CN101604717B - Vertical GaN-based LED chip and manufacture method thereof - Google Patents

Vertical GaN-based LED chip and manufacture method thereof Download PDF

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CN101604717B
CN101604717B CN 200910016824 CN200910016824A CN101604717B CN 101604717 B CN101604717 B CN 101604717B CN 200910016824 CN200910016824 CN 200910016824 CN 200910016824 A CN200910016824 A CN 200910016824A CN 101604717 B CN101604717 B CN 101604717B
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substrate
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CN101604717A (en
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任忠祥
夏伟
徐现刚
李树强
沈燕
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山东华光光电子有限公司
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Abstract

The invention provides a vertical GaN-based LED chip and a manufacture method thereof. The chip comprises a substrate, N type GaN, a quantum well active layer, P type GaN, a current expansion layer, a metal mirror and a conductive substrate; a P electrode is manufactured on the conductive substrate; a window directly toward a N type GaN layer is arranged on the substrate; a layer of metal is evaporated at each side in the window; a N electrode is led out from the metal layer. The manufacture method comprises the following steps: epitaxially growing the N type GaN, the quantum well active layer, the P type GaN and the current expansion layer on a sapphire or 6H-SiC transparent substrate from bottom to top in sequence according to the conventional method; the metal mirror is manufactured onthe current expansion layer; the conductive substrate is welded on the metal mirror; the window directly toward the N type GaN layer is processed; the metal layer is evaporated at each side in the window and the N electrode is led out from the metal layer. The invention reduces the influence of instable factors in the technological process. The GaN-based LED chip is high in utilization ratio of effective light-emitting area, good in current expansion and good in heat dissipation of tube cores.

Description

一种垂直GaN基LED芯片及其制作方法 A vertical GaN-based LED chip and its manufacturing method

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种GaN基发光二极管(LED)芯片及其制备方法,属于光电子器件技术领域。 [0001] The present invention relates to a GaN-based light emitting diode (LED) chip and a preparation method, belonging to the technical field optoelectronic devices.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 蓝宝石衬底具有生产技术成熟、器件质量好、稳定性高、能够耐高温生长过程、机械强度高、易于处理和清洗等优点,成为生长GaN基LED外延层衬底中使用最广泛的衬底。 [0002] sapphire substrate having a production technology is mature, good device quality, high stability, high temperature growth process is possible, high mechanical strength, ease of handling and cleaning, etc., to become a GaN based LED epitaxial layer in the substrate most widely used substrate. 但蓝宝石衬底存在晶格失配和热应力失配使外延层产生大量缺陷,同时蓝宝石是一种绝缘体,常温下的电阻率大于10"Ω · cm,无法制作导电电极,如图1所示,不得不在外延层上表面制作η型和ρ型电极,因而不能得到垂直结构的LED芯片。 However, the presence of the sapphire substrate lattice mismatch and thermal mismatch stress epitaxial layer to produce a large number of defects, and sapphire is an insulator, the resistivity at room temperature greater than 10 "Ω · cm, the conductive electrodes can not be produced, shown in Figure 1 , had produced on the epitaxial layer surface type and η ρ-type electrode can not be obtained in the vertical structure LED chip.

[0003] 这种表面两个电极的LED,有效发光面积减少,芯片中电流流动及电流扩展不好, 内量子效率低,器件散热也不好,这些因素制约这种表面两个电极LED结构的功率和亮度的提升,同时蓝宝石衬底的热导率低,这种结构不利于大功率LED工作。 [0003] surfaces of the two electrodes of this LED, the effective emission area is reduced, the current flowing in a chip and the current spreading is not good, the internal quantum efficiency is low, the heat dissipation device is not good, these two factors such surface electrode LED structure boosting power and brightness, while the low thermal conductivity of the sapphire substrate, this structure is not conducive to high power LED work.

[0004] 半导体照明具有节能、安全、绿色环保、长寿命、色彩丰富、微型化和数字化等显著优点,称为第四代绿色光源。 [0004] Lighting significant advantages of energy saving, safety, environmental protection, long life, colorful, miniaturization and digitization, called the fourth generation light green. 各国纷纷启动了半导体照明计划,我国863高科技计划也提出了发展半导体照明的计划。 Countries have launched a semiconductor lighting plan, China's 863 high-tech plan also proposes the development of semiconductor lighting plan. 半导体照明实现产业化技术为利用GaN基的蓝光LED激发YAG 荧光粉获得白光LED。 Industrialization semiconductor lighting technology using a blue GaN based LED excitation YAG phosphor obtained white LED. 提高蓝光LED的功率以加快半导体照明产业化,成了目前光电领域的重要课题。 Increase power to speed up the blue LED semiconductor lighting industry, the photovoltaic sector has become an important issue at present.

