CN101563034B - Wireless interventional device and system for wireless energy transmission - Google Patents

Wireless interventional device and system for wireless energy transmission Download PDF

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CN101563034B
CN101563034B CN 200780046969 CN200780046969A CN101563034B CN 101563034 B CN101563034 B CN 101563034B CN 200780046969 CN200780046969 CN 200780046969 CN 200780046969 A CN200780046969 A CN 200780046969A CN 101563034 B CN101563034 B CN 101563034B
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arranged
power
interventional device
sensor
system
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CN101563034A (en
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D·维尔茨
O·利普斯
S·克吕格尔
B·戴维
S·魏斯
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皇家飞利浦电子股份有限公司
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Priority to PCT/IB2007/055143 priority patent/WO2008078251A1/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/07Endoradiosondes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/372Arrangements in connection with the implantation of stimulators
    • A61N1/378Electrical supply
    • A61N1/3787Electrical supply from an external energy source
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R33/00Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables
    • G01R33/20Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables involving magnetic resonance
    • G01R33/28Details of apparatus provided for in groups G01R33/44 - G01R33/64
    • G01R33/285Invasive instruments, e.g. catheters or biopsy needles, specially adapted for tracking, guiding or visualization by NMR
    • G01R33/287Invasive instruments, e.g. catheters or biopsy needles, specially adapted for tracking, guiding or visualization by NMR involving active visualization of interventional instruments, e.g. using active tracking RF coils or coils for intentionally creating magnetic field inhomogeneities
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B2017/00017Electrical control of surgical instruments
    • A61B2017/00221Electrical control of surgical instruments with wireless transmission of data, e.g. by infrared radiation or radiowaves
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2560/00Constructional details of operational features of apparatus; Accessories for medical measuring apparatus
    • A61B2560/02Operational features
    • A61B2560/0204Operational features of power management
    • A61B2560/0214Operational features of power management of power generation or supply
    • A61B2560/0219Operational features of power management of power generation or supply of externally powered implanted units
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/05Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves
    • A61B5/055Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves involving electronic [EMR] or nuclear [NMR] magnetic resonance, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging

Abstract

本发明涉及一种设想为定位在身体内的介入设备(I2),并且其包括设想为一旦接收到电功率,则实施与身体的相互作用的电可操作单元(E1,E2),其中,所述设备还包括传感器(2),其布置为无线地接收来自远程源的电磁能量,所述传感器布置为谐振电路(2a,2b),并且其设想为将所接收的电磁能量转换成所述电功率。 The present invention relates to a body conceived to be positioned within the interventional device (I2), and it is contemplated comprising upon receiving electric power, the embodiment of an electrical interaction with the body of the operable unit (E1, E2), wherein said the device further comprises a sensor (2), which is arranged to wirelessly receive electromagnetic energy from a remote source, the sensor is arranged as a resonant circuit (2a, 2b), and it is contemplated to convert the received electromagnetic energy into the electric power. 所述电可操作设备可包括诊断和/或治疗模块。 The electrically operable device may include a diagnostic and / or therapy module.

Description

无线介入设备以及用于无线能量传输的系统 Interventional device and the wireless transmission system for wireless energy

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种设想为定位在体内的介入设备,并且其包括设想为一旦接收到电功率,则实施与身体的相互作用的电可操作单元。 [0001] The present invention relates to a vision of the interventional device positioned in vivo, and it is contemplated comprising upon receiving electric power, the embodiment of an electrical interaction with the body operable unit.

[0002] 本发明还涉及一种用于无线能量传输的系统。 [0002] The present invention further relates to a system for wireless energy transfer.

背景技术 Background technique

[0003] 介入设备的实施例是本身已知的,并且其包括一种所提供的介入导管,例如,所述导管具有一组线圈,将所述线圈布置为产生局部场变形以达到在磁共振成像中在体内跟踪导管的目的。 Example [0003] interventional devices are known per se, and which comprises one kind of the interventional catheter is provided, e.g., the catheter having a set of coils, the field coil is arranged to generate a local deformation to achieve in the magnetic resonance imaging catheter tracking purposes in vivo. 通过沿所述导管行进的专用线路来在电气方面馈送所述线圈。 The coil is fed by the electrical aspect of the catheter travels along dedicated lines. 已知的介入设备适用于广泛的应用范围,包括心脏介入治疗。 The known interventional devices suitable for a wide range of applications, including cardiac intervention.

[0004] 已知的介入设备的缺点在于,在磁共振成像监控下执行介入的情况下,由于MR成像脉冲的应用以及电磁RF脉冲和线路馈送电极之间产生的非预期相互作用,可能发生对患者的健康危害。 [0004] The disadvantage of the known apparatus is that intervention, intervention in the case of performing magnetic resonance imaging to monitor, due to the application of electromagnetic and RF pulses and the MR imaging pulse line feed unintended interaction between the electrodes may occur to patient health hazard.

[0005] 从US 6,015,387中已知了一种用于监测并调节血流的植入设备(支架)。 [0005] It is known from US 6,015,387 a method for monitoring and adjusting the blood flow implantable device (stent). 所述设备包括具有谐振电路的传感器,其用于在向其中植入所述设备的血管内建立电流流动。 The apparatus includes a sensor having a resonance circuit for establishing a current flow within the blood vessel wherein the device is implanted. 一旦植入并且被外部功率源激活,则电路中的电流流动生成指示了相应血管中血流速率的电 Once the implant and an external power source is activated, the current flowing in the circuit is generated indicative of the corresponding blood flow velocity of the electric vessel

磁信号。 Magnetic signal.

