CN101649366B - Method and device for making iron by smelting reduction - Google Patents

Method and device for making iron by smelting reduction Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101649366B
CN101649366B CN2009100738630A CN200910073863A CN101649366B CN 101649366 B CN101649366 B CN 101649366B CN 2009100738630 A CN2009100738630 A CN 2009100738630A CN 200910073863 A CN200910073863 A CN 200910073863A CN 101649366 B CN101649366 B CN 101649366B
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furnace
shell
gas
iron
smelting
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CN2009100738630A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101649366A (en
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贾会平
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贾会平
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C5/00Manufacture of carbon-steel, e.g. plain mild steel, medium carbon steel or cast steel or stainless steel
    • C21C5/52Manufacture of steel in electric furnaces
    • C21C5/5211Manufacture of steel in electric furnaces in an alternating current [AC] electric arc furnace
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21BMANUFACTURE OF IRON OR STEEL
    • C21B11/00Making pig-iron other than in blast furnaces
    • C21B11/08Making pig-iron other than in blast furnaces in hearth-type furnaces
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21BMANUFACTURE OF IRON OR STEEL
    • C21B11/00Making pig-iron other than in blast furnaces
    • C21B11/10Making pig-iron other than in blast furnaces in electric furnaces
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21BMANUFACTURE OF IRON OR STEEL
    • C21B13/00Making spongy iron or liquid steel, by direct processes
    • C21B13/0006Making spongy iron or liquid steel, by direct processes obtaining iron or steel in a molten state
    • C21B13/0013Making spongy iron or liquid steel, by direct processes obtaining iron or steel in a molten state introduction of iron oxide into a bath of molten iron containing a carbon reductant
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21BMANUFACTURE OF IRON OR STEEL
    • C21B13/00Making spongy iron or liquid steel, by direct processes
    • C21B13/12Making spongy iron or liquid steel, by direct processes in electric furnaces
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C1/00Refining of pig-iron; Cast iron
    • C21C1/02Dephosphorising or desulfurising
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C5/00Manufacture of carbon-steel, e.g. plain mild steel, medium carbon steel or cast steel or stainless steel
    • C21C5/28Manufacture of steel in the converter
    • C21C5/285Plants therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/10Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions
    • Y02P10/134Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions by avoiding CO2, e.g. using hydrogen
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/20Recycling

Abstract

The invention relates to a method and a device for making iron by smelting reduction. The method for making iron by smelting reduction comprises the following steps: putting raw material forming matters into a smelting ironmaking device; heating and reducing the raw material forming matters into metallic iron; after the reduced metalation rate of various oxides of iron reaches 40-95 percent in raw materials, heating and melting products of a reducing furnace; and producing direct reduction molten steel or molten iron produced by the similar blast furnace. The raw materials comprise a breath shell or a half-breath shell or an opening shell or the combination of the raw materials, a coating shells of the breath shell, the half-breath shell and the opening shell is prepared by adding an adhesive in calcium oxide or calcium carbonate or calcium carbide or the combination of the materials. The device for making iron by smelting reduction comprises an arc furnace, a buried arc furnace, a converter, an induction furnace, and the like. After reduction products are heated and melted, and oxygen or inert gas is blown into the arc furnace in order to remove slag. Due to the adoption of a shell coating technology, the method and the device effectively prevent from oxidizing reduced matters in the process, avoid bonding formed matters for contact and are combined with blowing gas and are good for making slag. Slag iron has good separation effect, and the produced iron and steel products have good quality.

Description

The electric arc furnace device of fused reduction iron-smelting
Technical field
The present invention relates to the method and apparatus of fused reduction iron-smelting, relating to natural nugget or people's agglomeration iron ore specifically is raw material, directly reduces the method and apparatus of the molten iron that molten steel and similar blast furnace produce with the melting reduction device production that has a thermophore.
Background technology
Fused reduction iron-smelting is the important component part that present steel is produced, its principal feature is as the disposable energy and reductive agent with mill coal, ferric oxide is reduced under molten state, have briquet replacing coke, flow process is short, environmental pollution is little, construction investment is few, advantages such as production cost is low are by extensively good in the industry field. and the iron and steel enterprise of various countries competitively researchs and develops.The method of existing fused reduction iron-smelting mainly contains COREX method (CN1010323B), DIOS method (CN1035136A), HISELT method (CN1037542A).COREX method suitability for industrialized production wherein, other two kinds of methods are still under test.The principal feature of COREX method is that ferric oxide pellet or lump ore are made raw material, adopts prereduction and whole reduction two step method, and prereduction is carried out in shaft furnace, and reduction is finished in melting gasification furnace eventually.Though the COREX method has obtained breakthrough success, still have its deficiency, low as productivity, coal consumption, oxygen consumption height, facility investment is big, and flow process complexity etc. are compared with existing advanced blast furnace ironmaking, still lack competitiveness.
The applicant is the method that has disclosed a kind of three-step metal reducing in the 200810079321.X application for a patent for invention in the patent No., this method is made forming composition with metal oxide and a certain amount of carbon, binding agent, CaO and water, insert reducing apparatus, the first step be forming composition at secluding air, carry out prereduction under the state of starvation; Second step was to collect the bubbing that produces in the first step reduction process, and to bubbing cool off, purifying treatment and pressurization; The 3rd step was that end reducing furnace utilizes bubbing as reductive agent or thermal barrier, the material that pre-reducing furnace is come out further reduces, and use bubbing with by the air of heat exchange or oxygen rich gas mixed firing, also can make bubbing and pure oxygen be blended in the end reducing furnace internal combustion heats the reduction furnace product, realize whole reduction reaction and fusing, slagging-off finally produces molten iron or directly reduces molten steel.The applicant provides a kind of method and apparatus of electric arc furnace fused reduction iron-smelting in for another application for a patent for invention of 200810079930.5 at application number, and smelting furnace partly includes body of heater, bell, electrode, feeding equipment and discharging equipment.Described device also comprises at least one pair of process furnace and at least one pair of thermophore; Process furnace is connected with the body of heater of electric arc furnace by Link Port; One end of thermophore is connected with process furnace, and the other end is connected with blowdown system, blower fan and gas treatment equipment respectively.The present invention makes full use of the bubbing that smelting reduction process produces, and makes the bubbing burning add heat storage in thermal material and the thermophore, by gas circulation heat is brought in the body of heater from thermophore again, makes Btu utilization reach optimizing.It is easily oxidized that but technique scheme also exists in the reduction process raw material forming composition, weak point such as slag iron is not easily separated.
Summary of the invention
For solving the deficiencies in the prior art, the invention provides a kind of method of fused reduction iron-smelting, make the material forming thing not oxidized in reduction process, do not influence the heat transmission again, optimize iron manufacturing process, molten steel fully separates with slag, production high-quality product made from steel, and another object of the present invention provides the device of the fused reduction iron-smelting of realizing described method.
The method of electric arc furnace fused reduction iron-smelting provided by the invention is, the material forming thing is placed electric arc furnace, heating is reduced into metallic iron, after the oxide compound reduced metal rate of the various iron in the raw material reaches 40~95%, the reduction furnace product is proceeded heating and fusing, the molten iron that direct production reduction molten steel or similar blast furnace are produced.Described raw material is for breathing shell or partly breathing shell or unlimited shell, perhaps three's mixing.Breathe shell, partly breathe shell and open wide shell and be defined as follows:
(1) breathe shell: described breathing shell mainly is made up of heart portion forming composition and outer envelope:
1. heart portion forming composition is divided four classes: i, coating and shaping thing Fe not again 2O 3, Fe 3O 4Oxide compound Deng iron mixes the back spin or is pressed into pelletizing with carbonaceous materials such as coal dust, coke powders, also can make the forming composition of other shape, the carbon content of forming composition inside can be the same or different, allow in the forming composition to add other material such as materials such as calcium oxide or lime carbonate, forming composition composition and intensity are more suitable for; Ii, spherical among the i or other shape forming composition are added the carbonaceous material dressing, allow to add other material such as materials such as calcium oxide or lime carbonate in the carbonaceous material, dressing can the spin dressing, pressure ball dressing, Coal powder spray dressing, dipping dressing, also can at difform forming composition with other method with the carbonaceous material dressing on coating and shaping thing not; Iii, forming composition also can be nonferrous material or few ferruginous material, as carbonaceous material, lime, Wingdale etc.; Iv, heart portion forming composition are after coating and shaping thing such as coal dust, coke powder, blue charcoal, refinery coke etc. or carbonaceous material or above-mentioned material do not mix, spin or be pressed into pelletizing, also can make the forming composition of other shape, the carbon content of forming composition inside can be the same or different, allow in the forming composition to add other material such as materials such as calcium oxide or lime carbonate, forming composition composition and intensity are more suitable for; In addition, the physical dimension of heart portion forming composition can according to heart portion forming composition material properties, the smelting furnace working of a furnace, be required smelting furnace atmosphere situation etc. changeable, the heart portion forming composition that different overall dimensions are arranged in can same smelting furnace, the also heart portion forming composition that can form by different substances.
In addition, the physical dimension of heart portion forming composition can according to heart portion forming composition material properties, the smelting furnace working of a furnace, be required smelting furnace atmosphere situation etc. changeable, the heart portion forming composition that different overall dimensions can be arranged in the same smelting furnace, the also heart portion forming composition that can form by different substances.