[0005] 为了改进传统GaN基LED结构自身缺陷,使其适合大功率工作用于照明领域,出现了倒装结构和垂直结构的LED芯片。 [0005] To improve conventional GaN-based LED structure itself defects, making it suitable for high power operation for lighting, and the structure appeared flip vertical structure LED chip. 如图2所示,倒装结构GaN基LED芯片采用金属球链接η电极,在电流扩展方面相对传统结构有很大提升,但仍存在芯片有效发光面积小和散热不良的问题;如图3所示,垂直结构GaN基LED芯片的结构自下而上包括P电极、导电Si 或铜衬底、N型GaN、量子阱有源层、P型GaN和电流扩展层;工艺是通过激光把蓝宝石衬底剥离掉并用焊料键合到导电衬底上,其电流扩展、发光面积利用、散热问题均得到改善,目前照明用功率蓝光芯片多为垂直结构芯片,但垂直结构芯片需要通过激光剥离去除蓝宝石衬底,这一过程对外延层晶体质量和pn结完整性有一定程度损伤,使得芯片良好率和一致性不高。 As shown, the structure of the GaN-based LED flip chip ball link η second metal electrodes, the current spreading in terms of a relatively conventional structure has improved, there is still a small chip area and effective light emission failure problem of heat; Figure 3 shown, the bottom-up structure of the vertical structure GaN-based LED chip includes a P electrode, a conductive copper substrate, or Si, N-type GaN, the quantum well active layer, and a P-type GaN current spreading layer; process the sapphire substrate by laser bottom peeled off and solder bonded to the conductive substrate, which the current spreading, the light emitting area by using the heat dissipation problem are improved, the current lighting power blue chips mostly vertical structure chip, but the vertical structure chip requires release removing sapphire substrate by laser the end of this process a certain degree of damage to the crystal quality of the epitaxial layer and a pn junction integrity, such that the chip rate and good low consistency.

[0006] 针对采用垂直结构的激光剥离蓝宝石衬底带来的不良效果,中国专利文献CN101017876公开了《一种氮化镓发光二极管管芯及其制造方法》,该氮化镓发光二极管管芯,包括蓝宝石衬底和在蓝宝石衬底上依次向外延伸的缓冲层、η型氮化镓、有源区及ρ型氮化镓,P型氮化镓上方设有一个P型电极;其中,在与蓝宝石衬底接触的η型氮化镓上设有一个η型电极。 [0006] for the vertical structure of a laser peeling the sapphire substrate adverse effect, Chinese patent CN101017876 discloses "a GaN light emitting diode die and manufacturing method thereof", the GaN light emitting diode die, comprising a sapphire substrate and a buffer layer extending outwardly sequentially on a sapphire substrate, a gallium nitride type [eta], and ρ-type gallium nitride active region, a P-type GaN provided over a P-type electrode; wherein It has a η η-type gallium nitride-type electrode in contact with the sapphire substrate. 该氮化镓发光二极管管芯的制造方法,与现有技术相比,通过刻蚀掉一部分的蓝宝石衬底材料,使η型氮化镓从底部露出,接着制造电极,是通过采用反应等离子刻蚀(ICP)技术去掉一部分的蓝宝石衬底材料。 The method of manufacturing a gallium nitride light emitting diode dies, compared with the prior art, the sapphire substrate by etching away a material portion of the η-type gallium nitride is exposed from the bottom, and then fabricating an electrode, is engraved by using a plasma reaction etching (ICP) techniques to remove the portion of the sapphire substrate material. 该专利文献中提到的GaN LED仍通过蓝宝石衬底做支撑材料,其厚度至少控制在IOOum量级,那么专利中提到的用ICP刻蚀一部分蓝宝石衬底材料到N型氮化镓,按照目前最快的刻蚀条件耗时也要在数小时;另一方面专利中的出光面仍在P面,底部蓝宝石支撑,其散热通道需要通过蓝宝石衬底,散热能力差,没有任何散热措施,不适应大功率LED结构;对尽可能提高光提取效率也没有涉及。 The patent document mentioned GaN LED still do support material through the sapphire substrate having a thickness on the order of at least IOOum controlled, then the mentioned patents by ICP etching a portion of the sapphire substrate to the N-type GaN material, in accordance with Processed fastest etching conditions but also in several hours; on the other hand the surface is still Patent plane P, sapphire bottom support, through which cooling channels require the sapphire substrate, poor heat dissipation, no cooling measures, structure suited to high-power LED; to maximize the light extraction efficiency is not involved. 该文献中的LED不适合实际批量化生产,同时这种结构也不能用在蓝光功率芯片上,不能用于半导体照明系统。 This document is not suitable for practical LED mass production, while the structure nor can the power of the blue-chip, semiconductor lighting system can not be used.

