CN101612730B - Wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot - Google Patents

Wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101612730B
CN101612730B CN2009100898377A CN200910089837A CN101612730B CN 101612730 B CN101612730 B CN 101612730B CN 2009100898377 A CN2009100898377 A CN 2009100898377A CN 200910089837 A CN200910089837 A CN 200910089837A CN 101612730 B CN101612730 B CN 101612730B
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China
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robot
mobile service
autonomous mobile
type intelligent
wheel type
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CN2009100898377A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101612730A (en
Inventor
孙德华
苏丽颖
余跃庆
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北京工业大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot, which is divided into an upper part and a lower part arranged on a chassis. The robot comprises a control system, a movement mechanism, an embedded single board computer, a holder vidicon and sensors, wherein the movement mechanism is controlled by motor drive and (or) a controller; an industrial personal computer (IPC) is connected with the motor drive and (or) the controller by a serial port; the holder vidicon controls the orientation and the angle thereof by the serial port, provides the ambient environmental information of the robot, and connects the collected information with the embedded computer by an image collection card; the sensors are arranged on the upper part and the lower part of the robot, and are connected to the embedded computer after information processing; and the upper part and the lower part of the robot are in folding connection by an upper connecting plate and a lower connecting plate, and a transverse folding shaft and (or) an extraction and insertion part are arranged between the upper connecting plate and the lower connecting plate. The robot can realize autonomous obstacle avoidance according to the ultrasonic sensors, thereby increasing the capabilities of positioning and navigation and map building in none-artificial environments.

Description

Wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot
Technical field
The present invention relates to the intelligent mobile service robot platform of electromechanical integration and computer technology, particularly a kind of intelligent mobile robot with independence.
Background technology
American-European developed countries such as the U.S., Germany, Britain are being started in 20th century the mid-1970s aspect the service robot product development exploitation, the work standing posture robot of their exploitation and the formula of lift-launch robot are one of the service robots of comparison success that came into the market at that time.Early 1990s, European Union has proposed the TIDE plan, is intended to promote to help technical research to satisfy society and industrial requirements, improves disabled person and the elderly's quality of life, improves the development level in European industry and services market.Enter 21 century, the France academy of sciences and German federal research association propose Bobea, GURP plan respectively, actively promoting the research of service robot. U.S. government concentrates on fighter robot, anti-terrorism robot aspect for the support of service robot, " candy striper " robot that releases is in hospital's extensive use.
In China, Robotics research itself is started late, and the research of intellect service robot and advanced international standard have very big gap.In recent years, along with artificial intelligence technology research extensively and profoundly, China is to the theoretical research of service robot technology just gradually deeply, and is along with the sharp increase of expanding economy and aging population, also increasing for the demand of service robot.For this reason, in June, 2005, Ministry of Science and Technology's new and high technology invites relevant enterprise, expert to hold the seminar of " service robot " development strategy in Beijing with industrialization department with regard to advanced manufacturing of national 863 Program and technical field of automation.Expert group analyzes at domestic demand, considers the technical foundation of China's reality, has proposed the developing goal of service robot the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, and domestic many scientific research institutions take up in this research on the one hand.In April, 2007, Harbin Institute of Technology develops a kind of novel intelligent service robot again after developing intellect service robot " blue and green ", this robot can automatic obstacle avoiding, walking freely, and can with people's simple dialog, belong to the top standard at home.But its scope of activities is very limited, and is far apart from the target of high-intelligentization.
But, along with further developing of computer technology and artificial intelligence technology, the undeniable key areas that becomes robot research of research of the mobile service robot of intelligence, become the focus of research field, research direction mainly comprises machine vision, multi-sensor fusion technology, the navigation of robot and location technology, from owner-machine cooperation, man-machine interaction etc., and these research contents all need an opening and the higher experiment porch of reliability, come these methods and theory be facts have proved, so exploitation is with the high reliability that has of home services and colleges and universities' practicality, open robot experiment porch has very big market potentiality and Research Significance.
The key technology of wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile robot mainly comprises, based on the navigator fix of machine vision and moving body track, interactive voice technology, mobile robot's control technology, the control technology of robot motion mechanism, sensor technology or the like based on robot platform.
