CN101615072B - Method for reproducing texture force touch based on shape-from-shading technology - Google Patents

Method for reproducing texture force touch based on shape-from-shading technology Download PDF

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CN101615072B
CN101615072B CN200910033323XA CN200910033323A CN101615072B CN 101615072 B CN101615072 B CN 101615072B CN 200910033323X A CN200910033323X A CN 200910033323XA CN 200910033323 A CN200910033323 A CN 200910033323A CN 101615072 B CN101615072 B CN 101615072B
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virtual
texture
image
force
touch
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CN101615072A (en
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宋爱国
李佳璐
吴涓
张小瑞
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东南大学
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Abstract

The invention aims at the problem how to reproduce the force touch of image textures and provides a method for reproducing the texture force touch based on a shape-from-shading technology from grey scales of an image. The method is characterized by processing the grey scales of a texture image; extracting the micro three-dimensional contour information of the true textures from the grey scale information of the image to be drawn into a virtual surface; rendering the textures of the virtual surface by a force touch model; and outputting calculated force from a general manual controller to an operator. The invention has the advantages that the miniature contour of an object surface is needless to be measured by a special instrument, a special texture force touch expression device is needless to design, and the like and can be used in the fields for simulating virtual environments, controlling remotely-operated robots, browsing remote museums and online shops, simulating surgeries, and the like.

Description

Based on method for reproducing texture force touch from the shading shape technology

Technical field

The present invention relates to the power tactile sense reproduction in the virtual reality technology, especially a kind of based on method for reproducing texture force touch from the shading shape technology, it is the three-dimensional surface that reconstructs this texture according to the single width texture image, and virtual surface carried out the method that the power sense of touch is played up, belong to computer vision, virtual reality technology and teleoperation robot technical field.

Background technology

Along with the application of virtual reality technology in fields such as operation emulation, teleoperation robot control, virtual manufacturings, the feedback of power tactile data is remarkable day by day for the importance of pseudo operation.In virtual reality system, by the power tactile representation device, the texture features of body surface is fed back to the operator, can strengthen operator's feeling of immersion, help to improve perception and maneuvering capability to virtual objects.

In the virtual reality, the power haptic rendering of texture need extract the height profile feature of grain surface usually, promptly will obtain the concavo-convex elevation information of grain surface, and what image texture then reflected is the two dimensional gray feature of grain surface.

The 3 dimensional coil geometry of body surface is very important to the power tactile sense reproduction of texture.At present, the texture force touch model is mostly based on three-dimensional model, and the 2 d texture image lacks elevation information, directly application of force sense of touch rending model.

Existing method for reproducing texture force touch mainly divides three classes: based on the method on three-D grain surface, based on the method for probabilistic model, based on image process method.

Based on the method on three-D grain surface, generally be by the profile information on custom-designed touch sensor or special-purpose surveying instrument Measuring Object surface, carry out three-dimensional modeling, use various power haptic models then and carry out the power sense of touch and play up.Way more common in the texture sense of touch detection is proposed by institute of robot of CMU, and this method is by setting up the article surface vein model with probe in the body surface motion.Specifically be expressed as, probe is perpendicular to body surface, and contacts with body surface with a certain size power, and with constant motion, the degree of depth and the frequency that the movement locus of probe tip can reflection surface fine recesses like this reflected the texture information of body surface indirectly.But there is very big deficiency in this method, and at first probe and body surface are to contact, and movement locus is wire, can only reflect the concavo-convex information on the trajectory, even the dense degree of increase probe motion can not be included the 2 d texture information on whole surface; Secondly the size of probe tip is directly connected to the Oscillation Amplitude of movement locus; Once more, drag the method that detects texture information at body surface, can cause damage soft object surfaces with probe.