[0007] 因此,提供一种GaN LED结构,其有效发光面积利用率高,芯片电流扩展优,散热好,功率和亮度提高的基础上,尽量减少工艺过程中不稳定因素影响,以提高整体产品的性价比,是当前半导体照明产业化发展的重要课题之一。 [0007] Accordingly, a GaN LED structure, the effective light-emitting area of ​​high efficiency, excellent current spreading chip, heat, based on the increased power and brightness, to minimize the effects of instability during the process, in order to improve overall product the price is one of the important issues of the current semiconductor lighting industrial development.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0008] 本发明针对现有垂直结构的LED芯片由于制作过程中需激光剥离去除整个蓝宝石衬底而造成的芯片损伤、良好率和一致性不高的问题,提供一种出光效率高的垂直GaN 基LED芯片,同时提供一种适用于批量生产该垂直GaN基LED芯片的制作方法。 [0008] The present invention is directed to chip damage conventional vertical structure LED chip due to the production process required to remove the entire laser lift-off caused by the sapphire substrate, good rate and consistency is not high, there is provided a high efficiency vertical GaN light based LED chip also provides a method suitable for mass production of the vertical GaN-based LED chip.

[0009] 本发明的垂直GaN基LED芯片的结构自上而下依次包括蓝宝石或者6H_SiC透明衬底、N型GaN、量子阱有源层、P型GaN、电流扩展层、金属反射镜、键合焊接层和导电基板, 在导电基板上制作有P电极,在蓝宝石或者6H-SiC透明衬底上设有直至N型GaN层的窗口, 该窗口内各面蒸镀有一层金属,在这一金属层上引出有N电极。 [0009] The top-down vertical structure GaN-based LED chip of the present invention includes, in order 6H_SiC sapphire or transparent substrate, N-type GaN, the quantum well active layer, P-type GaN, the current spreading layer, a metal reflector, bonded solder layer and the conductive substrate, there is produced on a conductive substrate electrode P, until the window is provided with an N-type GaN layer on a sapphire or 6H-SiC transparent substrate, each surface with a layer of metal deposited within the window, in this metal an N electrode lead-out layer.

[0010] 所述蓝宝石或者6H-SiC透明衬底的出光面加工成粗化面,以降低光内部全反射, 提高LED的出光效率。 [0010] The transparent sapphire or 6H-SiC substrate surface is processed into a roughened surface of the light-emitting efficiency, to reduce total internal reflection of light, improve the LED.

[0011] 所述蓝宝石或者6H-SiC透明衬底的出光面设有光子晶体,光子带隙的晶体结构使某一频率范围的波不能在此周期性结构中传播,通过这种禁带调节的光栅衍射效应提高LED的出光效率。 [0011] The transparent sapphire or 6H-SiC substrate surface provided with a photonic crystal, photonic bandgap crystal structure so that the wave of a certain frequency range can not propagate in this periodic structure, such a band gap adjustment diffraction effects improve the light efficiency of the LED.

[0012] 在蓝宝石或6H_SiC透明衬底上加工的窗口位置可以是衬底上的任意位置,可以在衬底内侧,也可以在衬底的边缘。 [0012] On a sapphire substrate or a transparent 6H_SiC processing window position can be anywhere on the substrate, the substrate may be on the inside, on the edge of the substrate may be. 蓝宝石或6H-SiC透明衬底上加工的窗口位置在衬底的侧壁面上,可以大面积的金属侧壁面作为N电极的焊线点不仅最大化利用了有效出光面积,同时也解决了焊线电极区域过小引起的焊接不便。 Processed or 6H-SiC on sapphire window position on the transparent substrate sidewall surface of the substrate, a metal can side wall surface of the large area of ​​the point N as a bonding wire electrode not only maximize effective area of ​​the light, but also solve the weld line welding electrode area is too small to cause inconvenience.

