CN101581145B - 用于地板面板的机械锁定系统 - Google Patents

用于地板面板的机械锁定系统 Download PDF

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CN101581145B
CN101581145B CN200910142440XA CN200910142440A CN101581145B CN 101581145 B CN101581145 B CN 101581145B CN 200910142440X A CN200910142440X A CN 200910142440XA CN 200910142440 A CN200910142440 A CN 200910142440A CN 101581145 B CN101581145 B CN 101581145B
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D·佩尔万
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瓦林格创新股份有限公司
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
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    • E04F15/00Flooring
    • E04F15/02Flooring or floor layers composed of a number of similar elements
    • E04F15/02038Flooring or floor layers composed of a number of similar elements characterised by tongue and groove connections between neighbouring flooring elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/023Separate connecting devices for prefabricated floor-slabs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/0889Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements characterised by the joints between neighbouring elements, e.g. with joint fillings or with tongue and groove connections
    • E04F13/0894Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements characterised by the joints between neighbouring elements, e.g. with joint fillings or with tongue and groove connections with tongue and groove connections
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    • E04F15/02022Construction of joints, e.g. dividing strips with means for aligning the outer surfaces of the flooring elements
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16BDEVICES FOR FASTENING OR SECURING CONSTRUCTIONAL ELEMENTS OR MACHINE PARTS TOGETHER, e.g. NAILS, BOLTS, CIRCLIPS, CLAMPS, CLIPS, WEDGES, JOINTS OR JOINTING
    • F16B5/00Joining sheets or plates, e.g. panels, to one another or to strips or bars parallel to them
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
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    • E04F15/04Flooring or floor layers composed of a number of similar elements only of wood or with a top layer of wood, e.g. with wooden or metal connecting members
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
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    • E04F2201/00Joining sheets or plates or panels
    • E04F2201/01Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship
    • E04F2201/0107Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship by moving the sheets, plates or panels substantially in their own plane, perpendicular to the abutting edges
    • E04F2201/0115Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship by moving the sheets, plates or panels substantially in their own plane, perpendicular to the abutting edges with snap action of the edge connectors
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
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    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
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    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
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    • E04F2201/0153Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship by rotating the sheets, plates or panels around an axis which is parallel to the abutting edges, possibly combined with a sliding movement
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    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F2201/00Joining sheets or plates or panels
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
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    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F2201/00Joining sheets or plates or panels
    • E04F2201/02Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections
    • E04F2201/023Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections with a continuous tongue or groove
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
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    • E04F2201/0523Separate tongues; Interlocking keys, e.g. joining mouldings of circular, square or rectangular shape
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S292/00Closure fasteners
    • Y10S292/38Plastic latch parts
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
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    • Y10T403/00Joints and connections
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
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Abstract

图中示出地板面板(1,1’),该地板面板设有机械卡接锁定系统,该系统具有由单独的材料制成的锁定部件(15),以减小卡接阻力和/或提高锁定强度。本发明还提供了一种水平地拆开机械锁定系统的方法。

Description

用于地板面板的机械锁定系统

[0001] 本申请是申请号为200680010813.2的专利申请的分案申请,原申请的申请日为 2006年1月10日,名称为“用于地板面板的机械锁定系统”。

技术领域

[0002] 本发明一般涉及用于地板面板和建筑面板的机械锁定系统领域,尤其是具有机械锁定系统的地板面板,该机械锁定系统可通过水平移动锁定和拆开。

背景技术

[0003] 本发明尤其适用于由可通过锁定系统机械接合的地板面板形成的浮式地板,该锁定系统与该地板面板是一体的,即在工厂中已安装在一起,该地板面板包括:由一层或多层胶合板、装饰性层压板或装饰性塑料材料组成的上层;由木质纤维基材料或塑料材料制成的中间芯层;以及优选地位于芯层背面的底部平衡层。因此,下面作为非限定示例对现有技术、已知系统存在的问题以及本发明的目的和特点的描述,首先针对该应用领域,尤其是针对由具有长边和短边的矩形地板面板构成的层压地板,该地板面板在长边和短边上都机械地接合。长边和短边主要是用于简化本发明的说明。面板可以是正方形的,或者可以具有多于四个彼此之间既不平行也不垂直的边。

[0004] 需要强调的是,本发明可应用于任何地板面板,可以和任何已知类型的锁定系统结合,其中,地板面板利用沿水平和垂直方向在至少两个相邻边连接面板的机械锁定系统来接合。因此,本发明还可应用于,如实木地板,具有由木材或木质纤维基材料制成的芯层、 由木材或木质胶合板等制成的表层的镶木地板,具有印刷过并优选地清漆过的表面的地板,具有由塑料或软木、油毡、橡胶等制成的表层的地板。甚至包括具有硬表层如石材、瓷砖等的地板,以及具有软耐磨层例如粘于板块上的针刺毛毡的地板。本发明也可用于建筑面板,该建筑面板优选地包含板材例如墙板、天花板、家具部件等。

