CN101614395B - Burner, and burner cooling method - Google Patents

Burner, and burner cooling method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101614395B
CN101614395B CN2009101425718A CN200910142571A CN101614395B CN 101614395 B CN101614395 B CN 101614395B CN 2009101425718 A CN2009101425718 A CN 2009101425718A CN 200910142571 A CN200910142571 A CN 200910142571A CN 101614395 B CN101614395 B CN 101614395B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
nozzle
fuel
combustion chamber
air
mentioned
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CN2009101425718A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101614395A (en
Inventor
小泉浩美
井上洋
笹尾俊文
竹原勋
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株式会社日立制作所
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Priority to JP2005184983 priority Critical
Priority to JP2005184983 priority
Priority to JP2005-184983 priority
Priority to JP2006-168987 priority
Priority to JP2006168987 priority
Priority to JP2006168987A priority patent/JP4728176B2/en
Application filed by 株式会社日立制作所 filed Critical 株式会社日立制作所
Publication of CN101614395A publication Critical patent/CN101614395A/en
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Publication of CN101614395B publication Critical patent/CN101614395B/en

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Abstract

A burner of the invention comprises: a fuel nozzle for startup from which fuel for startup is injected into said combustion chamber; a mixed fuel nozzle disposed around said fuel nozzle for startup and injecting the mixed fuel; an air swirler disposed at a downstream end of said mixed fuel nozzle positioned in said combustion chamber and having a plurality of flow passages through which a part of compressed air from a compressor is injected into said combustion chamber to hold a flame, said mixed fuel nozzle having injection ports disposed in the inner peripheral side of the flow passages of said air swirler; and cooling holes formed in a nozzle surface positioned to face said combustion chamber and introducing a part of the mixed fuel injected from said mixed fuel nozzle into said combustion chamber, to thereby reduce flame temperature near the nozzle surface.

Description

The cooling means of pulverizing jet and pulverizing jet
The application is for dividing an application, and the applying date of original application is on June 23rd, 2006, and application number is 200610093164.9, and denomination of invention is the cooling means of pulverizing jet, gas turbine burner, pulverizing jet and the remodeling method of pulverizing jet.
Technical field
The present invention relates to use any one pulverizing jet and the cooling means of pulverizing jet of fuel combination that comprises hydrogen or carbon monoxide at least.
Background technology
In recent years; The fuel of gas turbine is variation, and be LNG (liquefied natural gas) or light oil at the main fuel of research and inquirement gas turbine, the utilization of the mixed fuel (hereinafter to be referred as fuel combination) that is grouped into of the multiple one-tenth except A kind heavy oil by comprising hydrogen or carbon monoxide etc.This fuel combination is higher than LNG flame temperature, and especially its flammable range of hydrogen is wide, burning velocity is fast and inflammable.
When burning LNG, giving hybrid mode becomes main flow.But, if with premixed mode burning fuel combination, owing to comprise hydrogen in the variation of the characteristic that causes because of the variation of fuel composition or the fuel combination or carbon monoxide causes tempering easily.Therefore, to give relatively difficulty of hybrid mode burning fuel combination.So when burning fuel combination, the general pulverizing jet that fuel and air are ejected into the diffusion combustion mode in the combustion chamber respectively that adopts is (with reference to patent documentation 1: TOHKEMY 2004-3730 communique).
Under the situation of the fuel combination that comprises hydrogen or carbon monoxide,, when the starting gas turbine, use other kind class A fuel A of light oil etc. even the security when diffusion combustion also is necessary to consider the gas turbine igniting it is desirable to.During with other kind class A fuel A starting gas turbine of light oil etc.,, and add after the load, then operational mode is transformed into special burning fuel combination from starting fuel in starting, speed-raising.Here said special burning fuel combination is meant, an operational mode with the fuel combination supplied burner.Yet, be transformed into after the special burning fuel combination, because fuel combination flame temperature height and burning velocity are also fast, therefore, flame is easily near nozzle face, thereby, the danger that exists the metal temperature of nozzle face to rise.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide the cooling means of a kind of pulverizing jet and pulverizing jet; Even they, also can be controlled at the metal temperature of nozzle face in the suitable scope and improve its reliability as under the situation of fuel at any one the fuel combination that will comprise hydrogen or carbon monoxide at least.
(1) in order to achieve the above object; A kind of pulverizing jet; In will comprising any one the pulverizing jet of hybrid fuel jet in the combustion chamber of gas turbine burner of hydrogen or carbon monoxide at least; It is characterized in that possessing: by gas turbine is risen the liquid fuel of employing be ejected into the liquid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned combustion chamber and be arranged at this liquid fuel nozzle around, and spray the starting fuel nozzle that the spray air nozzle be used to make the micronized spray air of liquid fuel constitutes; The hybrid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned fuel combination is set and sprays around this starting fuel nozzle; Be arranged at the end of above-mentioned combustion chamber one side of this hybrid fuel nozzle, be communicated with above-mentioned combustion chamber one side end of hybrid fuel nozzle, and for keeping flame will be ejected into the air gyroscope of above-mentioned combustion chamber from the compressed-air actuated part of air compressor machine; And as in the face of the nozzle face of above-mentioned combustion chamber, between the ejiction opening of the ejiction opening of above-mentioned spray air nozzle and above-mentioned air gyroscope, the part of the fuel combination that will spray from above-mentioned hybrid fuel nozzle is ejected into the cooling holes of above-mentioned combustion chamber.