[0013] 本发明的垂直GaN基LED芯片的制作方法包括以下步骤: [0013] The method for fabricating a vertical GaN-based LED chip according to the present invention comprises the steps of:

[0014] (1)按常规方法在蓝宝石或者6H_SiC透明衬底上自下而上依次外延生长N型GaN、量子阱有源层、P型GaN和电流扩展层; [0014] (1) a conventional manner in this order from the N-type epitaxially grown GaN, the quantum well active layer, P-type GaN and a current spreading layer on a sapphire substrate or a transparent 6H_SiC;

[0015] (2)在电流扩展层上按常规电子束蒸发或溅射方式制作金属反射镜,金属反射镜的材料采用Al、Ag、Cr、Au的一种或几种; [0015] (2) conventional current spreading layer on the electron-beam evaporation or sputtering method to prepare a metal reflector, a metal reflector material using one or more of Al, Ag, Cr, Au of;

[0016] (3)在金属反射镜上通过键合焊料焊接导电基板,导电基板是导电衬底Si或Cu 或其他导电导热性能良好的材料,在导电基板上通过常规电子束蒸发或溅射方式制作P电极; [0016] (3) on the metal reflector by soldering bonding a conductive substrate, a conductive substrate is a Si substrate, good electrical conductivity, or thermal conductivity Cu or other conductive material, on a conductive substrate by way of beam evaporation or sputtering conventional electronic production P electrode;

[0017] (4)然后将蓝宝石或者6H-SiC透明衬底的厚度减磨至30um-50um ; [0017] (4) or a transparent sapphire substrate and then a thickness of 6H-SiC by grinding to 30um-50um;

[0018] (5)在蓝宝石或6H_SiC透明衬底上加工出直至N型GaN层的窗口,单个窗口的顶部面积为30um2-2500um2,具体过程是: [0018] (5) processing on a sapphire substrate or a transparent 6H_SiC window until the N-type GaN layer, a single window area of ​​the top of 30um2-2500um2, the specific process is:

[0019] 先通过激光钻蚀蓝宝石或SiC衬底,调节UV激光工作重复频率25KHz、能量4. 5W, 其脉冲不大于30ns ;激光视场焦点能量达到200J/cm2,控制激光脉冲数控制钻蚀速率,利用30-120个脉冲钻蚀到距N型GaN层上表面lum_2. 5um,停止激光钻蚀,改用ICP方法或常规光刻胶技术进行刻蚀,刻蚀深度为4um,若采用ICP刻蚀SiC衬底用SF6和02,刻蚀蓝宝石衬底用BCl3和Cl2, BCl3的流量为80sccm, Cl2的流量为20sccm, ICP功率为2500W,射频(RF) 功率为500W,压强为0. 9Pa,温度为60°C,刻蚀速率达到200士20nm/min ; [0020] (6)在加工出的窗口内各面上蒸镀一层金属,与η型GaN形成欧姆接触,在这一金属层上引出N电极,和下面导电基板上的P电极形成PN结的通路。 [0019] The first laser undercut sapphire or SiC substrate, adjusting the repetition frequency of 25KHz UV laser working, energy 4. 5W, the pulse is not greater than 30ns; laser energy reaches the focal field 200J / cm2, the number of control pulses the laser control undercutting rate, the use of 30-120 pulses to undercutting from the surface of N-type GaN layer lum_2. 5um, stop the laser undercut, ICP method or use conventional photoresist etching techniques, an etching depth of 4um, if the ICP SiC substrate is etched with SF6 and 02, the sapphire substrate is etched with BCl3 and Cl2, BCl3 flow rate of 80 sccm, flow rate of Cl2 is 20sccm, ICP power was 2500W, a radio frequency (RF) power of 500W, a pressure of 0. 9Pa a temperature of 60 ° C, the etching rate of 200 persons 20nm / min; [0020] (6) a layer of metal deposited in the machined surface of each window, η-type ohmic contact with GaN, the metal in N electrode lead-out layer, and a P-electrode on the conductive substrate, a PN junction formed below the passageway. [0021 ] 本发明采用激光钻蚀加腐蚀刻蚀在蓝宝石或6H_SiC透明衬底上得到直至N型GaN 层的窗口,窗口截面呈倒梯形,容易实现金属层蒸镀。 [0021] The present invention is applied by laser etching are etched undercut window until the N-type GaN layer on a sapphire substrate or 6H_SiC transparent window inverted trapezoidal cross-sectional shape, easy to implement the metal layer deposition. 电流扩展层一般用ITO、ZnO、NiAu或其他透明导电材料。 Usually the current spreading layer with ITO, ZnO, NiAu or other transparent conductive material. 金属反射镜能使向底面发射的光有效反射回出光面,提高LED光提取效率,金属反射镜键合到导电衬底上,能把大功率芯片热量有效散出,有利于提高功率LED 的高温老化性能。 Metal reflector allows the launcher to the bottom surface of the light is efficiently reflected back to the surface, to improve the light extraction efficiency of the LED, the metal reflector is bonded to the conductive substrate, a high-power chip can dissipate heat effectively help to improve the high-temperature power LED aging properties. 在窗口内以大面积的侧面金属壁作为N电极的焊线点,不仅最大化利用了有效出光面积,同时也解决了焊线电极区域过小引起的不便。 In the window in a side wall of a large area of ​​the metal as the bonding wire electrode point N, the effective not only maximize the area of ​​the light, but also solve the inconvenience caused by the bonding wire electrode area is too small. 制作的LED的PN结紧靠散热好的基底材料,特别适合大功率工作。 LED PN junction produced good heat dissipation against the base material, particularly for high power operation.