[0005] 层压地板通常包括6-12mm厚的纤维板芯层,0. 2-0. 8mm厚的由层压板制成的上部装饰性表层和0. 1-0. 6mm厚的由层压板、塑料、纸或类似材料制成的下部平衡层。层压表层包括三聚氰胺浸渍纸。最常用的芯层材料是通常称为HDF(高密度纤维板)的密度高、稳定性好的纤维板。有时也使用MDF(中密度纤维板)作为芯层。

[0006] 此类型的传统层压地板面板通过粘合的榫舌和榫槽接头来连接。

[0007] 除上述传统地板外,地板面板已发展至不需要使用粘合剂而是通过所谓的机械锁定系统机械地接合。这些系统包括水平和垂直地锁定面板的锁定装置。通常通过对面板的芯层进行加工来形成机械锁定系统。可选择地,该锁定系统的部件可由单独的材料如铝或 HDF形成,该单独材料与地板面板是一体的,即在地板面板制造时就已经接合在一起。

[0008] 具有机械锁定系统的浮式地板主要的优点是易于安装。该地板也可容易地收起并在不同地方再次使用。

[0009] 一些术语的定义

[0010] 下文中,已安装地板面板的可视面称为“前侧”,而面向下层地板的该地板面板的相对侧面称为“后侧”。前侧和后侧之间的边缘称为“接合边缘”。“水平面或主平面”是指平行于表层外部延伸的平面。两个接合的地板面板的两相邻接合边缘的直接并置的上部共同限定垂直于水平面的“垂直面(V)”。“水平地”表示平行于水平面,“垂直地”表示平行于垂直面。

[0011] “锁定系统”是指共同作用的连接装置,该连接装置垂直和/或水平地连接地板面板。“机械锁定系统”是指不使用粘合剂就可实现接合(的系统)。很多情况下该机械锁定系统也可使用粘合剂接合。“与...成一体”是指与面板形成一体或在工厂中与面板连接在一起。“卡接阻力”是指当通过水平移动锁定两个面板的两个IOOmm边缘时需要的以N为单位的力。“锁定强度”是指将两个锁定的面板的两个IOOmm边缘完全拆开或至少分开大于 0.2mm时需要的以N为单位的力。“强度卡接比(SSR) ”是指锁定强度除以卡接阻力。

[0012] 现有技术及其问题

[0013] 将长边和短边在垂直方向和水平方向(方向D1,D》上进行机械接合,有几种方法和锁定系统可使用。最常用的方法之一是转动(angle)-卡接方法,最常用的锁定系统之一是和芯层制成一体的系统。长边通过转动安装。然后面板沿长边移动到锁定位置。短边通过如图Ia-Ic所示的水平卡接锁定。垂直连接件是榫舌10和榫槽9。在水平移动过程中, 具有锁定部件8的板条6弯曲,当边缘相接触时,板条回弹,锁定部件8进入锁定槽14并且水平地锁定地板面板。卡接过程中,板条的弯曲导致锁定部件的垂直移动。板条的弯曲导致了咬合过程中锁定部件的垂直移动。由于需要使用锤子和敲击块来克服长边之间的摩擦力,并使板条在卡接过程中弯曲,因此这样的卡接连接是复杂的。可以减少长边之间的摩擦力,以及不使用工具而移动地板面板。然而,尤其是在与木质基芯层形成一体的锁定系统中,卡接阻力相当大。木质基材料一般都难于弯曲。卡接过程中,面板中可能产生裂缝,锁定部件在垂直方向必须相当小以便于卡接。和芯层形成于一体的如此小的锁定部件的锁定强度通常很低,尤其是在干燥条件下,面板可能滑动分开。

[0014] 如图Id-If所示,已知卡接系统可以设置一单独的塑料板条6’,该塑料板条与面板成一体并具有弹性部分。与传统一体式卡接系统相比,这样的锁定系统锁定时阻力较小。 然而此锁定系统也存在几个缺点。塑料板条用于代替榫舌和具有锁定部件的板条。因此材料成本高,并且该锁定系统通常和老式面板的锁定系统不兼容。由于必须有锁定部件8’,所以榫槽9难于加工。事实上,沿水平方向上的锁定必须使用4个锁定部件,其中2个柔性锁定部件设置在板条上,另2个(8,8’ )在面板上。难于将塑料板条固定在整个短边的长度上。这意味着拐角部分没有榫舌,这在某些使用场合将会出现问题。