(2) in addition; In order to achieve the above object; Pulverizing jet of the present invention; In will comprising any one the pulverizing jet of hybrid fuel jet in the combustion chamber of gas turbine burner of hydrogen or carbon monoxide at least; It is characterized in that possessing: by gas turbine is risen the liquid fuel of employing be ejected into the liquid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned combustion chamber and be arranged at this liquid fuel nozzle around, and spray the starting fuel nozzle that the spray air nozzle be used to make the micronized spray air of liquid fuel constitutes; The hybrid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned fuel combination is set and sprays around this starting fuel nozzle; Be arranged at the end of above-mentioned combustion chamber one side of this hybrid fuel nozzle, be communicated with above-mentioned combustion chamber one side end of hybrid fuel nozzle, and for keeping flame will be ejected into the air gyroscope of above-mentioned combustion chamber from the compressed-air actuated part of air compressor machine; Supply with the inert media feed system of inert media to above-mentioned starting fuel nozzle; And as in the face of the nozzle face of above-mentioned combustion chamber, between the ejiction opening of the ejiction opening of above-mentioned spray air nozzle and above-mentioned air gyroscope, the part of the fuel combination that will spray from above-mentioned hybrid fuel nozzle is ejected into the cooling holes of above-mentioned combustion chamber.
(3) have again; In order to achieve the above object; The cooling means of pulverizing jet of the present invention; In will comprising any one the cooling means of pulverizing jet of the diffusion combustion mode of hybrid fuel jet in the combustion chamber of gas turbine burner of hydrogen or carbon monoxide at least; It is characterized in that this pulverizing jet possesses: by gas turbine is risen the liquid fuel of employing be ejected into the liquid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned combustion chamber and be arranged at this liquid fuel nozzle around, and spray the starting fuel nozzle that the spray air nozzle be used to make the micronized spray air of liquid fuel constitutes; The hybrid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned fuel combination is set and sprays around this starting fuel nozzle; Be arranged at the end of above-mentioned combustion chamber one side of this hybrid fuel nozzle, be communicated with above-mentioned combustion chamber one side end of hybrid fuel nozzle, and for keeping flame will be ejected into the air gyroscope of above-mentioned combustion chamber from the compressed-air actuated part of air compressor machine; And as in the face of the nozzle face of above-mentioned combustion chamber, between the ejiction opening of the ejiction opening of above-mentioned spray air nozzle and above-mentioned air gyroscope, the part of the fuel combination that will spray from above-mentioned hybrid fuel nozzle is ejected into the cooling holes of above-mentioned combustion chamber.
According to the present invention; Even at any one the fuel combination that will comprise hydrogen or carbon monoxide at least as under the situation of fuel; Also can reduce flame temperature, thereby can the metal temperature of nozzle face is controlled in the suitable scope and improve its reliability through near the fuel concentration that improves the nozzle face.In addition, through inert media being supplied near the nozzle face, also can the metal temperature of nozzle face be controlled in the proper range.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the sketch of gas turbine complete set of equipments that possesses the pulverizing jet of first embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the enlarged drawing of side-looking section of the pulverizing jet of first embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is the front view of the pulverizing jet of one first embodiment of the present invention looked sideways from the combustion chamber.
Fig. 4 is the partial enlarged drawing of the pulverizing jet of second embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is the front view of the pulverizing jet of one second embodiment of the present invention looked sideways from the combustion chamber.
Fig. 6 is the sketch of gas turbine complete set of equipments that possesses the pulverizing jet of second embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 7 is mixed fuel and the mass ratio of air and the graph of a relation between theoretical temperature combustion that expression is made up of hydrogen, methane, nitrogen.
Fig. 8 is after representing that being transformed into fuel combination specially burns operation, the dependency relation figure of the supply of spray air or inert media and the metal temperature of nozzle face.
Fig. 9 is that the purging system figure that has been trapped in the liquid fuel of employing nozzle interior is cleaned in expression.
The specific embodiment
Below, use description of drawings embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 1 is the sketch of gas turbine complete set of equipments that possesses the pulverizing jet of first embodiment of the present invention.
The gas turbine complete set of equipments of this embodiment possesses starting that air compressor machine 2, burner 3, turbine 4, generator 6 and gas turbine drives use with motor 8 etc.In air compressor machine 2, the air 101 that compression is inhaled into is reinstated burner 3 burnings from the compressed air 102 and the fuel 200,201 1 of air compressor machine 2.When the burning gases 110 of spontaneous combustion in future device 3 supplied to turbine 4, then turbine 4 can obtain rotary power by burning gases 110, and the rotary power of turbine 4 is delivered to air compressor machine 2 and generator 6.The rotary power that is delivered to air compressor machine 2 is as compression power, and the rotary power that is delivered to generator 6 converts electric energy into.