2. outer envelope it be by similar Wingdale, rhombspar, material such as lime or calcium carbide or their mixture and some other materials such as all kinds of binding agent such as silicon sol, water glass, phosphoric acid, mixing such as aluminum oxide, and allow to add some other material such as metal, metal oxide, carbonaceous material, organism and inorganics etc., these materials are mixed or combination in a certain way, with heart portion forming composition parcel wherein, the method of involucrum can be a spin, the pressure ball involucrum, can also be dust involucrum or dipping involucrum, permission might not be adopted in involucrum and to add other material and do functions such as skeleton, reach to allow to adopt and manually bore a hole on involucrum to strengthen ventilation property, the area in single hole is determined by character of breathing shell and material proportioning with its distributional pattern and quantity on involucrum.Involucrum will have certain low temperature intensity or hot strength, carries out the drying course or the sintering process of suitable temp behind the permission involucrum.The thickness of shell also will be according to the material properties and the proportioning of whole breathing shell, and shell is formed and outer shell matter proportioning, and the decision of factors such as the smelting furnace working of a furnace can thickly approach.The involucrum that allows the different piece of same involucrum in the same breathing shell to adopt the different thickness different substances to form, the involucrum that places the involucrum of the breathing shell of same smelting furnace can adopt different thickness or different substances to form.
In the time will breathing shell and put into various smelting furnaces and heat, the atmosphere in the smelting furnace can be selected according to the characteristic of all kinds of breathing shells, both can be oxidizing atmosphere, also can be reducing atmosphere, also can be weak oxide atmosphere.Breathe shell under the temperature that is fit to, mainly to be that breathing shell calciferous is an example, the divided calcium carbonate in its shell solves CO 2Discharge, breathe the heat transmission that the shell shell will the smelting furnace outside and enter heart portion forming composition, materials such as carbon containing and ferric oxide produce reduction reactions in the heart portion forming composition, and produce CO, CO 2, H 2, gas such as hydro carbons, these gases also are similar to divided calcium carbonate and solve CO from shell 2Discharging the breathing shell in the space that such form stays enters in the smelting furnace, the quantity that the gas of smelting furnace enters in the heart portion forming composition in cycle regular hour and temperature range can several situations occur according to the proportioning and the Substance Properties thereof of breathing shell shell and heart portion forming composition material, a kind of is almost not have gas in the smelting furnace to enter in the heart portion forming composition of breathing in the shell, and heart portion forming composition is reduced under the extraneous gas body interferential situation not having; A kind of is to have the gas in the smelting furnace seldom to enter the heart portion forming composition of breathing in the shell, thereby has participated in the reduction reaction of carrying out in the heart portion forming composition; Another kind is to have the gas in a lot of smelting furnaces to enter the heart portion forming composition of breathing in the shell, thereby has participated in reduction reaction wherein largely.
The shell of breathing shell can be heated in the interval lower from temperature and occur following state the process in the higher interval of temperature: the shell of 1. breathing shell can remain to very that high-temperature all has complete shape, the shell of breathing shell in the time of can making heart portion forming composition finish most reduction reaction still is kept perfectly, even up to forming composition fusion of heart portion or semi-melting state, or the shell that direct fusion is breathed shell when becoming liquid has been still intact form, at this moment can utilize smelting furnaces such as electric arc furnace that it is heated, breathing shell shell is entered in the liquid metal as flux, slag iron separates or the slag steel separates thereby finish, produce the molten iron of direct reduction molten steel or the production of similar blast furnace, the shell of breathing shell can select to conduct electricity good material mixes wherein as with the identical metal of heart portion forming composition metal oxide, or its metal oxide and metallic compound, be convenient to heat-processed subsequently; 2. the shell of breathing shell can not keep for a long time or high-temperature or be carbonaceous material very, thereby cracking, spot corrosion promptly occurring forms and partly breathes shell, part in the heart portion forming composition is exposed in the smelting furnace atmosphere, can select smelting furnace atmosphere according to the degree of breathing shell shell cracking, spot corrosion, reduction process and subsequent melting process can be carried out in suitable atmosphere; 3. breathe the shell shell when high temperature is arrived in low-temperature heat, the shape that almost can not keep shell, almost heart portion forming composition and smelting furnace atmosphere effectively can not be isolated the unlimited shell of i.e. formation, at this moment smelting furnace atmosphere influences heart portion forming composition strongly, atmosphere in the smelting furnace requires to satisfy the requirement of reduction and fusing, so that metal oxide can reduce and can keep reduced state, avoid repeated oxidation.
(2) partly breathe shell: described partly breathe the shell primary structure with form identical with the breathing shell; just in smelting furnace from low temperature to high-temperature heating process; breathe the shell shell and produce destructions such as cracking, spot corrosion; thereby the corresponding therewith position of heart portion forming composition is exposed in the atmosphere in the smelting furnace, and the other parts of breathing shell also make heart portion forming composition and smelting furnace inter gas keep certain buffer action under the protection of shell.
(3) open wide shell: described unlimited shell is: 1. identical with composition with the primary structure of breathing shell, but the shell of breathing shell almost can not keep original shape of shell from low-temperature heat to high temperature the time, almost heart portion forming composition and smelting furnace atmosphere effectively can not be isolated, smelting furnace atmosphere influences heart portion forming composition strongly; 2. heart portion forming composition is not blended in the smelting furnace with one or more of materials such as lump stone calcium oxide or lime carbonate or carbide of calcium, coal cinder, coal dust, coke button under having the situation of outer envelope, under suitable smelting furnace atmosphere, under relevant temperature, metal oxide reduces and melts formation and directly goes back raw steel or be similar to the molten iron that blast furnace is produced.Unlimited shell also comprises the blocky mixture of heart portion forming composition and blocky flux such as calcium oxide.
Breathe shell, partly breathe shell and open wide shell and can in the smelting furnaces such as the combination type of furnace of converter, electric arc furnace, open hearth, plasma heating furnace, iron-smelting blast furnace, resistance furnace, induction heater, Submerged-arc Furnace, melting and reducing electric arc furnace or above-mentioned stove kind, heat.Atmosphere in the smelting furnace can be according to characteristic selective oxidation atmosphere, reducing atmosphere or the weak oxide atmosphere of breathing shell, partly breathing shell and opening wide shell.For the shell of breathing shell almost do not have gas in the smelting furnace enter heart portion forming composition or seldom gas in the smelting furnace enter heart portion forming composition, smelting furnace can select to adopt oxidizing atmosphere or weak oxide atmosphere to heat breathing shell, but also do not get rid of with reducing atmosphere it is not heated; For having gas in a lot of smelting furnaces to enter the situation of breathing the heart portion forming composition in the shell and partly breathing shell or unlimited shell should adopt weak oxide atmosphere or reducing atmosphere that it is heated, can not adopt oxidizing atmosphere that it is heated but do not get rid of by shell yet.
Breathe shell, partly breathing shell and open wide shell can be in converter, electric arc furnace, open hearth, plasma heating furnace, resistance furnace, induction heater, Submerged-arc Furnace, in the smelting furnaces such as the combination type of furnace of fusion reducing furnace or above-mentioned stove kind under the appropriate atmosphere direct heating make its reduction and fusing form directly the reduction molten steel or be similar to the molten iron that blast furnace is produced, in the time of also can in other stove, being heated to certain temperature, change in these smelting furnaces, as in fusion reducing furnace, be heated to certain temperature after one's own heart portion's forming composition reach fusion or semi-melting state, or metal oxide reverts under to a certain degree the state, change over to coupled or independent other smelting furnace of placing in or make fusion reducing furnace itself have the function of these smelting furnaces.Carry out electric-arc heating as in fusion reducing furnace, inserting electrode, or add induction coil in its furnace wall and carry out induction heating, or be blown into oxygen and be similar to converter melting etc.Wherein fusion reducing furnace can be varied, can be the multiple type of furnaces such as shaft furnace, rotary kiln, pit kiln, wherein shaft furnace can be selected the peripheral burner shaft furnace of blast furnace beam type kiln, sleeve kiln, two thorax kiln or peripheral air intake and fuel, it also can be specific fusion reducing furnace, no matter be that the sort of type of furnace all has a common characteristic, promptly heating fuel wherein has quite a few from breathing shell, partly breathing CO, the H that the heart portion forming composition metallic reducing of shell or unlimited shell is produced 2, inflammable gas such as hydro carbons, contain inflammable gas such as CO, H2, hydro carbons or other types of gases or medium again by these and bring in the smelting furnace by being wrapped in the forms such as shell of breathing on the shell enter its generation of back of burning in the fusion reducing furnace or burn outside fusion reducing furnace heat energy, or inflammable gas generating and employing electrically heated form that motive portion forming composition produces heat melting.And the heat energy that these fuel produce accounts for whole or a large portion of reduction and melting process institute heat requirement.
To breathe shell such as shell be heated the back hole less can be at the system shell time add predetermined substance, as adding low melting point, to increase porosity.Can when making shell, add predetermined substance reduction porosity as space on the heating rear casing is more, as in containing the carbonic acid calcium substance, adding SiO 2/ Al 2O 3Deng material, reduce the porosity under the high temperature.The material that preparation breathes shell, partly breathe shell and unlimited shell shell can adopt the powder of materials such as certain particle size lime, Wingdale, rhombspar, carbide of calcium, also can adopt the particle of the materials such as lime, Wingdale, rhombspar, carbide of calcium of certain particle size.
