CN101614445B - Method for improving accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat - Google Patents

Method for improving accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101614445B
CN101614445B CN2008101153723A CN200810115372A CN101614445B CN 101614445 B CN101614445 B CN 101614445B CN 2008101153723 A CN2008101153723 A CN 2008101153723A CN 200810115372 A CN200810115372 A CN 200810115372A CN 101614445 B CN101614445 B CN 101614445B
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heliostat
control
facula
deviate
deviation
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CN2008101153723A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101614445A (en
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章素华
邵文远
李和平
徐静
韩永
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中国华电工程(集团)有限公司
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S50/00Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors
    • F24S50/20Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors for tracking
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/47Mountings or tracking

Abstract

The invention provides a method for improving the accuracy of the control of the automatic sun track following of a heliostat, which comprises the following steps that: a camera arranged in front of a heat absorber provides a control system with an accurate position of a light spot formed by light reflected onto the heat absorber by the heliostat in real time; and when a deviation in the position of the light spot occurs, the control system judges the deviation and sends a heliostat control command to control the heliostat to act to restore the position of the light spot formed by the light reflected onto the heat absorber by the heliostat to a given position. The method can monitor the operation state of the whole heliostat field and visually monitor the condition of the light spot formed by the light reflected by the heliostat. When used in a tower type solar thermal power plant, the method can improve the control accuracy of the whole tower type solar thermal power plant, improve the power generation efficiency and reduce operation cost by monitoring heliostats and correcting the deviation in the position of the light spots.

Description

Improve the method for accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat

Technical field

The present invention relates to the solar energy thermal-power-generating technology, specifically, relate to improve in a kind of tower-type solar thermal power generating system the technology of accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat.

Background technology

Tower type solar thermo-power station (being tower-type solar thermal power generating system) is mainly by condenser system, suction/heat-exchange system, heat reservoir and electricity generation system four parts are formed, wherein the efficient of condenser system and cost thereof influence the cost performance of thermo-power station to a great extent, are to make up to need the factor of consideration emphatically in the solar heat power station.Condenser system mainly is made up of heliostat and heat dump; The effect of heliostat is to collect solar radiant energy and it is converged to the heat dump place, it is by can forming around the heliostat of double-axis tracking of arranging by certain way, each heliostat is followed the tracks of the sun and will be radiated its surperficial solar energy reflection to the cat head heat collector by swaying, and finishes the purpose of optically focused (being heat build-up).

The process route that tower-type solar thermal power generating system adopts light-Re-electricity to transform is a heat energy with conversion of solar energy earlier promptly, again heat energy is converted into electric energy.By solar energy hierarchical segmentation heating, adopt ordinary solar heat collector to make the low section heating of water earlier, be heated to middle temperature by concentrating solar collector again, be heated to high temperature by tracing collection formula solar energy high temperature heater again.Drive steam turbine generator by high-temperature steam and generate electricity, realize the high efficiency thermoelectric conversion.Conversion process of energy is: solar energy → heat energy → mechanical energy → electric energy.The main course of work is, collect solar energy by the multiaspect heliostat, concentrate on the heat dump at the top that reflexes to the tower stove, heat-transfer system forwards heat-storage medium with the good efficiency heat that collecting system is collected to by heat-exchange system, by heat exchange the heat of heat-storage medium is passed to the acting medium once more, medium drives steam turbine acting generating.

Therefore, no matter consider, still consider the core in the tower type solar thermo-power station from the cost angle in whole power station from efficient, the collecting efficiency aspect of condenser system, be exactly that heliostat is rotated from the motion tracking sun accurately, make to be radiated its surperficial solar energy maximization.