Have again, in Fig. 1,, also have when using pump etc. as the load machine though illustrate generator 6 as the load machine.Also have, turbine 4 is not limited to use single axle, when the twin axle of use is also arranged.
The burner 3 of this embodiment is used for burning and comprises hydrogen (H at least 2) or any one multiple composition mixed fuel (fuel combination) of carbon monoxide (CO); Except this gaseous fuel 201 as fuel combination, also to possess the starting fuel of supplying with gas turbine be liquid fuel 200, be used to make the micronized spray air of liquid fuel 200 103, reduce NO XThe feed system of required inert media (steam) 104.In the gaseous fuel 201 that utilizes burner 3 burning, for example can enumerate the gaseous fuel that constitutes by multiple composition such as coke-oven gas, blast furnace gas, coal gas of converter or with raw materials such as coal, heavy oil with the oxygen gasified and coal that comprises hydrogen or carbon monoxide that obtains, heavy oil gasification gas etc.In addition, in the liquid fuel 200, use for example light oil, A kind heavy oil etc.
Burner 3 possesses: as the urceolus 10 of pressure vessel; Be arranged at the inner circumference portion of this urceolus 10, its inner main chamber's lining 12 that forms the combustion chamber; The pulverizing jet 13 that is used for the combustion chamber formation flame in this main chamber's lining 12; The flame that will form by this pulverizing jet 13 and burning gases 110 that take place are directed to the tail pipe (not shown) of turbine 4.In this embodiment, pulverizing jet 13 adopts diffusion combustion mode, and is arranged at one to one on each burner pot.
Fig. 2 is the enlarged drawing of the side-looking section of pulverizing jet 13, and Fig. 3 is the front view of one pulverizing jet 13 looked sideways from the combustion chamber.
As these Fig. 2 and shown in Figure 3, pulverizing jet 13 possesses: with starting fuel is that liquid fuel 200 is ejected into the starting fuel nozzle 15 in the combustion chamber; The hybrid fuel nozzle 16 of jet gas fuel 201; For keeping flame will be ejected into the air gyroscope 17 of combustion chamber from the compressed air 102a of the part in the compressed air 102 of air compressor machine 2.
Starting fuel nozzle 15 is by the central part of the radial direction that is disposed at the combustion chamber; And spray gas turbine and work the liquid fuel nozzle 20 of the liquid fuel of employing 200 and spray spray air nozzle 21 formations that are used to make liquid fuel 200 micronized spray air 103.Spray air nozzle 21 by be arranged to surround liquid fuel nozzle 20 around inner core 22 form, flow through in spray air 103 or steam 104 runner between the outside wall surface of internal face that is formed at inner core 22 and liquid fuel nozzle 20.And; From interfering with each other towards the spray air 103 of the ejiction opening 21a ejection of the spray air nozzle 21 of combustion chamber or inert media (steam) 104 and liquid fuel 200 from the ejiction opening 20a ejection of liquid fuel nozzle 20; Thus, be sprayed in the combustion chamber after making liquid fuel 200 micronizes.
The housing 23 on every side that hybrid fuel nozzle 16 will be arranged to surround spray air nozzle 21 flows through in the runner of gaseous fuel 201 between the outside wall surface of the inner core 22 of internal face that is formed at housing 23 and spray air nozzle 21 as main body.The end of a side is provided with air gyroscope 17 in the combustion chamber of this hybrid fuel nozzle 16.Like Fig. 2 and shown in Figure 3, air gyroscope 17 has the runner 17a that is used for along the circumferential direction by certain interval compressed air 102a being supplied with the composition that circles round.Runner 17a is arranged to the outer circumference portion of combustion chamber one side of housing 23 similar.Runner 17a to this air gyroscope 17 supplies with the part from the compressed air 102 of supplied burner 3 air compressor machines, the air 102a that promptly supplies with through pressure balance.102 combustion air hole or cooling holes through main chamber's lining 12 of remaining compressed air feed in the combustion chamber.Therefore, be used to compressed air, also can carry out the cooling of main chamber's lining 12 simultaneously from air compressor machine 2.
The ejiction opening 16a of hybrid fuel nozzle 16 is arranged at the inner circumferential side of the runner 17a of air gyroscope 17, from the gaseous fuel 201 of ejiction opening 16a ejection with circle round stream together and be ejected in the combustion chamber by 17 ejections of air gyroscope.And, mixing with gaseous fuel 201 through the air 102a that circles round from air gyroscope 17, flame can remain on the front of air gyroscope 17.
The nozzle face (cyclone end face) 18 of facing the combustion chamber of pulverizing jet 13 is provided with cooling holes 53; The zone of these cooling holes 53 between the runner 17a of the ejiction opening 21a of spray air and air gyroscope 17 has a plurality of, thereby makes the channel connection of itself and hybrid fuel nozzle 16.And a part of gaseous fuel 201a from the gaseous fuel 201 of hybrid fuel nozzle 16 ejections is ejected in the combustion chamber through these cooling holes 53.Thus, near nozzle face 18 fuel concentrations are raise.
