CN101607299B - Vacuum expendable pattern casting (V-EPC) molding method of large complex castings - Google Patents

Vacuum expendable pattern casting (V-EPC) molding method of large complex castings Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101607299B
CN101607299B CN2009100748933A CN200910074893A CN101607299B CN 101607299 B CN101607299 B CN 101607299B CN 2009100748933 A CN2009100748933 A CN 2009100748933A CN 200910074893 A CN200910074893 A CN 200910074893A CN 101607299 B CN101607299 B CN 101607299B
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sandbox
sand
thick stick
vacuum
molding
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CN101607299A (en
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韩素喜
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Botou Qingfeng Machinery Co Ltd
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Botou Qingfeng Machinery Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a vacuum expendable pattern casting (V-EPC) molding method of large complex castings. A flask for molding comprises three parts including flask bottom, a flask body and an up draught pneumatic hoist press bar; each part is provided with an independent vacuum air duct. The molding procedures comprise the following steps: filling sand and carrying out vibrating molding on the bottom of the expendable pattern, turning over the flask, removing a supporting plate and a tire plate rack and placing the up draught pneumatic hoist press bar, filling the sand, exerting pressure for vibrating molding, sealing the flask and carrying out pouring after vacuumizing. The parts with blind holes and grooves are filled with resin sand and core irons and a floating crane is employed to fix the core irons; local compaction is carried out on loose parts. Being adopted, the method of the invention ensures compact and uniform molding sand, solves the difficult problems frequently appearing in the process of V-EPC of large castings, including sand crushing, sand drop, sand inclusion and deformation, can ensure the accuracy of the blind holes, deep grooves and entire castings, can enable the pattern to be almost free from floating and deformation in the process of vibration and can produce high quality large complex castings.

Description

The founding casing with vacuum formative method of large complicated foundry goods
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of casting method, especially relate to a kind of formative method that utilizes the large complicated foundry goods of founding casing with vacuum.
Background technology
The founding casing with vacuum technology is the novel foundry engieering that grows up in recent decades.The technical process of founding casing with vacuum comprises foam-formed-composition model bundle-swabbing-dry-bury casting (foam type vaporization)-casting solidification cooling-sand removal under case, vibrations moulding-vacuumize-negative pressure.Founding casing with vacuum belongs to cavityless casting, and the general employing of its model is foam-formed, and the shape of model is identical with the shape of foundry goods.After model assembling preliminary treatment is finished, place it in above the sand in the sandbox, in case, insert dry molding sand then, after sand fills up sandbox, adopt vibrations machinery sand jolt ramming, and make sand be filled into each corner of model, above sandbox, cover sealing film then sandbox vacuumized, vacuumize the back sand just and model fit together, mobile, form fixing sand mold, can pour into a mould this moment by the running channel on the model.The molten metal of high temperature melts model in the casting process, and the space that molten metal occupies model forms foundry goods, and model becomes gas or flue dust is taken away by vacuum system.Take out the overall process that the casting cleaning dead head is promptly finished casting behind the cooling forming.Founding casing with vacuum is as a kind of emerging advanced person's foundry engieering, be particularly suitable for single and mini-batch production production, it has saved the expense of making wooden model, metal pattern, reduced the production cycle of die cost and mould, polluting advantages such as little, that production efficiency is high, cost is low, cast(ing) surface and inherent quality are good even also have when producing in enormous quantities, is the development trend of foundry engieering.But founding casing with vacuum generally can only be used for middle-size and small-size foundry goods at present, this is the low-cost material that can vaporize rapidly in the time of need using high temperature owing to model, its proportion is generally all smaller, as the proportion of bubbles model proportion much smaller than sand, when the vibrations moulding, therefore model can produce unsteady, causes casting deformation or influences the final size precision of foundry goods.These are still not obvious to small-sized foundry goods, but concerning heavy castings, the unsteady of model is certain to cause that very big dimensional discrepancy, distortion appear in foundry goods, causes waste product.In addition, the general more complicated of the structure of heavy castings, even Fu Za foundry goods not too, the packed density of the sand at model limit, place, angle and the density of model center are also