Can carry out following process in various suitable stove kinds, also can carry out melting and suitable product is produced in heating with following material: breathe and make heart portion forming composition after shell also can adopt coal dust and lime powder or calcium carbonate powders mix with a definite form certain proportion, the form of wrapping lime carbonate or calcium oxide outer shell again is used to produce the melting of carbide of calcium and produces process; Breathe shell, partly breathe the smelting that shell and unlimited shell technology can be used for other metal, also can be used for the calcination process of lime carbonate, magnesiumcarbonate.Also can be used for material involucrums such as lime carbonate or magnesiumcarbonate, carbonaceous material is wrapped in the shell in various stoves, calcines the back with certain temperature and form coke that contains material shells such as calcium oxide or the semicoke that contains material shells such as calcium oxide, lime carbonate, magnesiumcarbonate, be used for the place that blast furnace, cupola furnace, calcium carbide smelting furnace etc. need coke or semicoke.The present invention also is particularly suitable for some Metal Melting technologies or some chemical techniquees so like this, promptly breathe shell, partly breathe shell, open wide the partner of shell involucrum as employed flux of whole technology or whole technology, breathe that reduction reaction in the heart portion forming composition in the shell or chemical reaction require in interval and certain process time in certain temperature to be isolated from or be isolated from other material except that the involucrum material in gas under the atmosphere in smelting furnace or the process furnace or the smelting furnace to not a half, smelting furnace needs heart portion forming composition to carry out acting as a fuel or the desired technology partner of technology after the inflammable gas that produced behind reduction reaction or the chemical reaction or the hole in other gas permeation involucrum enter smelting furnace under simultaneously often a lot of situations, and while heart portion's forming composition reduction reaction resultant or chemical reaction product, be all necessary technology partner with other material in involucrum material and the smelting furnace, breathe the shell material and partly breathe shell, opening wide material that other material in shell and the smelting furnace participates in reduction process or chemical reaction process hardly or only play catalyst action only accounts for very little in reduction reaction technology or chemical reaction process or than small proportion.Under most of situation, the involucrum that reduction reaction technology in the heart portion forming composition or chemical reaction process need breathe shell, partly breathe shell, open wide shell advances heart portion forming composition with the heat in the smelting furnace by the involucrum transmission, whole or a large portion as its reduction reaction or heat that chemical reaction process requires, the CONTROL PROCESS process is selected the suitable device combination, the ratio of inflammable gas is very low in the flue gas that can realize discharging from smelting furnace and system thereof, and the temperature of the flue gas of discharging is also lower.Because it is more succinct and compact that whole reducing process or chemical technology required equipment are arranged, therefore, whole smelting furnace and important auxiliary facility thereof all can be able to be enclosed in the large container that rare gas element is housed as selecting, wall of container can be selected transparent, opaque or vitrina, as it is medium to enclose the rare gas element helium, this large container is connected to gas treatment equipment, gas in the container is carried out processing such as udst separation, the filtered gas that mainly contains the rare gas element helium turns back in the container again, but can reduce disposal of pollutants save energy again, thereby the flue gas of discharging in the pipeline is rich in CO after purifying objectionable impuritiess such as removing sulfur-bearing 2, N 2Gas be used for aspect such as intensive farming and use, becoming provides intensive farming CO 2The source, and the different piece that can utilize agricultural crops to refine agricultural crops forms as the carbonaceous material of material of the present invention, makes whole flow process become the flow process of loop optimization, makes it environmental protection more.
Can also adopt following method as selecting, as for the heart portion forming composition involucrum that contains ferric oxide, carbonaceous material in the breathing shell, partly breathe shell or unlimited shell, housing is the material that is rich in lime carbonate or calcium oxide or carbide of calcium, can also select the carbon content and the difference of heart portion forming composition to breathing shell, partly breathing shell, open wide shell Heating temperature curve in time, make it can produce the molten iron of similar blast furnace production or directly reduce molten steel, and in its process, only some or SiO seldom wherein 2Be reduced out the material of metalloid Si, a part of or most of similar SiO Deng acidic substance 2Directly combine and form the slag discharge Deng acidic substance, thereby make subsequently steel-making or the more succinct convenience of process such as ironmaking with flux such as CaO in the involucrum.Can also accomplish when steel-making few with oxygen or without oxygen.
Described go back the original product hot melt after, in the type of furnaces such as electric arc furnace, converter, open hearth, submerged arc electric arc, plasma heating furnace, be blown into oxygen or rare gas element so that the slagging-off, described rare gas element is an argon gas.
For the method that realizes above-mentioned fused reduction iron-smelting the invention provides electric arc furnace, Submerged-arc Furnace, converter and induction furnace fused reduction iron-smelting device.Described device is an electric arc furnace, and it can have the melting function, and described electric arc furnace comprises body of heater, bell, electrode, feeding device and drawing mechanism, and described device comprises at least one pair of process furnace and at least one pair of thermophore; Process furnace is connected with the electric arc furnace body of heater; Thermophore one end is connected with process furnace, and the other end is connected with blowdown system respectively and gas blower and/or gas treatment equipment.The bottom of electric arc furnace is provided with the gas inlet.
Described Submerged-arc Furnace device comprises body of heater, bell, electrode and supporting process furnace, thermophore gas treatment equipment.The Submerged-arc Furnace bottom is provided with the gas inlet, and is connected with gas piping, and described electrode directly is inserted into the bottom of melting material and carries out arc-covering slag operation.
Described converter device comprises body of heater, bell, electrode and support equipment, and converter covers and is provided with gas inlet and sweetening agent charging opening, and the gas inlet is connected with gas piping.Described induction furnace device comprises body of heater, bell, induction coil and power-supply unit that matches and outer heating equipment.The bell and/or the furnace bottom of induction furnace are provided with the gas inlet, and bell is provided with the sweetening agent charging opening.
Advantage of the present invention:
1, adopts the present invention to use to breathe shell, partly breathes shell and unlimited shell technology, can be used for nearly all melting reduction device, direct reduction unit, blast furnace ironmaking is as raw material even.Promptly can as make metal be close to the temperature of fusing under high-temperature very or than the low temperature of this temperature under carry out, make prereduction and reduce very fast eventually, thereby reduced the prereduction time, quickened the prereduction process, simultaneously also make material non-caked under this temperature, in pre-reducing furnace, can move effectively.Can directly burn to it with the gas that the pyritous end reducing furnace produces and heat or the thermal barrier heating, changed in original typical smelting reduction process that the prereduction temperature is low to make the prereduction time longer, and the high-temperature gas that comes out from end reducing furnace needs bigger cooling just can be used for the situation of pre-reducing furnace, saved the energy and facility investment.
Flux when 2, the shell of breathing shell can be used as melting uses, and has saved the energy thereby can not add or add less other flux, makes technological process more succinct simultaneously.
3, the shell of breathing shell makes heat be delivered to heart portion forming composition to carry out reduction reaction effectively, and reduction process produces in the heart portion forming composition simultaneously gas is as CO, H 2, hydro carbons etc. enters in the reduction furnace by the hole of shell, simultaneously also may command has only the gas under seldom the furnace atmosphere to enter into heart portion forming composition, make heart portion forming composition almost not have extraneous gas to carry out reduction reaction under participating in, avoided situations such as the metal after the reduction is oxidized once more.Therefore, smelting furnace or fusion reducing furnace that shell is breathed in heating can adopt reducing atmosphere, also can adopt oxidizing atmosphere or weak oxide atmosphere.The gas fuel burning of discharging from heart portion forming composition provides and breathe shell, partly breathe shell and unlimited husk as raw material heats required whole or most of heat, simultaneously, the combustible gas scale of construction of discharging in the flue gas seldom, and the temperature that flue gas is discharged is lower.These processes have reduced the energy consumption of reduction process and fusion process effectively.
4, breathe shell, partly breathe shell and unlimited shell material and can be used for a lot of smelting furnaces and carry out melting, the present invention has enumerated the example of some heating meltings.In these examples, only adopt to comprise by involucrum and entering in the reduction furnace, heart portion forming composition is separated out CO, H 2, kind such as hydro carbons gas at interior fuel, involucrum heart portion forming composition can reach fusing, semi-molten or be still solid state but near the melt temperature state, saved the energy in involucrum, simplified device, has improved efficient.
5, in the reduction process; since adopted the breathing shell, partly breathe shell and or open wide shell; heart portion forming composition and outside atmosphere separate; reduction reaction is unaffected in the housing; because forming composition adopts the involucrum technology; effectively protect the heart portion forming composition material in the shell, prevented to be reduced material oxidation during the course, do not influenced the transmission and the heat transmission of some material in the reduction process simultaneously.Involucrum has adopted materials such as Wingdale, rhombspar, lime, can be used as fused reduction iron-smelting or directly goes back the flux of raw steel.Adopt to breathe shell, partly breathe shell and open wide shell production and be similar to the molten iron of blast furnace production or directly go back raw steel, coking that can be independent, sintering and pelletizing process that need not be independent, even processes such as lime calcining that can be independent and blast furnace ironmaking, fuel saving is simplified technological process.Because there is involucrum the forming composition outside, avoid the contact between forming composition and cause bonding, optimized operating process.
6, the material of involucrum can be the materials such as Wingdale, rhombspar, carbide of calcium or lime of alkalescence, in fusion process after the shell fragmentation with raw material in acidic substance reactions generate slag, being convenient to directly reduce molten steel or molten iron separates with other impurity with slag.After removing slag and other impurity, can in same smelting furnace, carry out steelmaking process, can in smelting furnace, spray into oxygen or rare gas element, also can carry out the induction stirring of electric arc furnace and induction heater effectively.Promptly in same smelting furnace according to the composition of material and the difference of technological process thereof, both can produce molten iron, directly reduce molten steel, can carry out steelmaking process subsequently again, saved the energy effectively and reduced pollution.
7, the present invention can cancel that independent coking, sintering, pelletizing are fired, in the lime calcining, blast furnace ironmaking one or more, whole reducing process or chemical technology required equipment are arranged more succinct and compact, have saved land resources.Source of pollution have correspondingly been reduced, the pollutions such as compound of original technology Zhong dioxin, phenol, oxynitrides, sulphur are reduced greatly, the shell of breathing shell has also reduced S-contained substance effectively and has entered atmosphere with some other objectionable impurities, can reduce the discharging of dust.