Machine vision is the science and technology in a suitable forward position, it also is artificial intelligence study's focus, it also is the sensor that robot obtains a large amount of ambient condition information, data volume is bigger in the machine vision calculating process, real-time is relatively poor, influenced the practical application of machine vision, and much adopted the method for artificial road sign based on the machine vision navigation system of road sign, practicality is also relatively poor.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of method of utilizing the real-time location navigation of machine vision, utilize the real-time topological map that obtains robot place surrounding environment of this method, utilize machine vision that the natural conspicuousness road sign of surrounding environment is discerned when mainly in environment, roaming by robot, make up topological node, form the topological map of environment.
The present invention adopts following technological means to realize:
A kind of wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot is divided into top and the bottom that is arranged on the chassis, comprising: control system, motion, embedded board computer, monopod video camera and sensor; Motion is controlled by motor-driven and/or controller; Industrial computer connects motor-driven and/or controller by serial ports; Monopod video camera by the orientation and the angle of serial ports control monopod video camera, provides robot environmental information on every side, and the information of its collection is connected to the embedded board computer by image pick-up card; Sensor is arranged on the top and the bottom of robot, by being connected to embedded computer after the information processing; Robot upper part folds with lower connecting plate by upper junction plate with the bottom and is connected, and is provided with laterally folded axle and/or pulls and pushes between last lower connecting plate;
Aforesaid sensor is distributed as five of bottoms and constitutes semicircle, above two side by side.
Aforesaid sensor is distributed on five prisms dividing 180 ° equally, occupies 36 ° scope separately.
The left and right sides, aforesaid chassis is equipped with the DC brush servomotor of photoelectric encoder, decelerator, and a universal supporting roller respectively is installed on the perpendicular bisector of driving wheel axis.
The present invention compared with prior art has following remarkable advantages and beneficial effect:
Robot of the present invention can realize automatic obstacle avoiding according to sonac, in environment, roam, simultaneously by The Cloud Terrace camera record ambient condition information, the topological map of constructing environment, also can realize the identification and the tracking of specific objective, in addition, this robot has the good man-machine interaction sexual function, can carry out voice control by the self-contained Mike of robot, and briefly talk with and self-introduction etc.Improved the location navigation in some inartificial environment and the ability of map structuring, made the scope of activities of robot that more broad outdoor of indoor trend be arranged, this also provides theoretical foundation and certain methods for the robot better service in the mankind.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot overall appearance figure of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the fold mechanism of wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the control system schematic block diagram of wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot of the present invention.
The specific embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot ROBUT-I belongs to generic service humanoid robot experiment porch, main robotic ultrasound sensor is made of two parts up and down, the bottom constitutes semicircular ring (parts 7 among the figure) by 5 sonacs, can realize the obstacle detection in the 180 ° of scopes in the place ahead, because home services robot itself is higher, so might run into the aerial barrage thing, so in robot upper part two sonacs arranged side by side (parts 6 among the figure) have been installed also, have been realized the judgement of high-altitude barrier and hide.
Another characteristics of this robot are that robot adopts fold mechanism, as shown in Figure 2, can fold easily in this robot transport and the storage like this, help carrying and storage; The motion of this robot is made of two driving wheels and two universal driven pulleys, driving wheel is by the motor-driven of integrated decelerator and encoder, in order to guarantee that robot still can keep earth-grasping force preferably by hogwallow the time, designed suspension, can remain the adherence properties of driving wheel like this, the type of drive of robot adopts the differential driving of two-wheeled, driving wheel is the parts 2 among Fig. 1, forward-reverse that can be random, change direction rapidly, also can be around self barycenter with the no-radius rotation, so just can come in and go out freely in narrow place, the profile of robot mainly is a service robot as shown in Figure 1, and the structure on chassis is well suited for service robot, center of gravity is lower, operation is got up more steady, and hand grasps thing and can entire machine people's center of gravity do not had much impact, and more helps the stability of robot.In addition, the ROBOT CONTROL system adopts distributed frame, the sensing data of robot is handled, servo motion control is all by independently DSP parallel processing separately, help strengthening the real-time of robot like this, so that the complex situations of surrounding environment are made reaction fast, strengthen the security of robot.