In this embodiment, possess independently respectively to the starting fuel feed system of starting fuel nozzle 15 feed fluid fuel 200 and to the fuel combination feed system of hybrid fuel nozzle 16 supply gas fuel 201.The starting fuel feed system is connected on the introducing port 20b of liquid fuel nozzle 20, and the fuel combination feed system is connected on the introducing port 16b of hybrid fuel nozzle 16, and has the control valve (not shown) of regulate fuel flow respectively.
On the other hand; Spray air feed system from spray air 103 to spray air nozzle 21 that supply with is connected on the introducing port 21b of spray air nozzle 21, and inert media feed system from inert media 104 to air gyroscope 17 that supply with is connected on the introducing port 10b of burner urceolus 10.These spray air feed systems and inert media feed system connect through bypass line each other, connect the cut-off valve 300 that this both this bypass line is provided with the runner that opens and closes bypass line.Have again; In the downstream of the bypass line of inert media feed system, from upstream side according to the cut-off valve 301 that is sequentially with the runner that opens and closes the inert media feed system as follows and regulate the steam flow control valve 302 of the steam flow that flows through the inert media feed system.
The gas turbine complete set of equipments of said structure drives gas turbine by the external impetus that starts with motor 8 grades during starting, and in burner, is lighted a fire with liquid fuel 200 by the air 102 that air compressor machine 2 is discharged.Supply with turbine 4 and rotary power is provided from the burning gases 110 of burner 3 to turbine 4.Follow the increase of the flow of liquid fuel 200, turbine 4 raises speed, and is transformed into the gas turbine independent operating by starting with the disengaging of motor 8.And, in case reach unloaded rated revolution, then incorporate generator 6 into, through the flow of further increase liquid fuel 200, the gasinlet temperature of combustion turbine 4 is risen, load is increased.
After incorporating load into, from the inert media feed system to burner 3 uperizes, with control NO XDischarge rate.The steam 104 of supplied burner 3 through cut-off valve 301 and after utilizing steam flow control valve 302 to be adjusted to suitable flow, mixes with combustion air 102a from air compressor machine 2 and is ejected into the combustion chamber from the runner 17a of air gyroscope 17.The oxygen concentration of combustion air 102a is through reducing with vapor mixing.So, through coming combustion of liquid fuel 200, thereby reduce the flame temperature in the combustion chamber and control NO with the low oxygen concentration air XConcentration.
When promoting the operation of load, then can carry out from liquid fuel 200 switch to fuel conversion operations that mixed fuel be gaseous fuel 201 thereafter.The fuel conversion operations under the state that the load maintenance of gas turbine is certain, carries out with flow that reduces liquid fuel 200 and the mode that increases the quantity delivered of gaseous fuel 201.Final when finishing to be transformed into fuel combination and specially burning operation to the fuel conversion operations of gaseous fuel 201, then follow the increase of gaseous fuel 201 and can promote load.Be transformed into fuel combination and specially burn after the operation,, then stop supply and be used to make liquid fuel 200 micronized spray air 103 along with the supply of stop liquid fuel 200.
Here, as the diffusion combustion of this embodiment with pulverizing jet in, for having made the fuel particlesization of employing, usually from the nozzle face injection air of combustion chamber one side of pulverizing jet.But the supply of such air is when the multiple composition mist of burning, and the influence that the metal temperature of nozzle face is brought is bigger.Below, according to Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 its reason is described.
Fig. 7 is mixed fuel and the mass ratio (F/A) of air and the graph of a relation between theoretical temperature combustion that expression is made up of hydrogen, methane, nitrogen.
As shown in Figure 7, theoretical temperature combustion (℃) there is following trend: the increase with F/A (kg/kg) is risen, and is issued to maximum in a certain F/A condition, if further increase F/A, then reduces thereafter.The F/A amount of being called opinion mixing ratio when theoretical temperature combustion is maximum is compared with it, and also that F/A is low zone is called the fuel thin area, and the state that F/A is high is called fuel overrich zone.When considering concerning between fuel overrich zone and the F/A, can think when supplying with spray air that (the regional A among Fig. 7) when not supplying with spray air (area B among Fig. 7) compare more near amount by mixing ratio.
Under the situation of this embodiment, though can think that the nozzle face of burner 3 is neighbouring regional for the fuel overrich, through supplying with spray air, the approaching amount of F/A is discussed mixing ratio, and flame temperature (ignition temperature) increases.On the other hand, when supplying with the inert media of steam etc., theoretical temperature combustion is the tendency (zone C among Fig. 7) of reduction.
Fig. 8 be illustrated in transfer to fuel combination and specially burn operation after, the dependency relation figure of the supply of spray air or inert media and the metal temperature of nozzle face.
