CN101629304B - Coke particle baking startup method for pre-baked anode aluminum electrolytic cell and structure thereof - Google Patents

Coke particle baking startup method for pre-baked anode aluminum electrolytic cell and structure thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101629304B
CN101629304B CN2008100123754A CN200810012375A CN101629304B CN 101629304 B CN101629304 B CN 101629304B CN 2008100123754 A CN2008100123754 A CN 2008100123754A CN 200810012375 A CN200810012375 A CN 200810012375A CN 101629304 B CN101629304 B CN 101629304B
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China
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anode
electrolyzer
grain
broken
cathode block
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CN2008100123754A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101629304A (en
Inventor
杨晓东
刘雅锋
朱佳明
孙康建
周东方
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沈阳铝镁设计研究院
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Abstract

The invention relates to a coke particle baking startup method for a pre-baked anode aluminum electrolytic cell and a structure thereof. The structure comprise a cathodic carbon block; the cathodic carbon block is provided with an anode group; the cathodic carbon block is provided with a thermocouple; both ends of the anode group are provided with steel plates; electrolyte blocks are arranged between the steel plates and a pot shell; and a coke particle layer is arranged between the cathodic carbon block and the anode group. The method and the structure have short baking startup process, save a large quantity of electric energy, prolong the service life of the electrolytic cell, improves the aluminum yield, reduce direct current power consumption, are favorable for maintaining the steady production of the electrolytic cell, prolong the service life of the electrolytic cell, and reduce the workload and the consumption of compressed air.

Description

A kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode and structure
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of calcination startup method, relate in particular to and adopt Hall-Heroult process to produce the running current of primary aluminum from 160kA to 400kA or more large-scale coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode and structure.
Background technology
The existing common roasting and starting way of large-sized prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction has two kinds, and a kind of is to adopt the method for activation of burnt grain as medium, and another kind is the way that adopts the combustion gas roasting and starting.
The method of domestic common employing is the way of coke grain calcination startup.Chinese patent ZL99120950.8 discloses method for baking coke particles, is the domestic way that generally adopts.Adopting fluoride salt and soda ash in this patent is to prepare burden between 2.8~3 by molecular ratio, control Calcium Fluoride (Fluorspan) content is 4~6% to carry out shove charge, liquid electrolyte submergence anode bottom in the roasting process, that lays is burnt for forging the back, thickness is 10~30mm, exist baking start-up method to be generally more than 72 hours, roasting and starting is irritated behind the aluminium at least one month electrolytic bath voltage just can reduce to normal level, has wasted a large amount of electric energy; Liner is because the maturing temperature height makes bath life short; Need 3 months moons technical parameter could be adjusted to normal level behind the roasting and starting; Furnace bottom pot shell maximum distortion 7-12cm, the furnace bottom distortion does not also recover in 1 week; Electrolyzer needs to use pressurized air to blow in roasting later stage and start-up course.The control thinking of tradition method of activation roasting is a core with voltage and temperature.The ionogen that now traditional startup method adopts the centre joint to possess certain altitude is an entry condition, at this moment, lining temperature has surpassed 1000 degree, even up to more than 1100 degree, too high temperature can increase inner lining damage and the possibility that cracks, influence the electric tank working life-span on the one hand, be easy to generate early stage bakie on the other hand.
Summary of the invention
The present invention provides a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode and structure in order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, purpose is that the cathode inner lining temperature in the roasting process is evenly risen, roasting time shortens greatly, and negative electrode did not have the roasting phenomenon, and roasting quality is good; Electrolyzer after the startup can be able to change normal epoch over to fast, has increased output.
Be achieved in that a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode for reaching above-mentioned purpose the present invention, it comprises the steps: step, the step of laying burnt grain, the step of shove charge and the step of roasting control that thermopair is installed; The step that thermopair is installed is meant earlier installs thermopair at cathode block; The step of laying burnt grain is meant the top that burnt grain is laid on cathode block; The step of shove charge be meant anode arranged outside steel plate, cover broken electrolyte block with the big facet of electrolyzer end steel plate is outer, adopt high temperature resistant high thermal resistance material to cover anode break joint and the centre joint with the maintenance maturing temperature; The step of roasting control is meant that after energising, temperature at the uniform velocity promotes, and after middle passage medial temperature reached more than 930~970 degree, electrolyzer possessed entry condition in 40~48 hours.