The latter half of robot adopts wheeled mobile platform, the first half adopts class humanoid, can give full play to the property easy to control and the strong characteristics of humanoid structure operation ability of wheeled construction like this, also meet the purpose that service robot is served the people, might be stopped (such as four very big leg desks) by half high barrier in order to solve robot, the sonac of possible bottom is surveyed less than table leg, robot might pass by below desk like this, like this, will cause danger, take place for fear of this situation, we have carried out special design to the layout of robot sensor, be close to the net that has formed a space, two sensors that top is arranged can be with solving above-mentioned situation, the sensor of bottom is distributed in five independently on the iron plate, and it is 36 ° that these five iron plates are divided into each angle of five parts with 180 ° angle, shown in Fig. 1 parts 7.
As shown in Figure 2, be illustrated as the fold mechanism of wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot ROBUT-I, wherein lower connecting plate 8 is used for being connected with the chassis, and upper junction plate 11 is used for being connected above the waist with robot, folding principle is mainly to realize that by pull and push (parts 9 among Fig. 2) of folding shaft the activity of movable part (Fig. 2 parts 10) is with fixing, the design combines rotating shaft and steady pin and has realized rotating shaft, is the function that rotating shaft has rotating shaft and steady pin.So not only simplify the structure, and use more convenient.
Figure 3 shows that wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot of the present invention comprises: motion, sensing system, voice system, power-supply system, vision system, monitoring system etc.Being achieved as follows of concrete electronic system:
Power supply: ROBUT-I provides the power supply of electric power to be connected by the lead accumulator of two 12V and provides, its capacity is 12Ah, substantially can guarantee, the voltage of drive motors is between 12~36V, the operating voltage of the ancillary equipment of robot (display, sonac, monopod video camera) is 12V and 5V, provides by after two battery changing voltages.
Embedded board computer: the chipset, the processor of T6500 and the internal memory of 1G that adopt intel965GM, performance is high and low in energy consumption, this industrial computer is furnished with the data/address bus of two PCI-Express, PC104+, and this industrial computer connects the parameters such as luffing angle, the anglec of rotation and autozoom of sensing system, motor-driven/controller and control monopod video camera by serial ports.
DC motor-driven/controller: electric machine control system is made up of a motion control card and two servo-drivers.Host computer send by the RS-422 serial ports advance, retreat, instruction such as rotation is to motion control card, the servo-driver of motion control card control then demodulation pulse-width signal, the velocity of rotation and the direction of control motor.Thereby actuation movement mechanism realizes exercises, guarantees finishing of robot task.
The Cloud Terrace camera and image pick-up card: the environmental information of The Cloud Terrace camera collection is returned to host computer by image pick-up card, utilize host computer powerful data processing and calculation function to come image data processing, strengthen the real-time of robot reaction, and can finish comparatively complicated algorithm such as identification.
The sensing system of sonac and DSP information processing: ROBUT-I is by five ultrasonic rings (parts 7 among Fig. 1) of bottom and common space networks, monopod video camera, photoelectric encoder, the gyroscope that constitutes of top two sonacs (parts 6 among Fig. 1) side by side.Accelerometer constitutes.Sonac is mainly finished the obstacle detection in 180 ° in the place ahead, ROBUT-I chassis and dead ahead, space, thereby the assurance robot can not knock some barriers and damage, monopod video camera is mainly finished the extraction of visual information, can in 360 ° scope, rotate freely and functions such as automatic focus, can finish active vision location, navigation and moving target such as follow at task.
DC motor-driven/controller: the motor-driven of robot adopts and constitutes based on the motion control card of ARM structure and two servo-drivers, integrated gyroscope and accelerometer on motion control card, be mainly used in the control of obtaining and turn to precision of robot pose, and integrated photoelectric encoder on the motor, it is mainly used to the distance that robot measurement relatively moves, and its information is mainly used to make up map and in the reckoning of finishing of robot navigation's location.
Man machine language's interactive module: in order to strengthen the man-machine interaction performance of robot, we have also developed man machine language's interactive module, be connected to microphone at the veneer inserted computer, be mainly used in the reception of voice command and information, action such as can control the robot forward-reverse or rotate to an angle can also realize the functions such as self-introduction of carrying out brief greeting between man-machine or realizing robot.
