CN101640570A - Frequency spectrum cognitive method and energy detection method and device - Google Patents

Frequency spectrum cognitive method and energy detection method and device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101640570A
CN101640570A CN200810134775A CN200810134775A CN101640570A CN 101640570 A CN101640570 A CN 101640570A CN 200810134775 A CN200810134775 A CN 200810134775A CN 200810134775 A CN200810134775 A CN 200810134775A CN 101640570 A CN101640570 A CN 101640570A
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China
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signal power
subcarrier
received signal
described
current detection
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CN200810134775A
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Chinese (zh)
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闫渊
李安新
加山英俊
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株式会社Ntt都科摩
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Abstract

The invention discloses a frequency spectrum cognitive method, cognitive radio user equipment and the structure of a central node in a cognitive radio system. In the frequency spectrum cognitive method, at least one cognitive radio user in the cognitive radio system detects signals of a main user in a selected channel, and sends the detection result to the central node of the cognitive radio system, wherein the detection result is the parameter correlative with the average signal-to-noise ratio of the channel; and the central node combines the detection results from all the cognitive radio users detecting the same channel, makes the conclusive judgment according to the result of the combination to obtain the judgment result on whether the channel is occupied by the main user in a main usersystem, and can further return the result to all the cognitive radio users. Besides, the invention also discloses a method and a device for energy detection.

Description

Frequency spectrum sensing method, energy detection method and device

Technical field

The present invention relates to cognitive radio technology, particularly in cognitive radio system, realize method and related device and a kind of energy detection method and the related device of frequency spectrum perception.

Background technology

Along with the develop rapidly of wireless communication technology, it is more and more nervous that frequency spectrum resource becomes.Especially along with the development of wireless lan (wlan) technology, wireless personal area network (WRAN) technology, increasing people inserts the Internet wirelessly by these wireless communication technologys.These network technologies are used unauthorized frequency range work mostly, and this makes unauthorized frequency range gradually saturated.Yet, provide protection, frequency management department to distribute specific independent frequency range for these communication services specially in order to give some particular communication business (as visual broadcast service etc.), be called the mandate frequency range, make it to avoid the interference of other communication services.In present stage, the utilance of a considerable amount of mandate frequency spectrum resources is low-down.And compare with authorizing frequency range, the frequency spectrum resource of unauthorized frequency range will lack a lot, but loaded service amount is very big on it.Therefore, based on present frequency spectrum resource allocation method, there is the problem of frequency spectrum resource scarcity in unauthorized frequency range, authorizes frequency range then to have the utilance problem on the low side of frequency spectrum resource.

In order to address the above problem, improve the utilance of existing frequency spectrum resource as far as possible, cognitive radio technology arises at the historic moment.The basic point of departure of cognitive radio technology is exactly: in order to improve the availability of frequency spectrum, Wireless Telecom Equipment with cognitive function can be searched the frequency spectrum resource that can be utilized again in spatial domain, time domain and frequency domain, thereby shares same frequency range with this system in the frequency range of distributing for other system.This frequency spectrum resource that can be utilized again that occurs in spatial domain, time domain and frequency domain is called as " frequency spectrum cavity-pocket ".

For convenience, hereinafter, be called main custom system with originally being independently operated on to the wireless communication system in the special frequency channel of its distribution; Wireless Telecom Equipment in the main custom system is called main user (PU, Primary User); The Wireless Telecom Equipment that will have cognitive function is called cognitive radio users, also can be described as time user (SU, Secondary User); To be called cognitive radio system by the system that cognitive radio users or inferior user form; And main custom system and the shared frequency range of cognitive radio system are called shared band.Owing to main custom system has the voluntary next and shared frequency spectrum of cognitive radio system of its structure that changes, cognitive radio system self should have the ability that " frequency spectrum cavity-pocket " found in also utilization rationally of discovery " frequency spectrum cavity-pocket ".

How to find " frequency spectrum cavity-pocket " in special frequency channel frequency spectrum perception (SpectrumSensing) technology that is otherwise known as.How cognitive radio system accurately also realizes that effectively frequency spectrum perception will be the key that influences the cognitive radio system service behaviour.

In traditional frequency spectrum sensing method, detect by the signal of cognitive radio users usually main user in the shared band, if detect main user's signal, 1 bit information " 1 " that then sends the main user of representative " activity " is to Centroid; If do not detect main user's signal, then send 1 bit information " 0 " of representing main user " to mourn in silence " and arrive Centroid; Then, Centroid will adopt " or " logic (1 bit decision result's OR merging criterion) or " with " logic (1 bit decision result's AND merging criterion) merges the information from all cognitive radio users that is received, if the result after merging is " 1 ", then adjudicate main user " activity "; Otherwise, adjudicate main user and " mourn in silence ".Because in above-mentioned frequency spectrum sensing method, Centroid is not considered to detect performance difference owing to existing between different each cognitive radio users of channel conditions in judging process, therefore, frequency spectrum perception result is inaccurate, and has higher alarm dismissal probability (court verdict is the probability that main user " mourns in silence " when main user " activity ") or false alarm probability (court verdict is the probability of main user " activity " when main user " mourns in silence ").

Summary of the invention

Method and cognitive radio user equipment in the cognitive radio system and Centroid that embodiments of the invention provide a kind of cognitive radio system to realize frequency spectrum perception can be accurately and realize frequency spectrum perception effectively.

Embodiments of the invention also provide a kind of energy detection method and device, to improve the detected signal power of cognitive radio users.

The described frequency spectrum sensing method of the embodiment of the invention comprises: in selected channel, cognitive radio users detects the energy in the described channel, obtains the received signal power in the current detection time; According to received signal power and the average signal power a period of time window in estimated and the average noise power calculation perception metric parameter of current detection in the time, and with the perception metric parameter calculated as testing result; And described testing result sent to Centroid.