Get out diameter 4~12mm hole on the described cathode block liner, it is 15~20mm that thermopair inserts the cathode block degree of depth.
Twine outside insulation high temperature material and the lead-out groove on described thermopair surface.
Described thermopair is located at both sides and middle three positions of cathode block length direction, and each position is provided with three thermopairs at width; Or three thermopairs are set on the cathode block below the break joint between the anode group.
The burnt grain of described laying is broken and forge the burnt grain in back for graphite, and is broken to the graphite after one group of the end or two groups of anodes are laid 2~10mm earlier, and what inner lining surface was evenly laid 15~30mm then forging burnt grain in back and the broken mixture of graphite.
The burnt grain of described laying is that graphite is broken, lays the broken high material of graphitiferous in the end, lays the broken low material of graphitiferous on the middle cathode block liner.
Described high temperature resistant high thermal resistance material is a fibre glass chopped stand mat.
The described covering outside the steel plate of the big facet of electrolyzer end adopts sodium aluminum fluoride to cover on the broken electrolyte block, the superiors add soda ash.
Described roasting control is core with the cathode inner lining temperature, after energising 10 hours, temperature rise speed for be about 25~35 degree/hour, later temperature rise speed 15~25 spends for being controlled at/hour.
The described step that also comprises start-up control and start final-period management: maturing temperature pours into ionogen after reaching specified target call in electrolyzer, promote positive bar simultaneously, and electrolyzer is carried out roasting and starting.
Described from starting back filling in 20~28 hours aluminium.
Described whole roasting and starting process need 64~72 hours.
The described noise level reduction bath voltage that starts the back according to electrolyzer.
About two to three days bath voltages are reduced to the normal working voltage interval behind the described filling aluminium, and electrolyte molecule remains on 2.7~2.9 than at initial 5 days in the groove, reduce to the normal molecular ratio in the time in two weeks or one month.
A kind of prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction coke grain calcination startup structure, comprise cathode block, on cathode block, be provided with the anode group, on cathode block, be provided with thermopair, two ends in the anode group are provided with steel plate, between steel plate and pot shell, be provided with electrolyte block, between cathode block and anode group, be provided with burnt granulosa.
Get out diameter 4~12mm hole on the described cathode inner lining, it is 15~20mm that thermopair inserts the cathode block degree of depth, twine outside insulation high temperature material and the lead-out groove on the thermopair surface, thermopair is located at both sides and middle three positions of cathode block length direction, and each position is provided with three thermopairs at width.
Described ionogen is provided with sodium aluminum fluoride.
Described sodium aluminum fluoride is provided with soda ash.
Break joint and center-aisle between the described anode group cover with fibre glass chopped stand mat.
Described burnt granulosa is that graphite is broken and forge the burnt grain in back, and it is broken to be provided with the thick graphite of 2~10mm at one group of the cathode block end or two groups of anodes, and what the cathode block inner lining surface evenly was provided with 15~30mm forging burnt grain in back and the broken mixture of graphite.
Described burnt granulosa is that graphite is broken, lays the broken high material of graphitiferous in the cathode block end, lays the broken low material of graphitiferous on the middle cathode block liner.
Advantageous effect of the present invention:
1, roasting and starting process time of the present invention is short, and roasting process is 40~48 hours, has shortened 24~56 hours than prior art, has saved a large amount of electric energy than conventional approach.
Lining temperature was evenly reasonable when 2, roasting of the present invention finished, and cathode inner lining has obtained sufficient roasting, no overcook phenomenon, anodic current is evenly distributed during the roasting, lining temperature is evenly distributed, and is little to the thermal shocking of electrolyzer, and the control principle of roasting process is not for producing liquid electrolyte.And existing roasting technology when to be roasting finish the temperature of cathode inner lining reached more than 1000 degree, the centre joint has possessed the ionogen of certain altitude.The present invention has compared with prior art reduced the defective that cathode inner lining produces owing to maturing temperature is too high, has prolonged bath life.