Location and navigation module based on natural landmark: the topological map that this robot can utilize natural landmark to carry out navigator fix and environment makes up, make full use of the characteristics that vision sensor contains much information, this also is the development trend of localization for Mobile Robot and navigation, this system no longer utilizes artificial target, therefore can move and the finishing of task at complicated more and inartificial environment, and can make up the topological map of the environment of passing by, and can utilize the functions such as location navigation of planning of map realizing route and robot.
Wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot overall performance index:
Outward appearance: the latter half is a motion platform, and the first half is a humanoid robot, as shown in Figure 1.
Motion platform parameter: wide: 40cm, long: 70cm, height: 120cm is heavy: 35kg, load: 20kg.
Maximum linear speed: 1m/s, maximum angular rate: 3rad/s, no-radius rotation.
Motor: DC brush servomotor.
Wheel train structure: two main drive wheels, two theory of even development quadrature arrangement (parts 1 and 2 among Fig. 1, wherein 2 is driving wheel, 1 is the servo-actuated universal wheel).
Sensing system: semicircular ring and two space array of forming side by side (parts 6 and 7 among Fig. 1 of constituting by five sonacs, wherein parts 6 are two sonacs side by side, parts 7 are the ultrasonic semicircular ring that five sensors constitute), the effective barrier in 180 ° of scopes in the place ahead, sniffing robot chassis and dead ahead, space, and independently dsp processor is arranged, can alleviate the burden that the host computer data are handled, and can realize the real-time processing of sensing data and move corresponding; Motion control card is integrated gyroscope and accelerometer can effectively guarantee the motion state of robot and the accuracy of the anglec of rotation, guarantees that robot can advance according to the path of planning.
Vehicle-mounted main control computer: embedded board computer, core2 T6500 processor, 1G RAM, PC104+ bus, RS485/422/232 serial ports built-in industrial control machine.
Control system: the core of control system is the embedded board computer, is coordinated and is merged each independently modular system by the embedded board computer; Modular system mainly comprises: sensing system, kinetic control system and vision system etc., each system carries out real-time Communication for Power by serial ports and embedded board computer.Merge each information and then finish last decision-making by the embedded board computer.
Conspicuousness natural landmark navigation system: conspicuousness natural landmark navigation system can realize robot autonomously roaming in location circumstances, extract significant natural landmark demarcation node in the environment, make up the topological map of location circumstances, and can realize navigation and path planning in the environment according to topological map.
The interactive voice module: the developer can realize the voice control of robot and can finish brief dialogue between the man-robot that in addition, some brief self-introductions can be done by robot by the self-contained microphone of robot on one's body.
Mobile robot's manipulation can realize by the phonetic order of assigning, sensing system adopts sonac, monopod video camera and photoelectric encoder to constitute jointly, and can be in circumstances not known realize the structure of environment topological map and based on the navigator fix and the path planning of map by vision sensor, this robot has good man-machine interaction's function, can briefly talk with the people and introduce myself.

Claims (4)

1. a wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot is divided into top and the bottom that is arranged on the chassis, comprising: control system, motion, industrial computer, monopod video camera and sensor; It is characterized in that:
Described motion is controlled by motor-driven and/or controller;
Embedded computer connects motor-driven and/or controller by serial ports;
Described monopod video camera by the orientation and the angle of serial ports control monopod video camera, provides robot environmental information on every side, and the information of its collection is connected to embedded computer by image pick-up card;
Described sensor is arranged on the top and the bottom of robot, by being connected to embedded computer after the information processing;
Described robot upper part folds with lower connecting plate by upper junction plate with the bottom and is connected, and is provided with laterally folded axle and pulls and pushes between last lower connecting plate.
2. wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot according to claim 1 is characterized in that: sensor is distributed as five of bottoms and constitutes semicircle, and two sensors of robot upper part side by side.
3. wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the sensor of robot bottom is distributed on five prisms dividing 180 ° equally, occupies 36 ° scope separately.
4. wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the left and right sides, chassis is equipped with the DC brush servomotor of photoelectric encoder, decelerator, and a universal supporting roller respectively is installed on the perpendicular bisector of driving wheel axis.
CN2009100898377A 2009-07-24 2009-07-24 Wheel type intelligent autonomous mobile service robot CN101612730B (en)

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