[0022] 本发明减少了工艺过程中不稳定因素影响,窗口的加工是先通过快速激光钻蚀, 再通过ICP方法或常规光刻胶技术进行刻蚀,既加快了加工速度又不会损坏N型GaN层,适合实际批量化生产。 [0022] The present invention reduces the influence of process instability, the processing window is to undercutting by flash laser, and then etching by conventional photoresist techniques or ICP method, only to speed up the processing speed and does not damage the N type GaN layer, for practical mass production. 制作的GaN基LED芯片有效发光面积利用率高,芯片电流扩展好,散热好。 Making a GaN-based LED chip high utilization effect light emitting area, the current spreading chip good, good heat dissipation.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0023] 图1是现有蓝宝石衬底GaN基LED芯片的结构示意图。 [0023] FIG. 1 is a schematic structure of a conventional sapphire substrate a GaN-based LED chip.

[0024] 图2是倒装结构GaN基LED芯片的结构示意图。 [0024] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the structure of a GaN-based LED flip chip.

[0025] 图3是垂直结构GaN基LED芯片的结构示意图。 [0025] FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a vertical structure GaN-based LED chip.

[0026] 图4是本发明垂直GaN基LED芯片的结构示意图。 [0026] FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a vertical GaN-based LED chip structure of the present invention.

[0027] 图5是本发明制作的表面粗化的垂直GaN基LED芯片的结构示意图。 [0027] FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of the rough surface of the vertical GaN-based LED chip structure of the present invention is fabricated.

[0028] 图6是本发明在蓝宝石衬底出光面制作光子晶体的垂直GaN基LED芯片的结构示意图。 [0028] The present invention in FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram illustrating the structure of the sapphire substrate surface made of a photonic crystal vertical GaN-based LED chip.

[0029] 图7是本发明在侧壁制作电极的垂直GaN基LED芯片的结构示意图。 [0029] FIG. 7 is a schematic view of a vertical GaN-based LED chip structure of the present invention, an electrode produced in the side wall.

[0030] 图8是图7的俯视图。 [0030] FIG 8 is a plan view of FIG. 7.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0031] 如图4所示,本发明的垂直GaN基LED芯片自上至下依次包括蓝宝石或者6H_SiC 透明衬底、N型GaN、量子阱有源层、P型GaN、电流扩展层、金属反射镜、键合焊接层和导电基板,在导电基板上制作有P电极,在蓝宝石或者6H-SiC透明衬底上设有直至N型GaN层的窗口,该窗口内蒸镀有一层金属,在这一金属层上引出有N电极。 [0031] As shown in FIG 4, to the lower order comprises a sapphire substrate or a transparent 6H_SiC vertical GaN-based LED chip from the present invention, N-type GaN, the quantum well active layer, P-type GaN, the current spreading layer, a metal reflective mirror, solder bonding layer and the conductive substrate, there is produced on a conductive substrate electrode P, until the window is provided with an N-type GaN layer on a sapphire substrate or a transparent 6H-SiC, within the window with a vapor-deposited layer of metal, in which N is drawn over a metal electrode layer.