3, roasting and starting of the present invention was irritated behind the aluminium 2-3 days, and bath voltage promptly drops to normally, and prior art at least one month could be reduced to normal level with electrolytic bath voltage, and the present invention has saved a large amount of electric energy than prior art.
4, two technical parameters such as temperature and molecular ratio after thoughtful 1 month are adjusted to normal level behind the roasting and starting of the present invention, and prior art needs 3 months moons technical parameter could be adjusted to normal level.Shorten undesired phase of electrolyzer than prior art, improved product aluminium amount, reduced direct current consumption.
5, furnace bottom pot shell maximum distortion 6cm of the present invention, furnace bottom pot shell distortion in 1 day falls back on 2cm behind the filling aluminium, and the furnace bottom distortion recovers after 3 days, and pot shell and furnace bottom distortion are little, recovery is fast, and electrolyzer can change normal epoch fast over to.Prior art furnace bottom pot shell maximum distortion 7-12cm, the furnace bottom distortion does not also recover in 1 week.The present invention has reduced the bottom land distortion than prior art, has reduced the liner generation of defects, helps to keep the electrolyzer stably manufactured, has prolonged bath life.
6, in roasting of the present invention and the start-up course, the sidepiece pot shell is not rubescent, and whole process is forced cooling without pressurized air.The present invention has reduced workload and pressurized air consumption than prior art, has also reduced working strength of workers simultaneously.
Between the starting period, single groove is at least about saving electric power 70,000 degree at whole calcination.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the sectional drawing of prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction baking coke particles structure of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of thermopair of the present invention and cathode block position relation.
Fig. 3 is that thermopair of the present invention is arranged on synoptic diagram on the cathode block.
Among the figure 1, soda ash; 2, sodium aluminum fluoride; 3, electrolyte block; 4, anode group; 5, fibre glass chopped stand mat; 6, steel plate; 7, burnt granulosa; 8, cathode block; 9, thermopair.
Embodiment
The invention will be further described below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.
A kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode comprises the steps: step, the step of laying burnt grain, the step of shove charge and the step of roasting control that thermopair is installed;
The step that thermopair is installed is meant earlier installs thermopair at cathode block, thermopair is placed in and bores in the good hole on the cathode block in advance, get out diameter 4~12mm hole as shown in Figure 3 on the cathode block liner, it is 15~20mm that thermopair inserts the cathode block degree of depth, twine outside glass-fiberinsulation high temperature material and the lead-out groove on the thermopair surface, thermopair is located at both sides and middle three positions of cathode block length direction as shown in Figure 2, and each position is provided with three thermopairs at width; Or three thermopairs are set on the cathode block below the break joint between the anode group;
The step of laying burnt grain is meant the top that burnt grain is laid on cathode block, the burnt grain of laying is broken and forge the burnt grain in back for graphite, broken to the graphite after one group of the end or two groups of anodes are laid 2~10mm earlier, what the cathode block inner lining surface was evenly laid 15~30mm then forging burnt grain in back and the broken mixture of graphite, the burnt grain of perhaps laying is that graphite is broken, laying in the end highly is the broken high material of 10~35mm graphitiferous, lays on the middle cathode block liner to contain the broken low material of the thick graphite of 10~35mm;
The be meant break joint and the center-aisle that cover between the anode with the high temperature resistant high thermal resistance material of fibre glass chopped stand mat when shove charge of the step of shove charge keep maturing temperature and avoid the anode and cathode oxidation, do not produce liquid electrolyte in the roasting process, at anode arranged outside steel plate, with the broken electrolyte block of the outer covering of the big facet of electrolyzer end steel plate, cover outside the steel plate of the big facet of electrolyzer end and adopt sodium aluminum fluoride or broken ionogen powder to cover on the broken electrolyte block, the superiors add soda ash;
The step of roasting control is meant after energising, temperature at the uniform velocity promotes, after middle passage medial temperature reaches more than 930~970 degree, electrolyzer possessed entry condition in 40~48 hours, roasting control is core with the cathode inner lining temperature, after energising about 10 hours, temperature rise speed for be about 25~35 degree/hour, later temperature rise speed about 15~25 spends for being controlled at/hour.