Above-mentionedly be: by formula metric according to received signal power and the average signal power in a period of time window, estimated and the average noise power calculation perception metric parameter of current detection in the time k=(P d-P n) 2-(P d-P n-P s) 2Calculate described perception tolerance parameter m etric k, wherein, P dBe the received signal power of current detection in the time; P sAnd P nBe illustrated respectively in average signal power and the average noise power estimated in a period of time window.

The described frequency spectrum sensing method of the embodiment of the invention further comprises: P in initial estimation a period of time window in initialization procedure sAnd P nWhether Centroid returns described channel by the court verdict of main CU to cognitive radio users; And be described channel during by main CU at the court verdict that Centroid returns, upgrade P sAnd P nValuation; Or be described channel during not by main CU at the court verdict that Centroid returns, upgrade P nValuation.

Energy in the described channel of above-mentioned detection comprises: the whole frequency of described channel is divided into N subcarrier, and wherein, N is more than or equal to 1; Detect average received signal power and interior received signal power of current detection time in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window; Calculate the weighted value of each subcarrier according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window; And calculate current detection received signal power on the described channel whole frequency in the time according to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and each subcarrier.

Said method further is included in described testing result sent to and carries out before the Centroid sending after the non-uniform quantizing again.

Frequency spectrum sensing method of the present invention comprises: Centroid receives the perception metric parameter from cognitive radio users; The perception metric parameter of all cognitive radio users of being received is merged; And whether adjudicate described channel by main CU according to amalgamation result.

Above-mentioned frequency spectrum sensing method further comprises: whether described channel is returned to each cognitive radio users by the court verdict of main CU.

Above-mentioned perception metric parameter with all cognitive radio users of being received merges and comprises: the perception metric parameter addition that all cognitive radio users are reported; Whether by main CU comprised: the result and 0 of addition is compared, if more than or equal to 0, judge that then described channel is by main CU according to amalgamation result if adjudicating described channel; Otherwise, judge that described channel is not by main CU.

Above-mentionedly adjudicate described channel according to amalgamation result and whether further comprised by main CU: in addition result less than 0 o'clock, check the testing result that reports whether reach predefined ratio less than 0 cognitive radio users; If the testing result that reports less than 0 cognitive radio users less than predefined ratio, then revising result of determination is that described channel is by main CU.

The described cognitive radio user equipment of the embodiment of the invention comprises:

Detection module, be used in selected channel, carrying out energy measuring, obtain the received signal power in the current detection time, and according to received signal power and the average signal power a period of time window in estimated and the average noise power calculation perception metric parameter of current detection in the time;

The testing result reporting module is used for and will sends to Centroid from the described perception metric parameter that detects module.

Wherein, the testing result reporting module comprises: testing result quantizes submodule, is used for the perception metric parameter of detection module output is carried out non-uniform quantizing; And testing result reports submodule, is used for giving Centroid through the perception tolerance reporting parameters of non-uniform quantizing.

Above-mentioned cognitive radio user equipment further comprises: the court verdict receiver module is used for the court verdict that the receiving center node returns; And be connected signal/noise energy estimation module between court verdict receiver module and the detection module, be used for the valuation of interior average signal power of initial estimation a period of time window and average noise power, and the court verdict that returns according to Centroid upgrades the valuation of average signal power and average noise power, the court verdict that returns at Centroid during by main CU, upgrades the valuation of described average signal power and average noise power for this channel; And the court verdict that returns at Centroid during not by main CU, upgrades the valuation of described average noise power for this channel; And the valuation after will upgrading sends to detection module.

The described Centroid of the embodiment of the invention comprises:

The testing result receiver module is used to receive the perception metric parameter from cognitive radio users;

Judging module, the perception metric parameter that is used for all cognitive radio users that will be received merges, and whether adjudicates this channel by main CU according to amalgamation result.

This Centroid further comprises: the court verdict sending module is used for court verdict is returned to each cognitive radio users.

Above-mentioned judging module comprises: the summation submodule is used for the perception metric parameter addition that all cognitive radio users are reported; The judgement submodule is used for the result and the threshold value 0 of addition are compared, if more than or equal to 0, judges that then described channel is by main CU; Otherwise, be judged to be described channel not by main CU.

Judging module further comprises: the second judgement submodule that is connected to the judgement submodule, be used for when described judgement submodule is judged described channel not by main CU, check the perception metric parameter that reports whether reach predefined ratio less than 0 cognitive radio users; If the perception metric parameter that reports less than 0 cognitive radio users less than predefined ratio, then revising result of determination is that described channel is by main CU.

The described energy detection method of the embodiment of the invention comprises: the whole frequency of described channel is divided into N subcarrier, and wherein, N is more than or equal to 1; Detect average received signal power and interior received signal power of current detection time in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window; Calculate the weighted value of each subcarrier according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window; And calculate current detection received signal power on the described channel whole frequency in the time according to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and each subcarrier.

Wherein, the weighted value of calculating each subcarrier according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window is: adopt formula ω i = P ‾ i Σ i = 1 N P ‾ i Calculate the weighted value ω of each subcarrier respectively i, wherein, P iIt is the average received signal power in a period of time window on i subcarrier; According to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and each subcarrier calculate current detection in the time received signal power on the described channel whole frequency comprise: adopt formula P d = Σ i = 1 N ω i P i Calculate P d, wherein, P iBe the received signal power of current detection in the time on i subcarrier.

Above-mentioned energy detection method further comprises: M continuous subcarrier in N the subcarrier of dividing made up, form the frequency sub-band of L group, L and M are all more than or equal to 1; The wherein said weighted value of calculating each subcarrier according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window is equivalent to: adopt formula ω l = Σ i = i 0 i 0 + M - 1 P ‾ i Σ i = 1 N P ‾ i Calculate the weighted value ω of each frequency sub-band l, wherein, P iBe the average received signal power in a period of time window on i subcarrier, i 0It is the sequence number of first subcarrier in l the frequency sub-band; According to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and each subcarrier calculate current detection in the time received signal power on the described channel whole frequency comprise: adopt formula P d = Σ l = 1 L ω l P d l Calculate the received signal power P on the described channel whole frequency in the current detection time d, wherein, Represent the received signal power in the current detection time in l the frequency sub-band, pass through formula P d l = 1 M Σ i = i 0 i 0 + M - 1 P i Calculate P iBe the received signal power of current detection in the time on i subcarrier.

