CN101569918A - Coating for lost foam cast iron - Google Patents

Coating for lost foam cast iron Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN101569918A
CN101569918A CNA2009100160391A CN200910016039A CN101569918A CN 101569918 A CN101569918 A CN 101569918A CN A2009100160391 A CNA2009100160391 A CN A2009100160391A CN 200910016039 A CN200910016039 A CN 200910016039A CN 101569918 A CN101569918 A CN 101569918A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
coating
parts
lost foam
cast iron
portions
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
CNA2009100160391A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN101569918B (en
Inventor
刘则斌
张传明
耿庆会
成学山
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Shandong Liquan Machinery Technology Co. Ltd.
Original Assignee
刘则斌
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 刘则斌 filed Critical 刘则斌
Priority to CN2009100160391A priority Critical patent/CN101569918B/en
Publication of CN101569918A publication Critical patent/CN101569918A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN101569918B publication Critical patent/CN101569918B/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of coatings for lost foam, in particular to a coating for lost foam cast iron. The invention provides the coating for the lost foam cast iron, which comprises the following components (calculated as the weight): 70 portions of bauxite, 30 portions of quartz powder, 2 to 5 portions of bentonite, 0.5 to 2 portions of white latex, 0.5 to 1.0 portion of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, 2 to 3 portions of water soluble phenolic resin, 0.5 to 2 portions of attapulgite, 2 to 5 portions of spodumene powder, 0.01 to 0.03 portion of surfactant, and 0.01 to 0.02 portion of defoaming agent. The coating has thin and even coatings and good air permeability; the surfaces of castings are smooth, clean, and level and easy to peel off, and black defects are eliminated; and the castings have level surfaces and high surface quality.