The step of start-up control and startup final-period management: maturing temperature pours into ionogen after reaching specified target call in electrolyzer, promote positive bar simultaneously, electrolyzer is carried out roasting and starting, irritated aluminium in 20~28 hours from starting the back, start the noise level reduction bath voltage of back according to electrolyzer, two to three days bath voltages are reduced to the normal working voltage interval after irritating aluminium, electrolyte molecule remains on 2.7~2.9 than at initial 5 days in the groove, reduce to the normal molecular ratio in two thoughtful one month times, whole roasting and starting process need 64~72 hours.
A kind of prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction coke grain calcination startup structure, comprise cathode block 8, on cathode block 8, be provided with anode group 4, on cathode block 8, be provided with thermopair 9, be provided with steel plate 6 at the two ends of anode group 4, between steel plate 6 and pot shell, be provided with electrolyte block 3, electrolyte block 3 is provided with sodium aluminum fluoride 2, sodium aluminum fluoride 2 is provided with soda ash 1, break joint between the anode group 4 and center-aisle cover with fibre glass chopped stand mat 5, between cathode block 8 and anode group 4, be provided with burnt granulosa 7, burnt granulosa is that graphite is broken and forge the burnt grain in back, it is broken to be provided with the thick graphite of 2~10mm at one group of the cathode block end or two groups of anodes, the cathode block inner lining surface evenly is provided with back burnt grain of forging of 15~30mm and the broken mixture of graphite, cathode block 8 liner specified locationes go out 10mm, it is 15~20mm that thermopair 9 inserts the cathode block degree of depth, twine outside insulation high temperature material and the lead-out groove on thermopair 9 surfaces, thermopair 9 is located at both sides and middle three positions of cathode block 8 length directions, and each position is provided with three thermopairs 9 at width.
Above-mentioned burnt granulosa also can be broken for graphite, lays the broken high material of graphitiferous in the cathode block end, lays the broken low material of graphitiferous on the middle cathode block liner.

Claims (21)

1. a coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode is characterized in that the step, the step of laying burnt grain, the step of shove charge and the step of roasting control that comprise the steps: that thermopair is installed;
The step that thermopair is installed is meant earlier installs thermopair at cathode block;
The step of laying burnt grain is meant the top that burnt grain is laid on cathode block;
The step of shove charge is meant anode arranged outside steel plate, covers broken electrolyte block with the big facet of electrolyzer end steel plate is outer, adopts high temperature resistant high thermal resistance material to cover anode break joint and the centre joint with the maintenance maturing temperature;
The step of roasting control is meant that after energising, temperature at the uniform velocity promotes, and after middle passage medial temperature reached 930~970 degree, the time was 40~48 hours, and electrolyzer possesses entry condition.
2. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 1 is characterized in that getting out on the cathode inner lining diameter 4~12mm hole, and it is 15~20mm that thermopair inserts the cathode block degree of depth.
3. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that outside described thermopair surface winding insulation high temperature material and the lead-out groove.
4. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that described thermopair is located at both sides and middle three positions of cathode block length direction, and each position is provided with three thermopairs at width; Or three thermopairs are set on the cathode block below the break joint between the anode group.
5. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 1, the burnt grain that it is characterized in that described laying is broken and forge the burnt grain in back for graphite, broken to laying the thick graphite of 2~10mm earlier at one group of the end or two groups of anodes, what the cathode block inner lining surface was evenly laid 15~30mm then forging burnt grain in back and the broken mixture of graphite.
6. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 1, the burnt grain that it is characterized in that described laying is broken for graphite, lay the broken high material of graphitiferous in the end, lay the broken low material of graphitiferous on the middle cathode block liner.
7. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 1 is characterized in that described high temperature resistant high thermal resistance material is a fibre glass chopped stand mat.
8. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 1 is characterized in that the described employing sodium aluminum fluoride covering on the broken electrolyte block that covers outside the steel plate of the big facet of electrolyzer end, the superiors add soda ash.
9. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described roasting control is core with the cathode inner lining temperature, after energising 10 hours, temperature rise speed be 25~35 degree/hour, later temperature rise speed 15~25 spends for being controlled at/hour.
10. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described method also comprises the step of start-up control and startup final-period management: maturing temperature pours into ionogen after reaching specified target call in electrolyzer, promote positive bar simultaneously, electrolyzer is carried out roasting and starting.
11. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 10 is characterized in that behind the described roasting and starting irritating in 20~28 hours aluminium.
12. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 11 is characterized in that described start-up course needs 64~72 hours.
13. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 10 is characterized in that the noise level according to electrolyzer reduces bath voltage behind the described roasting and starting.
14. a kind of coke grain roast starting method for aluminium electrolyzer with pre-roasted anode according to claim 11, two to three days bath voltages are reduced to the normal working voltage interval after it is characterized in that described filling aluminium, electrolyte molecule remains on 2.7~2.9 than at initial 5 days in the groove, reduces to the normal molecular ratio in the time in two weeks or one month.
15. prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction coke grain calcination startup structure, comprise cathode block, on cathode block, be provided with the anode group, it is characterized in that on cathode block, being provided with thermopair, two ends in the anode group are provided with steel plate, between steel plate and pot shell, be provided with electrolyte block, between cathode block and anode group, be provided with burnt granulosa.
16. a kind of prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction coke grain calcination startup structure according to claim 15, it is characterized in that getting out on the described cathode inner lining diameter 4~12mm hole, it is 15~20mm that thermopair inserts the cathode block degree of depth, twine outside insulation high temperature material and the lead-out groove on the thermopair surface, thermopair is located at both sides and middle three positions of cathode block length direction, and each position is provided with three thermopairs at width.
17. a kind of prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction coke grain calcination startup structure according to claim 15 is characterized in that described ionogen is provided with sodium aluminum fluoride.
18. a kind of prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction coke grain calcination startup structure according to claim 17 is characterized in that described sodium aluminum fluoride is provided with soda ash.
19. a kind of prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction coke grain calcination startup structure according to claim 15 is characterized in that break joint and the center-aisle between the described anode group covers with fibre glass chopped stand mat.
20. a kind of prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction coke grain calcination startup structure according to claim 15, it is characterized in that described burnt granulosa is that graphite is broken and forge the burnt grain in back, it is broken to be provided with the thick graphite of 2~10mm at one group of the cathode block end or two groups of anodes, and what the cathode block inner lining surface evenly was provided with 15~30mm forging burnt grain in back and the broken mixture of graphite.
21. a kind of prebaked cell for aluminum-reduction coke grain calcination startup structure according to claim 15, it is characterized in that described burnt granulosa is that graphite is broken, lay the broken high material of graphitiferous in the cathode block end, lay the broken low material of graphitiferous on the middle cathode block liner.
CN2008100123754A 2008-07-17 2008-07-17 Coke particle baking startup method for pre-baked anode aluminum electrolytic cell and structure thereof CN101629304B (en)

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CN101838823B (en) * 2010-04-10 2011-10-26 甘肃华鹭铝业有限公司 Method for baking mixed coke particles and electrolyte for specially-shaped aluminum electrolytic tank
CN102234819B (en) * 2011-08-04 2013-02-13 中国铝业股份有限公司 Preheating starting method for aluminium electrolysis cell
CN102808195A (en) * 2012-07-27 2012-12-05 中国铝业股份有限公司 Charging method for aluminum electrolysis cell during roasting start
CN102912377A (en) * 2012-11-09 2013-02-06 云南云铝润鑫铝业有限公司 Method for roasting and preheating aluminum electrolysis cell using direct currents
CN103088366B (en) * 2013-02-27 2015-09-02 云南铝业股份有限公司 The energy-efficient hot-fluid coke grain calcination startup method of a kind of electrolysis of aluminum
CN103352236A (en) * 2013-06-25 2013-10-16 中国铝业股份有限公司 Method for rapidly building new-started electrolytic tank furnace
CN104711640B (en) * 2013-12-12 2017-06-13 湖南创元铝业有限公司 Electrolytic cell
CN105177624B (en) * 2015-09-30 2017-07-25 湖南创元铝业有限公司 A kind of cavity method for baking coke particles of aluminium cell half
CN111020636A (en) * 2019-12-26 2020-04-17 山西中铝华润有限公司 Roasting starting charging method for 500KA aluminum electrolytic cell
CN110923749A (en) * 2019-12-30 2020-03-27 山西中铝华润有限公司 Roasting starting method of 500KA novel energy-saving prebaked anode aluminum electrolytic cell

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