data with the form of packet by wireless network.

As shown in Figure 3,, accept module in the fire information handling procedure of land station's computing machine, read three kinds of raw data that wireless network is passed back in the middle layer of signal processing flow network.Wherein, the infrared image gray value data of gathering, each pixel of infrared image all uses the height of its temperature of numeral among the 0-255, and the temperature of numeral and reality is linear, and 0 is minimum, and 255 for the highest.In the visual field of infrared camera, occur surpassing presetting threshold values T 0Pixel region the time, judge that doubtful fire disaster flame or the high-risk point of doubtful fire appear in this beat.

The judgement recognizer concrete at fire is as follows:

The zone central authorities of doubtful fire or the high-risk point of doubtful fire are appearring, respectively to vertically, and level, positive and negative 45 degree four directions are done the thermograde computing, as R 5Vertically, level, the thermograde computing of positive and negative 45 degree directions is as follows:

Vertical grad (R 5)=2*R 6+ R 3+ R 9-2*R 4-R 1-R 7

Horizontal grad (R 5)=2*R 2+ R 1+ R 3-2*R 8-R 9-R 7

Positive 45 ° of grad (R 5)=2*R 3+ R 2+ R 6-2*R 7-R 4-R 8

Negative 45 ° of grad (R 5)=2*R 7+ R 4+ R 8-2*R 3-R 2-R 6

??R 1 ??R 2 ??R 3 ??R 4 ??R 5 ??R 6 ??R 7 ??R 8 ??R 9

By the thermograde computing that above-mentioned four direction is made, the data structure of the thermograde value of the four direction in the doubtful zone boundary with single linked list is stored in land station's computing machine, this single linked list is recorded as Q1, in the time of infrared camera collection next frame image, repeat this process, and write down new single linked list and be recorded as Q2, difference and the flame temperature graded threshold values T that is preset in the program of Q2 and Q1 1Compare, when changing greater than T 1Then the instability decidable according to flame is an outdoor fire disaster flame, when changing less than T 1Then can think the infrared origin of other stable and controllable, as transformer station, hi-line etc. do not belong to the object of fire detection, belong to interfere information, are promptly filtered.

With the infrared image of paper combustion flame and the infrared image of electric light is example, and the thermograde computing of positive 45 degree directions is as follows:

Material Burning paper gradient chained list 1 Burning paper gradient chained list 2 Electric light gradient chained list 1 Electric light gradient chained list 2 ??1 ??59 ??98 ??53 ??52 ??2 ??21 ??0 ??77 ??80 ??3 ??153 ??52 ??19 ??16 ??4 ??65 ??79 ??23 ??20 ??5 ??9 ??86 ??45 ??42

The thermograde operation result shows that electric light gradient chained list 1 is relatively stable with the infrared radiation source thermograde value of electric light gradient chained list 2, can regard as non-fire, and burning paper gradient chained list 1 is bigger with the infrared radiation source thermograde value saltus step of burning paper gradient chained list 2, can regard as flame.

The judgement recognizer concrete at the high-risk point of fire is as follows:

Be judged as the zone of non-fire according to above-mentioned algorithm, use following two steps whether this zone further to be belonged to the identification of the high-risk point of fire: the method that (1) at first adopts adjacent interframe grey scale pixel value absolute value to subtract each other for this suspicious region is carried out with the differential algorithm of interframe mistiming as time rate of change; (2) background image being carried out a value is 0.2 average value filtering, with carrying out the evaluate parameter of the result of differential algorithm as the high-risk point of fire, with the temperature variation threshold values T in the initialize program variable 2Compare, if greater than temperature variation threshold values T 2Then return the high-risk fire point of fire and report to the police, if less than temperature variation threshold values T 2Then think common open-air high temperature, do not have the danger of fire.

In the output layer of signal processing flow network, in the fire detection flow process, detect above-mentioned two kinds of detected objects, i.e. the high-risk point of fire disaster flame and fire, the target that then highlighted delineation detects, and the geography information of detected object is presented at land station, the specific implementation step is as follows:

(1) inertial navigation system (IMU inertial navigation components) by the unmanned plane that is connected with embedded computer PC104, the attitude information of the unmanned plane that in the unmanned plane during flying process, constantly returns, pitch luffing angle, yaw angle of drift angle, the row angle of rolling, because the installation site of infrared camera on unmanned plane fixed, thereby as long as by the angular pose transition matrix, get final product the attitude information of infrared camera.