inequality, especially the sand of sandbox inner model bottom surface, side is difficult to tamp, this will inevitably influence casting quality, can not produce finished product concerning heavy castings even at all.Therefore present founding casing with vacuum production line all is to be used to produce the hundreds of kilogram with interior middle-size and small-size foundry goods, and their sandbox, model are all smaller, can be relatively easy to jolt ramming or tamps.Sandbox does not need upset when producing middle-size and small-size foundry goods simultaneously, just can tamp substantially, so its sandbox all is the open cubic staving sandbox in upper end, the sidewall of sandbox and the end of sandbox are one, the inside or the inside at the bottom of the sandbox of sandbox wall are provided with the airway that vacuumizes, and a connector that vacuumizes is set on the outer wall of sandbox gets final product.When the sandbox of this spline structure is used for the casting large-scale foundry goods, because there is the vacuum gradient in sand inside when vacuumizing, promptly near the vacuum bleeding point is bigger, and it is less away from the vacuum of bleeding point position, make the sand can not moulding, particularly behind casting of molten metal, the gas in the die cavity after a large amount of disappearance mould vaporization can not in time be taken away, the crush problem can occur, can not cast finished product cast.The problem that occurs crush at vacuum inadequately, Chinese patent ZL97250350.1 once disclosed a kind of top-pulling type lost foam casting sandbox, it has a sandbox casing, at the top of sandbox casing independently aspirating chamber is installed, so just can the sand at sandbox model top be vacuumized, guaranteed the vacuum of sandbox the first half.But take the casting sandbox of this structure, also be applicable to small-sized foundry goods only the time, for heavy castings, mould as the punching press car body, their moulding complexity, many blind holes, groove are arranged, and its weight often reaches several tons, tens tons even 20 tons, still is far from being enough so only take this a kind of measure.
Summary of the invention
The technical issues that need to address of the present invention provide a kind of formative method that is applicable to the founding casing with vacuum of large complicated foundry goods.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
A kind of founding casing with vacuum formative method of large complicated foundry goods, comprise operation such as bury case, vibration molding, vacuumize, the sandbox that moulding is used adopts the sandbox of false bottom detachable cap, at the bottom of comprising sandbox, the sandbox body, on bleed to hang and press thick stick three parts, at the bottom of the case, the sandbox body, on bleed to hang and press thick stick three parts to be provided with the airway that independently vacuumizes, its moulding operation also comprises the steps
A, on the supporting plate of horizontal, place tire grillage and disappearance mould model, sandbox, the tire grillage is placed on and is used to support disappearance mould model above the supporting plate, be that end face with the real mould of disappearance mould is placed on the tire grillage in the sandbox down generally speaking, carry out pouring and riser systems, on model, have blind hole, groove position to place core iron and fill with resin sand; Sandbox can place simultaneously with disappearance mould model, also can earlier disappearance mould model be placed, and places core iron at blind hole, groove position potting resin sand then, sandbox is placed on is enclosed within disappearance mould outside on the supporting plate again; Go up shake table then and add molding sand jolt ramming, wipe the part that molding sand surpasses plane on the case after the jolt ramming off;
At the bottom of B, the cope, to spin upside down together with supporting plate at the bottom of sandbox body, the sandbox, supporting plate is being descended at the bottom of cope, remove supporting plate and tire grillage, hang the pressure thick stick placing on the sandbox to bleed, fill up sandbox and make molding sand exceed the sandbox certain height with molding sand, weighting material pressurization and vibration moulding on molding sand;
C, be incumbent on to bleed with sealing film and hang that to press thick stick be above the sandbox, and with the junction of sandbox body and base plate and the sealing of whole sandbox, with at the bottom of sandbox body, the sandbox with on bleed to hang and press thick stick to be connected with pumped vacuum systems respectively, be evacuated down to the vacuum of needs, can pour into a mould.
Further improvement of the present invention is: among the described step B, before back-up sand, on the top of disappearance mould model, have the position potting resin sand of blind hole, groove, and at the inner core iron of placing of the resin sand of groove, on core iron, connect crane barge, after treating resin sand sclerosis, crane barge is fixed on to bleed to hang presses on the thick stick, insert molding sand pressurization jolt ramming again.
Further improvement in the technical proposal of the present invention is: the core iron leftover bits and pieces of steel stamping part, crane barge iron wire.
