CN101578935A - Saline-sodic land reclamation and control method - Google Patents

Saline-sodic land reclamation and control method Download PDF

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CN101578935A
CN101578935A CNA2008100645059A CN200810064505A CN101578935A CN 101578935 A CN101578935 A CN 101578935A CN A2008100645059 A CNA2008100645059 A CN A2008100645059A CN 200810064505 A CN200810064505 A CN 200810064505A CN 101578935 A CN101578935 A CN 101578935A
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soil
improvement
saline
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fertilizer
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王彤
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王彤
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture

Abstract

The invention relates to a saline-sodic land reclamation and control method. Wide and deep research is long developed on the reclamation of saline-sodic land at home and abroad, and more focuses on engineering measures than applies biological techniques; although achievement has been made, some insurmountable difficulties still exist. The saline-sodic land reclamation and control method comprises the following steps: bulk deep loosening, applying soil deep loosening agents and saline-sodic soil improvement agents to deep loosening soil, purposefully and proportionally applying biologically organic fertilizer according to the composition of soil detected by adopting a nutrient balance method and a nitrogen phosphorus and potassium proportioning method which both comprise the following steps: subtracting soil nutrient-supplying amount from the fertilizer requirement of target yield, supplementing the balance through fertilizing, hathpace ridge forming, draining water and controlling salt, planting green manure-saline alkali tolerant high-yielding grass crop jerusalem artichoke to thoroughly improve the soil.