The described energy testing apparatus of the embodiment of the invention comprises: subcarrier is divided module, is used for the whole frequency of channel is divided into N subcarrier, and is sequence number of each subcarrier allocation, and wherein N is more than or equal to 1; The received signal power detection module is used to detect average received signal power and interior received signal power of current detection time in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window; The weighted value computing module is used for calculating according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window the weighted value of each subcarrier; And the received signal power computing module, be used for calculating current detection received signal power on the described channel whole frequency in the time according to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and each subcarrier.

This energy testing apparatus further comprises: the frequency sub-band that is connected between received signal power detection module and the weighted value computing module is divided module, be used for M the continuous subcarrier of dividing of N subcarrier made up, form the frequency sub-band of L group, L and M are all more than or equal to 1; Wherein, the weighted value computing module calculates the weighted value of each frequency sub-band according to the average received signal power on each frequency sub-band; The received signal power computing module calculates current detection received signal power on the described channel whole frequency in the time according to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each frequency sub-band and each frequency sub-band.

This shows, in frequency spectrum sensing method of the present invention, the testing result that cognitive radios in the cognitive radio system reports to Centroid is the parameter relevant with the channel average signal-to-noise ratio, then Centroid is when the parameter relevant with the channel average signal-to-noise ratio that reports according to each cognitive radio users adjudicated, can take into full account each cognitive radio users owing to the different signal detection performance differences that produce of the average signal-to-noise ratio of place channel, make that the court verdict of frequency spectrum perception is more accurate, reduce alarm dismissal probability and false alarm probability effectively.

In the energy detection method of weighting provided by the invention, therefore the signal on the better frequency range, can improve the detected signal power of cognitive radio users with bigger weighted value in the channel owing to giving.As above-mentioned energy detection method is applied in the frequency spectrum perception process, then can effectively reduce the alarm dismissal probability in the frequency spectrum perception process.

Description of drawings

To make clearer above-mentioned and other feature and advantage of the present invention of those of ordinary skill in the art by describe exemplary embodiment of the present invention in detail with reference to accompanying drawing below, in the accompanying drawing:

Fig. 1 is the basic structure schematic diagram of cognitive radio system;

Fig. 2 is the simplified flow chart of the described frequency spectrum sensing method of the embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 3 is the operating process schematic diagram of cognitive radio users in the described frequency spectrum sensing method of the embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 4 is the operating process schematic diagram of Centroid in the described frequency spectrum sensing method of the embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 5 is the described cognitive radio users internal structure of an embodiment of the invention schematic diagram;

Fig. 6 is the internal structure schematic diagram of the described Centroid of the embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 7 is the described energy detection method schematic flow sheet of the embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 8 is the internal structure schematic diagram of the described energy testing apparatus of the embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 9 concerns schematic diagram between detection probability and the false alarm probability when adopting the traditional frequency spectrum sensing method of described frequency spectrum sensing method of the embodiment of the invention and employing.

Embodiment

For making purpose of the present invention, technical scheme clearer, below with reference to the accompanying drawing embodiment that develops simultaneously, the present invention is described in further detail.

Fig. 1 has shown the basic structure of a cognitive radio system.As can be seen from Figure 1, a cognitive radio system mainly comprises at least one cognitive radio users and Centroid.Wherein, above-mentioned at least one radio subscriber is the user terminal in the cognitive radio system, it except basic radio communication service is provided for the user in the cognitive radio system, at least also should with the Centroid of cognitive radio system alternately to finish the frequency spectrum perception process.

Fig. 2 has shown the process of cognitive radio system realization frequency spectrum perception shown in Figure 1, mainly comprises:

Step 201, select a channel in the shared band, at least one cognitive radio users in the above-mentioned cognitive radio system is dispensed on the signal that detects main user in the main custom system in this channel, and testing result is sent to the Centroid of cognitive radio system; Wherein, above-mentioned testing result is and the relevant parameter of this channel average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

In an embodiment of the present invention, above-mentioned channel can be frequency sub-band, subchannel or Physical Resource Block an or the like frequency spectrum resource.

Step 202, above-mentioned Centroid will merge from the testing result of all cognitive radio users, and makes conclusive judgement according to amalgamation result, whether obtains this channel by the court verdict of main CU in the main custom system.

After obtaining court verdict, Centroid can also further return to court verdict each cognitive radio users.

If judge that according to amalgamation result this channel by main CU, promptly is judged to be main user " activity ", cognitive radio system can not take this channel and provide communication service for the user of cognitive radio system; On the contrary, if judge that according to amalgamation result this channel is not by main CU, promptly be judged to be main user and " mourn in silence ", cognitive radio system then can be given cognitive radio users with this channel allocation, thereby utilizes this channel to provide communication service for the user of cognitive radio system.

After executing above-mentioned steps 201 and 202, cognitive radio system can return step 201 again, selects the one other channel in the shared band, whether detects this channel more by the main CU in the main custom system.This shows, carry out above-mentioned steps 201 and 202 by circulation, cognitive radio system can be monitored each channel in the shared band in real time, find the channel of " free time ", and utilize " free time " channel that finds to provide communication service for cognitive radio users, thereby share the frequency spectrum resource of having distributed to main custom system, improve the availability of frequency spectrum of shared band greatly.