[0015] 如图Ig所示,还已知的是卡接系统可以具有由铝片制成的单独板条6。这样的锁定系统非常易于通过转动安装。其主要缺点在于,材料成本很高,尤其当锁定系统通过卡接锁定时。其原因是,板条必须相当宽,以允许弯曲和卡接。

发明内容

[0016] 本发明的第一首要目的是提供一种机械锁定系统,该机械锁定系统可通过水平卡接锁定,卡接阻力小于已知现有技术的系统,并且优选地能达到相当高的锁定强度。与已知技术相比,该机械锁定系统的成本和功能是有利的。所述首要目的的主要部分在于改进机械锁定系统中当面板相互推紧时在水平方向上锁定的部件的功能和成本。[0017] 更具体地,所述目的是提供一种机械卡接锁定系统,其中,可获得一个或几个以下优点。

[0018] 优选地,移动和锁定地板面板只用很小的力,在最佳实施例中不需要使用工具,或者当使用工具如敲击块和锤子时所需敲击力很小,以致于在常规安装中不会对边缘造成损害。

[0019] 锁定功能应是可靠的,垂直和水平锁定应是牢固的,当湿度改变或者人在地板上行走时,可防止两个锁定的面板移动。

[0020] 锁定系统应能够以高精度垂直地锁定地板面板,使地板表面基本在同一平面上。

[0021] 锁定系统以这样一种方式设计,即材料成本和生产成本低。

[0022] 第二个目的是提供一种机械卡接锁定系统,该系统可以和传统的与芯层形成一体的机械锁定系统相兼容。如果新面板能够锁定到旧面板,则是有利的。这样,新的锁定系统在进入市场时,不会使地板面板的旧存货增加额外成本。

[0023] 根据独立权利要求的机械锁定系统和地板面板,可全部或部分达到本发明的上述目的。通过独立权利要求并通过说明书和附图,很容易理解本发明的实施例。

[0024] 根据本发明的第一个方面,提供一种地板系统,包括多个沿一对相邻边可相互机械接合的地板面板。地板面板上设置有与其成一体的榫舌和榫槽,该榫舌和榫槽用于垂直于地板面板主平面机械地将所述一对相邻边缘锁定在一起,这样在面板间形成垂直的机械接合。面板在一个第一边缘设置有与其成一体的第一锁定部件,在相对并邻接的第二边缘设置有锁定槽,该锁定槽向面板的底面或上面开口。每块面板上都设置有第二锁定部件,该第二锁定部件由单独的材料制成并连接到锁定槽。第一和第二锁定部件形成机械连接,该机械连接平行于主平面并垂直于接合边缘地将面板相互水平地锁定。第二锁定部件是柔性和有弹性的,这样通过所述两个面板水平相向移动而使这两个面板机械接合,同时第二锁定部件的至少一部分在所述第二边缘弹性地垂直移动,直至两面板的所述相邻边缘相互水平接合,并且所述第二边缘中的第二锁定部件靠着第一边缘中的第一锁定部件朝其初始位置移动。

[0025] 虽然将柔性锁定部件和面板设置成一体是有利的,但本发明并不排除柔性锁定部件作为单独部分的实施例,该单独部分在安装之前由安装工人连接至面板。

[0026] 本发明允许地板面板的所有边利用例如长边的转动、沿长边简单的水平移动、以及短边的卡接而水平和垂直地锁定。在此优选实施例中,柔性锁定部件设置在短边上。该柔性锁定部件还可设置在长边上或者同时设置在长边和短边上。

[0027] 本发明尤其适合应用于这样的地板面板,S卩,该地板面板例如由于芯层不柔软或者强度不足以形成牢固的卡接锁定系统而难于卡接。本发明同样适合于如板宽大于20cm 的宽地板面板,其中,该地板面板在安装过程中的高卡接阻力是主要缺点,以及本发明还适合于在锁定位置难于沿接头移动的面板。锁定系统的部件由高摩擦力的材料如木材制成的面板、以及制成具有紧密配合或者没有间隙或者甚至是预拉伸的锁定系统的面板,都难以移动尤其是沿其长边移动。尤其是预拉伸的面板非常难于移动和卡接,该面板的锁定条在锁定位置弯曲并将面板压合在一起。减少卡接阻力的锁定系统将显著减少这类板块的安装时间。

[0028] 根据本发明的第二方面,提供一地板系统,包括多个可沿一对相邻边缘相互机械接合的地板面板。地板面板设置有与其成一体的榫舌和榫槽,以在垂直于面板主平面方向上将所述一对相邻边缘机械锁定在一起,从而在面板间形成垂直机械连接。