Based on the power tactile sense reproduction method of probabilistic model, Saira and Pai have proposed the random device of reproducing texture force touch.They think that the contact force of groping grain surface can be described as a stochastic variable.From partial analysis, this contact force shows very big randomness; From holistic approach, there is certain statistics regularity (as following Gauss distribution, Markov random field etc.) in contact force, and there is different numerical characteristics in the contact force that different textures produces.This method can better be reproduced the sense of touch of natural texture to a certain extent, reflects the material of this texture.But its weak point is that this method only can be reproduced the roughness of texture, and the projection of necessary being on the surface and the tendency and the degree of depth of depression are expressed poor effect.

Based on image process method is the research focus in present reproducing texture force touch field.People such as Vasudevan have proposed a kind of method for reproducing texture force touch based on Flame Image Process.This method has proposed the notion that power is played up mask, plays up mask by subimage and power and multiplies each other, and effectively edge of image and texture is carried out the power sense of touch and plays up.The Wu Juan of Southeast China University etc. propose texture image Gauss filtering, and the high frequency spectrum that will reflect texture information is used Hooke's law and friction force formula respectively and calculated normal force and the friction force of virtual probe to the grain surface effect as height map.These methods are not recovered the microcosmic three-D profile on surface, the just edge or the roughness of operator's perception.Le Mercier etc. has proposed four kinds of pixel intensity and the three-dimensional mapping method highly of corresponding point, rebuilds the microcosmic 3 dimensional coil geometry that texture image reflects the surface, and then finishes playing up of power sense of touch.In this method, though the effective concave-convex sense of perception texture of operator, because the mapping relations of three-dimensional height and image pixel intensity are not the image-forming principle based on physics, the surface tri-dimensional profile that is recovered is also untrue.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, provide a kind of based on from shading shape technology (SFS, shape from shading) method for reproducing texture force touch, this method need not the micro-profile on specialized equipment Measuring Object surface, need not the texture expression device of design specialized, experiment shows that this method is feasible.

The technical scheme of the inventive method is: a kind of based on method for reproducing texture force touch from the shading shape technology, it is characterized in that: be provided with and adopt Tsai﹠amp; The Shah algorithm recovers the three-dimensional microcosmic shape of superficial makings from the 2 d texture image and the haptic model of exerting oneself is played up two phase process, comprise the microcosmic three-D profile information of at first from gradation of image information, extracting true texture, be depicted as virtual surface, then the texture of this virtual surface is played up by the power haptic model, the power that calculates outputs to the operator by general hand controller.

Can carry out according to the following steps:

The 1st stage, from single image, recover three-D profile, this stage is divided into 4 steps:

(1) Flame Image Process is become gray level image, and gray scale normalization;

(2) set up light reflectance model;

(3) set up equation according to gray scale and light reflectance model, obtain the height of surperficial each point;

(4) set up the virtual surface triangle grid model;

In the 2nd stage, with the texture force touch model virtual surface is carried out the power sense of touch and plays up:

Whether (1) use AABB collision detection algorithm detection virtual probe collides with virtual surface;

(2) according to texture force touch Model Calculation microcosmic normal force and friction force, with general hand controller output.

Become Flame Image Process the method for gray level image and gray scale normalization to be in above-mentioned the 1st stage step (1): at first to extract the RGB component of each pixel of image, calculate gray-scale value after the normalization of this pixel according to following formula then:

E ( i , j ) = R ( i , j ) + G ( i , j ) + B ( i , j ) 3 × 255 - - - ( 1 )

The method of setting up light reflectance model in above-mentioned the 1st stage step (2) is: suppose that projection is rectangular projection, light source is that unlimited distance pointolite and body surface are reflected into the reflection of lambert's body, the light intensity that is the body surface point reflection is directly proportional with this pointolite incident cosine of an angle, then according to the definition and the character of lambert's body reflection, the brightness/intensity of body surface point should be consistent with the radiancy of incident angle as can be known, simultaneously, gradation of image E only depends on the shape of object, this usable image irradiance The Representation Equation that concerns