Description

The improvement in saline and alkaline soil and improvement method
Technical field:
The present invention is the method that alkaline land soil is improved.
Background technology:
Extensive and deep research has all been carried out in the improvement in saline land both at home and abroad for a long time, biased toward engineering measure more, and few Applied Biotechnology, though obtained certain achievement, the difficulty that exists some to be difficult to overcome: 1. engineering cost costliness; 2. produce effect after the soil melioration but can not be lasting; 3. the nutrient in the soil of fresh water flushing back is together drained with salinity; 4. the freshwater resources deficiency is difficult to satisfy pressure salt needs.Dropped into lot of manpower and material resources, though obtain certain achievement, cost performance is not high yet, is difficult to large tracts of land and promotes.All over the world salinized soil origin cause of formation difference, soil nutrient difference, type landforms climatic environment all inequality, the control measures of a country is difficult to implement in other country, also can't obtain promising result even implement.
Summary of the invention:
The improvement method that the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of salt affected soil cheaply.
Above-mentioned purpose realizes by following technical scheme:
The improvement in saline and alkaline soil and improvement method, comprise: omnibearing-deep ploughing, in the soil of dark pine, execute soil subsoiling agent and saline-alkali soil modifying agent, fill a prescription targetedly according to the soil constituent that detects and to execute microbial organic fertilizer, adopt nutrient balance method and nitrogen, phosphorus, the potassium rule of three: the fertilizer requirement with target output subtracts the fertilizer provision from soil amount, its differential section is replenished by fertilising, again by passing through green manuring after high platform ridging, the draining control salt---salt tolerant alkali high yield forage crop jerusalem artichoke, thoroughly improve the soil.
The improvement in described saline and alkaline soil and improvement method, described omnibearing-deep ploughing is: the subsoiler tool is under the traction of big-powered tractor, and by horizontal and vertical cutting twice, deep soil loosing shovel gos deep into soil layer 50cm.
The improvement in described saline and alkaline soil and improvement method, described soil subsoiling agent comprises: ferrous sulfate: magnesium silicate: water=5: 3: 4, when P in soil H value was 7-8, mu was used soil subsoiling agent 25KG; PH value 8-9, mu is used soil subsoiling agent 40KG; PH value 9-10, mu is used soil subsoiling agent 50KG.
The improvement in described saline and alkaline soil and improvement method, the described soil conditioner of using: its composition comprises: polyacrylamide, calcium sulphate, calcium carbonate, citric acid, weight ratio: 1: 1: 3: 1, when P in soil H value is 7-8, use soil conditioner 25KG/ mu; PH value 8-9,35KG/ mu; PH value 9-10,50KG/ mu.
The improvement in described saline and alkaline soil and improvement method describedly effectively increase soil aggregate by soil subsoiling, strengthen that soil is ventilative, infiltration, protect fertile, water retention capacity, promote beneficial microorganism growth in the soil, improve utilization rate of fertilizer.
The improvement in described saline and alkaline soil and improvement method, described high platform ridging is a kind of water conservancy measure: the wide 120CM of Gansu Province platform, the wide 80-100CM of furrow, the dark 40CM in Gansu Province.
The improvement in described saline and alkaline soil and improvement method, the planting technology of described jerusalem artichoke: every strain that applies fertilizer to the subsoil before the plantation executes 1---2 kilograms, drilling: line-spacing 40CM, spacing in the rows 50CM, earthing 5---10CM, the corresponding 1CM that reduces of every rising 0.1 spacing in the rows of P in soil H value.
This technical scheme has following beneficial effect:
1, omnibearing-deep ploughing: the subsoiler tool is under the traction of big-powered tractor, by horizontal and vertical cutting twice, deep soil loosing shovel, break tillage pan, loose pore, the saline and alkaline rising channel of blocking-up, the soil structure that dark pine is passed through is fluffy, promote salt drip washing, has the constant and advantage of vegetation destruction not of soil layer construction simultaneously.
2, use the soil subsoiling agent: this agent contains a large amount of sulphur, silicon, iron, elements such as magnesium, wherein ferrous sulfate, magnesium silicate can effectively increase soil aggregate, strengthen soil and breathe freely, seep water, protect fertile, water retention capacity, promote that beneficial microorganism is grown in the soil, the raising utilization rate of fertilizer.Use soil conditioner, by significantly increasing the calcium sulphate in the soil solution, the solvability of the contour divalent metal compound of calcium carbonate, a large amount of high volence metal ions that activate in the soil based on calcium ion, because the adsorption capacity of high volence metal ion and soil colloid is greater than sodium ion, the sodium ion of the high volence metal ion that is activated and then a large amount of displacement and soil colloid absorption, the last sodium ion that dissociates by macromolecule group absorption again becomes salt ion with other, thereby reaches the purpose in improvement saline land.
3. use biological organic fertilizer: fertilization compositions based on earth measurement, adopt nutrient balance method and nitrogen, phosphorus, the potassium rule of three: the fertilizer requirement with target output subtracts the fertilizer provision from soil amount, its differential section is replenished by fertilising, makes between needed nutrient quantity of jerusalem artichoke output and the fertilizer supply nutrient to reach balance.Adopt nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium rule of three: by field trial, determine the optimum dose of jerusalem artichoke plantation, and calculate the ratio between the three.As long as determine a kind of consumption of nutrient, just can determine the consumption of other nutrients during practical application,, decide potassium etc. with nitrogen as deciding phosphorus with nitrogen.
4. use microbial organic fertilizer by surveying the soil prescription, increase the content of 30 multiple beneficial microorganism species in the soil, powerful fixed nitrogen, phosphorus decomposing, potassium decomposing function promote the generation and the raising of available nutrient in the soil, make its suitable plant growth.Fertilizer use the content that increases soil with organic matter simultaneously, this is the necessary means of being avoided soil compaction, increasing long-acting nutrient of soil and available nutrient.
5. plant and plant salt tolerant alkali crop jerusalem artichoke,, suppress the accumulation of salt in the surface soil because himself huge absorption, solid water function and face of land covering power are effectively avoided the soil moisture evaporation.Jerusalem artichoke also has the green manure function, has both increased the soil organic matter, chesson, promotes salt drip washing again.
Economic effect: accelerate the new socialist countryside pace of construction, can increase the quantity in farmland, improve farm labor efficiency, improve the quality in farmland, accelerate ecological construction, improve economic and social benefit, promote the paces of new countryside construction by ecological benefits.Guarantee grain storage total amount.Increase substantially farmers' income: if peasant household everyone manage 50 mu of " three change grassland " soils, per capita net income increases by 20000 yuan.Form, extend the jerusalem artichoke industry chain (supply chain): be suitable for and develop animal husbandry, be suitable for development rural ecological energy industry, development jerusalem artichoke processing industry.