[0032] 为了进一步提高芯片的光提取效率,可以如图5所示对制作的垂直GaN基LED芯片的蓝宝石或者6H-SiC透明衬底的出光面加工成粗化面,降低光内部全反射,破坏全反射。 [0032] In order to further improve the light extraction efficiency of the chip, making from FIG. 5 sapphire vertical GaN-based LED chip or 6H-SiC substrate is transparent the surface can be processed into a roughened surface as shown, to reduce total internal reflection of light, damage reflection. 或者如图6所示,对于蓝宝石衬底的垂直GaN基LED芯片的蓝宝石衬底出光面电子束刻蚀技术制作光子晶体,光子带隙的晶体结构使某一频率范围的波不能在此周期性结构中传播,通过这种禁带调节的光栅衍射效应提高LED的出光效率。 6 or, as shown, sapphire vertical GaN-based LED chip substrate, a sapphire substrate etching the surface electronics production photonic crystals, photonic band gap crystal structure of the beam, the wave of a certain frequency range can not be here periodic propagating structure, such a forbidden band grating diffraction effect adjustment improve the light efficiency of the LED.

[0033] 在蓝宝石或6H_SiC透明衬底上加工的窗口位置可以是衬底上的任意位置,可以在衬底内侧,也可以在衬底的边缘。 [0033] On a sapphire substrate or a transparent 6H_SiC processing window position can be anywhere on the substrate, the substrate may be on the inside, on the edge of the substrate may be. 如图7和图8给出的垂直GaN基芯片结构所示,窗口位置是在衬底的侧壁面上,在芯片N型GaN层的边缘台面和侧壁面均勻镀上金属,用侧壁面做芯片焊线点,N电极设置在该侧壁面,以大面积的金属侧壁面作为N电极的焊线点不仅最大化利用了有效出光面积,同时也解决了焊线电极区域过小引起的焊接不便。 Vertical GaN-based chip, the position of the window structure shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8 shows the side wall surfaces of the substrate, a uniform coating on the metal surface and the side wall at the edge of the mesa chip N type GaN layer, with the chip side wall surface made point bonding wires, the N-electrode provided on the side wall surface, the side wall surface of the large metal area N as point bonding wire electrode only maximize effective area of ​​the light, but also solve the welding electrode wire bonding area is too small to cause inconvenience. 在芯片N型GaN 层的边缘一周均蚀刻台面,其电流扩展均勻性高,可以适当减小边缘开槽面积,使出光面积最大化。 In one week were etched mesa edge chip N type GaN layer, the current spreading uniformity, can be reduced appropriately grooved edge area, resorted to maximize the light receiving area.

[0034] 本发明的垂直GaN基LED芯片的制作过程,具体如下: [0034] The vertical GaN-based LED chip production process of the present invention, as follows:

[0035] 首先按常规在蓝宝石或者6H_SiC透明衬底上自下而上依次外延生长N型GaN、量子阱有源层、P型GaN和电流扩展层。 [0035] First, conventionally on sapphire or 6H_SiC transparent substrate in this order from the N-type epitaxially grown GaN, the quantum well active layer, P-type GaN layer and the current spreading. 在电流扩展层上制作金属反射镜。 To prepare a metal mirror on the current spreading layer. 在金属反射镜上通过键合焊料焊接到导电基板,导电基板是导电衬底Si或Cu或其他导电导热性能良好的材料,在导电基板上通过电子蒸发或溅射方式制作P电极。 The metal mirror by bonding soldering to a conductive substrate, a conductive substrate is a Si substrate, good electrical conductivity, or thermal conductivity Cu or other conductive material, sputtering or evaporation by electron produced in the P-electrode on the conductive substrate. 然后减磨蓝宝石或者6H-SiC 透明衬底,使衬底尽量薄,以利于通过激光加工电极窗口和出光,一般减磨蓝宝石衬底至30um_50umo Then antifriction 6H-SiC or sapphire substrate is transparent, the substrate as thin as possible, in order to facilitate the laser machining electrode and the light exit window, generally by grinding the sapphire substrate to 30um_50umo