(2) will be the center pixel coordinate of detected fire disaster flame or the high-risk point of fire, by the method to how much of the utmost points, what calculate the high-risk point of fire is that the world of reference system is coordinate with the unmanned plane, as one of parameter of data fusion.

(3) latitude and the elevation information that is returned by the GPS positioning system on the unmanned plane, the world in the integrating step (1) in attitude information and the step (2) is coordinate, can obtain the residing geography information of the high-risk point of fire disaster flame or fire, and on the display of land station's computing machine, demonstrate this position in picture highlightedly.

As mentioned above, can realize the present invention preferably.

Claims (5)

1, a kind of fire detection system that is applied to unmanned plane comprises inertial navigation system, positioning system, it is characterized in that: also comprise infrared image acquiring equipment and signal processing flow network,
Described infrared image acquiring equipment comprises:
Embedded computer is used for collecting and stores infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and latitude altitude information, and communicates by wireless router and wireless network and land station computing machine and to be connected;
Image pick-up card, the infrared image that is used for collecting changes digital signal into;
Infrared camera is used to gather open-air infrared image;
Described signal processing flow network comprises:
Input layer: input infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and latitude altitude information;
Middle layer: by infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and three kinds of input quantities of latitude altitude information are carried out the computing of temperature threshold values, thermograde and differential;
Output layer: whether the threshold values data of the fire characteristic in the operation result of temperature threshold values and thermograde and the program variable, obtaining is the result of fire disaster flame or the high-risk point of fire if being compared.
2, the fire detection method that adopts the described a kind of fire detection system that is applied to unmanned plane of claim 1 to realize is characterized in that,
The analog image information of described infrared camera collection inputs to and is converted to digital signal in the image pick-up card, again digital signal is imported embedded computer, is the infrared image gray value data; By attitude angle data that inertial navigation system, positioning system produced and the latitude altitude information on the embedded computer collection unmanned plane;
Described embedded computer is sent to land station computing machine with the form of packet by wireless router and wireless network with infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and latitude altitude information;
Described land station computing machine carries out the calculation process of temperature threshold values, thermograde and differential to infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and three kinds of input quantities of latitude altitude information, whether then the threshold values data of the fire characteristic in the operation result of temperature threshold values and thermograde and the program variable are compared, obtaining is the result of fire disaster flame or the high-risk point of fire; Determine the target location of the high-risk point of fire disaster flame or fire, and be presented on land station's computer screen.
3, a kind of fire detection method that is applied to unmanned plane according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the described operational method that infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and three kinds of input quantities of latitude altitude information are carried out temperature threshold values and thermograde is: in the zone central authorities that doubtful fire or the high-risk point of doubtful fire occur to vertically, level, positive and negative 45 degree four directions are done the computing of thermograde operator respectively, and operation result is as the foundation of judging fire disaster flame.
4, a kind of fire detection method that is applied to unmanned plane according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the described calculation process that infrared image gray value data, attitude angle data and three kinds of input quantities of latitude altitude information are carried out differential is meant, the method of using adjacent interframe grey scale pixel value absolute value to subtract each other is carried out with the differential algorithm of interframe mistiming as time rate of change, and operation result is as the foundation of judging the high-risk point of fire.
5, a kind of fire detection method that is applied to unmanned plane according to claim 2 is characterized in that: the target location of the high-risk point of described fire disaster flame or fire is definite in the following way,
(1) by inertial navigation system, gather the attitude information of the unmanned plane that constantly returns in the flight course, comprise pitch luffing angle, yaw angle of drift angle, the row angle of rolling, by the angular pose transition matrix, can obtain the attitude information of infrared camera;
(2) will be the center pixel coordinate of detected fire disaster flame or the high-risk point of fire, by the method to how much of the utmost points, what calculate the high-risk point of fire is that the world of reference system is coordinate with the unmanned plane, as one of parameter of data fusion;
(3) latitude and the elevation information of gathering by positioning system, the world in the integrating step (1) in attitude information and the step (2) is coordinate, can obtain the residing geography information of the high-risk point of fire disaster flame or fire.
CN200910192469A 2009-09-22 2009-09-22 Fire detecting system applied to unmanned helicopter and fire detecting method thereof CN101650866A (en)

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