Technique effect: after omnibearing-deep ploughing and the dark loose agent of administration of salt alkaline earth, the soil meteorology increases by 300% than the check plot, soil hardness is reduced to below the 500---700Kpa from 1000---1500Kpa, the ability of infiltrating of soil improves 3 times, under the situation of manual priming 100mm, dark loose 30cm is Shen Song district many water storages 8.6---30.1% more not, is equivalent to annual many rainfalls 80mm.After using saline-alkali soil modifying agent, P in soil H value reduces, and total salinity 0.4146% drops to 0.1233%, near 70%, the Na ion that the plant growth toxic action is big is replaced in a large number, content reduces gradually, and the content of organic matter rises to 5.920% by 3.042%, has improved 94.5%, soil therefrom, severe salinization soil changes slight salinization soil into, and the soil chemistry index tends to optimumization, and qualitative change has taken place soil.Described omnibearing-deep ploughing can be broken tillage pan, loose pore, the saline and alkaline rising channel of blocking-up, and the soil structure that dark pine is passed through is fluffy, promote salt drip washing, does not change soil layer construction and vegetation destruction not
By significantly increasing the calcium sulphate in the soil solution, the solvability of the contour divalent metal compound of calcium carbonate, a large amount of high volence metal ions that activate in the soil based on calcium ion, because the adsorption capacity of high volence metal ion and soil colloid is greater than sodium ion, the sodium ion of the high volence metal ion that is activated and then a large amount of displacement and soil colloid absorption, the last sodium ion that dissociates by macromolecule group absorption again becomes salt ion with other, thereby reaches the purpose in improvement saline land.
The specific embodiment of the present invention:
Embodiment 1:
The improvement in saline and alkaline soil and improvement method, comprise: omnibearing-deep ploughing, in the soil of dark pine, execute soil subsoiling agent and saline-alkali soil modifying agent, fill a prescription targetedly according to the soil constituent that detects and to execute microbial organic fertilizer, adopt nutrient balance method and nitrogen, phosphorus, the potassium rule of three: the fertilizer requirement with target output subtracts the fertilizer provision from soil amount, its differential section is replenished by fertilising, again by passing through green manuring after high platform ridging, the draining control salt---salt tolerant alkali high yield forage crop jerusalem artichoke, thoroughly improve the soil.
Embodiment 2:
The improvement in embodiment 1 described saline and alkaline soil and improvement method, described omnibearing-deep ploughing is: the subsoiler tool is under the traction of big-powered tractor, and by horizontal and vertical cutting twice, deep soil loosing shovel gos deep into soil layer 50cm.
Embodiment 3:
The improvement in embodiment 1 or 2 described saline and alkaline soils and improvement method, described soil subsoiling agent comprises: ferrous sulfate: magnesium silicate: water=5: 3: 4, when P in soil H value was 7-8, mu was used soil subsoiling agent 25KG; PH value 8-9, mu is used soil subsoiling agent 40KG; PH value 9-10, mu is used soil subsoiling agent 50KG.
Embodiment 4:
The improvement in above-mentioned saline and alkaline soil and improvement method, the described soil conditioner of using: its composition comprises: polyacrylamide, calcium sulphate, calcium carbonate, citric acid, weight ratio: 1: 1: 3: 1, when P in soil H value is 7-8, use soil conditioner 25KG/ mu; PH value 8-9,35KG/ mu; PH value 9-10,50KG/ mu.
Embodiment 5:
The improvement in above-mentioned saline and alkaline soil and improvement method describedly effectively increase soil aggregate by soil subsoiling, strengthen that soil is ventilative, infiltration, protect fertile, water retention capacity, promote beneficial microorganism growth in the soil, improve utilization rate of fertilizer.
Embodiment 6:
The improvement in above-mentioned saline and alkaline soil and improvement method is characterized in that: described high platform ridging is a kind of water conservancy measure: the wide 120CM of Gansu Province platform, the wide 80-100CM of furrow, the dark 40CM in Gansu Province.
Embodiment 7:
The improvement in above-mentioned saline and alkaline soil and improvement method, the planting technology of described jerusalem artichoke: every strain that applies fertilizer to the subsoil before the plantation executes 1---2 kilograms, drilling: line-spacing 40CM, spacing in the rows 50CM, earthing 5---10CM, the corresponding 1CM that reduces of every rising 0.1 spacing in the rows of P in soil H value.
Embodiment 8:
1, by comprehensive (laterally+vertically) dark loose technology, changes soil aggregate, break tillage pan, block saline and alkaline rising channel;
2, use the soil subsoiling agent: can effectively increase soil aggregate, strengthen soil and breathe freely, seep water, protect fertile, water retention capacity, promote that beneficial microorganism is grown in the soil, the raising utilization rate of fertilizer.When P in soil H value was 7-8, mu was used soil subsoiling agent 25KG; PH value 8-9, mu is used soil subsoiling agent 40KG; PH value 9-10, mu is used soil subsoiling agent 50KG.
3, use saline-alkali soil conditioner, by significantly increasing the calcium sulphate in the soil solution, the solvability of the contour divalent metal compound of calcium carbonate, a large amount of high volence metal ions that activate in the soil based on calcium ion, because the adsorption capacity of high volence metal ion and soil colloid is greater than sodium ion, the sodium ion of the high volence metal ion that is activated and then a large amount of displacement and soil colloid absorption, the last sodium ion that dissociates by macromolecule group absorption again becomes salt ion with other, thereby reaches the purpose in improvement saline land.When P in soil H value is 7-8, use soil conditioner 25KG/ mu; PH value 8-9,35KG/ mu; PH value 9-10,50KG/ mu.
4, use microbial-bacterial fertilizer, utilize the specified microorganisms bacterium to surround and eat up sodium ion, reduce soil salt content, make soil trend towards rational index; Computing formula is: fertilizer requirement=target output * specific yield Nutrient Absorption amount-soil nutrien measuring value is surveyed * 0.15 * correction coefficient/(nutrient content in the fertilizer * fertilizer this season availability).
5, use biological organic fertilizer by surveying the soil prescription, increase soil organic matter content, beneficial microbe colony content, culture fertility; The Main Ingredients and Appearance sporeformer, lactic acid bacteria, radiation bacterium etc. profitable strain and biochemical fulvic acid, amino acid, beneficial microbe 〉=200,000,000/gram, fulvic acid 〉=30%, amino acid 〉=6%, NPK 〉=5%.When P in soil H value is 7-8, use biological organic fertilizer 750KG/ mu; PH value 8-9,1000KG/ mu; PH value 9-10,1200KG/ mu.
6,, form drought and can irritate, waterlog and to arrange by water conservancy projects and high platform ridging, the pressure of pouring water alkali; The wide 120CM of Gansu Province platform, the wide 80-100CM of furrow, the dark 40CM in Gansu Province adopts trench digging (ditch depth 15CM), applies fertilizer to the subsoil (every strain executes 1---2 kilograms), drilling (line-spacing 40CM, spacing in the rows 50CM), earthing 5---10CM (the corresponding 1CM that reduces of every rising 0.1 spacing in the rows of P in soil H value).
7, plantation salt tolerant alkali perennial crop---jerusalem artichoke is chosen seeds, rejuvenation, cultivation.Owing to himself powerful anti-salt alkali ability and huge absorption, solid water function and face of land covering power, effectively avoid the soil moisture evaporation, suppress the accumulation of salt in the surface soil.Jerusalem artichoke also has the composition function of improving the soil of green manure, has both increased the soil organic matter, chesson, promotes salt drip washing again.
Innovative point:
The new theory of 1, original creation " control water, press down salt and acid, getting fat soil fertility ".
2, theoretical according to original creation, the comprehensive soil melioration technology of employing soil physics, chemistry, microorganism, water conservancy;
3, plantation salt tolerant alkali, anti-barren, perennial, high yield forage crop---jerusalem artichoke.