[0036] 在减磨后的蓝宝石或6H_SiC透明衬底上用激光钻蚀加工出直至N型GaN层的窗口,调解激光工作频率、脉冲及激光视场焦距,控制钻蚀速率和步进,根据管芯尺寸设计窗口的大小尺度,单个窗口的顶部面积为30um2-2500um2。 [0036] on a sapphire or by grinding after the transparent substrate by laser 6H_SiC undercut machined window until the N-type GaN layer, the mediation laser operating frequency, pulsed laser field of view and a focal length, and controlling the rate of undercutting step, according to die size scale sized window, the window is a top area of ​​a single 30um2-2500um2. 调节UV激光工作重复频率25KHz、能量4. 5W,其脉冲不大于30ns ;激光视场焦点能量达到200J/cm2,控制激光脉冲数控制钻蚀速率。 UV laser repetition frequency adjusting work 25KHz, energy 4. 5W, the pulse is not greater than 30ns; laser energy reaches the focal field 200J / cm2, the number of laser pulses to control the rate control undercutting. 为避免激光能量对GaN外延层的烧焦损伤,在利用30-120个脉冲钻蚀到距N型GaN 层上表面lum-2. 5um,停止激光钻蚀,改用ICP或其他腐蚀方法刻蚀掉蓝宝石或SiC衬底及部分薄层的GaN。 To avoid damage to the laser energy scorching GaN epitaxial layer, using 30-120 pulses to undercut the N-type GaN layer from the surface of lum-2. 5um, undercut stop the laser, use ICP etching, or other etching methods off sapphire or GaN SiC substrate and the thin layer portion. 刻蚀过程可以不用任何掩蔽,直接刻蚀4um深度,这样不仅窗口开到GaN 上,同时对出光面的蓝宝石或SiC衬底起到一定粗化作用,提高光提取效率,也可以采用光刻胶技术等掩蔽层作出所需图形后进行刻蚀。 The etching process can be masked without any direct 4um etching depth, not only to open a window on GaN, while play a role in the roughened surface of a sapphire or SiC substrate, improving the light extraction efficiency, a photoresist may be employed technology, the masking layer is etched to a desired pattern. 若采用ICP刻蚀SiC用SFf^n O2,刻蚀蓝宝石、GaN用BCl3和Cl2。 ICP etching with the use of a SiC SFf ^ n O2, etched sapphire, GaN with BCl3 and Cl2. 刻蚀蓝宝石我们用BCl3流量为80sccm, Cl2流量为20sccm, ICP功率为2500W,RF功率为500W,压强为0. 9Pa,温度为60°C刻蚀速率能达到200士20nm/min。 We etched sapphire BCl3 flow rate 80sccm, Cl2 flow rate of 20sccm, ICP power was 2500W, RF power of 500W, a pressure of 0. 9Pa, a temperature of 60 ° C the etching rate can reach 200 Disabled 20nm / min. 在窗口的N型GaN上蒸镀上一层金属,如Ti、Au、Al、Cr或几种金属的合金或多层金属,以便做LED的N电极。 On the N-type GaN window layer deposited on the metal, such as Ti, Au, Al, Cr, or an alloy of several metals or more metal to the N electrode of the LED do. 上述方法钻蚀加ICP刻蚀得到的窗口,截面一般是倒梯形,容易实现金属层蒸镀。 The method of adding the above-described ICP etching undercut obtained window, an inverted trapezoid cross-section is generally easy to implement the metal layer deposition. 本发明降低了激光剥离过程对外延层晶体质量和完整性的损伤,提高了芯片的优良率和质量一致性,适合批量生产。 The present invention reduces the damage to the laser lift-off process and the crystal quality of the epitaxial layer integrity, improve the quality and consistency of fine chips, suitable for mass production.