What Fig. 8 represented is the situation of the mist of burning hydrogen, methane, nitrogen.As shown in the figure, the temperature of metal and the loading condiction of gas turbine are irrelevant, and be higher during than air supply not when supplying with spray air; And it is lower when not supplying with inert media when supplying with inert media.This can think because whether near the F/A the nozzle face supplies with along with spray air or whether inert media is supplied with and changed, and the ignition temperature variation.Especially under the situation of the fuel that comprises hydrogen or carbon monoxide, because burning velocity is fast, flame has near near the tendency the nozzle face, and therefore, metal temperature receives the influence of flame temperature easily.So as this embodiment, when burning comprised the fuel combination of hydrogen or carbon monoxide, through noting making near near the F/A condition the amount of the reaching opinion mixing ratio not the nozzle face, thereby the metal temperature that can control nozzle face rose.
Under the situation of this embodiment, when utilizing from air compressor machine discharge part of air cooling jet end face, then F/A discusses mixing ratio and flame temperature is raise near amount.Therefore, when burning comprised the fuel combination of hydrogen or carbon monoxide, flame was near near the cyclone and metal temperature rises easily, and it is difficult utilizing the air cooling.On the other hand; Under the rated load condition, when the air capacity through the air gyroscope 17 of increasing supply etc. is set in the fuel thin area with near the F/A the nozzle face, under the low load condition that fuel flow rate is reduced; Flame-out easily because the unburned composition increases, thus impracticable.Conversely, control the air capacity of air supply gyroscope 17 terrifically and when improving near the F/A the nozzle face, further reach fuel overrich zone, therefore, the problem of combustion stabilities such as flame blow-off takes place owing to compare with the incendivity scope.
In contrast, in this embodiment, through the cooling holes 53 of a part of ejection mixed fuel 201 is set at nozzle face, thereby the fuel concentration of nozzle face is improved.Therefore, the F/A of nozzle face near zone is increased, can reduce near the flame temperature of nozzle face.Thereby, can not take place near the such F/A amount of the transferring to opinion mixing ratio of air cooling and make the phenomenon of flame temperature rising, can reduce the metal temperature of nozzle face.
Also have; How much variant the temperature based on fuel kind of supplying with the fuel of giving gas turbine is; Coke-stove gas wherein etc. is below 100 ℃; Using oxygen to make the gaseous fuel of the coal gasification of coal gasification also is below 200~300 ℃, and this temperature is also lower than the temperature (being approximately 390 ℃) of the air of discharging from air compressor machine.Thus, through utilizing the sensible heat of fuel,, also can guarantee high cooling performance even compare with the air cooling.Like this, in the live load scope of gas turbine, because when can guarantee combustion stability, the metal temperature of nozzle face is controlled in the proper range, thereby can improves reliability.
Have again, according to this embodiment, through interior Monday of the runner 17a of air gyroscope 17 side the squit hole 16a of gaseous fuel 201 is set, make squit hole 16a bear the dynamic pressure of air 102a.Therefore, the special burning of liquid fuel within 200 is in service, will supply in the fuel nozzle 16 from the compressed air 102a of air compressor machine 2 through squit hole 16a, and through being arranged at the cooling holes 53 air supply 102a on the nozzle face.At this moment; Because the liquid fuel 200 of spraying and the air 102a that supplies with from cooling holes 53 mix; Owing to only compare with the situation that the air 102a that supplies with from air gyroscope 17 mixes with liquid fuel 200; More air is arranged by supplying near the starting fuel nozzle 50, thereby the coal smoke control can carry out liquid fuel combustion effectively the time.
In general, liquid fuel is through making the liquid fuel micronize, make micronize fuel vaporization, fuel and air mix and technical process such as burning and burning.Therefore, under fuel and the inadequate situation of Air mixing, the coal dust concentration of coal smoke etc. increases during burning.In this embodiment, can be from making the liquid fuel micronize of employing supply with spray air 102a through the cooling holes 53 that is used to spray gaseous fuel 201 near the spraying shell (squit hole 21a) that sprays.Through combustion of liquid fuel in this way, can obtain to control the effect that coal smoke takes place simultaneously.
Except that above-mentioned and, in this embodiment, through opening cut-off valve 300, can reduce NO with being XAnd the part of the inert media 104 of the steam that uses etc. supplies to the spray air feed system of starting fuel nozzle 15.Reduce NO XRequired steam 104 is supplied with later in special burning operation that is transformed into gaseous fuel 201 and the supply that stops spray air 103.Starting fuel nozzle 15 ejection steam 104 through from being positioned at the nozzle face center because near the flame temperature the nozzle face reduces (also with reference to Fig. 7), therefore, can reduce the metal temperature of nozzle face.
Have again, when steam 104 is supplied with starting fuel nozzle 15, be necessary in the spray air feed system, to be provided with the check-valves that prevents steam 104 adverse currents.In this embodiment, as being used to reduce NO XThough inert gas be illustrated as example with the situation of using steam, in general, also capable of using in factory other inert media such as resulting nitrogen or carbon dioxide, in this case, also can obtain same effect.