In order to realize the accurate control of heliostat to automatically follow track of sun in the tower type solar energy thermal power generation, the applicant has researched and developed the control method of heliostat to automatically follow track of sun in the tower type solar energy thermal power generation.This method adopts the DPU controller of control heliostat movement travel, an executing agency that is connected with heliostat and a DCS module that between DPU controller and executing agency the transmission data is carried out the communication conversion, makes the heliostat to automatically follow track of sun motion.Wherein: the DPU controller of control heliostat movement travel, it is the distribution process unit of a DCS system, this unit is according to given solar angle equation of motion and control mode, for providing heliostat, executing agency follows the tracks of the setting value of track of sun motion, and with the actual position value of heliostat and setting value relatively, make heliostat move to accurate given position by executing agency according to comparative result; The solar angle equation of motion is to provide the sun along with the time changes, and solar irradiation is mapped to the sun altitude of assigned address and the formula of solar azimuth; Control mode, be elevation angle and azimuthal setting value of on longitude and latitude direction, moving according to the sun, by the close loop control circuit of two decoupling zeros is set, with the elevation angle in the heliostat tracing process and azimuthal positional value, compare the tracking of control heliostat respectively according to longitude function X (t) and the latitude Function Y (t) set.The fast executing agency that is connected with heliostat, be an elevation angle that heliostat can be provided and azimuthal positional value and intelligent remote measure and control device that the elevation angle and the azimuth of heliostat are controlled; The transmission data are carried out the DCS module that communication is changed, it is the protocol conversion module of MODBUS and CAN, the protocol conversion module of MODBUS and CAN has two, and one is used for the reportedly defeated conversion of heliostat latitude direction upper domination number, and one is used for the reportedly defeated conversion of heliostat longitudinal upper domination number; Also comprise and adopt an operator station computer, this computer can with the DPU controller in real time to the time, thereby determine the orientation of sun operation automatically; This computer also can manually be controlled heliostat.This control scheme has solved the problem of the automatic accurate tracking track of sun of heliostat in the tower type solar energy thermal power generation.But, in this technical scheme, to the required precision of the executive component of executing agency than higher, the executive component ratio of precision relatively poor or use a period of time after precision reduce, all can influence control accuracy; In addition, the gear-box of heliostat own can produce the excessive uncontrollable factor that waits of backlash after using a period of time, also can cause heliostat to be followed the tracks of and deviation occur.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is, a kind of method that can improve accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat is provided.The present invention is by image identification system, can occur that the executive component precision reduces, when the gear-box of heliostat own can produce uncontrollable factors such as backlash is excessive after using a period of time, correct the deviation that occurs in the heliostat to automatically follow track of sun control.

Above-mentioned purpose is achieved through the following technical solutions:

Improve the method for accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat, it is characterized in that: this method is, by being installed in the video camera of heat dump front, reflexes to facula position above the heat dump for control system provides heliostat in real time; When deviation appearred in facula position, control system was sent the control instruction to heliostat by the judgement to deviation, the action of control heliostat, and the facula position that heliostat is reflexed to above the heat dump returns to desired location.

In the method for above-mentioned raising accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat, video camera reflexes to facula position above the heat dump for control system provides heliostat in real time, it is video image with the facula position of video camera shooting, be transferred to a computer with image processing function, this computer grasps by video image being carried out picture, identification, compare with setting facula position then, obtain the deviate of facula position and deviate is transferred to control system.

In the method for aforementioned raising accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat, pattern process computer is discerned video image, read picture, obtain the size of picture, judge the luminous point that meets the demands according to the brightness of luminous point in the picture, judge the profile of hot spot by the point that meets the demands, calculate the central value of hot spot according to profile; Compare and be with setting facula position, spot center value that obtains and the central value of setting facula position are compared, the difference that obtains is transferred to control system as the deviate of facula position.

In the method for aforementioned raising accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat, described deviate being transferred to control system, is that the mode with communication is transferred to control system through communications protocol conversion module with deviate.

In the method for aforementioned raising accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat, described communications protocol conversion module is the protocol conversion module that MODBUS changes CAN.

In the control method of heliostat to automatically follow track of sun, be provided with optical filter before camera lens in the aforementioned tower type solar energy thermal power generation, video camera can change the optical filtering grade automatically, best filter effect is selected in automation.

Beneficial effect of the present invention: the present invention passes through image identification system, can occur that the executive component precision reduces, when the gear-box of heliostat own can produce uncontrollable factors such as backlash is excessive after using a period of time, correct the deviation that occurs in the heliostat to automatically follow track of sun control.The utilization camera is taken the mirror field method, take the hot spot that heliostat is followed the tracks of the track of sun reflection in real time, find the light class in the heliostat, there is skew light class position, the offset deviation of image identification system control survey hot spot is revised the solar angle setting value of closed-loop control system.To any deviation that can not the survey factor causes, carry out ultimate closed loop correction the most intuitively, guaranteed the precision that heliostat is followed the tracks of running track from sun.The present invention can monitor the operation conditions of whole heliostat field, can also monitor the situation of heliostat flare very intuitively, in the operator station computer, can see very clearly that heliostat reflexes to the hot spot on the heat dump in real time.The present invention is applied in the tower type solar energy thermal power generation station, can be by to the monitoring of each heliostat with to the correction of facula position deviation, improve whole tower type solar energy thermal power generation station control accuracy, improve generating efficiency, cut operating costs.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the control system structural representation;