8, in melting and reducing and fusion process, can carry out following technological process as selecting, only some or SiO seldom wherein 2Be reduced out the material of metalloid Si, a part of or most of similar SiO Deng acidic substance 2Directly combine and form the slag discharge Deng acidic substance, thereby make subsequently steel-making or the more succinct convenience of process such as ironmaking with flux such as CaO in the involucrum.Can also accomplish when steel-making few with oxygen or without oxygen.
9, the flue gas that utilizes the present invention to produce, its CO 2Concentration content is very high, and purifying carbon dioxide is used for intensive farming after udst separation, and becoming provides intensive farming CO 2The source, and the different piece that can utilize agricultural crops to refine agricultural crops forms as the carbonaceous material of material of the present invention, makes whole flow process become the flow process of loop optimization, makes it environmental protection more.
10, adopt the present invention to use to breathe shell, partly breathe shell and unlimited shell technology, can be used in the various suitable type of furnaces, breathe simultaneously and make heart portion forming composition after shell also can adopt coal dust and lime powder or calcium carbonate powders etc. mix with a definite form certain proportion, the form of wrapping lime carbonate or calcium oxide outer shell again is used to produce the melting of carbide of calcium and produces process; Breathe shell, partly breathe the smelting that shell and unlimited shell technology can be used for other metal, also can be used for the calcination process of lime carbonate, magnesiumcarbonate.Also can be used for material involucrums such as lime carbonate or magnesiumcarbonate, the carbonaceous material involucrum is calcined back coke that contains material shells such as calcium oxide or the semicoke that contains material shells such as calcium oxide, lime carbonate, magnesiumcarbonate of forming in interior with certain temperature in various stoves, be used for the place that blast furnace, cupola furnace, calcium carbide smelting furnace etc. need coke or semicoke.The present invention also is particularly suitable for some Metal Melting technologies or some chemical techniquees so like this, promptly breathe shell, partly breathe shell, open wide the partner of shell involucrum as employed flux of whole technology or whole technology, breathe that reduction reaction in the heart portion forming composition in the shell or chemical reaction require in interval and certain process time in certain temperature to be isolated from or be isolated from other material except that the involucrum material in the gas under the atmosphere in smelting furnace or the process furnace or smelting furnace or the process furnace to not a half, smelting furnace needs heart portion forming composition to carry out acting as a fuel or the desired technology partner of technology after the inflammable gas that produced behind reduction reaction or the chemical reaction or the hole in other gas permeation involucrum enter smelting furnace under simultaneously often a lot of situations, and while heart portion's forming composition reduction reaction resultant or chemical reaction product, be all necessary technology partner with other material in involucrum material and the smelting furnace, breathe the shell material and partly breathe shell, open wide that material that other material in shell and the smelting furnace participates in reduction process or chemical reaction process hardly directly or only play catalyst action only accounts for seldom or than small proportion in reduction reaction technology or chemical reaction process, under most of situation, reduction reaction technology or chemical reaction process in the heart portion forming composition need be breathed shell, partly breathe shell, the involucrum that opens wide shell advances heart portion forming composition with the heat in the smelting furnace by the involucrum transmission, whole or a large portion as its reduction reaction or heat that chemical reaction process requires, the CONTROL PROCESS process is selected the suitable device combination, the ratio of inflammable gas is very low in the flue gas that can realize discharging from smelting furnace and system, and the temperature of the flue gas of discharging is also lower.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is an electric arc furnace fused reduction iron-smelting device synoptic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a blowdown system schematic flow sheet of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the bell and the distribution of electrodes synoptic diagram of electric arc furnace of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the device synoptic diagram of Submerged-arc Furnace fused reduction iron-smelting;
Fig. 5 is the device synoptic diagram of converter fused reduction iron-smelting;
Fig. 6 is the device synoptic diagram of induction furnace fused reduction iron-smelting;
Fig. 7 produces the device synoptic diagram of calcium carbide for Submerged-arc Furnace.
Wherein:
The 1-electrode, the 2-body of heater, the 3-bell, the 4-gas blower, the 5-process furnace (comprises 5a, 5b), the 6-thermophore (comprises 6a, 6b), the 7-heat storage, the 8-gas treatment equipment, 9-molten iron/steel flow outlet, the 10-gas piping, 11-sweetening agent charging opening, the 12-cyclonic separator, the 13-sack cleaner, the 14-induced draft fan, the 15-chimney, the 16-gas inlet, the 17-induction coil, 18-slag refrigerating unit, the 19-pig iron and continuously cast bloom or stocking refrigerating unit, 20-calcium carbide cooling cylinder, 21-calcium carbide spout.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
Device is electric arc furnace ironmaking, and raw material is for breathing shell.
The device of electric arc furnace fused reduction iron-smelting of the present invention comprises body of heater 2, bell 3, feeding equipment and discharging equipment as shown in Figure 1, and molten iron/steel flow outlet 9 is arranged at body of heater 2 bottoms.The bottom of electric arc furnace is provided with gas inlet 16, and the gas inlet is connected with gas piping 10.As shown in Figure 3, three electrode jacks are arranged on the bell 3, insert 1, three electrode jack of electrode respectively and be in triangular distribution.Body of heater 2 is a pair of process furnace 5a, 5b and a pair of thermophore 6a, 6b outward, and two process furnace are installed in body of heater 2 both sides outward.Process furnace is connected with the body of heater 2 of electric arc furnace by Link Port, and gas can flow back and forth in the Link Port.The end of thermophore 6a, 6b is connected with process furnace, and the other end is connected with gas blower 4, gas treatment equipment and blowdown system respectively.Described gas treatment equipment comprises devices such as recycle gas supercharger, gas cooling refining plant, gas reservoir, and gas treatment equipment can use also and can not use.For making full use of waste heat, described device also is provided with two or two above slag refrigerating units 18 and two or two above pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking refrigerating unit 19.The circulation that utilizes bubbing is brought into body of heater 2 with the heat of slag or continuously cast bloom or stocking through process furnace 5a, 5b.As shown in Figure 2, blowdown system comprises cyclonic separator 12, sack cleaner 13, induced draft fan 14 and chimney 15.Process furnace is provided with combustion air pipeline and fuel conduit.The outlet of gas blower 4 divides four the tunnel, is connected with two thermophore with two process furnace respectively, and valve is equipped with on every road.On the fuel conduit that is connected with process furnace and the exhaust gas emission pipeline that is connected with thermophore valve is housed also.Two process furnace alternate combustion fuel and bubbing, two thermophore replace accumulation of heat and heat release.Bubbing is the gas that produces in the oxide compound reduction process of iron, wherein contains a large amount of CO, H 2The heat storage 7 of thermophore is ceramic spherule.The body of heater of electric arc furnace and bell are steel construction and refractory lining are housed.Described body of heater 2 and bell 3 are tightly connected for water jacket between electrode 1 and the bell 3.
The processing step of electric arc furnace fused reduction iron-smelting is as follows:
(1) shell is breathed in preparation: with Fe 2O 3, Fe 3O 4Oxide compound Deng iron mixes with coal dust, adds an amount of water and makes pelletizing, is heart portion forming composition.With limestone powder and some other predetermined substance is raw material, is tackiness agent with specified raw materials such as silicon sol, wraps in the skin of heart portion forming composition, forms the dressing pelletizing and is the breathing shell.
(2) insert electric arc furnace after will being surrounded by the breathing shell oven dry of heart portion forming composition.
(3) utilize the method for outer heating to heat, make the heart portion forming composition of breathing in the shell make its reduction, in this process, continue to emit bubbing at certain or certain combination thermophilic degree of 300~1800 ℃.
(4) when the degree of metalization of breathing shell central part forming composition reaches 40~95%, start arc furnace electrode, utilize electric-arc heating, make and breathe the shell fragmentation, breathe reduzate fusing in the shell.
(5) carry out slag iron and separate, produce the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces.
Operating process of the present invention is, raw material is inserted in the electric arc furnace body of heater 2, starts process furnace 5b earlier, heating heat storage 7, then through valve to blowdown system.Thermophore 6b commutates when exhanst gas outlet reaches design temperature, and air enters process furnace 5b through valve, thermophore 6b, and the heat storage in the thermophore is emitted heat heating combustion air.The flue gas that produces enters in the electric arc furnace body of heater 2 by Link Port, breathing casing forming thing in the heating electric arc furnace, and carry out reduction reaction, the bubbing that produces enters process furnace 5a together with flue gas, the air mixed afterfire of the desired flow of in process furnace 5a, coming with the process valve, flue gas enters thermophore 6a heat is passed to heat storage 7, arrives blowdown system through valve.Thermophore 6b commutates when exhanst gas outlet reaches design temperature, and combustion air enters thermophore 6a warm-up combustion-supporting air through valve, enters process furnace 5a then, with the fuel mix afterfire of coming in through valve.Flue gas and the bubbing Link Port through the right side enters electric arc furnace body of heater 2, enter process furnace 5b through the left side Link Port again, the air mixed afterfire of the desired flow of in process furnace 5b, coming with the process valve, flue gas enters thermophore 6b then, heat is passed to heat storage after valve to blowdown system.Control the switch operation of two process furnace 5a, 5b and two thermophore 6a, 6b by setting thermophore exhanst gas outlet temperature, automatically change air flow line after thermophore outlet flue gas arrives design temperature, the process furnace of this side becomes combustion fuel by the burning bubbing.Whole process is controlled automatically, realizes switch operation by each valve of switch.