[0029] 面板在一个第一边缘设置有与其成一体的第一锁定部件,由单独的材料形成的第二锁定部件连接到面板。

[0030] 第一和第二锁定部件形成机械接合,该机械接合平行于主平面并垂直于接合边缘地将面板相互水平地锁定。

[0031] 所述两面板可通过水平相向移动而机械地接合,同时第一锁定部件和第二锁定部件首先垂直地相离移动,然后垂直地相向移动。

[0032] 第二锁定部件由密度高于第一锁定部件的材料的板状材料例如铝制成,并且具有第一和第二表面以及位于表面之间的边缘部。该边缘部形成第二锁定面的至少一部分,该第二锁定面与第一锁定部件的第一锁定面相接触并防止面板水平地分离。

[0033] 根据本发明,板状材料的边缘部用于形成坚硬并且尖的锁定面,该锁定面抵靠第一锁定面形成强大的锁定力。这种尖的锁定部件使得即使锁定面很小也能获得很高的锁定强度。在大多数层压板和地板中,芯层和相应的与面板形成一体的第一锁定部件相对地较软,铝板的尖边缘可以像刀一样切入木纤维并防止边缘分离。

[0034] 尖的和软的锁定部件的结合使用能带来这样的优点,即可以使用小的锁定面,并且这些小锁定面只需大概几十毫米的小的垂直移动即可完成水平卡接。这意味着弯曲和卡接阻力可显著减小,同时保持或提高锁定强度。在卡接过程中,如果与木纤维材料相比具有低摩擦力的铝板表面的一部分作为滑动面,则卡接阻力可进一步减小。

[0035] 市场上多数一体的卡接系统有着与锁定强度相关的高卡接阻力。具有IOOmm边长的面板测试样品通常具有200-300N的卡接阻力以及200-600N的锁定强度。锁定强度除以卡接阻力——强度卡接比(SSR)——在200/200 = 1至600/300 = 2之间变化。

[0036] 本发明能将卡接阻力减小到例如100甚至更低,并能够将锁定强度提供到例如 1000甚至更高。依据本发明的第一和第二方面,SSR很容易达到5-10。

[0037] 根据本发明的第三方面,提供一种与卡接动作相反通过水平移动拆开地板面板的方法。所述方法包括以下步骤:a)将工具插入具有两锁定部件的机械锁定系统,该机械锁定系统在水平方向上机械地锁定两面板的两相邻边缘;b)用该工具将两锁定部件垂直分开;c)使所述边水平地彼此远离,以拆开机械锁定系统。

[0038] 通常通过转动或沿边缘移动拆开机械卡接锁定系统。然而,例如鱼骨形的安装方式不允许使用这样的拆分方式。已知可通过与边缘相垂直的水平移动拆开面板。这样的拆开只能用于锁定强度很低的卡接系统。本发明使得能够将卡接系统的水平拆开和高锁定强度结合起来。

附图说明

[0039] 图Ia-Ig示出现有技术;

[0040] 图示出本发明第一方面的两个实施例;

[0041] 图3a_3c以几个步骤示出根据本发明第一方面的地板面板的机械接合;

[0042] 图以几个步骤示出根据本发明第一、三方面的地板面板的机械锁定和拆开;[0043] 图以几个步骤示出根据本发明另一实施例的地板面板的机械锁定;

[0044] 图6a-6e示出本发明的实施例;

[0045] 图7a_7h示出了柔性锁定部件的不同实施例;

[0046] 图8a-8c示出根据本发明位于长边和短边上的锁定系统;

[0047] 图9a_9i示出了现有技术的锁定系统如何转变为根据本发明的锁定系统;

[0048] 图IOa-IOd示出柔性锁定部件如何用作实现垂直连接的柔性榫舌;

[0049] 图Ila-Ilc以几个步骤示出根据本发明第二方面的实施例的机械锁定;

[0050] 图示出本发明的实施例。

具体实施方式

[0051] 为了便于理解,在图中示意性地示出了几种锁定系统。应强调的是,优选实施例的结合使用可获得改进的和不同的功能。发明人已测试过所有已知的锁定系统,尤其是市场上所有类型的地板面板中商用的锁定系统,尤其是层压板和木地板,结论是至少所有这些已知的具有与锁定槽共同作用的一个或多个锁定部件的锁定系统,可调节至具有一个或多个根据本发明第一和第二方面的柔性和尖的锁定部件的系统。他们中的大部分可以容易地调节成与已本系统兼容。几个柔性和/或尖的锁定部件可一个在一个之上或者并排地设置在两个相邻的边缘中。根据本发明的锁定部件可设置在长边和/或短边上,具有柔性或尖的锁定部件的一边可以与具有所有已知锁定系统——优选的是可通过转动或垂直移动锁定的锁定系统——的另一边相结合。本发明不排除柔性锁定部件位于例如长边和短边上的地板面板,也不排除具有多个边例如6个边或8个边的面板。这些面板可通过卡接-卡接安装方法安装。但最优选的实施例是这样的地板块,该地板块具有由层压板制成的表层、由 HDF制成的芯层以及锁定系统,该锁定系统具有位于短边上并允许容易地卡接的柔性或尖的锁定部件,该锁定部件与位于长边上并可通过转动锁定的一体的机械锁定系统结合。长边上的锁定系统在至少一些在垂直或水平锁定如榫舌/榫槽和锁定部件/锁定槽中可活动的表面间可有约0.01mm的小间隙。这些小的间隙有利于移动。这样的地板非常容易利用转动和卡接进行安装。