Fig. 2 is the flow chart of image recognition;

Fig. 3 is an image recognition facula position flow chart;

Fig. 4 is that actual deviation value flow chart is calculated in image recognition;

Fig. 5 is that the image recognition serial ports sends data flowchart;

Fig. 6 is a specular light spot orientation angles change curve in time;

Fig. 7 is the position feedback change curve in time of minute surface orientation motion;

Fig. 8 is a specular light spot height angle change curve in time;

Fig. 9 is the position feedback change curve in time of minute surface high degree of motion;

Figure 10 is specular light spot orientation angles and position of orientation feedback contrast tabulation;

Figure 11 is specular light spot height angle and height and position feedback contrast tabulation.

The specific embodiment

Embodiment.Select a heliostat, what the transmission executive component of heliostat was selected for use is the servomotor of Schneider LXM intelligence servo-driver and Schneider BSH1402P32F1A, MODBUS by system changes the protocol conversion module of CAN and the DPU controller of system carries out transfer of data, the DPU controller is according to the solar angle equation of motion, calculate the stroke that the real-time reflected sunlight of minute surface need move to heat dump, feed back heliostat travel position value to the DPU controller by servo-driver by the protocol conversion module again, form closed-loop control, finish full-automatic accurate tracking track of sun of heliostat and reflected sunlight heat dump to cat head.As shown in Figure 1, intelligent measuring and control device 4, operator station 5, DPU controller 6 and communications protocol conversion module 7 have constituted control system.The DPU controller is the important core assembly PN300B (adopting primary processor: Pentium400, internal memory 128MB) of TCS3000 system.

The solar angle equation of motion is as follows;

Sun altitude (is 0 degree angle with level):

sin(h⊙)=sin(δ)×sin(Ф)+cos(δ)×cos(Ф)×cos(τ)

Solar azimuth (is 0 degree angle with the due south):

cosA=(sin(h⊙)×sin(Ф)-sinδ)/cos(h⊙)×cos(Ф)

Wherein:

H ⊙: sun altitude;

A: solar azimuth;

δ: declination angle;

δ=23.45×sin(360×(284+n)/365)

N: day of year, the fate in a year, from January 1 to the fate that will calculate day, the serial number of date in then that promptly calculates day;

Ф: geographic latitude;

τ: solar hour angle, with the positive period of the day from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m, calculate τ=0;

The sun is to the calculating of tower:

Definition: tower height is Z, the high T1 of mirror center line, and tower is X to the length of heliostat, tower is Y to the width distance of heliostat;

Then have as follows:

The elevation angle of heliostat is H1;

The azimuth of heliostat is A1;

TanH1=(Z-T1)/X;

TanA1=Y/X;

Then:

The actual latitude function of mirror: X (t)=(h ⊙+H1)/2;

The actual longitude function of mirror: Y (t)=(A+A1)/2.

Schneider LXM05A intelligence servo-driver, inside has communication function and intelligent feedback function, with the function of intelligent remote measure and control device.The special intelligent remote monitor device of its communication function and intelligent feedback function is arranged, and cost will be lower than intelligent servo-driver, and exploration, operability, maintainability all are better than intelligent executing agency.

Servo-driver changes CAN protocol conversion module by the MODBUS in RS485 interface and the system and is connected, carry out the mutual of communication data by the MODBUS rtu protocol, the protocol conversion module is the DPU controller of the system that passes to of data in real time, the DPU controller is connected with the operator station computer by gateway (HUB), and the computer application MOXGRAF of operator station configuration software is in conjunction with the design of solar angle equation of motion and loop control theory coding and man-machine interface.

On the operator station computer, the converter by RS232-RS485 is connected computer with the heliostat driver, manually debugs by the MODBUS communication interface, thereby allows the servo driver drives servomotor allow the minute surface can movement therewith.

On the operator station computer, use the program that the MOXGRAF configuration software is write the solar angle equation of motion, the real time position of heliostat when calculating heliostat flare being projected heat dump, required direction signal instruction and the motor message that sends instructed when heliostat moved to the tram thereby calculate accurately.Program is downloaded in the DPU controller, and the driver of heliostat is connected with the protocol conversion module that MODBUS changes CAN, system's control this moment heliostat is open loop control.