The further concrete structure of sandbox of the present invention is: described sandbox is the separate assembling sandbox of false bottom detachable cap, sandbox is by the sandbox body, moulding plate and on bleed to hang and press thick stick to form, the sandbox body is cubic tube structure, be provided with below the sandbox body at the bottom of the sandbox that flexibly connects with the sandbox body and work in coordination, bleed on above the sandbox body being and hang the pressure thick stick, the sandbox body, moulding plate and on bleed to hang and press the inside of thick stick to be provided with airway, on bleed to hang and press thick stick to form by the square thick stick of the hollow that is provided with in length and breadth, airway for interconnecting in side's thick stick, the sandbox body comprises the sandbox side plate and is arranged on the airway in the side plate outside, comprise base plate at the bottom of the sandbox and be arranged on airway below the base plate, the sandbox body, on bleed and hang the pressure thick stick, all independently be provided with the exhaust tube that is communicated with airway and vacuum system at the bottom of the sandbox, at the sandbox body, moulding plate and on bleed to hang and press the inner wall even distribution of thick stick that the aspirating hole that is communicated with airway is arranged, the stainless steel wire sand control screens is set on the aspirating hole.
The further concrete structure of sandbox of the present invention is: the distance between the described airway arrives 1.2m at 1m.Aspirating hole is communicated with on bleeding.
Further improvement of the present invention is: among the step B, after the upset sandbox removes supporting plate and tire grillage, adopt special-purpose small-sized vibrations instrument to carry out local jolt ramming again to loose position.
Owing to adopted technique scheme, the obtained technological progress of the present invention is:
Utilize vacuum expendable pattern model type method of the present invention, can produce heavy castings, solved the difficult problem that founding casing with vacuum can only be produced small-sized foundry goods.The inventor is through 3 years storm strongholds in defiance of difficulties, and the weight that casts out of success reaches automobile diel blank more than 15 tons.And good product quality meets the specification requirement of mfg. moulding die fully.
Utilize the vacuum expendable pattern mould to produce heavy castings and exist three difficult problems, the one, molding sand (being dry sand) is filled unreal, and the back-up sand amount at some position is too little; The 2nd, the vacuum at some position is not enough, causes the molding sand leakiness, and the cast back because vacuum reduces crush or burning into sand takes place easily; The 3rd, foundry goods is easy to generate distortion, produces waste product.The present invention passes through to use the combined type sandbox, and takes mould turnover, vibration molding, has solved the uneven problem of back-up sand amount, simultaneously, adopts the indemnifying measure of local vibration, with the whole jolt rammings of sand mold, has solved crush, drop problem.Self-hardening sand (resin sand) compensation moulding is adopted at the position of corresponding blind hole, groove, having solved the fusing of disappearance mould, the vacuum reduction owing to full mold when cast of blind hole, groove position drops the sand mold of the projection of blind hole, groove correspondence, form burning into sand, can not moulding etc. defective.Employing is the pressurization and vibration moulding on molding sand, has solved the problem of model come-up, distortion in the vibrations process, and it is unsteady that model is produced hardly, and distortion also can be controlled in allowed limits.
Sandbox of the present invention adopts false bottom detachable cap separate assembling sandbox, be convenient to the mould turnover filling moulding, the sandbox body of sandbox, moulding plate and on bleed to hang and press the inside of thick stick to be provided with airway and exhaust tube, and sandbox body, moulding plate and on bleed and hang a plurality of aspirating holes of inner wall even distribution of pressing thick stick, can in sandbox, form balanced negative pressure, make the vacuum at each position of sandbox keep uniformity.Confirm through overtesting, in the casting vacuum equipment to the scope that vacuumizes of sand only near the aspirating hole of sandbox inwall about 500mm to the scope of 700mm, so the distance between the aspirating hole is preferably in 1m between the 1.2m, can guarantee that just the vacuum at each position of sandbox keeps uniformity.The stainless steel wire sand control screens that is provided with on the bleeding point can prevent that not only sand from entering airway and form stopping up, and influences the normal operation of vacuum equipment, and the stainless steel wire sand control screens is bigger than the intensity of copper mesh, iron net, the life-span is long.