E ( x , y ) = R ( p , q ) = 1 + pp s + qq s 1 + p 2 + q 2 1 + p s 2 + q s 2 = cos σ + p cos τ sin σ + q sin τ sin σ 1 + p 2 + q 2 - - - ( 2 )

Wherein E (x, y) be pixel (x, gray scale y), p = ∂ z ∂ x , q = ∂ z ∂ y , p s = cos τ sin σ cos σ , q s = sin τ sin σ cos σ , σ is the inclination angle, and τ is the elevation angle, and (x y) is surface elevation to z=z;

The method of solving an equation in above-mentioned the 1st stage step (3):

Formula (2) is a nonlinear reflection function, considers that nonlinear terms are little to the influence of reconstruction result, reflective function can be carried out Taylor expansion, Tsai﹠amp; The Shah algorithm utilizes consequent finite difference method with the reflective function discretize:

p = ∂ Z ∂ x = Z ( x , y ) - Z ( x - 1 , y ) - - - ( 3 )

q = ∂ Z ∂ y = Z ( x , y ) - Z ( x , y - 1 ) - - - ( 4 )

Formula (2) can be rewritten as:

0=f (E (x, y), Z (x, y), Z (x-1, y), Z (x, y-1))=E (x, y)-R (Z (x, y)-Z (x-1, y), Z (x, y)-Z (x, y-1)) (5) Taylor expansion:

0 = f ( Z ( x , y ) ) ≈ f ( Z n - 1 ( x , y ) ) + ( Z ( x , y ) - Z n - 1 ( x , y ) ) d dZ ( x , y ) f ( Z n - 1 ( x , y ) ) - - - ( 6 )

Wherein, Z n ( x , y ) = Z n - 1 ( x , y ) + - f ( Z n - 1 ( x , y ) ) d dZ ( x , y ) f ( Z n - 1 ( x , y ) ) , df ( Z n - 1 ( x , y ) ) dZ ( x , y ) = - 1 × ( ( p s + q s ) p 2 + q 2 + 1 p s 2 + q s 2 + 1 - ( p + q ) ( pp s + qq s + 1 ) ( p 2 + q 2 + 1 ) 3 p s 2 + q s 2 + 1 )

After the derivation, can be organized into following iteration form:

Z n(x,y)=Z n-1(x,y)+K n(-f(Z n-1(x,y)))(7)

Wherein K n = S x , y n M x , y W x , y + S x , y n M x , y 2 , M x , y = df dZ ( x , y ) ( Z n - 1 ( x , y ) ) , S x , y n = E [ ( Z n ( x , y ) - Z ( x , y ) ) 2 ] , E is the mathematical expectation operator, W X, yIt is a very little non-zero number.After the several iteration, Z n(x y) is exactly respective pixel (x, height value y);

Set up the method for virtual surface triangle grid model in above-mentioned the 1st stage step (4): the three-dimensional reconstruction that utilization OpenGL carries out the surface need carry out orderly triangle gridding with these points, with a two-dimensional array Z[] come the altitude information of storage surface each point, two-dimensional array Z[i, j] in (i, j) and the pixel (x of two dimensional image, y) be one to one, so can construct triangle gridding according to right-hand rule circulation:

At first utilize the right-hand rule, with (i, j), (i+1, j+1), (i+1, j) three points are constructed a triangle; And then according to the right-hand rule, with (i, j), (i, j+1), (i+1 j+1) constructs another triangle, and each discrete point can be constructed two triangles like this, finishes triangle gridding;

Use in the step (1) in above-mentioned the 2nd stage AABB collision detection algorithm detect virtual probe whether with the method for virtual surface collision: the AABB bounding box that calculates virtual surface earlier, whether the volume coordinate of calculating virtual probe then intersects with this bounding box, in case intersect, then virtual probe and virtual surface bump, begin to carry out the 2nd stage step (2) and use texture force touch Model Calculation microcosmic normal force and friction force, otherwise virtual probe and virtual surface do not bump, and the power of hand controller output is zero;