[0052] 可使用蜡或其他化学物质减少长边和/或短边的滑动阻力。已机加工的木纤维的机械研磨或抛光同样可用于减少与例如转动、滑动和卡接相关的摩擦力。

[0053] 角度、尺寸、圆形部分等仅是举例,并且可在本发明的原理内调节。

[0054] 下面将参考图h_2b,说明设有本发明机械锁定系统的地板面板1,1’的第一优选实施例。

[0055] 图加示意性示出优选位于面板1的短边接合边缘fe和第二面板1’的相对短边接合边缘恥之间的接头。

[0056] 面板的前侧61基本位于一公共的水平面HP内,接合边缘fe、5b的上部在垂直面 VP内相互紧靠在一起。机械锁定系统使面板在垂直方向Dl以及水平方向D2上彼此相对地

锁定在一起。

[0057] 为了使两接合边缘在Dl和D2方向上接合,地板面板的边缘以本身已知的方式在一个接合边缘fe内设有一具有第一锁定部件8的锁定条6,以及与该面板成一体的榫槽9, 该接合边缘在下文中称为榫槽侧;以及在相对边缘恥上设有与面板成一体的榫舌10,该接合边缘在下文中称为榫舌侧。榫舌10和榫槽9提供垂直锁定D1。

[0058] 根据本发明的机械锁定系统包括一单独的柔性第二锁定部件15,该第二锁定部件连接至形成于面板相对边缘恥内的锁定槽14。在如图加所示的实施例中,锁定槽14形成于榫舌侧。柔性锁定部件的部分可沿长度方向弯曲以及能够在锁定槽内移动。柔性锁定部件15具有位于锁定槽14内的槽部分Pl以及伸到锁定槽14外面的突出部分P2。位于一个接合边缘中由单独的材料制成的第二柔性锁定部件15的突出部分P2与第一锁定部件8共同作用,该第一锁定部件与面板制成一体并形成于另一接合边缘中。

[0059] 在该实施例中,面板1例如可以具有由一木质纤维基材料如HDF、胶合板或实木制成的体部或芯层60。面板1,1’也可以由石材、金属或陶瓷材料、或类似的刚硬材料制成。 上述材料不是柔性的,不能使用一体的卡接系统。

[0060] 第二柔性锁定部件可以与榫槽10和/或具有锁定部件8的板条6相结合,该板条 6可以是连接到面板上的单独的材料。

[0061] 柔性锁定部件15具有突出部分P2,该突出部分P2具有圆形外部31和在本实施例中形成为像一斜面的滑动面32。

[0062] 第一锁定部件8具有第一锁定面20,该第一锁定面与第二柔性锁定部件15的第二锁定面22共同作用,并沿水平方向D2锁定接合边缘fe、5b。在该实施例中,锁定面20、22 相对于垂直面VP轻微倾斜(A)。因此,第二锁定部件15像楔子一样锁定,并且可利用由第二柔性锁定部件的垂直弹性度产生的垂直预拉伸来消除误差。

[0063] 图2b示出另一实施例。柔性锁定部件15的内部Pl固定于锁定槽14内,突出部分P2可向锁定槽14和内部Pl垂直地弯曲,并再次向第一锁定部件弯回。在该实施例中, 突出部分P2的弯曲围绕中心点CP进行。锁定面20、22设置成当突出部分P2返回其初始位置形成卡接时,该锁定面20、22相接触。

[0064] 图3a_3c示出柔性锁定部件15在锁定槽14内如何移动。如图3a所示,当移动面 32压靠第一锁定部件8的斜角部分时,柔性锁定部件15垂直地移动。如图3c所示,当面板 1、1’的顶边缘相接触或者在预定的锁定位置时,该柔性锁定部件14弹回,并锁住第一锁定部件8。