Can when beginning to heat, use the slag refrigerating unit 18 and the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking refrigerating unit 19 as air preheater, shell is breathed in the bubbing mixed firing heating that air after the preheating is emitted after heating as the breathing shell in thermal barrier or combustion-supporting gas and the smelting furnace, and heat storage is heated.
The operating process of electric arc furnace fused reduction iron-smelting device is, breathes shell, partly breathes in shell or the unlimited shell material by what separate out and be rich in CO, H by the said process utilization earlier 2, inflammable gas such as hydro carbons, provide almost all or a large portion heating institute heat requirement, make material in the smelting furnace be heated to certain or certain combination thermophilic degree of 300~1800 ℃, the oxide compound of iron is reduced into metallic iron in the material.In the said process, when the degree of metalization of the metal oxide in the raw material in the body of heater reaches 40~95%, and the reduced metal iron in the breathing shell can be solid-state, liquid state or semi-melting state, it carries out the electric-arc heating fusing to use electrode pair, abundant induction stirring, broken shell and the acidic substance in the raw material that are rich in the calcium oxide equal solvent react, slag making, carry out slag iron and separate.Produce the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces, the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces flow out from molten iron/steel flow outlet 9.After also can selecting slag poured out, oxygen blast or Argon are directly carried out molten steel melting or cast iron melting.In the above-mentioned technological process, adopting electrode to carry out electric-arc heating can be according to the intermittent operation of the working of a furnace, intermittent time can be from 0~100% reduction and smelting time, from the top or the process of bottom aerating oxygen, argon gas, be to select to feed or do not feed or select to feed wherein a kind of gas according to the molten iron of fusion or semi-melting or the situation of molten steel of directly reducing.Can select in the whole process, the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces all are made for liquid state, almost all discharge body of heater, after add material again and smelt again, also the molten iron of partial melting or the molten steel that directly reduces can be discharged body of heater, also keep complete fused material in the stove and proceeding heating, selecting to replenish the adding material with suitable charging process simultaneously.In fusion process, adopt electrode to carry out electric arc reduction fusing heating or feeding combustion air or oxygen-containing gas in the smelting furnace and adopt fuel reduction fusing heating, can carry out separately separately also can carrying out simultaneously.The height of body of heater 2 and diameter ratio can be chosen as thin and tall type or short thick type according to the material situation and the working of a furnace, and its concrete height and diameter determine according to factors such as the working of a furnace, material properties, turnout.The thermophore quantity of body of heater 2 peripheries also can be selected one or more pairs of, heat storage in the thermophore can adopt the fire-resistant heat storage of resistant to elevated temperatures refractory ball, refractory brick, cellular or other shape, heat storage can adopt suitable refractory metal goods of part or all of employing and high temperature resistant on-metallic article, as carbonaceous material etc.The slag water cooler 18 separable slag of packing into, the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking water cooler 19 pack into the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking (if the situation of suitable the said products or byproduct is arranged), most of situation is when just having added material in smelting furnace, is rich in CO, H in bubbling air (not marking the airline that links with it among Fig. 1) or other oxygen-containing gas or the gas treatment equipment 2Or CO 2After etc. the gas of component slag or the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking being carried out suitable cooling, make to feed in the smelting furnace after the gas heating and as thermal barrier or combustion-supporting gas material is heated, the slag water cooler 18 and the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking water cooler 19 can be selected as the case may be need not.And the flue gas of discharging from pipeline is rich in CO after purifying objectionable impuritiess such as removing sulfur-bearing 2, N 2Gas be used for aspect such as intensive farming and use.
Embodiment 2
Device is Submerged-arc Furnace ironmaking, and raw material is half breathing shell.
The device of Submerged-arc Furnace fused reduction iron-smelting comprises body of heater 2, bell 3, electrode 1 and supporting process furnace 5a, 5b, thermophore 5a, 5b, gas treatment equipment 8 as shown in Figure 4, and the electric arc furnace bottom is provided with gas inlet 16, and is connected with gas piping 10.Described gas treatment equipment comprises devices such as recycle gas supercharger, gas cooling refining plant, gas reservoir, and gas treatment equipment can use also and can not use.For making full use of waste heat, described device also is provided with two or two above slag refrigerating units 18 and two or two above pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking refrigerating unit 19.The circulation that utilizes bubbing is brought into body of heater 2 with the heat of slag or continuously cast bloom or stocking through process furnace 5a, 5b.The difference of present embodiment described submerged arc furnace fused reduction iron-smelting device and embodiment 1 described electric arc furnace fused reduction iron-smelting device is that the bottom that the electrode of present embodiment directly is inserted into the melting material carries out arc-covering slag operation.
The processing step of Submerged-arc Furnace fused reduction iron-smelting is as follows:
(1) shell is partly breathed in preparation: with Fe 2O 3, Fe 3O 4Oxide compound Deng iron mixes with coal dust, adds an amount of water and makes pelletizing, is heart portion forming composition.With lime powder, iron ore and some other predetermined substance is raw material, is tackiness agent with specified raw materials such as water glass, and the skin that wraps in heart portion forming composition is half and breathes shell.The difference of partly breathing shell and breathing shell is that the shell of half breathing shell is comparatively soft, not anti-high temperature more than 1000 ℃, shell fragmentation in the smelting reduction process.
(2) electric arc furnace is inserted in the coal cinder mixing of partly breathing shell and certain particle size that will be surrounded by heart portion forming composition.
(3) utilize the method for outer heating to heat, certain or certain the combination thermophilic degree that makes material in the smelting furnace be heated to 300~1800 ℃ makes its reduction, continues to emit bubbing in this process.
(4) when the degree of metalization of forming composition in the body of heater reaches 40~95%, start arc furnace electrode and carry out electric-arc heating, utilize electric-arc heating to fusing.
(5) carry out slag iron and separate, produce the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces.
Carry out in the fused reduction iron-smelting process partly to breathe husk as raw material, partly breathe shell shell fragmentation in fusion process after the reduction, broken shell material can be made flux and slag former, helps improving the quality of going back original product equally and separates with slag iron.As shown in Figure 4, utilize thermophore 6a, 6b accumulation of heat, adopt the alternately mode of commutation.Oxygen-containing gas by thermophore 6b and fuel in process furnace 5b and smelting furnace internal combustion, the bubbing that continues the discharge involucrum from partly breathe the shell material also burns, the gases such as bubbing of flue gas and unburn utilization enter among the process furnace 5a on opposite, the oxygen-containing gas of selection desired flow mixes with the combustiblematerials in the bubbing and burns, heat storage 7 among the heating thermophore 6a makes its accumulation of heat, and the flue gas after the cooling is discharged through blowdown system.Have only the seldom inflammable gas of part in the flue gas of discharging, and have lower temperature.After this, oxygen-containing gas is entered process furnace 5a through thermophore 6a, burn in process furnace with fuel, material to smelting furnace heats, the flue gas that produces enters process furnace 5b with bubbing, mix with the oxygen-containing gas of desired flow and burn, the heat storage 7 of heating thermophore 6b makes its accumulation of heat, and the flue gas that is cooled enters gas discharge system.Equally also have only the seldom inflammable gas composition of part in the flue gas of discharging, and the temperature of discharge flue gas is lower.Circulation successively, its oxygen-containing gas that enters in the process furnace is high-temperature gas all the time, improves the thermo-efficiency of system.Breathe shell, partly breathe in shell or the unlimited shell material by what separate out and be rich in CO, H 2, inflammable gas such as hydro carbons, provide almost all or a large portion heating institute heat requirement, make material in the smelting furnace be heated to certain or certain combination thermophilic degree of 300~1800 ℃, the oxide compound of iron is reduced into metallic iron in the material.In the said process, when the degree of metalization of the metal oxide in the raw material in the body of heater reaches 40~95%, and the reduced metal iron in the breathing shell can be solid-state, liquid state or semi-melting state, it carries out the electric-arc heating fusing to use electrode pair, abundant induction stirring, the shell of partly breathing in the body of heater is carried out the fused reduction iron-smelting process, material after the reduction is the shell fragmentation in fusion process, broken shell material can be made flux and slag former, helping improving the quality of going back original product separates with slag iron, produce the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces, the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces flow out from molten iron/steel flow outlet 9.Also can select molten iron or directly reduce after slag on the molten steel pours out from furnace roof, oxygen blast or Argon are directly carried out molten steel melting or cast iron melting.In the above-mentioned technological process, the electrically heated process of submerged arc can intermittently be carried out according to the particular case of whole process, intermittent time can be from 0~100% reduction and smelting time, from the top or the process of bottom aerating oxygen, argon gas, be to select to feed or do not feed or select to feed wherein a kind of gas according to the molten iron of fusion or semi-melting or the situation of molten steel.Can select in the whole process, the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces all are liquid, all discharge body of heater, also the molten iron of partial melting or the molten steel that directly reduces can be discharged body of heater, also keeping incomplete fused material in the stove and proceeding heating, selecting reinforced simultaneously with suitable charging process.In fusion process, adopt electrode to carry out electric arc reduction fusing heating in the smelting furnace and adopt fuel reduction fusing heating with feeding combustion air or oxygen-containing gas, can carry out separately separately also can carrying out simultaneously.