Carrying out above-mentioned steps 201 and 202 except above-mentioned circulation detects the mode of each channel in the shared band successively, in actual applications, especially under the more situation of cognitive radio users number, can detect a plurality of channels in the shared band simultaneously, promptly can at first cognitive radio users be divided into some groups, make each group cognitive radio users be responsible for detecting an interior channel of shared band, cognitive radio users in each group reports Centroid with the channel detection result of self respectively, Centroid will merge the testing result of same channel respectively, obtain court verdict simultaneously, find " free time " channel in the shared band to provide communication service fast for cognitive radio users to a plurality of channels.

In said method, because the foundation that Centroid is adjudicated is the parameter relevant with the channel average SNR that each cognitive radio users reports, thereby make above-mentioned frequency spectrum perception process can take into full account the average SNR different signal detection performance differences that produce of each cognitive radio users owing to the place channel, make court verdict more accurate, reduce alarm dismissal probability and false alarm probability effectively.

To describe above-mentioned frequency spectrum sensing method shown in Figure 2 in detail by specific embodiment below.

Fig. 3 has shown the operating process of cognitive radio users in the above-mentioned frequency spectrum sensing method.As shown in Figure 3, in order to realize frequency spectrum perception, each cognitive radio users in the cognitive radio system is carried out following steps respectively:

Step 301, main user's signal in the main custom system of detection in selected channel comprises that cognitive radio users detects the energy in the described channel, promptly carries out energy measuring (energy detection), obtains the received signal power P in the current detection time dAnd according to received signal power and the average signal power a period of time window in estimated and the average noise power calculation perception metric parameter (sensing metrics) of current detection in the time, and with the perception metric parameter calculated as testing result;

Step 302, testing result is sent to Centroid.

After the testing result that Centroid reports according to cognitive radio users was adjudicated, cognitive radio users is the court verdict that returns of receiving center node further.

Wherein, in an embodiment of the present invention, the energy that detects in selected channel in the above-mentioned steps 301 in the described channel can realize realizing on frequency domain that also the result of energy measuring all can be expressed as on the time domain P d = 1 M Σ k = 1 M | s k | 2 , Wherein, M is the sampling number in detection time; If on time domain, carry out energy measuring, then s kIt is the sampled signal of time domain; If on frequency domain, carry out energy measuring, then s kIt is the sampled signal of frequency domain.

Perception tolerance parameter m etric in the above-mentioned steps 301 kCan calculate by following formula (1):

metric k=(P d-P n) 2-(P d-P n-P s) 2????(1)

Wherein, P dBe the received signal power of current detection in the time; P sAnd P nRepresent average signal power and the average noise power in a period of time window, estimated respectively.Above-mentioned formula (1) is done further derivation can obtain the perception metric parameter metric k = ( P d - P n ) 2 - ( P d - P n - P s ) 2 = P n 2 · P s P n · ( 2 P d P n - P s P n - 2 ) , This shows said sensed metric parameter metric kExcept with average noise power P nAnd the received signal power P in the current detection time dOutside the Pass having, also with this channel on average signal-to-noise ratio Substantially relation in direct ratio that is to say, according to said sensed metric parameter metric kAdjudicate the perception tolerance parameter m etric that the cognitive radio users that average signal-to-noise ratio is bigger reports kTo last court verdict bigger influence will be arranged, therefore, according to said sensed metric parameter metric kThe process of carrying out frequency spectrum perception can take into full account the average SNR different signal detection performance differences that produce of each cognitive radio users owing to the place channel, makes court verdict more accurate.

In order to obtain accurate perception tolerance parameter m etric kValue, in the embodiments of the invention, before above-mentioned steps 301, can further include: in initialization procedure, initial estimation P sAnd P nValuation.

And can further include after receiving the court verdict that Centroid returns: the court verdict according to Centroid upgrades P sAnd P nValuation, use when detecting next time.Above-mentioned renewal P sAnd P nThe method of valuation specifically comprise: the court verdict that returns at Centroid for this channel by main CU, during promptly main user " activity ", upgrade P sAnd P nValuation; And the court verdict that returns at Centroid for this channel not by main CU, when promptly main user " mourns in silence ", upgrade P nValuation.

Initial estimation and upgrade P how sAnd P nValuation can realize by existing method, for example, can utilize list of references S.Paquelet, L.-M.Aubert, " An Energy AdaptiveDemodulation for High Data Rates with Impulse Radio ", WCOM 2004, initial estimation of putting down in writing among the IEEE and renewal P sAnd P nThe method of valuation realizes.

From above-mentioned method shown in Figure 3 as can be seen, each cognitive radio users only need be transmitted a testing result to Centroid, whether Centroid can rule out current channel by the main CU in the main custom system, therefore, above-mentioned frequency spectrum perception process only need take the testing result that seldom Internet resources transmit each cognitive radio users.

In another embodiment of the present invention, in order further to reduce the amount of information that needs transmission, can adopt the mode of nonuniform quantiza that the testing result of Centroid of giving to be sent is quantized, can further save quantization bit so on the one hand, reduce the amount of information of transmitting, also can reach better transmission performance on the other hand.For example, if adopt 3bits that testing result is quantized, an optional quantized interval is [1,0.5,0.25,0.125 ,-0.125 ,-0.25 ,-0.5 ,-1].In the application of reality, can quantized interval be set according to the distribution character of testing result.Those skilled in the art will appreciate that mode, can further reduce the amount of information that needs transmission, reach the purpose of further saving Internet resources by above-mentioned non-uniform quantizing testing result.

In addition, from above-mentioned formula (1) as can be seen, cognitive radio users sends to the perception tolerance parameter m etric of Centroid kComputational methods very simple, do not need complex mathematical computings such as exponent arithmetic, logarithm operation, can effectively reduce the design complexities of cognitive radio user equipment.And, by the uncertain caused perception tolerance parameter m etric of noise kThe error of calculation can not amplified by big sampling number, therefore, the perception tolerance parameter m etric that calculates through said method kInsensitive to the noise uncertainty, that is to say that even under the situation that the noise uncertainty exists, Centroid is according to said sensed metric parameter metric kAdjudicate still and can obtain court verdict more accurately.