Description

Coating for lost foam cast iron
Technical field
The invention belongs to the technical field of disappearance mould, be specially a kind of coating for lost foam cast iron with coating.
Background technology
The production of ironcasting disappearance mould is because carbon content is high and partly can not be gasified totally during the pyrolysis of eps foam plastic pouring process and often cause the black defective, promptly there is black splotch to cause foundry goods to be scrapped after the processing, increase the gas permeability and the adsorption capacity of apperance coating, can effectively eliminate the black defective, but when increasing, most fireproof coating adsorption capacities sacrificed the cast(ing) surface flatness, guarantee that but surface quality of continuous castings does not guarantee adsorption capacity and increases the difficulty that coating is cleared up, the uneven presentation quality that has a strong impact on foundry goods of cast(ing) surface.During lost foam cast iron spare was produced, the preparation of coating and drying were one of important steps that obtains premium casting, and bauxite, equadag coating foundry goods are easy to cleaning, but any surface finish poor flatness, and the silica flour coating surface is bright and clean smooth but be difficult to clear up.Preparing a kind of suitable coating and solve an above-mentioned difficult problem, is the urgent need of iron casting production.Paint coatings in the past is thick, gas permeability is poor, the foamed plastics gasification is difficult for discharging, cause ironcasting carbon slag defective or cause foundry goods to scrap, influence serviceability, casting qualified rate is low, and elevated temperature strength is low, the casting pouring rear surface is uneven, influence the foundry goods outward appearance, maybe will increase the polishing operation, bauxite and silica flour collocation are used and are not difficult to see in conventional coating, but the fluctuation of difficult cleaning of thick coating and pouring temperature often has the black defective to occur, the coating that contains the spodumene powder is that recent development is used, but still is difficult to reach desirable casting quality.
Summary of the invention
Purpose of the present invention is exactly to provide a kind of coating for lost foam cast iron at the defective of above-mentioned existence.This paint coatings is thin and even, good permeability, and bright and clean smooth being easy to of cast(ing) surface peeled off, and eliminates the black defective, and cast(ing) surface is smooth, the surface quality height.
Coating for lost foam cast iron of the present invention, comprise following component by weight, 70 parts of bauxites, 30 parts of silica flours, bentonite 2-5 part, white glue with vinyl 0.5-2 part, sodium carboxymethylcellulose 0.5-1.0 part, water soluble phenol resin 2-3 part, attapulgite 0.5-2 part, spodumene powder 2-5 part, surfactant 0.01-0.03 part, defoamer 0.01-0.02 part.
The preferred version of this coating is: it consists of following component by weight: 70 parts of bauxites, 30 parts of silica flours, 3 parts of bentonites, 1 part of white glue with vinyl, 0.8 part of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 2.5 parts of water soluble phenol resins, 1 part of attapulgite, 4 parts in spodumene powder, 0.02 part in surfactant, 0.02 part of defoamer.
Wherein, described surfactant is one or more of polyoxyethylated alkyl alcohol (OP-10) or tween (T-80) or APEO n-butanol (JFC).Described defoamer is one or more of n-butanol or n-octyl alcohol or n-amyl alcohol.
The preparation method of coating of the present invention is above-mentioned raw materials to be mixed to stir obtaining product with water.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is, bauxite absorption EPS ability is strong, can eliminate the carbon black defective, form the molten glass shape under the spodumene condition of high temperature, low temperature forms glassy sinter layer and very easily clears up, and have negative expansion characteristics to offset the quartzy vein defective that expands and form, bright and clean smooth being easy to of cast(ing) surface peeled off, and attapulgite slurry thixotropic property is good to form uniform thin layer coating.Adopt the collocation of attapulgite and spodumene, coating is thin and even, good permeability, the foamed plastics die cavity of overflowing easily, eliminate the carbon slag, eliminate the black defective, qualification rate improves, elevated temperature strength when both having guaranteed cast, coating high-temp expands little, and coating is indeformable, and the surface quality of continuous castings height, the polishing equating is removed in surfacing from.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment technical scheme of the present invention is described in detail.
Embodiment 1
70 parts of bauxites, 30 parts of silica flours, 3 parts of bentonites, 1 part of white glue with vinyl, 0.8 part of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 2.5 parts of water soluble phenol resins, 1 part of attapulgite, 4 parts in spodumene powder, 0.02 part of APEO n-butanol, 0.02 part of n-amyl alcohol mixes stirring with above-mentioned raw materials and obtains product with water.
Embodiment 2
70 parts of bauxites, 30 parts of silica flours, 2 parts of bentonites, 0.5 part of white glue with vinyl, 1.0 parts of sodium carboxymethylcelluloses, 2 parts of water soluble phenol resins, 2 parts of attapulgites, 2 parts in spodumene powder, 0.01 part of tween, 0.02 part of n-octyl alcohol mixes stirring with above-mentioned raw materials and obtains product with water.
Embodiment 3
70 parts of bauxites, 30 parts of silica flours, 5 parts of bentonites, 2 parts of white glue with vinyl, 0.5 part of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 3 parts of water soluble phenol resins, 0.5 part of attapulgite, 5 parts in spodumene powder, 0.03 part of polyoxyethylated alkyl alcohol, 0.01 part of n-butanol mixes stirring with above-mentioned raw materials and obtains product with water.
The process characteristic of this coating and the outstanding representation of casting process:
In this formulation for coating material spodumene powder and attapulgite are integrated together, the good rheological characteristic of performance attapulgite slurry, make pseudoplastic, its thixotropic property makes coating viscosity under the effect of stirring shearing force descend, be convenient to brush and paint thickness that apperance is adhered to thin, viscosity rising assurance coating is not evenly trickled when stopping to stir, and final coating thickness only has 0.4~0.6mm (general coating 1~2mm).Thin coating has greatly improved the gas permeability of apperance coating, for the EPS pyrolytic gasification and overflow the condition created, greatly bring into play spodumene negative expansion performance and low temperature lower-glass crystallite is convenient to the cleaning technology performance, peel off in order after the coating cast, in the narrow foundry goods that is not easy to clear up of inner chamber, obtain good application, black defective disappearance in high-carbon cast iron especially spheroidal graphite cast-iron lost foam casting, cast(ing) surface is bright and clean smooth, and surface quality is similar to hot investment casting.