Also have; After combustion of liquid fuel 200; Through the feed system of spray air 103a is sprayed inert medias as the feed system utilization of inert media from starting fuel nozzle 15, just can make the structure of three heavy fuels of supply oil, spray air, combustion gas with easy structure.
In this embodiment; Though make possess by the structure of cooling holes 53 ejection gaseous fuels 201 and by the structure of the spray air feed system ejection inert media of starting fuel nozzle 15 the two, all can obtain higher cooling effect its any side.Under the situation of the refrigerating function that omits the nozzle face that forms through central part ejection inert media, as long as omit cut-off valve 300 for example and be provided with the bypass line of cut-off valve 300 from nozzle face.On the contrary, even omit the refrigerating function that forms from cooling holes 53 ejection fuel combinations, also can be through obtain the cooling effect of nozzle face from the center ejection inert media of nozzle face.
At this, Fig. 4 is the partial enlarged drawing of pulverizing jet of second embodiment of the present invention that has omitted the cooling holes 53 of this embodiment, and Fig. 5 is the front view of one this pulverizing jet of looking sideways from the combustion chamber.In these figure, for the identical part of each figure of front, put on identical symbol and omit its explanation.
Fig. 4 and pulverizing jet shown in Figure 5, interior Monday of the runner 17a of air gyroscope 17 side be provided with squit hole 16a, possess starting fuel nozzle 15 at the radial direction central part of air gyroscope 17.If remove and omitted beyond cooling holes 53 this point, have and Fig. 2 and the identical structure of pulverizing jet shown in Figure 3.So, even do not have such cooling holes, can not improve the pulverizing jet of fuel concentration of the near zone of nozzle face 18, also can control the rising of the metal temperature of nozzle face 18.
Fig. 6 is the sketch of gas turbine complete set of equipments that possesses the pulverizing jet of Fig. 4 and second embodiment of the present invention shown in Figure 5.
In gas turbine complete set of equipments shown in Figure 6; Same with complete set of equipments shown in Figure 1, use by the gaseous fuel 201 of the multiple composition gas that comprises hydrogen or carbon monoxide, as the liquid fuel 200 of the starting fuel of gas turbine, be used to make liquid fuel 200 micronized spray air 103 and be used to reduce NO XSteam 104.Same with the complete set of equipments of Fig. 1, in the inert media feed system, have cut-off valve 301 and flow control valve 302, on the bypass line that connects spray air feed system and inert media feed system, have cut-off valve 300.That is, remove beyond the cooling holes this point of having omitted nozzle face, the gas turbine complete set of equipments of this embodiment has with the complete set of equipments of Fig. 1 and is close to identical structure.
The complete set of equipments of this embodiment also complete set of equipments with Fig. 1 is the same, after incorporating load into, steam 104 is ejected in the combustion chamber with liquid fuel 200, thus can NO XDischarge concentration.And, along with load thereafter rises, fuel is transformed into gaseous fuel 201 from liquid fuel 200, after operational mode is transferred to the special burning of fuel combination, stop the supply of spray air 103.Stop after the supply of spray air 103, open cut-off valve 300 and pass through the end face central-injection steam 104 of starting fuel nozzle 15 from nozzle.Through from the starting fuel nozzle 15 at the center of the end face that is positioned at air gyroscope 17 with steam 104 supply combustion chambers, thereby the temperature that is formed near the flame the nozzle face is reduced, and the metal temperature of nozzle face reduced and improve reliability.
Also have, through utilizing the spray air feed system steam 104 is supplied with starting fuel nozzle 15, thereby need not to be provided for inert media is supplied with the new feed system of starting fuel nozzle 15.In general, owing on nozzle face, there is not the cooling holes of burner oil, therefore, it also is very big advantage that the pulverizing jet of the pulverizing jet existing diffusion combustion mode capable of using of this embodiment constitutes at an easy rate.
Fig. 9 is the sketch of gas turbine complete set of equipments that possesses the pulverizing jet of the of the present invention the 3rd mode implemented.
In first, second embodiment, the starting gas turbine uses liquid fuel 200, and after a certain load range internal conversion is specially burnt operation to fuel combination, stops feed fluid fuel 200.At this moment, if liquid fuel 200 is trapped in the liquid fuel nozzle 20, then heat up because of the heat from flame makes nozzle 20, the phenomenon (caulking joint) of curing takes place in the liquid fuel 200 of delay in nozzle.Therefore, after being transformed into fuel combination and specially burning end of run, liquid fuel 200 is flushed to combustion chamber 3 through gases such as nitrogen being supplied in the liquid fuel nozzle 20, thus the obstruction of the liquid fuel nozzle runner that can prevent to cause because of caulking joint.
Combustion system specially burns operation (combustion gas is specially burnt) from fuel combination and is transformed into after employing the operation (oil specially burns) and stopping gas turbine of liquid fuel, because the temperature in the burner is high, the caulking joint phenomenon takes place too.Therefore, after stopping gas turbine, too need be from liquid fuel nozzle 20 cleaning liquid fuel.