Claims (1)

  1. 一种垂直GaN基LED芯片的制作方法,该垂直GaN基LED芯片,自上而下依次包括蓝宝石或者6H‑SiC透明衬底、N型GaN、量子阱有源层、P型GaN、电流扩展层、金属反射镜、键合焊接层和导电基板,在导电基板上制作有P电极,在蓝宝石或者6H‑SiC透明衬底上设有直至N型GaN层的窗口,该窗口内各面蒸镀有一层金属,在这一金属层上引出有N电极,其特征是:包括以下步骤:(1)按常规方法在蓝宝石或者6H‑SiC透明衬底上自下而上依次外延生长N型GaN、量子阱有源层、P型GaN和电流扩展层;(2)在电流扩展层上按常规电子束蒸发或溅射方式制作金属反射镜;(3)在金属反射镜上通过键合焊料焊接导电基板,导电基板是导电衬底Si或Cu或其他导电导热性能良好的材料,在导电基板上通过常规电子束蒸发或溅射方式制作P电极;(4)然后将蓝宝石或者6H‑SiC透明衬底的厚度减磨至30μm‑ Method for manufacturing a vertical GaN-based LED chip, the vertical GaN-based LED chip, from top to bottom or 6H-SiC comprises a transparent sapphire substrate, N-type GaN, the quantum well active layer, P-type GaN, the current spreading layer , metal reflector, solder bonding layer and the conductive substrate, there is produced on a conductive substrate electrode P, until the window is provided with an N-type GaN layer on a sapphire or 6H-SiC transparent substrate, each surface of the inner window has a vapor a metal layer, the metal layer on the N-electrode is led out, which is characterized in: comprising the steps of: (1) by a conventional method on a sapphire substrate or a transparent 6H-SiC epitaxially grown in this order from the N-type GaN, the quantum well active layer, P-type GaN current spreading layer and; (2) conventional current spreading layer on the electron-beam evaporation or sputtering to prepare a metal reflector; (3) on the metal reflector by soldering conductive substrate bonding the conductive substrate is a conductive substrate of Si or Cu or other material having good thermal conductivity properties, P-electrode made on a conductive substrate by way of beam evaporation or sputtering conventional electronic; (4) and 6H-SiC or sapphire substrate is transparent by grinding to a thickness 30μm- 50μm;(5)在蓝宝石或6H‑SiC透明衬底上加工出直至N型GaN层的窗口,单个窗口的顶部面积为30μm2‑2500μm2,具体过程是:先通过激光钻蚀蓝宝石或SiC衬底,调节UV激光工作重复频率25KHz、能量4.5W,其脉冲不大于30ns;激光视场焦点能量达到200J/cm2,控制激光脉冲数控制钻蚀速率,利用30‑120个脉冲钻蚀到距N型GaN层上表面1μm‑2.5μm,停止激光钻蚀,改用ICP方法或常规光刻胶技术进行刻蚀,刻蚀深度为4μm,若采用ICP刻蚀SiC衬底用SF6和O2,刻蚀蓝宝石衬底用BCl3和Cl2,BCl3的流量为80sccm,Cl2的流量为20sccm,ICP功率为2500W,射频功率为500W,压强为0.9Pa,温度为60℃,刻蚀速率达到200±20nm/min;(6)在加工出的窗口内各面上蒸镀一层金属,在这一金属层上引出N电极,和下面导电基板上的P电极形成PN结的通路。 50μm; (5) the processing until N-type GaN layer on the sapphire window of the transparent substrate or 6H-SiC, a single window area of ​​the top of 30μm2-2500μm2, the specific process is: first laser undercut sapphire or SiC substrate, adjusting the repetition frequency of 25KHz UV laser working, energy 4.5W, which is not greater than 30ns pulse; laser energy reaches the focal field 200J / cm2, the number of laser pulses to control the rate control undercut, the undercut using 30-120 pulses from the N-type GaN 1μm-2.5μm on the surface layer, a laser stop undercut, ICP method or use conventional photoresist etching techniques, an etching depth of 4 m, when SiC substrate using ICP etching using SF6 and O2, etched sapphire substrate bottom with BCl3 and Cl2, BCl3 flow rate of 80 sccm, flow rate of Cl2 is 20sccm, ICP power was 2500W, RF power of 500W, a pressure of 0.9Pa, a temperature of 60 ℃, etching rate reaches 200 ± 20nm / min; (6 ) machined in each side window of the vapor deposition layer of metal, the extraction electrode on the N metal layer, and a P-electrode on the conductive substrate, a PN junction formed below the passageway.
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