In order to reduce oxygen level, inclusion and the carbon content in the molten steel, the slag in the smelting furnace is being poured out back employing Argon technology.Argon has the effect similar with vacuum-treat, gets final product deoxidation, decarburization, degasification, stirring molten steel and removes foreign material etc., and used argon gas can be the byproduct of system oxygen industry.Other contained in straight argon gas is very low, and argon gas is blown into molten steel, neither participates in chemical reaction, also is not dissolved in the molten steel.When being blown into argon gas formation bubble in molten steel, be tantamount to one by one little vacuum chamber the dissolved all gases in steel, wherein the dividing potential drop of other gas is zero no better than.Like this, gases such as the hydrogen in the molten steel, nitrogen will constantly spread in Argon Bubble, the dividing potential drop of gas such as hydrogen and nitrogen will increase gradually in the bubble, but because of suffered static pressure in the bubble floating process reduces and expanded by heating, so the dividing potential drop of hydrogen and nitrogen still can remain on lower level, so can continue to absorb hydrogen and nitrogen etc.Last these gases are removed with one emersion molten steel of Argon Bubble.Obtain purified molten iron or directly reduce molten steel or purified molten steel.
The height of body of heater 2 and diameter ratio can be chosen as thin and tall type or short thick type according to the material situation and the working of a furnace, and its concrete height and diameter determine according to factors such as the working of a furnace, material properties, turnout.The thermophore quantity of body of heater 2 peripheries also can be selected one or more pairs of, heat storage in the thermophore can adopt the fire-resistant heat storage of resistant to elevated temperatures refractory ball, refractory brick, cellular or other shape, heat storage can adopt suitable refractory metal goods of part or all of employing and high temperature resistant on-metallic article, as carbonaceous material etc.The slag water cooler 18 separable slag of packing into, the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking water cooler 19 pack into the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking (if the situation of suitable the said products or byproduct is arranged), most of situation is when just having added material in smelting furnace, is rich in CO, H in bubbling air (not marking the airline that links with it among Fig. 4) or other oxygen-containing gas or the gas treatment equipment 2Or CO 2After etc. the gas of component slag or the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking being carried out suitable cooling, make to feed in the smelting furnace after the gas heating and as thermal barrier or combustion-supporting gas material is heated, the slag water cooler 18 and the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking water cooler 19 can be selected as the case may be need not.And the flue gas of discharging from pipeline is rich in CO after purifying objectionable impuritiess such as removing sulfur-bearing 2, N 2Gas be used for aspect such as intensive farming and use.
Embodiment 3
Device is converter, and raw material is for opening wide shell.
The device of described converter fused reduction iron-smelting includes body of heater 2, bell 3, electrode and supporting process furnace 5a, 5b, thermophore 6a, 6b and gas treatment equipment 8 as shown in Figure 5.Described converter covers and is provided with gas inlet 16 and sweetening agent charging opening 11, and gas inlet 16 is connected with gas piping 10.For making full use of waste heat, described device also is provided with two or two above slag refrigerating units 18 and two or two above pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking refrigerating unit 19.The circulation that utilizes bubbing is brought into body of heater 2 with the heat of slag or continuously cast bloom or stocking through process furnace 5a, 5b.
The processing step of converter fused reduction iron-smelting is as follows:
(1) shell is opened wide in preparation: with Fe 2O 3, Fe 3O 4Oxide compound Deng iron mixes with coal dust, mixes limestone powder and some other predetermined substance of 5%, adds an amount of water and makes pelletizing, is unlimited shell.Unlimited shell is that the carbonaceous pelletizing forming composition of mixing lime or limestone powder does not add shell.
(2) will open wide shell and insert electric arc furnace, evenly mix coal cinder and some other predetermined substance of an amount of lime block, certain particle size.
(3) utilize the method for outer heating to heat, certain or certain the combination thermophilic degree that makes material in the smelting furnace be heated to 300~1800 ℃ makes its reduction, continues to emit bubbing in this process.
(4) when the degree of metalization of forming composition in the body of heater reaches 40~95%, starting electrode carries out electric-arc heating, utilizes electric-arc heating to fusing.
(5) carry out slag iron and separate, produce the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces.
Adopt highly purified oxygen to be inserted in the stove after pouring out slag, oxygen is blowed to the molten bath at a high speed from suitable for reading.High speed oxygen jet directly impacts the molten bath, on the one hand the molten bath is produced violent stirring, intensive fragmentation mutually takes place in jet and molten bath on the other hand, the out-phase contact area is sharply increased, these physical phenomenons have created good condition for the chemical reaction in the stove, make transporting mechanism, transmission speed, transmission speed and the reaction interface of various element in the molten bath of oxygen that basic variation all take place.
Oxygen is blasted in the fused pig iron, make oxidations of impurities such as silicon, manganese.Emitting a large amount of heats in the process of oxidation can make and reach sufficiently high temperature in the stove.Therefore converter steelmaking does not need to use in addition fuel.Converter steelmaking is to carry out in converter.During beginning, converter is in level, blasts oxygen then and rotate converter in liquid pig iron.At this moment the violent reaction in liquid pig iron surface makes iron, silicon, manganese oxidation generate slag, utilizes the iron and steel of fusing and the convection action of slag, and reaction is spreaded all in the whole stove.When only being left a spot of silicon and manganese in the molten steel, carbon begins oxidation, generates carbon monoxide molten steel is acutely seethed with excitement.Fire door is owing to huge flame appears in the burning of the carbon monoxide of overflowing.At last, oxidation also takes place and further generates ferrous phosphate in phosphorus.Reaction generates stable calcium phosphate and sulfurated lime to ferrous phosphate with unslaked lime again, becomes slag together.When phosphorus and thionic are decrescence few, flame declines, and when the brown steam of Z 250 appears in fire door, shows that steel is smelt.At this moment should stop oxygen blast immediately, and converter is forwarded to level attitude, molten steel is inclined to ladle, killing carries out deoxidation again.Also can select oxygen is the form that is blown into from furnace bottom.
The present invention uses top-blown oxygen converter, does not get rid of side-blown converter, bottom-blown converter.The oxygen that is blown into is high pressure industry pure oxygen, can further enhance productivity and the quality of steel.This is a kind of external heat source that do not need, and main is the method for making steel of raw material with the liquid pig iron.The converter steelmaking principal feature is: physics heat and interior each component (as carbon, manganese, silicon, phosphorus etc.) of the pig iron by liquid pig iron in the converter are carried out the heat that chemical reaction produced with the oxygen of sending in the stove, make metal reach composition and temperature that tapping requires.Furnace charge is mainly unlimited shell, can add a spot of breathing shell, partly breathe the shell or the coal cinder of certain particle size.Converter is divided into alkalescence and acidity by the refractory materials character of furnace lining; The position that is blown in the stove by gas is divided into bottom blowing, top blast and side-blown; Gas by blowing is adopted is divided into air blown converter and oxygen coverter, and the present invention is an oxygen coverter.The present invention is a raw material to open wide shell, and used body of heater is a converter of basic lining.
Converter can adopt nozzle or gas permeable brick to be blown into from the bottom, can improve the whipping force in molten bath significantly, has the advantage of bottom blowing and top blast concurrently.Converter process is compared with other steelmaking process, major advantage is that it is not by external energy, only depend on the exothermic oxidation reaction of various elements in the oxygen that is blown into the molten bath and the molten iron to finish decarburization and remove the task of impurity, and molten steel is heated to 1600 ℃ of tapping temperatures or higher temperature.
Bessemerize at the end, exist the dissolved oxygen of a small amount of surplus in the molten steel, be generally 0.01~0.08%.Its content depends primarily on the carbon content of endpoint molten steel.Be smelt qualified steel and must carry out deoxidation.Deoxidation is to add in the molten steel as reductor with bigger element of oxygen affinity and alloy thereof, utilizes deoxidation products to be insoluble to molten steel and separates out the principle that come-up breaks away from molten steel, and the oxygen level in the steel is dropped under the prescribed limit.