Fig. 9 is near the enlarged drawing the expression starting fuel nozzle, possesses among the figure: purging system from nitrogen 400 to the starting fuel feed system that supply with; And the fuel combination feed system is carried out branch and is used for the gaseous fuel purging system 201a to the part of starting fuel feed system supply gas fuel 201.In system separately, possess the cut-off valve 401 of nitrogen purge system and the cut-off valve 201b of gaseous fuel purging system respectively.
Below, the cleaning of fuel conversion and starting fuel moved describe.After liquid fuel 200 startings, and after reaching the loading condiction that can be exchanged into gaseous fuel 201, the flow of the liquid fuel 200 of the liquid fuel nozzle 20 that supplies to burner is reduced on the limit, and the limit increases the flow of gaseous fuel 201, carries out the conversion operations of fuel.When the gaseous fuel 201 of supplying with ormal weight, and the flow of liquid fuel within 200 finishes the fuel conversion when being zero.At this moment, if keep making liquid fuel to be stranded in the state in the liquid fuel nozzle 20, then because of in the hot liquid fuel within nozzle 20 from flame the caulking joint phenomenon taking place.Therefore, the operation of the cut-off valve 401 through opening nitrogen 400, and nitrogen 400 supplied in the liquid fuel nozzle 20, just can the liquid fuel 200 that be detained be flushed in the combustion chamber 3, and can suppress the generation of caulking joint.This purging system is a purpose with the cleaning of liquid fuel.Have, through after clean finishing, also continuing in the combustion chamber, to supply with nitrogen 400, because near the flame temperature the cyclone end face reduces, therefore, the fuel combination that can be reduced specially burns the effect of metal temperature of the cyclone end face of operation (combustion gas is specially burnt when moving) again.
Also have, the fuel combination feed system is carried out branch and the gaseous fuel 201 that supplies to the starting fuel feed system supplies to liquid fuel nozzle 20, when cleaning liquid fuel, also can obtain same effect.Also have, be flushed in the combustion chamber, and after having cleaned, also continue to supply with in the combustion chamber, can improve near the fuel concentration of cyclone end face, and form fuel overrich zone through the liquid fuel 200 that will be stranded in the liquid fuel nozzle.Therefore, can reduce the flame temperature of cyclone end face, thereby reduce the metal temperature of cyclone end face.
In these purging systems, can also with supply with nitrogen 400 from the liquid fuel nozzle that is arranged at starting fuel nozzle 15 20 or (when combustion gas is specially burnt) also continued supply gas fuel 201 when fuel combination specially burns operation method with the two makes up in the cooling means of the cyclone end face of first embodiment.Adopt said method,, also can cool off the cyclone end face effectively even burning comprises the fuel of hydrogen or carbon monoxide etc.
Have again, as shown in Figure 2, on the cyclone end face, possess spray air ejiction opening 21a, gaseous fuel 201 is ejected into the cooling holes 53 of combustion chamber, compressed air is supplied with the runner 17a of the air gyroscope 17 of combustion chamber.Also have, from hybrid fuel nozzle 16 or spray air nozzle 21 is ejected into the gaseous fuel of combustion chamber respectively or the ejiction opening of spray air is equivalent to nozzle face.
In sum, in first to the 3rd embodiment, having represented to be used to reduce in the face of the starting fuel nozzle 15 of combustion chamber and near the ends the hybrid fuel nozzle 16 is near the method for the flame temperature the cyclone.As shown in Figure 8, transfer to fuel combination and specially burn when supplying with spray air 103 after the operation, exist the metal temperature of cyclone end face to rise, surpass the possibility of the fusing point of the material that forms cyclone.For example, the fusing point of SUS steel is 650 ℃.When surpassing this fusing point, owing to cyclone loses function because of the flame scaling loss makes air gyroscope 17, perhaps stopped up the ejiction opening 16a of hybrid fuel nozzle 16, then might make burner can't keep flame, reduce combustor reliability.Therefore, make in the face of near the flame temperature the cyclone of combustion chamber is reduced to the technical measures below the fusing point of cyclone parts, just can control the scaling loss of cyclone parts, and improve combustor reliability through possessing.
Also have, first to the 3rd embodiment also is useful when transforming existing pulverizing jet.For example, even use under the situation of LNG (liquefied natural gas) or light oil, A kind heavy oil, also can adapt to the change of fuel type through simple transformation in burners in prior.
Specifically, first and second embodiment also is useful when transforming existing pulverizing jet.For example, under the situation of the pulverizing jet that possesses starting fuel nozzle 15 and hybrid fuel nozzle 16,, can think also to possess to be used to make the micronized spray air feed system of liquid fuel if liquid fuel has been used for employing the pulverizing jet of burner noz(zle) 15.So, be that the spray air feed system is transformed and made it to supply with inert media only to the upper reaches one side of spray air nozzle 21, just can reduce near the metal temperature the cyclone.