Fig. 4 has shown the operating process of Centroid in the above-mentioned frequency spectrum sensing method.As shown in Figure 4, in order to realize frequency spectrum perception, Centroid will be carried out following steps:

Step 401 receives the testing result at same channel from cognitive radio users, promptly receives the perception metric parameter from cognitive radio users;

Step 402, the testing result that all that are received is detected the cognitive radio users of same channel merges, and the perception metric parameter that is about to all cognitive radio users of being received merges;

Whether step 403 adjudicates this channel by the main CU of main custom system according to amalgamation result.

After obtaining court verdict, Centroid can also further return to court verdict each cognitive radio users.

As previously mentioned, the testing result that reports of cognitive radio users can be the perception tolerance parameter m etric relevant with this channel SNR k, at this moment, the described testing result with all cognitive radio users of being received of step 402 merges and comprises: the perception tolerance parameter m etric that all cognitive radio users are reported kAddition; Whether step 403 is described adjudicates this channel according to amalgamation result and comprised by the main CU of main custom system: the result and the threshold value 0 of addition are compared, if more than or equal to 0, then judge main user " activity ", promptly this channel is by main CU; On the contrary, if less than 0, then be judged to be main user and " mourn in silence ", promptly this channel is not by main CU.This shows, in the merge algorithm of above-mentioned Centroid, Centroid only needs all perception metric parameter additions from the cognitive radio users that detects same channel, compare with threshold value 0 then, computing is very simple, and the merging that is particluarly suitable under the more situation of number of users is handled.

By above-mentioned Fig. 3 and method shown in Figure 4 as can be seen, cognitive radio users is after energy measuring, the result of energy measuring is converted into parameter with channel average SNR relation in direct ratio, and send to Centroid and carry out conclusive judgement, thereby make the described frequency spectrum perception process of the embodiment of the invention can take into full account each cognitive radio users owing to the different signal detection performance differences that produce of the average signal-to-noise ratio of place channel, promptly the average SNR that shows as according to each cognitive radio users place channel of the testing result of Sheng Chenging gives the different weights of different users (wherein, the user that average signal-to-noise ratio is bigger has bigger weights), make court verdict more accurate, reduce alarm dismissal probability and false alarm probability effectively.

Need to prove the perception tolerance parameter m etric that above-mentioned formula (1) provides kComputing formula only be one embodiment of the present invention, in actual applications, also can select other computational methods to calculate said sensed metric parameter metric kAs long as value is the perception that calculates tolerance parameter m etric kHaving proportional relationship with the channel average SNR gets final product.Has the perception metric parameter of proportional relationship by transmitting this and channel average SNR, make the judging process of frequency spectrum perception to give different users different weights according to the average SNR of each cognitive radio users place channel, thereby improve the accuracy of court verdict.It should be noted that and selecting other computational methods to calculate perception tolerance parameter m etric kThe time, also to measure parameter m etric according to perception kThe threshold value of computational methods when resetting Centroid and adjudicating.

As previously mentioned, the perception tolerance parameter m etric that cognitive radio users is reported at Centroid kIn the process that merges, the cognitive radio users that average signal-to-noise ratio is bigger will have bigger influence to last court verdict, but, if the cognitive radio users that these average signal-to-noise ratios are bigger has experienced the bigger degree of depth in certain detection time and has declined soon in the section, the signal energy that makes this cognitive radio users detect is less, thereby cause the Centroid judgement to think that this moment, main user " mourned in silence ", false dismissal occurs.In order to reduce the alarm dismissal probability that causes by this situation, in another embodiment of the present invention, can also do further to improve to the described method of above-mentioned Fig. 4, promptly under the satisfied situation of result that above-mentioned steps 403 merges less than threshold value 0, further check the testing result that reports whether reach predefined ratio less than 0 cognitive radio users, if the testing result that reports be greater than or equal to predefined ratio less than 0 cognitive radio users, judge still that then main user " mourns in silence "; Otherwise revising result of determination is main user " activity ".Present embodiment rules out the restrictive condition that main user " mourns in silence " by increase, thereby can reduce alarm dismissal probability.In addition, those skilled in the art will appreciate that improving aforementioned proportion then can further reduce alarm dismissal probability, but can increase false alarm probability simultaneously; On the contrary, reduce aforementioned proportion and then can reduce false alarm probability, but alarm dismissal probability will increase, therefore, in actual applications,, should compromise and consider that false-alarm and false dismissal are to the cognitive radio system Effect on Performance in order to set suitable ratio.

Corresponding to above-mentioned frequency spectrum sensing method, embodiments of the invention also provide a kind of cognitive radio users device and Centroid, and wherein, the internal structure of cognitive radio users device please refer to Fig. 5, and the internal structure of Centroid please refer to Fig. 6.

As shown in Figure 5, described cognitive radio users device mainly comprises:

Detection module is used to carry out energy measuring, obtains the received signal power P in the current detection time d, and according to the received signal power P of current detection in the time dWith average signal power of in a period of time window, estimating and average noise power calculation perception tolerance parameter m etric k

The testing result reporting module is used for and will measures parameter m etric from the described perception that detects module kSend to Centroid.

In actual applications, above-mentioned detection module can calculate perception tolerance parameter m etric by above-mentioned formula (1) kPerhaps adopt other computational methods to calculate the perception tolerance parameter m etric that has proportional relationship with the channel average SNR k

Above-mentioned testing result reporting module comprises:

Testing result quantizes submodule, is used for the perception metric parameter of detection module output is carried out non-uniform quantizing; And

Testing result reports submodule, is used for giving Centroid with the perception tolerance reporting parameters through non-uniform quantizing.