Before the moulding back-up sand, fill with self-hardening resin sand at the position that has dark groove or blind hole at the disappearance model, and place the core iron make crane barge, and can prevent that the core pattern of casting process further groove or blind hole from drifting about, float or sink, avoid blind hole, groove location deviation to occur; On bleed to hang and press thick stick also can push down and hold core patterns all on the whole model, they are not moved.The core iron leftover bits and pieces of steel stamping part, the crane barge iron wire has been saved the moulding cost.After vibration on the shake table is finished, because casing is bigger, also can exist local edge angular position molding sand to fill unreal situation, adopt special-purpose small-sized vibrations instrument to carry out local jolt ramming again to filling falsity, make the packing unanimity of each position molding sand in the whole box body, can not occur the sand mold mobile situation of being scattered during cast.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of sandbox of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the vertical view of Fig. 1.
Wherein: 1. airway, bleed on 2. and hang the pressure thick stick, 3. go up exhaust tube, 4. side airway, 5. side plate, 6. side exhaust tube, 7. end exhaust tube, 8. end airway, 9. base plate, 10. sand control screens.
The specific embodiment
Below the present invention is described in further details:
When producing a kind of base of punching press model, its foundry goods appearance and size is 1m * 2m * 6m, and weight is 15 tons, and a plurality of grooves are arranged above the base, forms dowel between the groove.When adopting founding casing with vacuum, be prefabricated into the real mould consistent with foam with base, real mould generally is that designing unit makes moulding, reach Foundry Works after, swabbing and oven dry on the full mold mould earlier carried out twice altogether; Bury case, vibration molding then, vacuumize after moulding is finished, can pour into a mould.
Wherein the sandbox used of moulding adopts the combined type sandbox of false bottom detachable cap, at the bottom of sandbox comprises sandbox, the sandbox body, on bleed to hang and press thick stick three parts, be arranged at the bottom of the sandbox below the sandbox body, flexibly connect with the sandbox body and work in coordination, at the bottom of the sandbox with around the sandbox body connecting bolt that is connected usefulness is set.Bleed on above the sandbox body being to hang and press thick stick 2.At the bottom of the sandbox, the sandbox body, on bleed to hang to press on the thick stick 2 and be provided with the airway that independently vacuumizes, the appearance and size of sandbox is 1.6m * 2.5m * 8m.The sandbox body is cubic tube structure, and the sandbox body comprises sandbox side plate 5 and is arranged on the side airway 4 in side plate 5 outsides, is communicated with side exhaust tube 6 on the side airway 4; On bleed to hang and press thick stick to form by the square thick stick of the hollow that is provided with in length and breadth, be the airway 1 that interconnects in the square thick stick, be communicated with exhaust tube 3 on the airway 1; Comprise base plate 9 at the bottom of the sandbox and be arranged on end airway 8 below the base plate, be communicated with end exhaust tube 7 on the end airway 8.At the bottom of the sandbox, the sandbox body, on the distance of hanging between each airway of pressing on the thick stick of bleeding be 1m, sandbox body, moulding plate and on bleed to hang and press the inner wall even distribution of thick stick that aspirating hole is arranged, aspirating hole is communicated with on respectively bleeding, distance between each aspirating hole is 1m, and stainless steel wire sand control screens 10 is set on the aspirating hole.
Utilize the operation of this box moulding to comprise the steps:
1, place a supporting plate on working face, put a tire grillage above the supporting plate, tire grillage height is 200mm, and the end face of the real mould of disappearance mould handled well is placed on the tire grillage down, carries out pouring and riser systems.
2, on the disappearance mould, have blind hole and dark groove position potting resin sand, and put core iron well.
3, sandbox is placed on above the supporting plate, and it is suitably fastening, gradation is inserted molding sand and repeatedly add sand jolt ramming on shake table in sandbox, the amount of inserting of molding sand will exceed sandbox 50mm, the part that molding sand surpasses plane on the sandbox is struck off in jolt ramming later, on sandbox, place at the bottom of the sandbox fastening good bolt then.
4, will spin upside down together with supporting plate at the bottom of sandbox body, the sandbox, make supporting plate at the bottom of cope down, be placed on the shake table, and remove supporting plate and tire grillage.
5, on the top of model, have the position potting resin sand of groove, form the cover layer of a resin sand, and, on core iron, connecting iron wire at the inner core iron of making by the leftover bits and pieces of punching press steel plate of placing of the resin sand of groove, resin sand can harden voluntarily after a period of time.