Claims (4)

1. coating for lost foam cast iron, comprise following component by weight, 70 parts of bauxites, 30 parts of silica flours, bentonite 2-5 part, white glue with vinyl 0.5-2 part, sodium carboxymethylcellulose 0.5-1.0 part, water soluble phenol resin 2-3 part, attapulgite 0.5-2 part, spodumene powder 2-5 part, surfactant 0.01-0.03 part, defoamer 0.01-0.02 part.
2. coating for lost foam cast iron according to claim 1, it consists of following component by weight: 70 parts of bauxites, 30 parts of silica flours, 3 parts of bentonites, 1 part of white glue with vinyl, 0.8 part of sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 2.5 parts of water soluble phenol resins, 1 part of attapulgite, 4 parts in spodumene powder, 0.02 part in surfactant, 0.02 part of defoamer.
3. coating for lost foam cast iron according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that, described surfactant is one or more of polyoxyethylated alkyl alcohol or tween or APEO n-butanol.
4. coating for lost foam cast iron according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that, described defoamer is one or more of n-butanol or n-octyl alcohol or n-amyl alcohol.
CN2009100160391A 2009-06-10 2009-06-10 Coating for lost foam cast iron Expired - Fee Related CN101569918B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN2009100160391A CN101569918B (en) 2009-06-10 2009-06-10 Coating for lost foam cast iron

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN2009100160391A CN101569918B (en) 2009-06-10 2009-06-10 Coating for lost foam cast iron

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN101569918A true CN101569918A (en) 2009-11-04
CN101569918B CN101569918B (en) 2010-12-01

Family

ID=41229473

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN2009100160391A Expired - Fee Related CN101569918B (en) 2009-06-10 2009-06-10 Coating for lost foam cast iron

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN101569918B (en)

Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101708528A (en) * 2009-12-21 2010-05-19 上海市机械制造工艺研究所有限公司 Energy-saving type water group lost mould casting paint
CN102139342A (en) * 2011-03-07 2011-08-03 衡阳中钢衡重铸锻有限公司 High-permeability sand-burning-preventing paint for casting and preparation method thereof
CN102179472A (en) * 2011-03-14 2011-09-14 何剑锋 Ductile iron coating for lost foam casting, and preparation method thereof
CN102179473A (en) * 2011-05-11 2011-09-14 李华山 Lost foam casting composite coating
CN102430704A (en) * 2011-11-29 2012-05-02 朱小英 Preparation method for lost foam casting paint
CN102601300A (en) * 2012-03-31 2012-07-25 湖北省机电研究设计院 Sintering-strippable red cast iron coating and preparation method thereof
CN102836952A (en) * 2012-08-31 2012-12-26 太仓科博尔精密铸业有限公司 Resin sand type casting coating and preparation method thereof
CN102836960A (en) * 2012-09-28 2012-12-26 遵义市润丰源钢铁铸造有限公司 Coating for metal casting EPC (Expandable Pattern Casting)
CN102873266A (en) * 2012-10-19 2013-01-16 南京信息工程大学 Alcohol-group dry powder sand mould foundry coating
CN103042168A (en) * 2012-12-30 2013-04-17 安岳县金龙机械制造有限公司 Lost foam casting coating and preparation method thereof
CN103056287A (en) * 2013-01-25 2013-04-24 南京信息工程大学 Material for cast steel evaporative pattern and preparation method of material
CN103100658A (en) * 2012-12-11 2013-05-15 芜湖恒坤汽车部件有限公司 Method for preparing solid-mold casting coating material for cast iron
CN103100653A (en) * 2012-12-11 2013-05-15 芜湖恒坤汽车部件有限公司 Method for preparing high-gas-permeability solid-mold casting coating material
CN103170579A (en) * 2013-04-18 2013-06-26 李玉忠 Stainless steel water meter shell and machining method thereof
CN103357814A (en) * 2013-07-24 2013-10-23 翼城县福旺铸造实业有限公司 Lost foam casting-use paint formula and technology method thereof
CN103658508A (en) * 2013-11-26 2014-03-26 阜阳市富鑫铸造机械有限公司 Cast steel lost foam coating formula
CN103980746A (en) * 2014-04-23 2014-08-13 王会智 Painting protection material used for anode steel claw
CN103992664A (en) * 2014-04-24 2014-08-20 王会智 Anode steel stud coating
CN104353777A (en) * 2014-11-05 2015-02-18 襄阳聚力炉衬材料有限公司 Cast iron evaporative pattern coating and preparation method thereof
CN104475669A (en) * 2014-10-08 2015-04-01 铜陵瑞莱科技有限公司 Anti-burn on casting coating and manufacturing method thereof
CN104493078A (en) * 2014-12-31 2015-04-08 榆林学院 Casting coating prepared from semi-coke wastewater and preparation method of casting coating
CN105108048A (en) * 2015-08-28 2015-12-02 安徽省含山县天顺环保设备有限公司 Novel coating formula
CN105458160A (en) * 2014-09-12 2016-04-06 池州市永恒机械制造有限公司 Preparation method for lost foam casting coating
CN105478659A (en) * 2015-12-15 2016-04-13 六安万邦机械科技有限公司 Formula of evaporative pattern casting model coating paint
CN106825389A (en) * 2016-12-19 2017-06-13 重庆市九明机械制造有限公司 Lost foam casting coating
CN107486544A (en) * 2017-08-22 2017-12-19 安徽大卫模具有限公司 A kind of lost foam casting process
CN107952929A (en) * 2017-11-23 2018-04-24 山东蒙沃变速器有限公司 A kind of water base lost foam casting coating
CN108380815A (en) * 2018-05-24 2018-08-10 靖江市黎明铸造材料厂 Lost foam casting hardens ghost coating and preparation method thereof
CN108855841A (en) * 2018-06-22 2018-11-23 西安工程大学 A kind of powder porous fire-proof heat-insulating coating and preparation method thereof for aluminium alloy
CN110125327A (en) * 2019-05-14 2019-08-16 唐山丞起汽车零部件有限公司海港分公司 A kind of coating and its preparation and application substituting furan resin self curing sand
CN110666104A (en) * 2019-09-30 2020-01-10 湖南新曙光铸造有限公司 Lost foam casting method of nodular cast iron well lid
CN111360194A (en) * 2020-03-04 2020-07-03 宁波市文旭铸造材料有限公司 High-performance lost foam casting mold coating and preparation method thereof