Claims (7)

1. the improvement in a saline and alkaline soil and improvement method, comprise: omnibearing-deep ploughing, it is characterized in that: in the soil of dark pine, execute soil subsoiling agent and saline-alkali soil modifying agent, fill a prescription targetedly according to the soil constituent that detects and to execute microbial organic fertilizer, adopt nutrient balance method and nitrogen, phosphorus, the potassium rule of three: the fertilizer requirement with target output subtracts the fertilizer provision from soil amount, its differential section is replenished by fertilising, again by passing through green manuring after high platform ridging, the draining control salt---salt tolerant alkali high yield forage crop jerusalem artichoke, thoroughly improve the soil.
2. the improvement in saline and alkaline soil according to claim 1 and improvement method, it is characterized in that: described omnibearing-deep ploughing is: the subsoiler tool is under the traction of big-powered tractor, and by horizontal and vertical cutting twice, deep soil loosing shovel gos deep into soil layer 50cm.
3. the improvement in saline and alkaline soil according to claim 1 and 2 and improvement method, it is characterized in that: described soil subsoiling agent comprises: ferrous sulfate: magnesium silicate: water=5: 3: 4, when P in soil H value was 7-8, mu was used soil subsoiling agent 25KG; PH value 8-9, mu is used soil subsoiling agent 40KG; PH value 9-10, mu is used soil subsoiling agent 50KG.
4. according to the improvement and the improvement method in claim 1 or 2 or 3 described saline and alkaline soils, it is characterized in that: the described soil conditioner of using: its composition comprises: polyacrylamide, calcium sulphate, calcium carbonate, citric acid, weight ratio: 1: 1: 3: 1, when P in soil H value is 7-8, use soil conditioner 25KG/ mu; PH value 8-9,35KG/ mu; PH value 9-10,50KG/ mu.
5. according to the improvement and the improvement method in claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 described saline and alkaline soils, it is characterized in that: describedly effectively increase soil aggregate by soil subsoiling, strengthen soil and breathe freely, seep water, protect fertile, water retention capacity, promote beneficial microorganism growth in the soil, improve utilization rate of fertilizer.
6. according to the improvement and the improvement method in claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 described saline and alkaline soils, it is characterized in that: described high platform ridging is a kind of water conservancy measure: the wide 120CM of Gansu Province platform, the wide 80-100CM of furrow, the dark 40CM in Gansu Province.
7. according to the improvement and the improvement method in claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 described saline and alkaline soils, it is characterized in that: the planting technology of described jerusalem artichoke: after the plantation, 1-2 kilogram, drilling are executed in every strain that applies fertilizer to the subsoil: line-spacing 40CM, spacing in the rows 50CM, earthing 5-10CM, the corresponding 1CM that reduces of every rising 0.1 spacing in the rows of P in soil H value.
CN2008100645059A 2008-05-14 2008-05-14 Saline-sodic land reclamation and control method Expired - Fee Related CN101578935B (en)

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