6, after the resin sand sclerosis, press thick stick to be placed on the sandbox hanging, with and with bolt that both are fastening good, will be fixed on as the iron wire binding of crane barge to bleed and hang on the pressure thick stick.
7, the molding sand to the loose position in the sandbox carries out local jolt ramming with special-purpose small-sized vibrations instrument.
8, fill up sandbox with molding sand and make molding sand exceed the about 200mm of sandbox, and hang placement supporting plate and weight on the sand of pressing above the thick stick, pressurization and vibration moulding on shake table last bleeding.
9, be incumbent on to bleed with sealing film and hang that to press thick stick be above the sandbox, and the junction and the whole sandbox of sandbox body and base plate sealed.
10, with at the bottom of sandbox body, the sandbox with on bleed to hang and press thick stick to be connected with pumped vacuum systems respectively, be evacuated down to the vacuum of needs, can pour into a mould.

Claims (4)

1. the founding casing with vacuum formative method of a large complicated foundry goods, comprise and bury case, vibration molding, vacuumize operation, it is characterized in that: at the bottom of the sandbox of moulding adopts and comprises the sandbox that is used in combination, the sandbox body, on bleed and hang the sandbox of pressing thick stick three parts and each several part to be provided with the airway that independently vacuumizes, its moulding operation also comprises the steps
A, on the supporting plate of horizontal, place tire grillage and disappearance mould model, sandbox body,, go up shake table then and add molding sand jolt ramming, wipe the part of molding sand after the jolt ramming off above plane on the case having blind hole, groove position to place core iron and fill with resin sand,
B, at the bottom of the cope, with the sandbox body, spin upside down together with supporting plate at the bottom of the sandbox, supporting plate is being descended at the bottom of cope, remove supporting plate and tire grillage, on the top of disappearance mould model and have blind hole, the position potting resin sand of groove, and at the inner core iron of placing of the resin sand of groove, on this core iron, connect crane barge, hang the pressure thick stick placing on the sandbox to bleed, crane barge is fixed on bleeds hangs and presses on the thick stick, adopt special-purpose small-sized vibrations instrument to carry out local jolt ramming again to loose position, fill up sandbox and make molding sand exceed the sandbox certain height, weighting material pressurization and vibration moulding on molding sand with molding sand;
C, be incumbent on to bleed with sealing film and hang that to press thick stick be above the sandbox, and with junction at the bottom of sandbox body and the sandbox and the sealing of whole sandbox, with at the bottom of sandbox body, the sandbox with on bleed to hang and press thick stick to be connected with pumped vacuum systems respectively, be evacuated down to the vacuum of needs, can pour into a mould.
2. the founding casing with vacuum formative method of large complicated foundry goods according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the described core iron leftover bits and pieces of steel stamping part, crane barge iron wire.
3. the founding casing with vacuum formative method of large complicated foundry goods according to claim 1, the structure that it is characterized in that described sandbox is: the sandbox body is cubic tube structure, be provided with below the sandbox body at the bottom of the sandbox that flexibly connects with the sandbox body and work in coordination, bleed on above the sandbox body being and hang the pressure thick stick, on bleed to hang and press thick stick to form by the square thick stick of the hollow that is provided with in length and breadth, airway for interconnecting in side's thick stick, the sandbox body comprises the sandbox side plate and is arranged on the airway in the side plate outside, comprise base plate at the bottom of the sandbox and be arranged on airway below the base plate, the sandbox body, on bleed and hang the pressure thick stick, all independently be provided with the exhaust tube that is communicated with airway and vacuum system at the bottom of the sandbox, at the sandbox body, base plate at the bottom of the sandbox and on bleed to hang and press the inner wall even distribution of thick stick that the aspirating hole that is communicated with airway is arranged, the stainless steel wire sand control screens is set on the aspirating hole.
4. the founding casing with vacuum formative method of large complicated foundry goods according to claim 3 is characterized in that: the distance between the described airway at 1m to 1.2m.
CN2009100748933A 2009-07-17 2009-07-17 Vacuum expendable pattern casting (V-EPC) molding method of large complex castings Active CN101607299B (en)

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