Cited By (42)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101708528A (en) * 2009-12-21 2010-05-19 上海市机械制造工艺研究所有限公司 Energy-saving type water group lost mould casting paint
CN102139342A (en) * 2011-03-07 2011-08-03 衡阳中钢衡重铸锻有限公司 High-permeability sand-burning-preventing paint for casting and preparation method thereof
CN102179472A (en) * 2011-03-14 2011-09-14 何剑锋 Ductile iron coating for lost foam casting, and preparation method thereof
CN102179473A (en) * 2011-05-11 2011-09-14 李华山 Lost foam casting composite coating
CN102430704B (en) * 2011-11-29 2013-03-20 宁波兴柯汽车新材料科技有限公司 Preparation method for lost foam casting paint
CN102430704A (en) * 2011-11-29 2012-05-02 朱小英 Preparation method for lost foam casting paint
CN102601300B (en) * 2012-03-31 2014-02-26 湖北省机电研究设计院股份公司 Sintering-strippable red cast iron coating and preparation method thereof
CN102601300A (en) * 2012-03-31 2012-07-25 湖北省机电研究设计院 Sintering-strippable red cast iron coating and preparation method thereof
CN102836952A (en) * 2012-08-31 2012-12-26 太仓科博尔精密铸业有限公司 Resin sand type casting coating and preparation method thereof
CN102836960A (en) * 2012-09-28 2012-12-26 遵义市润丰源钢铁铸造有限公司 Coating for metal casting EPC (Expandable Pattern Casting)
CN102873266A (en) * 2012-10-19 2013-01-16 南京信息工程大学 Alcohol-group dry powder sand mould foundry coating
CN102873266B (en) * 2012-10-19 2014-11-26 南京信息工程大学 Alcohol-group dry powder sand mould foundry coating
CN103100658A (en) * 2012-12-11 2013-05-15 芜湖恒坤汽车部件有限公司 Method for preparing solid-mold casting coating material for cast iron
CN103100653A (en) * 2012-12-11 2013-05-15 芜湖恒坤汽车部件有限公司 Method for preparing high-gas-permeability solid-mold casting coating material
CN103100653B (en) * 2012-12-11 2016-03-23 芜湖恒坤汽车部件有限公司 A kind of preparation method of highly-breathable full-mold casting coating
CN103042168B (en) * 2012-12-30 2015-06-03 安岳县金龙机械制造有限公司 Lost foam casting coating and preparation method thereof
CN103042168A (en) * 2012-12-30 2013-04-17 安岳县金龙机械制造有限公司 Lost foam casting coating and preparation method thereof
CN103056287A (en) * 2013-01-25 2013-04-24 南京信息工程大学 Material for cast steel evaporative pattern and preparation method of material
CN103056287B (en) * 2013-01-25 2014-11-26 南京信息工程大学 Material for cast steel evaporative pattern and preparation method of material
CN103170579A (en) * 2013-04-18 2013-06-26 李玉忠 Stainless steel water meter shell and machining method thereof
CN103357814A (en) * 2013-07-24 2013-10-23 翼城县福旺铸造实业有限公司 Lost foam casting-use paint formula and technology method thereof
CN103658508A (en) * 2013-11-26 2014-03-26 阜阳市富鑫铸造机械有限公司 Cast steel lost foam coating formula
CN103980746A (en) * 2014-04-23 2014-08-13 王会智 Painting protection material used for anode steel claw
CN103980746B (en) * 2014-04-23 2016-04-27 王会智 A kind of anode steel jaw brushing preservative
CN103992664B (en) * 2014-04-24 2016-08-24 王会智 A kind of anode steel claw is coated with brush material
CN103992664A (en) * 2014-04-24 2014-08-20 王会智 Anode steel stud coating
CN105458160A (en) * 2014-09-12 2016-04-06 池州市永恒机械制造有限公司 Preparation method for lost foam casting coating
CN104475669A (en) * 2014-10-08 2015-04-01 铜陵瑞莱科技有限公司 Anti-burn on casting coating and manufacturing method thereof
CN104353777A (en) * 2014-11-05 2015-02-18 襄阳聚力炉衬材料有限公司 Cast iron evaporative pattern coating and preparation method thereof
CN104493078A (en) * 2014-12-31 2015-04-08 榆林学院 Casting coating prepared from semi-coke wastewater and preparation method of casting coating
CN105108048A (en) * 2015-08-28 2015-12-02 安徽省含山县天顺环保设备有限公司 Novel coating formula
CN105478659A (en) * 2015-12-15 2016-04-13 六安万邦机械科技有限公司 Formula of evaporative pattern casting model coating paint
CN106825389A (en) * 2016-12-19 2017-06-13 重庆市九明机械制造有限公司 Lost foam casting coating
CN107486544A (en) * 2017-08-22 2017-12-19 安徽大卫模具有限公司 A kind of lost foam casting process
CN107952929A (en) * 2017-11-23 2018-04-24 山东蒙沃变速器有限公司 A kind of water base lost foam casting coating
CN108380815A (en) * 2018-05-24 2018-08-10 靖江市黎明铸造材料厂 Lost foam casting hardens ghost coating and preparation method thereof
CN108380815B (en) * 2018-05-24 2020-06-16 靖江市黎明铸造材料厂 Lost foam casting hardening hollow shell coating and preparation method thereof
CN108855841A (en) * 2018-06-22 2018-11-23 西安工程大学 A kind of powder porous fire-proof heat-insulating coating and preparation method thereof for aluminium alloy
CN110125327B (en) * 2019-05-14 2021-03-09 唐山丞起汽车零部件有限公司海港分公司 Paint replacing furan resin self-hardening sand and preparation and use methods thereof
CN110125327A (en) * 2019-05-14 2019-08-16 唐山丞起汽车零部件有限公司海港分公司 A kind of coating and its preparation and application substituting furan resin self curing sand
CN110666104A (en) * 2019-09-30 2020-01-10 湖南新曙光铸造有限公司 Lost foam casting method of nodular cast iron well lid
CN111360194A (en) * 2020-03-04 2020-07-03 宁波市文旭铸造材料有限公司 High-performance lost foam casting mold coating and preparation method thereof