[0065] 图4a4c示出具有柔性锁定部件15的锁定系统可以通过转动锁定和拆开。图4d 示出具有柔性锁定部件15的锁定系统可以通过针形工具16拆开,该针形工具16沿接合边缘插入,以将柔性锁定部件14推回,并拆开机械锁定系统。这样的工具也可用于拆开如图 12b所示锁定系统。在该实施例中,所述工具可以插入例如位于该锁定部件8上方的空间45 中,以将板条6推回。可用几种其他的方法推回锁定部件,以水平拆开机械锁定系统。如图 4d所示,例如可以在板条6的下部和锁定部件15的下部垂直于边缘地设置分离槽44。当安装成图案的面板不允许工具沿边缘插入时,这样的槽可用于拆开面板。这样的拆分方式可用于拆开以鱼骨形图案安装的面板,其中,通过短边转动和短边卡接至长边而将长边接合至短边。所述拆分方式也可用于拆开具有6个边或8个边的面板,其中,所述面板的一边或几条边利用本发明的卡接系统连接。

[0066] 图5a_5c示出图2b所示实施例的锁定。当滑动面32和锁定部件8相接触时,如果榫舌10的顶端11部分地位于榫槽9内,则是有利的。这有利于面板的卡接和安装。

[0067] 图6a_6e示出本发明的不同实施例。图6a示出具有两个榫舌10、10’并具有朝前侧开口的锁定槽14的系统。图6b示出锁定槽位于榫舌侧并且部分地位于垂直面VP外侧的榫舌10部分中的系统。图6c、6d与图6a类似,但这些系统只有一个榫舌。图6e示出根据图2b的实施例,但锁定槽14向前侧开口。在该实施例中,地板面板是具有木质表层和胶合板芯层的镶木地板。该柔性锁定部件15具有突起36,以增加柔性锁定部件15和锁定槽 14间的摩擦力并有利于柔性锁定部件和锁定槽的机械接合。

[0068] 优选地,柔性锁定部件15以高精度连接至锁定槽,尤其是锁定过程中柔性锁定部件15的一些部分在锁定槽14内移动时。根据柔性锁定部件和锁定槽之间的可压缩性和摩擦力,柔性锁定部件的整体或不同部分可以与锁定槽连接成具有例如0. 01-0. IOmm的小间隙、精确配合、或预拉伸。可在锁定槽和/或锁定部件之间施加蜡或其他可降低摩擦力的材料或化学物质。

[0069] 即使具有间隙,在上部接合边缘之间仍可实现精确的配合。突出部分P2可形成为压靠在锁定部件8的锁定面20上。例如,突出部分P2可形成为与垂直面VP具有一小夹角。柔性榫舌的突出部分P2倾斜,并将边缘压靠在一起。柔性锁定部件15可以形成为在锁定位置垂直地产生永久压力。这意味着柔性锁定部件15只是部分回弹至初始位置。可选地,柔性锁定部件可以设计成具有这样的尺寸,即,在锁定后该柔性锁定部件向其初始位置轻微移动。这样可逐步形成完美的连接。

[0070] 图示出柔性锁定部件15的不同实施例。在图7a中,柔性锁定部件15模制成,并且在一个边缘部ES上设置有摩擦连接部36,该摩擦连接部的形状制成例如局部小突起。如果柔性锁定部件在工厂接合至地板面板,则该摩擦连接部在安装过程中或在生产、包装、运输过程中将柔性锁定部件保持在锁定槽14内。在图7b中,柔性锁定部件15是一挤出的塑料部。

[0071] 图7c示出包括由几个彼此连接的柔性锁定部件15的坯件50。在该实施例中,柔性锁定部件15利用模制优选地利用注塑而制成。

[0072] 任何类型的树脂材料都可用于生产柔性锁定部件,所述材料例如PA(尼龙),Ρ0Μ, PC, PP, PET或PE或类似的具有在上述不同实施例中所述性质的材料。这些塑料材料可利用例如玻璃纤维加强。优选的材料是玻璃纤维加强的PA。

[0073] 图7d和7e示出具有长度L、中段MS和边缘段ES的柔性锁定部件15。该柔性锁定部件可在长度方向上弯曲,如果有力F作用于突出部分P2上,则该突出部分可在锁定槽内垂直移动。图7e示出双榫舌15。图7g示出具有弹性的经过打孔的内部Pl的挤出段。 图几示出在边缘段ES上具有突出部分P2的柔性榫舌15。

[0074] 利用这些生产方法以及基本原理,可以低成本生产各种复杂的两维或三维形状 (的柔性锁定部件)。当然,柔性锁定部件15可用金属,优选的是铝来制造,木质基板材如 HDF和复合层压板也可用于制造柔性锁定部件,其中,对木质基板材进行机械加工和打孔, 并且将木质基板材与例如弹性橡胶材料等结合。