After opening wide shell adding smelting furnace, with the process of fuel heating is that oxygen-containing gas passes through thermophore 6b and fuel in process furnace 5b and smelting furnace internal combustion, the bubbing that continues the discharge involucrum from open wide the shell material also burns, the gases such as bubbing of flue gas and unburn utilization enter among the process furnace 5a on opposite, the oxygen-containing gas of selection desired flow mixes with the combustiblematerials in the bubbing and burns, heat storage 7 its accumulation of heats among the heating thermophore 6a, the flue gas after the cooling enters blowdown system.Have only the seldom inflammable gas of part in the flue gas of discharging, and have lower temperature.After this, oxygen-containing gas is entered process furnace 5a through thermophore 6a, burn in process furnace with fuel, material to smelting furnace heats, the flue gas that produces enters process furnace 5b with bubbing, mix with the oxygen-containing gas of desired flow and burn, the heat storage 7 of heating thermophore 6b makes its accumulation of heat, the flue gas that is cooled enters cyclonic separator 12, sack cleaner 13, and from chimney 15, discharge, equally also have only the seldom inflammable gas composition of part in the flue gas of discharge, and the temperature of discharge flue gas is lower.Circulation successively, its oxygen-containing gas that enters in the process furnace is high-temperature gas all the time, improves the thermo-efficiency of system.Breathe shell, partly breathe in shell or the unlimited shell material by what separate out and be rich in CO, H 2, inflammable gas such as hydro carbons, provide almost all or a large portion heating institute heat requirement, make material in the smelting furnace be heated to certain or certain combination thermophilic degree of 300~1800 ℃, the oxide compound of iron is reduced into metallic iron in the material.In the said process, when the degree of metalization of the metal oxide in the raw material in the body of heater reaches 40~95%, and the reduced metal iron in the breathing shell can be solid-state, liquid state or semi-melting state, it carries out the electric-arc heating fusing to use electrode pair, abundant induction stirring, broken shell and the acidic substance in the raw material that are rich in the calcium oxide equal solvent react, slag making, carry out slag iron and separate, produce the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces, the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces flow out from molten iron/steel flow outlet 9.After pouring out pulp water after can also selecting slag iron to separate, and electrode suitably adjusted, adopt highly purified oxygen to be inserted in the stove from suitable for reading, oxygen is blasted the fused pig iron or directly goes back in the raw steel, make oxidations of impurities such as silicon, manganese, in the process of oxidation, emit a large amount of heats and can make and reach sufficiently high temperature in the stove, so converter steelmaking do not need to use in addition fuel, produce and directly go back raw steel or than directly going back the more purified molten steel of raw steel.In the above-mentioned technological process, adopting electrode to carry out electric-arc heating can be to carry out intermittent operation according to the working of a furnace, intermittent time can be from 0~100% reduction and smelting time, from the top or the process of bottom aerating oxygen, argon gas, be to select to feed or do not feed or select to feed wherein a kind of gas according to the molten iron of fusion or semi-melting or the situation of molten steel of directly reducing.Can select in the whole process, the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces all are liquid, all discharge body of heater, also the molten iron of partial melting or the molten steel that directly reduces can be discharged body of heater, also keeping incomplete fused material in the stove and proceeding heating, selecting reinforced simultaneously with suitable charging process.In fusion process, adopt electrode to carry out electric arc reduction fusing heating in the smelting furnace and adopt fuel reduction fusing heating with feeding combustion air or oxygen-containing gas, can carry out separately separately also can carrying out simultaneously.Body of heater height and diameter ratio can be chosen as thin and tall type or short thick type according to the material situation and the working of a furnace in the body of heater 2, and its concrete height and diameter determine according to factors such as the working of a furnace, material properties, turnout.The thermophore quantity of body of heater 2 peripheries also can be selected one or more pairs of, heat storage in the thermophore can adopt the fire-resistant heat storage of resistant to elevated temperatures refractory ball, refractory brick, cellular or other shape, heat storage can adopt suitable refractory metal goods of part or all of employing and high temperature resistant on-metallic article, as carbonaceous material etc.The slag water cooler 18 separable slag of packing into, the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking water cooler 19 pack into the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking (if the situation of suitable the said products or byproduct is arranged), most of situation is when just having added material in smelting furnace, is rich in CO, H in bubbling air (not marking the airline that links with it among Fig. 5) or other oxygen-containing gas or the gas treatment equipment 2Or CO 2After etc. the gas of component slag or the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking being carried out suitable cooling, make to feed in the smelting furnace after the gas heating and as thermal barrier or combustion-supporting gas material is heated, the slag water cooler 18 and the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking water cooler 19 can be selected as the case may be need not.And the flue gas of discharging from pipeline is rich in CO after purifying objectionable impuritiess such as removing sulfur-bearing 2, N 2Gas be used for aspect such as intensive farming and use.
Embodiment 4
Device is for induction furnace, and raw material is for breathing shell, partly breathing the mixture of shell and unlimited shell.
The device of described induction furnace fused reduction iron-smelting comprises body of heater 2, bell 3, induction coil 17 and the power-supply unit that matches and process furnace 5a, 5b as shown in Figure 6, thermophore 6a, 6b and gas treatment equipment 8.The bell 3 and/or the furnace bottom of described induction furnace are provided with gas inlet 16, and bell 3 is provided with sweetening agent charging opening 11.For making full use of waste heat, described device also is provided with two or two above slag refrigerating units 18 and two or two above pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking refrigerating unit 19.The circulation that utilizes bubbing is brought into body of heater 2 with the heat of slag or continuously cast bloom or stocking through process furnace 5a, 5b.
The processing step of induction furnace fused reduction iron-smelting is as follows:
(1) preparation is breathed shell, is partly breathed shell and unlimited shell: breathe shell, partly breathe shell and unlimited shell according to step (1) preparation among the embodiment 1,2,3 respectively, wherein open wide and mix limestone powder and some other predetermined substance of 5% in the shell.
(2) will breathe shell, partly breathe shell, the coal cinder that opens wide shell and certain particle size inserts induction furnace after mixing.
(3) utilize the method for outer heating to heat, certain or certain the combination thermophilic degree that makes material in the smelting furnace be heated to 300~1800 ℃ makes its reduction, and this process continues to emit bubbing.
(4) when the degree of metalization of the metal oxide in the raw material in the body of heater reaches 40~95%, start power supply and start induction furnace, utilize electromagnetic induction heating, make material melting in the smelting furnace.
(5) carry out slag iron and separate, produce the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces.
Induction furnace steel-smelting is the method for making steel that utilizes the heating of Induction Heating effect, deposite metal.It is particularly suitable for smelting high-quality steel and alloy with high quality raw material.The vacuum induction furnace of being furnished with vacuum system is smelted the visual plant of high duty alloy especially.The characteristics of induction furnace steel-smelting are: 1. heat reaches metal pool earlier, and slag is given in conduction again, so the slag temperature is lower; 2. the molten bath is subjected to the intensive induction stirring.Supply frequency is lower, and power is higher, stirs more strongly, is the principal element of restriction high specific power; 3. compare with electric-arc heating, it is light and temperature is even that induction heating does not have focus, no electric arc, environmental pollution; 4. do not increase carbon, can local superheating, simple to operate and the alloy scaling loss is less.Induction furnace structure induction furnace is the channel formula, and its principle of work is similar to transformer.In the elementary winding of induction channel furnace iron core is housed, to reduce leakage field, improves power factor, the secondary winding is the channel that is full of molten metal.When passing through alternating-current in the induction coil, produce inductive emf in the liquid metal in the channel, produce joule heating, the heating furnace charge.Transfer to the molten bath again in the conversion of channel self-energy, the thermal load of channel is very high.Because the requirement of induction furnace process operation, desulfurization and deoxidation are carried out simultaneously.Decarburization, dephosphorization are not generally carried out in the load that the induction furnace power factor is very low, thus the raw material that must select for use, and adopt electrical condenser to improve power factor.To breathe shell, partly breathe and insert induction furnace after shell and unlimited shell mix, utilize thermophore 6a, the 6b accumulation of heat, adopt the alternately mode of commutation, oxygen-containing gas by thermophore 6b and fuel in process furnace 5b and smelting furnace internal combustion, from breathing shell, partly breathing the bubbing that continues the discharge involucrum in shell or the unlimited shell material also burns, the gases such as bubbing of flue gas and unburn utilization enter among the process furnace 5a on opposite, the oxygen-containing gas of selection desired flow mixes with the combustiblematerials in the bubbing and burns, heat storage 7 among the heating thermophore 6a makes its accumulation of heat, flue gas after the cooling is by cyclonic separator 12, sack cleaner 13, discharge by chimney 15, have only the seldom inflammable gas of part in the flue gas of discharging, and have lower temperature.After this, oxygen-containing gas is entered process furnace 5a through thermophore 6a, burn in process furnace with fuel, material to smelting furnace heats, the flue gas that produces enters process furnace 5b with bubbing, mix with the oxygen-containing gas of desired flow and burn, the heat storage 7 of heating thermophore 6b makes its accumulation of heat, the flue gas that is cooled enters cyclonic separator 12, sack cleaner 13, and from chimney 15, discharge, equally also have only the seldom inflammable gas composition of part in the flue gas of discharge, and the temperature of discharge flue gas is lower.Circulation successively, its oxygen-containing gas that enters in the process furnace is high-temperature gas all the time, improves the thermo-efficiency of system.Breathe shell, partly breathe in shell or the unlimited shell material by what separate out and be rich in CO, H 2, inflammable gas such as hydro carbons, provide almost all or a large portion heating institute heat requirement, make material in the smelting furnace be heated to certain or certain combination thermophilic degree of 300~1800 ℃, the oxide compound of iron is reduced into metallic iron in the material.In the said process, when the degree of metalization of the metal oxide in the raw material in the body of heater reaches 40~95%, and the reduced metal iron in the breathing shell can be solid-state, liquid state or semi-melting state, start power supply and start induction furnace, utilize electromagnetic induction heating, make material melting in the smelting furnace, abundant induction stirring, being rich in the broken shell of calcium oxide equal solvent and the acidic substance in the raw material reacts, slag making, carrying out slag iron separates, produce directly the reduction molten steel or be similar to the molten iron that blast furnace is produced, pour out and to feed argon gas behind the slag or oxygen carries out melting, produce purified molten steel or purified molten iron.In the above-mentioned technological process, adopting electrode to carry out electric-arc heating can be to carry out intermittent operation according to the working of a furnace, intermittent time can be from 0~100% reduction and smelting time, from the top or the process of bottom aerating oxygen, argon gas, be to select to feed or do not feed or select to feed wherein a kind of gas according to the molten iron of fusion or semi-melting or the situation of molten steel of directly reducing.Can select in the whole process, the molten iron or the molten steel that directly reduces all are liquid, all discharge body of heater, also the molten iron of partial melting or the molten steel that directly reduces can be discharged body of heater, also keeping incomplete fused material in the stove and proceeding heating, selecting reinforced simultaneously with suitable charging process.In fusion process, adopt electromagnetic induction reduction fusing heating to adopt fuel reduction fusing heating in the smelting furnace with feeding combustion air or oxygen-containing gas, can carry out separately separately also can carrying out simultaneously.Body of heater height and diameter ratio can be chosen as thin and tall type or short thick type according to the material situation and the working of a furnace in the body of heater 2, and its concrete height and diameter determine according to factors such as the working of a furnace, material properties, turnout.The thermophore quantity of body of heater 2 peripheries also can be selected one or more pairs of, heat storage in the thermophore can adopt the fire-resistant heat storage of resistant to elevated temperatures refractory ball, refractory brick, cellular or other shape, heat storage can adopt suitable refractory metal goods of part or all of employing and high temperature resistant on-metallic article, as carbonaceous material etc.The slag water cooler 18 separable slag of packing into, the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking water cooler 19 pack into the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking (if the situation of suitable the said products or byproduct is arranged), most of situation is when just having added material in smelting furnace, is rich in CO, H in bubbling air (not marking the airline that links with it among Fig. 6) or other oxygen-containing gas or the gas treatment equipment 2Or CO 2After etc. the gas of component slag or the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking being carried out suitable cooling, make to feed in the smelting furnace after the gas heating and as thermal barrier or combustion-supporting gas material is heated, the slag water cooler 18 and the pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking water cooler 19 can be selected as the case may be need not.And the flue gas of discharging from pipeline is rich in CO after purifying objectionable impuritiess such as removing sulfur-bearing 2, N 2Gas be used for aspect such as intensive farming and use.