In above-mentioned the 2nd stage in the step (2) according to the method for texture force touch Model Calculation microcosmic normal force and friction force: suppose that body surface is a rigidity, then the normal force F of microcosmic tVariation follow Hooke's law:

F t=d i,j×k (8)

D wherein I, jFor pixel (i, the j) height of corresponding point, k are elastic modulus;

Tangential forces then shows as friction force F f, follow the kinetic force of friction formula:

F f=F t×μ(9)

F wherein tBe normal force, μ is a friction factor,

Calculate the F that makes a concerted effort at last c: F 1 c = F 1 t + F 1 f - - - ( 10 )

Now the principle of foundation in the inventive method and the algorithm of application are described below:

(1) based on from shading shape (SFS) technology

In the computer vision, be one of 3D shape gordian technique of recovering problem by the shading shape, its task is parameters such as the relative height utilizing the light and shade of body surface in the single image to change to recover its surperficial each point or surface normal direction vector.Its investigation be minutia on the small scale, and texture has exactly also reflected the trickle concavo-convex variation of body surface, therefore utilizes the small scale 3D shape to recover to be used for the feature extraction of texture.

From the viewpoint of physics and mathematics, SFS is the inverse process of object image-forming process.Traditional SFS method thinks that the body surface reflection model is a Lambert surface diffuse reflection model, as formula (2), and supposes that imaging geometry is rectangular projection, so the gray scale of every bit is only relevant with the relative position and the direction of light source and body surface on the image.

The SFS problem of being determined by Lambert surface diffuse reflection model is ill, and for eliminating its pathosis and setting up corresponding regularization model, existing SFS algorithm supposes all that basically institute's research object is the smooth surface object, thinks that promptly the body surface height function is C 2(or be C at least 1) continuous, in fact this hypothesis retrains its surface configuration by the smooth surface model of setting up object.Above-mentioned body surface reflection model is combined with the smooth surface model of object, utilize some known conditions (as initial value condition) again, just constituted the regularization model of SFS problem about object surface shape.According to the difference of setting up regularization model mode, the SFS algorithm roughly can be divided into four classes, i.e. minimum value method, evolution method, partial approach and linearization technique.People such as Zhang analyze some representative algorithms and compare.

(2) Tsai﹠amp; The Shah algorithm

Linearized algorithm is by to the reflective function linearization, with former SFS nonlinear problem, is converted into a linear problem, and then finds the solution.The basic thought of this method is to think, in the Taylor of reflective function expansion, the low order item accounts for principal ingredient, and when casting out the high-order nonlinear item, its result and former reflective function are very approaching.

Weigh Tsai﹠amp from the realization complexity and the processing speed angle of algorithm; Advantages such as the Shah algorithm has and is easy to realize, iteration speed is fast are fit in the reproducing texture force touch three-dimensionalreconstruction to grain surface more.

Tsai﹠amp; The Shah algorithm has used surface graded discrete approximation first, and at surface elevation value linearization reflective function, like this, the gray-scale value of the every bit in image can be represented by the linear function of neighborhood interior pixel point, by the whole linear system of Jacobi solution by iterative method.

(3) texture force touch model

For realizing realistic reproducing texture force touch, also to carry out the power sense of touch to the three-dimensional surface that is obtained and play up.Suppose that body surface is a rigidity, then the normal force F of microcosmic tVariation follow Hooke's law (formula (8)), the microcosmic tangential forces then shows as friction force F f, follow kinetic force of friction formula (formula (9)), calculate the F that makes a concerted effort at last c(formula (10));