[0075] 图8a-8c示出柔性锁定部件15如何在地板面板的短边fe连接到槽14。图8a示出具有如图7b所示柔性榫舌的实施例,图8b示出根据图7a的实施例。图8c示出在短边 5a,5b上具有柔性锁定部件,并且在长边^、4b上具有转动系统C、D的地板面板。当然,长边上也可具有一个或几个柔性锁定部件。在该实施例中,柔性锁定部件15的长度L短于地板面板的宽度FL。作为非限制性实施例可以提到的是,具有小于地板宽度FW的0. 8倍的长

9度L的柔性锁定部件即可达到足够的锁定强度。甚至0. 5倍FW的长度L也可达到足够的强度。这样的柔性锁定部件的重量大约为1克,材料成本可以显著低于其他使用单独材料的已知技术。由于柔性锁定部件是否以与拐角部分23精确的距离连接(到面板)并不重要,因此非常容易连接锁定部件。另一优点是,如在传统地板面板中一样,榫舌10沿基本上整个短边延伸。这尤其在拐角部分23提供了牢固的垂直连接。当然,柔性锁定部件可以基本覆盖整个宽度FL。

[0076] 柔性锁定部件可以以几种方法连接到锁定槽。优选的方法是机械地固定柔性锁定部件。当然也可使用粘合剂和机械装置。为了便于理解,地板面板定位成其后侧向上,柔性锁定部件在其短边上。面板也可翻转,使得前侧朝上。如果柔性锁定部件是模制的,则从坯件50上分离,如果是挤出的,则从辊上分离。然后,当面板的短边在固定单元下移动时,锁定部件15压入或辊入锁定槽14,并利用摩擦力连接(到锁定槽)。在柔性锁定部件通过摩擦力拆开或固定的主要原理下,有很多可供选择的方法。

[0077] 图9a至9i是示出所有已知系统,尤其是具有可弯曲板条(9a_9c或9g_9i)或凸缘6(9d_9f)的传统卡接系统的示例,根据本发明,这些系统可以调整为具有柔性锁定部件 14的卡接系统。如图9a和9b所示,通常仅需要对锁定槽进行简单的调整。这样的调整可在相同的机器中并利用相同数量的切割工具完成。

[0078] 图IOa-IOd示出在具有柔性锁定部件的锁定系统中使用的原理也可用于以柔性榫舌30替代榫舌10,以提供可通过垂直交叠(fold)锁定的锁定系统。一面板1’可沿垂直面VP垂直地向另一面板1移动。在该情况下,柔性榫舌30可根据针对柔性锁定部件和柔性锁定部件可使用的实施例所述的相同的原理水平移动。当然,柔性锁定部件可以和柔性榫舌相结合。该锁定系统可通过转动、卡接和垂直交叠锁定。图IOd示出,如果短边上的柔性榫舌30设置在长边上的榫舌10’和榫槽9’的上部和下部之间,则是有利的。这在拐角部分提供了更强的锁定。

[0079] 在本发明内,有很多可选择的方法来实现利用柔性锁定部件的卡接。上述实施例的所有特点可相互接合或者单独使用。它们可在长边和/或短边上使用。即使锁定部件不是柔性的或者不能在垂直方向上移动,生产例如上述实施例所述的插入槽14中的单独锁定部件15的方法当然也可用于提高摩擦性能和强度。根据下面所述的本发明第二原理,例如可使用如图3a所示的不能在锁定槽内移动并且可由例如塑料材料制造的非柔性第二锁定部件。

[0080] 该方法和原理也可与在锁定过程中在水平方向上可弯曲的柔性榫舌10 —起使用。柔性锁定部件也可与卡接过程中部分弯曲的板条6或凸缘结合使用。这种弯曲度能够显著地小于目前已知系统中的弯曲度。

[0081] 该系统可用于连接安装于墙上的瓷砖形板块。瓷砖可相互连接以及连接至固定在墙上的锁定部件。

[0082] 图Ila-Ilc示出根据本发明第二原理的机械卡接锁定系统。该锁定系统具有与面板成一体并具有第一锁定面20的第一锁定部件8,以及由单独的材料制成的第二锁定部件 15,在该实施例中该第二锁定部件是铝板,该铝板具有第一表面40、第二表面41和边缘部分42,该边缘部分是第二锁定表面。第一较软的锁定表面20与较硬并较尖的第二锁定表面 42共同作用,并防止面板1和1’水平分开。该实施例中,第二锁定部件15在榫舌侧,并利用粘合剂连接至榫舌10的后侧,但该第二锁定部件也可以机械地连接到榫舌。

[0083] 作为非限制性实施例可以提及的是,铝板的厚度T可以小于1mm,优选的是 0. 3-0. 6mm,宽度W小于5mm。优选地,宽度W应小于榫舌10的宽度WT,如l_3mm。交搭的锁定表面可小于1mm。优选地,它们可小到如0. 2-0. 4mm。这意味着上部凸缘43和板条6的弯曲度可小至0. 1-0. 2mm,甚至更小。这种小的弯曲度在卡接过程中在木质基材料上将产生很低的卡接阻力。