And,, just can further reduce near the metal temperature of cyclone through being replaced by the parts that on the nozzle face (cyclone end face) 18 of the combustion chamber of facing pulverizing jet 13, possess cooling holes 53.But, because the replacing of these parts need be from burner dismounting pulverizing jet 13, therefore, it being transformed into to supply with inert media to the spray air system better, because need not to dismantle burner, can more easily transform.
Have, the 3rd embodiment also is useful when transforming existing pulverizing jet again.In order to clean the liquid fuel 200 that is stranded in liquid fuel nozzle 20 inside, only the starting fuel feed system is set up the purging system of supplying with nitrogen 400, just can obtain the effect identical with the 3rd embodiment.But,, need auxiliary equipment and make equipment enlarging in order to supply with nitrogen 400.So; Set up the gaseous fuel purging system 201a that is used for supplying with a part of gaseous fuel 201 through the fuel combination feed system being carried out branch to the starting fuel feed system; In order to supply with fuel combination to pulverizing jet; Since can the shared existing discharge pressure that is arranged at the air compressor machine of fuel combination feed system, therefore, can make device miniaturization.

Claims (3)

1. pulverizing jet in will comprising any one the pulverizing jet of hybrid fuel jet in the combustion chamber of gas turbine burner of hydrogen or carbon monoxide at least, is characterized in that possessing:
By gas turbine is risen the liquid fuel of employing be ejected into the liquid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned combustion chamber and be arranged at this liquid fuel nozzle around, and spray the starting fuel nozzle that the spray air nozzle be used to make the micronized spray air of liquid fuel constitutes;
The hybrid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned fuel combination is set and sprays around this starting fuel nozzle;
Be arranged at this hybrid fuel nozzle and towards the end of above-mentioned combustion chamber one side; Be communicated with above-mentioned combustion chamber one side end of hybrid fuel nozzle, and for keeping flame will be ejected into the air gyroscope of above-mentioned combustion chamber from the compressed-air actuated part of air compressor machine; And
Be arranged on the nozzle face in the face of above-mentioned combustion chamber, between the ejiction opening of the ejiction opening of above-mentioned spray air nozzle and above-mentioned air gyroscope, the part of the fuel combination that will spray from above-mentioned hybrid fuel nozzle is ejected into the cooling holes of above-mentioned combustion chamber.
2. pulverizing jet in will comprising any one the pulverizing jet of hybrid fuel jet in the combustion chamber of gas turbine burner of hydrogen or carbon monoxide at least, is characterized in that possessing:
By gas turbine is risen the liquid fuel of employing be ejected into the liquid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned combustion chamber and be arranged at this liquid fuel nozzle around, and spray the starting fuel nozzle that the spray air nozzle be used to make the micronized spray air of liquid fuel constitutes;
The hybrid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned fuel combination is set and sprays around this starting fuel nozzle;
Be arranged at this hybrid fuel nozzle and towards the end of above-mentioned combustion chamber one side; Be communicated with above-mentioned combustion chamber one side end of hybrid fuel nozzle, and for keeping flame will be ejected into the air gyroscope of above-mentioned combustion chamber from the compressed-air actuated part of air compressor machine;
Supply with the inert media feed system of inert media to above-mentioned starting fuel nozzle; And
Be arranged on the nozzle face in the face of above-mentioned combustion chamber, between the ejiction opening of the ejiction opening of above-mentioned spray air nozzle and above-mentioned air gyroscope, the part of the fuel combination that will spray from above-mentioned hybrid fuel nozzle is ejected into the cooling holes of above-mentioned combustion chamber.
3. the cooling means of a pulverizing jet in will comprising any one the cooling means of pulverizing jet of the diffusion combustion mode of hybrid fuel jet in the combustion chamber of gas turbine burner of hydrogen or carbon monoxide at least, is characterized in that this pulverizing jet possesses:
By gas turbine is risen the liquid fuel of employing be ejected into the liquid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned combustion chamber and be arranged at this liquid fuel nozzle around, and spray the starting fuel nozzle that the spray air nozzle be used to make the micronized spray air of liquid fuel constitutes;
The hybrid fuel nozzle of above-mentioned fuel combination is set and sprays around this starting fuel nozzle;
Be arranged at this hybrid fuel nozzle and towards the end of above-mentioned combustion chamber one side; Be communicated with above-mentioned combustion chamber one side end of hybrid fuel nozzle, and for keeping flame will be ejected into the air gyroscope of above-mentioned combustion chamber from the compressed-air actuated part of air compressor machine; And
Be arranged on the nozzle face in the face of above-mentioned combustion chamber, between the ejiction opening of the ejiction opening of above-mentioned spray air nozzle and above-mentioned air gyroscope, the part of the fuel combination that will spray from above-mentioned hybrid fuel nozzle is ejected into the cooling holes of above-mentioned combustion chamber.
CN2009101425718A 2005-06-24 2006-06-23 Burner, and burner cooling method CN101614395B (en)

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JP2005184983 2005-06-24
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JP2006168987A JP4728176B2 (en) 2005-06-24 2006-06-19 Burner, gas turbine combustor and burner cooling method
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