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN101569918B (en) 2010-12-01

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN101569918B (en) Coating for lost foam cast iron
CN105081206A (en) Coating for lost foam iron casting
CN101497104B (en) Lost foam paint and method for producing the same
CN102366816B (en) A kind of preparation method of Water-based coating for lost foam casting
CN105458182B (en) A kind of casting method of volute
CN101767184B (en) Lost foam casting cast iron coating for preventing carbon defects and preparation method thereof
CN108057840B (en) A kind of formula of the water base lost foam paint of low-temperature high-strength magnesium iron
CN102218502A (en) Isopropanol-based coating for lost foam casting steel and production method thereof
CN102240776A (en) Coating for lost mould cast steel and manufacture method thereof
CN105057569A (en) Water-based paint containing nano-zinc oxide and with enhanced high heat retaining property for evanescent mold casting and preparation method thereof
CN108907095B (en) Casting method for rapidly casting large-scale precise casting based on 3D printing technology
CN102248120A (en) Low thermoconductive paint for casting lost foam of thin wall cast
CN110170614B (en) Precoated sand shell mold casting process
CN109465426A (en) A kind of high-performance through-hole foam aluminum material and its preparation process
CN103042173A (en) Negative-pressure airflow expendable pattern based energy-saving and effect-enhancing casting process
CN104801658A (en) Alcohol-base foundry coating for green sand mold and preparation method of alcohol-base foundry coating
CN102836956A (en) Sand adhering prevention cast steel EPC (Expendable Pattern Casting) coating and preparation method thereof
CN103990760A (en) Lost foam casting process of aluminum alloy cylinder body or cylinder cover
CN104874731A (en) Method for casting large-scale bucket tooth casting by using lost foam
CN102836953A (en) Cast iron lost foam coating and preparation method thereof
CN105537526A (en) Forming method of flame-retarding insulating riser
CN110479959A (en) A kind of method that lost foam casting prepares magnesium-based composite material
CN108889907B (en) Casting method for casting high-end large-scale precision casting
CN102836957A (en) Lost foam coating and preparation method thereof
CN103008534A (en) Novel heat insulation multilayer coating for common medium carbon steel casting in metal casting production

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
C06 Publication
PB01 Publication
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
C10 Entry into substantive examination
GR01 Patent grant
C14 Grant of patent or utility model
ASS Succession or assignment of patent right

Owner name: SHANDONG LIQUAN MACHINERY TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.

Free format text: FORMER OWNER: LIU ZEBIN

Effective date: 20130823

C41 Transfer of patent application or patent right or utility model
TR01 Transfer of patent right

Effective date of registration: 20130823

Address after: 256214 three village, wharf Town, Zouping County, Shandong

Patentee after: Shandong Liquan Machinery Technology Co. Ltd.

Address before: 256217 Binzhou County Qingyang town Shandong Economic Zone Zouping Shandong Jinyang Group Co., Ltd.

Patentee before: Liu Zebin

COR Change of bibliographic data

Free format text: CORRECT: ADDRESS; FROM: 256217 BINZHOU, SHANDONG PROVINCE TO: 256214 BINZHOU, SHANDONG PROVINCE

EXPY Termination of patent right or utility model
CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee

Granted publication date: 20101201

Termination date: 20150610