[0084] 锁定板条6外部47的平衡层46可移去,以避免板条6的与湿度相关的弯曲,在一些地板面板中尤其是在具有小锁定部件的锁定系统中,该弯曲可引起一些问题。

[0085] 图lh-12b示出具有高卡接阻力和低锁定强度的一体式卡接系统如何转变成兼容根据本发明第二原理的锁定卡接系统。

[0086] 图12c_12f示出第二锁定部件15使用粘合剂接合的实施例。图12d和12f还示出第一锁定部件可以非常小或者不存在。尖的第二锁定表面将在木质材料上产生类似刀片边缘的切入力。这些实施例的优点在于,由于当上部边缘相互紧靠时,第二锁定部件15总处于锁定状态,因此锁定部件不需要精确定位。

[0087] 在锁定位置,如果在锁定部件间存在由板条6和/或上部凸缘43形成的垂直预拉伸,则锁定强度可显著增加。

[0088] 图12g_12j示出第二锁定部件机械地连接至面板的实施例。这些图还示出第一和第二原理可结合使用。第二锁定部件15可以既具有柔性又尖,并且可实现强度极高而卡接阻力小的卡接锁定。所有实施例都可用在通过转动和/或卡接或垂直交叠来锁定的锁定系统中。

[0089] 基本上,所有比地板面板的芯层材料的强度高或者具有不同摩擦性质的材料,都可用作单独材料的锁定部件,以在机械锁定系统中减少卡接阻力和/或提高锁定强度。木质基材料也可用化学物质浸渍以获得类似优点。

Claims (11)

1.一组能够沿一对相邻边缘相互机械连接的地板面板,每个所述地板面板包括:位于面板的第一边缘上的柔性榫舌;位于面板的第二相对边缘上的用于接纳相邻面板的柔性榫舌的榫槽,以便垂直于这些面板的主平面将所述相邻的边缘机械锁定在一起,从而在这些面板之间形成垂直的机械连接;所述榫槽形成在面板的芯层内;在所述第一边缘处与面板一体形成的锁定部件以及在所述第二相对边缘处的锁定槽, 该锁定槽向面板的后侧开口;所述锁定部件和锁定槽形成水平机械连接,以便平行于所述主平面并垂直于相接合的第一和第二边缘水平地使这些面板相互锁定;所述柔性榫舌具有回弹性,由单独的材料制成,并与榫槽协作;其中,能够通过垂直地相向移动两个面板而使这两个面板机械接合在一起,同时柔性榫舌的至少一部分弹性地水平移动直到这两个面板的所述相邻边缘垂直地相互接合,然后柔性榫舌对着榫槽向初始位置移动。
2.如权利要求1所述的一组地板面板,其特征在于,所述柔性榫舌具有一安装在第一边缘中的侧向开口槽内的内部部分和一突出部分,其中所述内部部分固定在侧向开口槽内,并且所述柔性榫舌的弹性移动的部分是所述突出部分。
3.如权利要求1所述的一组地板面板,其特征在于,所述柔性榫舌具有一弹性连接到一个边缘中的侧向开口槽的内部部分和一突出部分,由此在所述柔性榫舌的弹性移动期间所述内部部分随着所述突出部分的移动而进行弹性移动。
4.如权利要求2所述的一组地板面板,其特征在于,所述突出部分能够围绕位于所述突出部分的上部的中心点弯曲。
5.如权利要求2所述的一组地板面板,其特征在于,所述突出部分包括在所述突出部分的下部位置的第一锁定表面,在第二边缘中的所述榫槽包括在所述榫槽的下部外部部分处的第二锁定表面,所述第一和第二锁定表面构造成进行协作以实现垂直锁定。
6.如权利要求2所述的一组地板面板,其特征在于,所述突出部分具有向下延伸的滑动面。
7.如权利要求1所述的一组地板面板,其特征在于,所述柔性榫舌由聚合材料制成。
8.如权利要求1所述的一组地板面板,其特征在于,所述柔性榫舌由玻璃纤维加强的聚合材料模制或挤出而成。
9.如权利要求7所述的一组地板面板,其特征在于,所述聚合材料是热塑性材料。
10.如权利要求8所述的一组地板面板,其特征在于,所述聚合材料是热塑性材料。
11.如权利要求2所述的一组地板面板,其特征在于,所述柔性榫舌的内部部分具有突起,以有利于柔性榫舌和侧向开口槽之间的机械连接。
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CN105041806B (zh) * 2011-05-06 2018-01-02 瓦林格创新股份有限公司 建筑面板的机械锁定系统

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