Advantage of the inventive method and remarkable result: compare with method for reproducing texture force touch in the past based on image processing techniques, owing to used SFS technology based on the object image-forming principle, can recover the micro-profile of grain surface comparatively really, by playing up of texture force touch model, the operator is obtained the comparatively real sense of touch of texture image.This method for reproducing texture force touch need not the micro-profile on specialized equipment Measuring Object surface, need not the texture force touch expression device of design specialized, utilizes general device for force feedback can simulate virtual hand and slips over the expressed sense of touch of grain surface.This method is not only real-time, what is more important, and the power that feeds back to the operator is directed to true texture, has improved the sense of reality of reproducing texture force touch greatly.Can be used for fields such as the browsing of the control of virtual environment emulation, teleoperation robot, long-range museum and Online Store, operation emulation, virtual manufacturing, and for the blind person operator, can make the texture features of their perception dummy object by this method for reproducing texture force touch, can enlarge their sensing range undoubtedly, accomplish to stay indoors, just the various body surface characteristics in the energy perception external environment.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the system chart of the inventive method;

Fig. 2 is a method of setting up the virtual surface triangle grid model;

Fig. 3 is the texture force touch illustraton of model;

Fig. 4,5 is respectively the design sketch of two its surface three dimension shapes of texture image reconstruct.

Embodiment

Referring to Fig. 1, for the sense of touch of comparatively real reproduced image texture, at first real texture image is carried out Normalized Grey Level and handle, from gradation of image information, extract the three-dimensional information of texture, the reconstruct virtual surface; The operator " gropes " on virtual surface by hand controller control virtual probe; The application of force haptic model calculates the microcosmic normal force and the friction force of virtual probe and virtual surface contact point respectively then, and finally the texture perception feeds back to the operator in real time by hand controller with joint efforts.

Referring to Fig. 2, utilize the right-hand rule, with (i, j), (i+1, j+1), (i+1, j) three points are constructed a triangle; And then according to the right-hand rule, with (i, j), (i, j+1), (i+1 j+1) constructs another triangle, and each discrete point can be constructed two triangles like this.Utilize the as above regular triangle gridding of finishing whole virtual surface.

Referring to Fig. 3, invent related texture force touch model and form by formula (8) (9) (10).Suppose that body surface is a rigidity, V is the moving direction of virtual probe, F tBe normal force, tangential forces shows as friction force F f, F cFor making a concerted effort.

Fig. 4,5 the left side are respectively two texture image D3_icon.jpg and the D95_icon.jpg in the Brodatz texture storehouse, and the right is respectively this two pictures and uses Tsai﹠amp; The Shah algorithm uses the Matlab software programming, recovers the design sketch of its surface three dimension shape.

For the implementation result of checking the inventive method, according to Tsai﹠amp; The height map that the Shah algorithm is obtained is drawn virtual surface, use PHANTOM Omni hand controller (work space>160W * 120H * 70Dmm, positional precision is about 0.055mm, maximum application of force 3.3N, can realize along X, Y, the acting force of Z axle feedback) carry out the power haptic interaction with it, and random choose 20 experimenters (men and women respectively accounts for half) carried out virtual texture perception experiment.Experimental technique: allow every experimenter put on an eyeshade and carry out perception, to get rid of the influence of vision to tactilely-perceptible; The experimenter utilizes the control lever control virtual probe of Omni hand controller end to carry out " groping " on the virtual texture surface, watch the true texture picture of 5 width of cloth then, virtual texture and the being seen true texture picture that perceives mated, count the perception accuracy of experimenter every width of cloth virtual surface.At last, exchange the experiment impression with the experimenter.