In order to obtain accurate perception tolerance parameter m etric kValue, in the embodiments of the invention, the cognitive radio users device can further include:

The court verdict receiver module is used for the court verdict that the receiving center node returns; And

Be connected the signal/noise energy estimation module between court verdict receiver module and the detection module, be used for initial estimation P sAnd P nValuation, and the court verdict that returns according to Centroid upgrades P sAnd P nValuation, promptly the court verdict that returns at Centroid for this channel by main CU, during promptly main user " activity ", upgrade P sAnd P nValuation; And the court verdict that returns at Centroid for this channel not by main CU, when promptly main user " mourns in silence ", upgrade P nValuation; And with P sAnd P nValuation send to detection module.

As shown in Figure 6, Centroid mainly comprises:

The testing result receiver module is used to receive the perception metric parameter from cognitive radio users; And

Judging module, the perception metric parameter that is used for all cognitive radio users that will be received merges, and whether adjudicates this channel by main CU according to amalgamation result.

Above-mentioned Centroid can further include: the court verdict sending module is used for court verdict is returned to each cognitive radio users.

Wherein, above-mentioned judging module comprises:

The summation submodule is used for the perception tolerance parameter m etric that all cognitive radio users are reported kAddition;

The judgement submodule is used for the result and the threshold value 0 of addition are compared, if more than or equal to 0, then judges this channel by main CU, promptly main user " activity "; On the contrary, if less than 0, then be judged to be this channel not by main CU, promptly main user " mourns in silence ".

Above-mentioned judging module can further include: the second judgement submodule that is connected to the judgement submodule, be used for when the judgement submodule judges that main user " mourns in silence ", further check the perception metric parameter that reports whether reach predefined ratio less than 0 cognitive radio users, if the perception metric parameter that reports be greater than or equal to predefined ratio less than 0 cognitive radio users, then judge this channel not by main CU, promptly main user " mourns in silence "; Otherwise, revise court verdict and be this channel by main CU, promptly main user " activity ".

Except above-mentioned frequency spectrum sensing method, embodiments of the invention also provide the method for the energy measuring that a kind of cognitive radio users carries out, and can be applied in the above-mentioned steps 301.The precondition of using this energy detection method is that main custom system should be a multi-carrier broadband system.

The energy detection method that present embodiment provides is a kind of energy detection algorithm of weighting, its basic thought is owing to the signal on the better frequency range in the channel will have bigger received signal energy, therefore, in the energy measuring process, should give in the channel signal on the better frequency range with bigger weighted value, its concrete grammar mainly comprises as shown in Figure 7:

Step 701 is divided into N subcarrier with the whole frequency of channel, and wherein N is more than or equal to 1.

Step 702 detects average received signal power and interior received signal power of current detection time in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window.

Step 703 is calculated the weighted value of each subcarrier according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window;

In this step, can adopt following formula (2) to calculate the weighted value ω of each subcarrier respectively i:

ω i = P ‾ i Σ i = 1 N P ‾ i - - - ( 2 )

Wherein, P iIt is the average received signal power in a period of time window on i subcarrier.

Step 704 is calculated current detection received signal power P on the described channel whole frequency in the time according to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and each subcarrier d

In this step, can adopt following formula (3) to calculate interior received signal power P of current detection time d:

P d = Σ i = 1 N ω i P i - - - ( 3 )

Wherein, P iBe the received signal power of current detection in the time on i subcarrier.

By the energy detection method of above-mentioned weighting, the detected signal power of cognitive radio users is bigger than using traditional energy detection algorithm, thus, can further reduce false alarm probability.

A replacement scheme as the foregoing description, reduce the computation complexity of energy measuring, can be after above-mentioned steps 701, further N the subcarrier of dividing formed in order the L group, every group of M subcarrier, also promptly M continuous subcarrier in N the subcarrier of dividing made up, form the frequency sub-band of L group.Wherein, every group of M sub carrier group becomes a frequency sub-band, and L and M are all more than or equal to 1.

In actual applications, also can be directly be L frequency sub-band with the spectrum division of channel, again each frequency sub-band is divided into M subcarrier, and is sequence number of each subcarrier allocation.

At this moment, the weighted value of each frequency sub-band will be calculated, particularly, the weighted value ω of each frequency sub-band will be calculated according to following formula (4) in the present embodiment in step 703 l:

ω l = Σ i = i 0 i 0 + M - 1 P ‾ i Σ i = 1 N P ‾ i - - - ( 4 )

Wherein, P iBe the average received signal power in a period of time window on i subcarrier, i 0It is the sequence number of first subcarrier in l the frequency sub-band.

To calculate the received signal power P of current detection in the time according to following formula (5) in step 704 d:

P d = Σ l = 1 L ω l P d l - - - ( 5 )

Wherein, Represent the average received signal power in l the frequency sub-band, can calculate by following formula: P d l = 1 M Σ i = i 0 i 0 + M - 1 P i , P iBe the received signal power of current detection in the time on i subcarrier.

Corresponding to above-mentioned energy detection method, the present invention also provides energy testing apparatus, can be used as above-mentioned energy measuring submodule and is applied in the cognitive radio users device shown in Figure 5, and its internal structure mainly comprises as shown in Figure 8:

Subcarrier is divided module, is used for the whole frequency of channel is divided into N subcarrier, and wherein N is more than or equal to 1;

The received signal power detection module is used to detect average received signal power and interior received signal power of current detection time in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window;

The weighted value computing module is used for calculating according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window the weighted value of each subcarrier;

The received signal power computing module is used for calculating current detection received signal power on the described channel whole frequency in the time according to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and each subcarrier.

In the practical application, above-mentioned weighted value computing module can calculate the weighted value of each subcarrier according to above-mentioned formula (2); Above-mentioned received signal power computing module can calculate the received signal power on the described channel whole frequency in the current detection time according to above-mentioned formula (3).