Closed loop control algorithm is joined in the program of DPU controller operation and go, setting value is elevation angle and the azimuthal two-dimensional function that the sun moves on longitude and latitude direction; Value of feedback is the stroke value of heliostat movement position.The protocol conversion modules that the instruction of heliostat motion changeed CAN by two cover MODBUS by the DPU computing send the servo-driver of heliostat to, and a cover transmits the movement instruction on the heliostat horizontal direction, and a cover transmits the movement instruction on the heliostat vertical direction.Instruction is divided into travel direction instruction and position command, with the form transmission of switching value and pulsed quantity.Servo-driver receives the position signalling of servomotor heliostat real time execution, be that motor rotates the actual number of turns, protocol conversion module by two cover MODBUS commentaries on classics CAN is sent to the DPU controller to the position signalling feedback of moving on heliostat horizontal direction and the vertical direction respectively, forms closed-loop control.

When early morning, the sun rose to certain altitude; heliostat starts; by control method of the present invention; the operation of heliostat automatic tracking sun is after 24 hour operation, when the sun drops to certain height; heliostat stops to continue to follow the tracks of sun operation; and adjust the operation orientation, run to the heliostat protective position, avoid minute surface to suffer damage.

When heliostat moves, solar radiation to the light energy reflected of minute surface to the heat dump of cat head, can see that the hot spot of minute surface reflection is projected onto on the heat dump.This control method can allow heliostat follow the tracks of running track from sun accurately, and real-time projects hot spot on the heat dump.

After start-up system allows the operation of heliostat automatic tracking sun track, on the operator station computer, manually adjust the heliostat position by the HMI man-machine interface, hot spot is trained off, make it to be projected onto on the heat dump, this moment, heliostat can find the true(-)running position automatically according to the formula and the value of feedback of DPU controller computing, and hot spot is projected on the heat dump again.Through experiment, the position of artificial adjustment heliostat, the test heliostat can find the tram of tracking automatically according to closed-loop control.In real work, might de-orbit by unartificial generation heliostat, the situation of position skew, as occur that the executive component precision reduces, the gear-box of heliostat own uses in the time of can producing uncontrollable factors such as backlash is excessive after a period of time, for correcting the deviation that occurs in the heliostat to automatically follow track of sun control, just must could accurately heliostat be brought back on the track of true(-)running automatically by the present invention.

High temperature resistant high-resolution camera is installed in heat dump the place ahead, crossing video line with the video reception cartoon of operator station computer is connected, the RS232 interface of operator station computer changes the RS485 converter by RS232 and is connected with MODBUS commentaries on classics CAN protocol conversion module, the monitoring image that sends from camera is analyzed, measures, calculated, offset deviation is passed to the DPU controller, at last by DPU controller correction heliostat operation deviation, form ultimate closed loop, finish full-automatic accurate tracking track of sun of heliostat and reflected sunlight heat dump to cat head.

Utilize video camera to take the picture of whole heliostat field, because the relative fixed all of each the face mirror in camera and the heliostat field, in the picture that grasps, can distinguish the position of each face mirror.So the position of hot spot only can be in the scope of mirror, and have the scattering of some light around.And picture shot also is different under different light intensity situations.In the picture that photographs, can see that scattering of light causes the irregular of imaging, the outside of part light scattering at mirror arranged, and we can't judge the brightest position of hot spot, be the energy maximum position of light, so need to adopt specific process to handle the shooting of video camera.Increase optical filter before pick-up lens, light more weak in the scattered beam that reflects is filtered, the part that light is strong relatively can see through optical filter and shine on the video camera.Because light intensity every day and not all be the same is so video camera should be able to change the optical filtering grade automatically, best filter effect is selected in automation.Find relatively stronger light by optical filtering, judge the center of hot spot then, be i.e. our the strongest position of luminous energy---light class of thinking.

In fact, if after filtering functions all removes, we see is exactly actual mirror, and the hot spot that we see also is in the scope of mirror, be to filter by the profile that filters, so we can only see be---hot spot.That is to say that in mirror profile scope, the illumination of which scope reflection is on video camera, then that " point " is bright spot---light class on video camera.

The light of the sun is parallel light, so the skew of the solar facula on the mirror that determines in picture promptly is the skew at acceptance point, thus, in the operator station computer by the judgement of light spot profile being obtained the central value of hot spot, calculate position difference then with the pixel of center for standard point, and this deviate is converted into actual deviate, send to control system.