Claims (1)

1. one kind based on the method for reproducing texture force touch from the shading shape technology, it is characterized in that: be provided with and adopt Tsai﹠amp; The Shah algorithm recovers the three-dimensional microcosmic shape of superficial makings from the 2 d texture image and the haptic model of exerting oneself is played up two phase process, comprise the microcosmic three-D profile information of at first from gradation of image information, extracting true texture, be depicted as virtual surface, then the texture of this virtual surface is played up by the power haptic model, the power that calculates outputs to the operator by general hand controller; Carry out according to the following steps:
The 1st stage, from single image, recover three-D profile, this stage is divided into 4 steps:
(1) Flame Image Process is become gray level image, and gray scale normalization
At first extract the RGB component of each pixel of image, calculate gray-scale value after the normalization of this pixel according to following formula then:
(2) set up light reflectance model
Suppose that projection is rectangular projection, light source is that unlimited distance pointolite and body surface are reflected into the reflection of lambert's body, the light intensity that is the body surface point reflection is directly proportional with this pointolite incident cosine of an angle, then according to the definition and the character of lambert's body reflection, the brightness of body surface point or intensity should be consistent with the radiancy of incident angle as can be known, simultaneously, gradation of image E only depends on the shape of object, this relation image irradiance The Representation Equation:
Wherein E (x, y) be pixel (x, gray scale y), σ is the inclination angle, and τ is the elevation angle, and (x y) is surface elevation to z=z;
(3) set up equation according to gray scale and light reflectance model, obtain the height of surperficial each point
Formula (2) is a nonlinear reflection function, considers that nonlinear terms are little to the influence of reconstruction result, and reflective function is carried out Taylor expansion, Tsai﹠amp; The Shah algorithm utilizes consequent finite difference method with the reflective function discretize:
Formula (2) can be rewritten as:
0=f(E(x,y),Z(x,y),Z(x-1,y),Z(x,y-1))=E(x,y)-R(Z(x,y)-Z(x-1,y),Z(x,y)-Z(x,y-1)) (5)
Taylor expansion:
Wherein,
After the derivation, can be organized into following iteration form:
Z n(x,y)=Z n-1(x,y)+K n(-f(Z n-1(x,y))) (7)
Wherein
Ex is the mathematical expectation operator, W X, yBe a very little non-zero number, after the several iteration, Z n(x y) is exactly respective pixel (x, height value y);
(4) set up the virtual surface triangle grid model
The three-dimensional reconstruction that utilization OpenGL carries out the surface need carry out orderly triangle gridding with these points, with a two-dimensional array Z[] come the altitude information of storage surface each point, two-dimensional array Z[i, j] in (i, j) and the pixel (x of two dimensional image, y) be one to one, so can construct triangle gridding according to right-hand rule circulation:
At first utilize the right-hand rule, with (i, j), (i+1, j+1), (i+1, j) three points are constructed a triangle; And then according to the right-hand rule, with (i, j), (i, j+1), (i+1 j+1) constructs another triangle, and each discrete point can be constructed two triangles like this, finishes triangle gridding;
In the 2nd stage, with the texture force touch model virtual surface is carried out the power sense of touch and plays up:
Whether (1) use AABB collision detection algorithm detection virtual probe collides with virtual surface, calculate the AABB bounding box of virtual surface earlier, whether the volume coordinate of calculating virtual probe then intersects with this bounding box, in case intersect, then virtual probe and virtual surface bump, begin to carry out the 2nd stage step (2) and use texture force touch Model Calculation microcosmic normal force and friction force, otherwise virtual probe and virtual surface do not bump, the power of hand controller output is zero;
(2) according to texture force touch Model Calculation microcosmic normal force and friction force, with general hand controller output; Wherein the method according to texture force touch Model Calculation microcosmic normal force and friction force is: suppose that body surface is a rigidity, then the normal force F of microcosmic tVariation follow Hooke's law:
F t=d i,j×k (8)
D wherein I, jFor pixel (i, the j) height of corresponding point, k are elastic modulus;
Tangential forces then shows as friction force F f, follow the kinetic force of friction formula:
F f=F t×μ (9)
F wherein tBe normal force, μ is a friction factor,
Calculate the F that makes a concerted effort at last c:
CN200910033323XA 2009-06-18 2009-06-18 Method for reproducing texture force touch based on shape-from-shading technology CN101615072B (en)

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