If above-mentioned energy testing apparatus further comprises the frequency sub-band that is connected between received signal power detection module and the weighted value computing module and divides module, be used for M the continuous subcarrier of dividing of N subcarrier made up, form the frequency sub-band of L group.Then the weighted value computing module can calculate the weighted value of each frequency sub-band according to above-mentioned formula (4); Above-mentioned received signal power computing module can calculate the received signal power on the described channel whole frequency in the current detection time according to above-mentioned formula (5).

Fig. 9 has shown the relation between the detection probability and false alarm probability when adopting the traditional frequency spectrum sensing method of the embodiment of the invention described frequency spectrum sensing method and employing.Traditional scheme adopts 1 bit decision result's OR merging criterion.Judge the probability of main user " activity " when wherein, detection probability is illustrated in main user " activity ".Each parameter of simulation model is as shown in table 1 below:

Parameter name Parameter value Remarks Average signal-to-noise ratio ??-14.5dB The signal to noise ratio standard deviation ??8dB Cause between the different users uncorrelated by different distances and shade The small scale decline ??TU6 Each user independently produces the TU6 channel The noise uncertainty ??1dB Suppose evenly to distribute Detection time 2 OFDM symbols Sampling number ??600 The cognitive radio users number ??12

Table 1

As can be seen from Figure 9, because the described frequency spectrum sensing method of the embodiment of the invention has taken into full account the difference between each cognitive radio users different operating characteristic, the described frequency spectrum sensing method of the embodiment of the invention has lower false alarm probability under the situation of same detection probability, and under the situation of identical false alarm probability, has the higher detection probability, therefore, the described frequency spectrum sensing method of the embodiment of the invention is better than traditional scheme to the detection performance of " frequency spectrum cavity-pocket ".

The above only is preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is in order to restriction the present invention, within the spirit and principles in the present invention not all, any modification of being done, is equal to replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (23)