Embodiment 5
Device is Submerged-arc Furnace, and raw material is produced calcium carbide for breathing shell.
The device of described Submerged-arc Furnace production calcium carbide comprises body of heater 2, bell 3, electrode 1 and supporting process furnace 5a, 5b, thermophore 6a, 6b, gas treatment equipment 8 as shown in Figure 7, and the bottom of body of heater 2 is provided with calcium carbide spout 21.Gas treatment equipment can use also and can not use, and described gas treatment equipment comprises devices such as recycle gas supercharger, gas cooling refining plant, gas reservoir; Process furnace can be a bit can be that multiple spot connects with being connected of body of heater 2, selects according to the material properties and the working of a furnace with the connection angle of body of heater.
The processing step of Submerged-arc Furnace production calcium carbide is as follows:
(1) shell is breathed in preparation: after the heart portion forming composition of breathing shell is not coating and shaping thing such as coal dust, coke powder, blue charcoal, refinery coke etc. or carbonaceous material or above-mentioned mixing, spin or be pressed into pelletizing, also can make the forming composition of other shape, the carbon content of forming composition inside can be the same or different, allow in the forming composition to add other material, forming composition composition and intensity are more suitable for as mixing the calcium oxide or the calcium carbonate powders of certain particle size; The outer envelope of described breathing shell is by similar Wingdale, material or their mixtures such as rhombspar, also can mix carbonaceous material such as carbon black therein, material or some other materials such as graphite, these materials are mixed in a certain way with specific binding agent or combine, with heart portion forming composition parcel wherein, the method of involucrum can be a spin, the pressure ball involucrum, can also be dust involucrum or dipping involucrum, permission might not be adopted in involucrum and to add other material and do functions such as skeleton, and permission might not be adopted artificial the perforation to strengthen ventilation property on involucrum, the area in single hole and its distributional pattern and quantity on involucrum is determined by character of breathing shell and material proportioning, is fit to the drying course of temperature behind the permission involucrum.
(2) will breathe shell and insert Submerged-arc Furnace.
(3) utilize the byproduct calcium carbide furnace gas of producing calcium carbide can add the external fuel heating of part in case of necessity and breathe shell, certain the suitable temp calcining that makes its temperature be controlled at 900~1200 ℃ generates calcium oxide, heart portion forming composition is heated, and will breathe shell be heated to 1200~1800 ℃ on this temperature.
(4) after the outer envelope decomposition of limestone of breathing shell in the body of heater is intact, when being heated to temperature suitable in 1200~1800 ℃, start power supply with geseous fuel, utilize the heating of electrode submerged arc, make that material fully reacts the generation calcium carbide in the stove.
(5) calcium carbide flows out from calcium carbide spout 21, enters the calcium carbide cooling cylinder through chute, here cools off and fragmentation.
As Fig. 7, Fig. 2, shown in Figure 3, process furnace 5a, 5b are fuel used also can to adopt geseous fuel or liquid fuel or solid fuel, and the perhaps combination of above-mentioned fuel is carried out heating and calcining to the breathing husk as raw material in the body of heater of packing into.Utilize thermophore (6a, 6b) accumulation of heat, adopt the alternately mode of commutation, oxygen-containing gas by thermophore (6b) and fuel in process furnace (5b) and smelting furnace internal combustion, the gases such as bubbing of flue gas and unburn utilization enter in the process furnace (5a) on opposite, the oxygen-containing gas of selection desired flow mixes with the combustiblematerials in the bubbing and burns, heat storage (7) in the heating thermophore (6a) makes its accumulation of heat, flue gas after the cooling is by cyclonic separator (12), sack cleaner (13), discharge by chimney (15), have only the seldom inflammable gas of part in the flue gas of discharging, and have lower temperature.After this, oxygen-containing gas is entered process furnace (5a) through thermophore (6a), burn in process furnace with fuel, material to smelting furnace heats, the flue gas that produces enters process furnace (5b) with bubbing, mix with the oxygen-containing gas of desired flow and burn, the heat storage (7) of heating thermophore (6b) makes its accumulation of heat, the flue gas that is cooled enters cyclonic separator (12), sack cleaner (13), and from chimney (15), discharge, equally also have only the seldom inflammable gas composition of part in the flue gas of discharge, and the temperature of discharge flue gas is lower.Circulation successively, its oxygen-containing gas that enters in the process furnace is high-temperature gas all the time, improves the thermo-efficiency of system.Breathe shell, partly breathe in shell or the unlimited shell material by what separate out and be rich in CO, H 2, inflammable gas such as hydro carbons, provide almost whole or a large portion heating institute heat requirement, make material in the smelting furnace be heated to certain or certain combination thermophilic degree of 300~1800 ℃, and the material in the breathing shell can be solid-state, liquid state or semi-melting state, re-use electrode and carry out electric-arc heating and produce calcium carbide, make material in the electric arc furnace be heated to certain or certain combination thermophilic degree of 1800~2300 ℃.In calcium carbide production process, adopt electrode to carry out electric-arc heating or feeding combustion air or oxygen-containing gas in the electric arc furnace and adopt the fuel heating, can carry out separately separately also can carrying out simultaneously.Body of heater height and diameter ratio can be chosen as thin and tall type or short thick type according to the material situation and the working of a furnace in the body of heater 2, and its concrete height and diameter determine according to factors such as the working of a furnace, material properties, turnout.The thermophore quantity of body of heater 2 peripheries also can be selected one or more pairs of, heat storage in the thermophore can adopt the fire-resistant heat storage refractory materials of resistant to elevated temperatures refractory ball, refractory brick, cellular or other shape, heat storage can adopt suitable refractory metal goods of part or all of employing and high temperature resistant on-metallic article, as carbonaceous material etc.Flue gas or the calcium carbide furnace gas that reaction generates when producing calcium carbide also can purify the back storage through gas treatment equipment 8 (if the situation of gas treatment equipment is arranged), be used for process furnace 5a, 5b the breathing shell of electric arc furnace production calcium carbide device is carried out incinerating fuel.Calcium carbide flows out from calcium carbide spout 9, enters cooling cylinder 20 through chute, here cools off and fragmentation.Carbide liquids in the cooling cylinder 20 can mix a certain amount of perforating agent that does not influence the calcium carbide performance so that heat-eliminating medium or cooling air therefrom by or also can select not add, most of situation is when just having added material in smelting furnace, feeds to be rich in CO, H in rare gas element (as nitrogen etc.) or bubbling air or other oxygen-containing gas or the gas treatment equipment 2, CO 2After etc. the gas of component calcium carbide being carried out suitable cooling, make to feed in the smelting furnace after the gas heating and use, can be used for carrying out aspect such as thermal barrier heating and use, cooling cylinder 20 heated air also can select as the case may be need not, wherein the air introduction pipeline does not draw in the drawings.And the flue gas of discharging from pipeline is rich in CO after purifying objectionable impuritiess such as removing sulfur-bearing 2, N 2Gas be used for aspect such as intensive farming and use.

Claims (2)

1. the electric arc furnace device of a fused reduction iron-smelting, described electric arc furnace comprises body of heater (2), bell (3), electrode (1), feeding device, drawing mechanism, a pair of process furnace (5a, 5b) and a pair of thermophore (6a, 6b); Described process furnace is connected with electric arc furnace body of heater (2), is installed in the outer both sides of body of heater; Described thermophore one end is connected with process furnace, and the other end is connected with blowdown system, gas blower (4) respectively, selects to be connected with gas treatment equipment (8); The outlet of gas blower (4) divides four the tunnel, is connected with two thermophore with two process furnace respectively, and valve is equipped with on every road, it is characterized in that: the bottom of described electric arc furnace is provided with gas inlet (16), and the gas inlet is connected with gas piping (10); Described device also is provided with two slag refrigerating units (18) and two pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking refrigerating unit (19).
2. the Submerged-arc Furnace device of a fused reduction iron-smelting, described Submerged-arc Furnace device comprises body of heater (2), bell (3), electrode (1), a pair of process furnace (5a, 5b), a pair of thermophore (6a, 6b) and gas treatment equipment (8), described process furnace is connected with body of heater (2), is installed in the outer both sides of body of heater; Described thermophore one end is connected with process furnace, and the other end is connected with blowdown system, gas blower (4) respectively, selects to be connected with gas treatment equipment (8); The outlet of gas blower (4) divides four the tunnel, be connected with two thermophore with two process furnace respectively, valve is equipped with on every road, it is characterized in that: described Submerged-arc Furnace bottom is provided with gas inlet (16), and be connected with gas piping (10), described electrode (1) directly is inserted into the bottom of melting material; Described device also is provided with two slag refrigerating units (18) and two pig iron or continuously cast bloom or stocking refrigerating unit (19).
CN2009100738630A 2009-03-04 2009-03-04 Method and device for making iron by smelting reduction CN101649366B (en)

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