In this example, the DPU controller is connected with the operator station computer by gateway (HUB), the operator station computer uses video capture and image processing techniques, obtain the error deviation distance of solar facula, and this is revised the serial ports of data by computer RS232 change the RS485 converter through RS232 and send to control system.

As shown in Figure 2, the image recognition flow process is as follows: the video image that obtains camera acquisition and transmit by image card, video image is carried out picture to be grasped, carry out the identification of solar facula by software algorithm, calculate the position of determining hot spot in the image, obtain actual deviation by calculating then, the actual shifts of hot spot distance is sent in the control system.Can be divided into identification facula position, calculating actual deviation value, three parts of serial ports transmission data.

As shown in Figure 3, identification facula position flow process is as follows: read picture, obtain the size of picture then, judge the point that meets the demands according to the positional value of the point in the picture, judged by the point that meets the demands and the profile of hot spot come computer center's value according to profile.

As shown in Figure 4, calculating actual deviation value flow process is as follows: calculate the actual range parameter of every pixel value correspondence, calculate actual range according to this parameter, deviated by theoretical and actual distance calculation.

As shown in Figure 5, it is as follows that the image recognition serial ports sends data flow: at first set up serial ports and connect when initializers, then listening port, after having data to send over, carry out read operation, obtain the data message form, organize data according to message format, carry out write operation, data are sent in the past.Above-mentioned serial ports is meant the operator station computer by serial, by the RS232-RS485 converter, transmits data by the RS485 interface by the MODBUS rtu protocol.

According to the test of heliostat to automatically follow track of sun repeatedly, flare, reliable test data and curve have been formed to heat dump.

The full-automatic closed loop of system is followed the tracks of track of sun, and flare is to heat dump, and record calculates the correction data of the position signalling that feeds back in the azimuth of heliostat and heat dump and elevation angle and servo-driver by formula, as Figure 10, and Figure 11.

Zin---specular light spot orientation angles (unit: degree);

Zout---the position feedback of minute surface orientation motion draws (unit: usr/10000) by servo-driver according to motor rotating cycle accumulative total;

Hin---specular light spot height angle (unit: degree);

Hout---the position feedback of minute surface high degree of motion draws (unit: usr/10000) by servo-driver according to motor rotating cycle accumulative total;

The data march line analysis of his-and-hers watches 1 can draw following datagram, as Fig. 6, and Fig. 7.

The data march line analysis of his-and-hers watches 2 can draw following datagram, as Fig. 8, and Fig. 9.

As can be seen, the present invention has finished the correction to deviation in the heliostat automatic tracking sun running orbit accurately from data.

Claims (4)

1. improve the method for accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat, it is characterized in that: this method is, by being installed in the video camera of heat dump front, reflexes to facula position above the heat dump for control system provides heliostat in real time; When deviation appearred in facula position, control system was sent the control instruction to heliostat by the judgement to deviation, the action of control heliostat, and the facula position that heliostat is reflexed to above the heat dump returns to desired location; Video camera reflexes to facula position above the heat dump for control system provides heliostat in real time, it is video image with the facula position of video camera shooting, be transferred to a computer with image processing function, this computer grasps by video image being carried out picture, identification, compare with setting facula position then, obtain the deviate of facula position and deviate is transferred to control system; Pattern process computer is discerned video image, reads picture, obtains the size of picture, judges the luminous point that meets the demands according to the brightness of luminous point in the picture, judges the profile of hot spot by the point that meets the demands, and calculates the central value of hot spot according to profile; Compare and be with setting facula position, spot center value that obtains and the central value of setting facula position are compared, the difference that obtains is transferred to control system as the deviate of facula position.
2. the method for raising accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described deviate being transferred to control system, is that the mode with communication is transferred to control system through communications protocol conversion module with deviate.
3. the method for raising accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat according to claim 2 is characterized in that: described communications protocol conversion module is the protocol conversion module of MODBUS and CAN.
4. according to the method for the described raising accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat of arbitrary claim in the claim 1 to 3, it is characterized in that: be provided with optical filter before camera lens, video camera can change the optical filtering grade automatically, select best filter effect automatically.
CN2008101153723A 2008-06-23 2008-06-23 Method for improving accuracy of control of automatic sun track following of heliostat CN101614445B (en)

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CN102929300B (en) * 2012-11-22 2016-04-13 宁夏光合能源科技有限公司 Tower type solar collecting system heliostat field top layer control device

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