1, a kind of frequency spectrum sensing method is characterized in that, comprising:
In selected channel, cognitive radio users detects the energy in the described channel, obtains the received signal power in the current detection time;
According to received signal power and the average signal power a period of time window in estimated and the average noise power calculation perception metric parameter of current detection in the time, and with the perception metric parameter calculated as testing result; And
Described testing result is sent to Centroid.
2, method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, describedly according to received signal power and the average signal power a period of time window in estimated and the average noise power calculation perception metric parameter of current detection in the time is: by formula metric k=(P d-P n) 2-(P d-P n-P s) 2Calculate described perception tolerance parameter m etric k, wherein, P dBe the received signal power of current detection in the time; P sAnd P nBe illustrated respectively in average signal power and the average noise power estimated in a period of time window.
3, method according to claim 2 is characterized in that, further comprises:
The valuation of average signal power and average noise power in initial estimation a period of time window in initialization procedure;
Whether Centroid returns described channel by the court verdict of main CU to cognitive radio users; And
The court verdict that returns at Centroid is a described channel during by main CU, upgrades the valuation of average signal power and average noise power;
The court verdict that returns at Centroid is a described channel during not by main CU, upgrades the valuation of average noise power.
4, method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, the energy in the described channel of described detection comprises:
The whole frequency of described channel is divided into N subcarrier, and wherein, N is more than or equal to 1;
Detect average received signal power and interior received signal power of current detection time in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window;
Calculate the weighted value of each subcarrier according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window; And
Calculate current detection received signal power on the described channel whole frequency in the time according to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and described each subcarrier.
5, method according to claim 4 is characterized in that,
The described weighted value of calculating each subcarrier according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window is: adopt formula ω i = P ‾ i Σ i = 1 N P ‾ i Calculate the weighted value ω of each subcarrier respectively i, wherein, P iIt is the average received signal power in a period of time window on i subcarrier;
Described weighted value according to the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and described each subcarrier calculate current detection in the time received signal power on the described channel whole frequency be: adopt formula P d = Σ i = 1 N ω i P i Calculate P d, wherein, P iBe the received signal power of current detection in the time on i subcarrier.
6, method according to claim 4 is characterized in that, further comprises: M continuous subcarrier in N the subcarrier of dividing made up, form the frequency sub-band of L group, L and M are all more than or equal to 1;
The described weighted value of calculating each subcarrier according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window is equivalent to: adopt formula ω l = Σ i = i 0 i 0 + M - 1 P ‾ i Σ i = 1 N P ‾ i Calculate the weighted value ω of each frequency sub-band l, wherein, P iBe the average received signal power in a period of time window on i subcarrier, i 0It is the sequence number of first subcarrier in l the frequency sub-band;
Described weighted value according to the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and described each subcarrier calculate current detection in the time received signal power on the described channel whole frequency be equivalent to: adopt formula P d = Σ l = 1 L ω l P d l Calculate the received signal power P on the described channel whole frequency in the current detection time d, wherein, Represent the received signal power in the current detection time in l the frequency sub-band, pass through formula P d l = 1 M Σ i = i 0 i 0 + M - 1 P i Calculate P iBe the received signal power of current detection in the time on i subcarrier.
7, method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, further comprises: send carried out non-uniform quantizing before described testing result is sent to Centroid after again.
8, a kind of frequency spectrum sensing method is characterized in that, comprising:
Centroid receives the perception metric parameter from cognitive radio users;
The perception metric parameter of all cognitive radio users of being received is merged; And
Whether adjudicate described channel by main CU according to amalgamation result.
9, method according to claim 8 is characterized in that, further comprises: whether described channel is returned to each cognitive radio users by the court verdict of main CU.
10, method according to claim 8 is characterized in that,
Described perception metric parameter with all cognitive radio users of being received merges and comprises: the perception metric parameter addition that all cognitive radio users are reported;
Describedly adjudicate described channel according to amalgamation result and whether comprised: the result and the threshold value 0 of addition are compared,, judge that then described channel is by main CU if more than or equal to 0 by main CU; Otherwise, judge that described channel is not by main CU.
Whether 11, method according to claim 10 is characterized in that, describedly adjudicate described channel according to amalgamation result and further comprised by main CU:
In addition result less than 0 o'clock, check the perception metric parameter that reports whether reach predefined ratio less than 0 cognitive radio users;
If the perception metric parameter that reports less than 0 cognitive radio users less than predefined ratio, then revising result of determination is that described channel is by main CU.
12, a kind of cognitive radio user equipment is characterized in that, comprising:
Detection module, be used in selected channel, carrying out energy measuring, obtain the received signal power in the current detection time, and according to received signal power and the average signal power a period of time window in estimated and the average noise power calculation perception metric parameter of current detection in the time;
The testing result reporting module is used for and will sends to Centroid from the described perception metric parameter that detects module.
13, cognitive radio user equipment according to claim 12 is characterized in that, described testing result reporting module comprises:
Testing result quantizes submodule, is used for the perception metric parameter of detection module output is carried out non-uniform quantizing; And
Testing result reports submodule, is used for testing result is quantized the perception tolerance reporting parameters of process non-uniform quantizing of submodule output to Centroid.
14, cognitive radio user equipment according to claim 12 is characterized in that, further comprises:
The court verdict receiver module is used for the court verdict that the receiving center node returns; And
Be connected the signal/noise energy estimation module between court verdict receiver module and the detection module, be used for the valuation of average signal power and average noise power in initialization procedure initial estimation a period of time window, and the court verdict that returns according to Centroid upgrades the valuation of average signal power and average noise power, the court verdict that returns at Centroid during by main CU, upgrades the valuation of described average signal power and average noise power for this channel; And the court verdict that returns at Centroid during not by main CU, upgrades the valuation of described average noise power for this channel; And the valuation after will upgrading sends to detection module.
15, a kind of Centroid is characterized in that, comprising:
The testing result receiver module is used to receive the perception metric parameter from cognitive radio users; And
Judging module, the perception metric parameter that is used for all cognitive radio users that will be received merges, and whether adjudicates this channel by main CU according to amalgamation result.
16, Centroid according to claim 15 is characterized in that, further comprises:
The court verdict sending module is used for court verdict is returned to each cognitive radio users.
17, Centroid according to claim 15 is characterized in that, described judging module comprises:
The summation submodule is used for the perception metric parameter addition that all cognitive radio users are reported; And
The judgement submodule is used for the result and the threshold value 0 of addition are compared, if more than or equal to 0, judges that then described channel is by main CU; Otherwise, be judged to be described channel not by main CU.
18, Centroid according to claim 17, it is characterized in that, described judging module further comprises: the second judgement submodule that is connected to the judgement submodule, be used for when described judgement submodule is judged described channel not by main CU, check the perception metric parameter that reports whether reach predefined ratio less than 0 cognitive radio users; If the perception metric parameter that reports less than 0 cognitive radio users less than predefined ratio, then revising result of determination is that described channel is by main CU.
19, a kind of energy detection method is characterized in that, comprising:
The whole frequency of described channel is divided into N subcarrier, and wherein, N is more than or equal to 1;
Detect average received signal power and interior received signal power of current detection time in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window;
Calculate the weighted value of each subcarrier according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window; And
Calculate current detection received signal power on the described channel whole frequency in the time according to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and described each subcarrier.
20, method according to claim 19 is characterized in that,
The described weighted value of calculating each subcarrier according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window is: adopt formula ω i = P ‾ i Σ i = 1 N P ‾ i Calculate the weighted value ω of each subcarrier respectively i, wherein, P iIt is the average received signal power in a period of time window on i subcarrier;
Described weighted value according to the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and described each subcarrier calculate current detection in the time received signal power on the described channel whole frequency be: adopt formula P d = Σ i = 1 N ω i P i Calculate P d, wherein, P iBe the received signal power of current detection in the time on i subcarrier.
21, method according to claim 19 is characterized in that, further comprises: M continuous subcarrier in N the subcarrier of dividing made up, form the frequency sub-band of L group, L and M are all more than or equal to 1;
The described weighted value of calculating each subcarrier according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window is equivalent to: adopt formula ω l = Σ i = i 0 i 0 + M - 1 P ‾ i Σ i = 1 N P ‾ i Calculate the weighted value ω of each frequency sub-band l, wherein, P iBe the average received signal power in a period of time window on i subcarrier, i 0It is the sequence number of first subcarrier in l the frequency sub-band;
Described weighted value according to the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and described each subcarrier calculate current detection in the time received signal power on the described channel whole frequency be equivalent to: adopt formula P d = Σ l = 1 L ω l P d l Calculate the received signal power P on the described channel whole frequency in the current detection time d, wherein, Represent the received signal power in the current detection time in l the frequency sub-band, pass through formula P d l = 1 M Σ i = i 0 i 0 + M - 1 P i Calculate P iBe the received signal power of current detection in the time on i subcarrier.
22, a kind of energy testing apparatus is characterized in that, comprising:
Subcarrier is divided module, is used for the whole frequency of channel is divided into N subcarrier, and is sequence number of each subcarrier allocation, and wherein N is more than or equal to 1;
The received signal power detection module is used to detect average received signal power and interior received signal power of current detection time in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window;
The weighted value computing module is used for calculating according to the average received signal power in each subcarrier the preceding paragraph time window the weighted value of each subcarrier; And
The received signal power computing module is used for calculating current detection received signal power on the described channel whole frequency in the time according to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each subcarrier and described each subcarrier.
23, energy testing apparatus according to claim 22 is characterized in that, further comprises:
The frequency sub-band that is connected between received signal power detection module and the weighted value computing module is divided module, is used for M the continuous subcarrier of dividing of N subcarrier made up, and forms the frequency sub-band of L group, and L and M are all more than or equal to 1;
Described weighted value computing module calculates the weighted value of each frequency sub-band according to the average received signal power on each frequency sub-band;
Described received signal power computing module calculates current detection received signal power on the described channel whole frequency in the time according to the weighted value of the received signal power in current detection time on each frequency sub-band and described each frequency sub-band.
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