[0006] US 6,464,687B1公开了一种微型可植入药物传递系统。 [0006] US 6,464,687B1 discloses a miniature, implantable drug delivery system. 所述系统在远程提供的功率上操作。 The system operates on power provided remotely. 为了达到这一目的,所述系统包括相应的RF传输器和接收器。 To this end, the system includes a corresponding RF transmitter and receiver.

[0007] 从US 4,187,854已知了一种可植入按需起搏器以及监测器。 [0007] A known implantable pacemakers and monitoring demand from US 4,187,854. 已知的器械包括用于在患者身体内传输由手术植入单元所接收的电磁能量的外部单元。 Known instrument comprises an external unit for transmission of electromagnetic energy within a patient's body is received by the surgical implantation unit. 所植入起搏器适于单独地由所传输的电磁能量而供电。 The implanted pacemaker is adapted to be powered solely by the electromagnetic energy transmitted. 所植入单元还包括与起搏电极连接的监测电路,从而提供心房和心室信号以及将这些信号传输至外部单元。 The implanted unit is connected to the monitoring circuit further includes a pacing electrode, thereby providing atrial and ventricular signals and transmit these signals to the external unit.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0008] 本发明的一个目的在于提供一种介入设备,其中,涉及电可操作单元的操作的安全性方面得以改善。 [0008] An object of the present invention is to provide an interventional device, which relates to safety operation is improved electrically operable unit.

[0009] 为了这一目的,根据本发明的介入设备还包括传感器,将所述传感器布置为无线地接收来自作为远程源的无线传输器的电磁能量,将所述传感器布置为谐振电路,并且设想为将所接收的电磁能量转换成所述电功率,其中,所述介入设备经由布置为监测提供给所述电可操作单元(E1,E2)的所述电功率的反馈回路连接至所述无线传输器。 [0009] For this purpose, an interventional device of the invention further comprises a sensor, the sensor is arranged to wirelessly receive electromagnetic energy from the wireless transmitter as a remote source, the sensor is arranged as a resonant circuit, and it is contemplated the electric power to convert electromagnetic energy into the electric power received, wherein said interventional device is provided to monitor the electrically operable unit (E1, E2) via a feedback loop disposed to connect the wireless transmitter .

[0010] 本发明的技术措施所基于的观察为,通过将至少所述设备的传感器至少布置为谐振电路,并且通过供应由传感受器无线地接收的能量,则可改善与可能的健康危害有关的安全性方面。 [0010] The technical measure of the invention is based on the observation, by at least the sensor device is arranged at least a resonant circuit, and by supplying energy received by the wireless transmission to the susceptor, can be improved with the potential health hazards associated safety. 并入在所述介入设备中的电可操作单元可得到由传感器接收到的能量。 Said interventional device is incorporated in an electrical unit operable to obtain the energy received by the sensor. 具体而言,改善了在借助磁共振成像的检测中的介入期间使用介入设备的安全性方面。 Specifically, to improve the safety during the use of the interventional device by means of intervention in the detection of magnetic resonance imaging. 由于没有为向传感器供电而附着的导线,因此没有发热,特别是在包含了电可操作单元的导管的末端以及尖端无发热,否则所述发热对于患者可能是严重并且构成危险的。 Since no wire is attached to the sensor and power supply, there is no fever, especially in the electrical conduit comprising a distal end and a tip unit operable without heat, or the heat for the patient may be severe and constitute a danger.

[0011] 为了达到有效的能量接收,传感器的谐振频率调整为传输器的频率。 [0011] In order to achieve efficient energy received, the resonant frequency of the sensor is adjusted to the frequency of the transmitter. 优选地,将所述传输器也布置为谐振电路。 Preferably, the transmitter is also arranged as a resonant circuit. 通过将介入设备与电可操作单元布置在一起用于当被无线地供电时与身体相互作用,由于在患者内不存在供电的线路,则产生了用于介入地与患者相互作用的良好受控制并且安全的系统。 By the interventional device is arranged together with electrically operable unit for, when power is supplied wirelessly interact with the body, since the power line is not in the patient, it is generated by controlling a good interaction with the patient's Interventional and security systems. 在根据本发明的介入无线设备中,所有与患者身体的相互作用是在需要时通过对电可操作单元供给能量而执行的,从而不会发生对患者健康不必要的危害。 In the interventional wireless device of the present invention, all interaction with the patient's body is performed when required by the electrical energy supply means operable to unnecessary health hazard to the patient does not occur.

[0012] 另外,将电磁功率无线传输至介入设备的系统包括反馈回路,所述反馈回路允许根据向介入设备的电可操作单兀传输的功率而调整传输器。 [0012] Further, the wireless transmission of electromagnetic power to the interventional device systems include a feedback loop, said feedback loop allows to adjust the transmitter is operable in accordance with a single power transmission to the electrical Wu interventional device.

[0013] 从US6,474,341B1中已知了无线介入设备的一个实施例。 [0013] A known embodiment of a wireless device from intervening in US6,474,341B1. 已知的设备包括与用于从远程布置的源接收电磁能量的传感器一起布置的介入导管。 Catheter arrangement with the known apparatus comprises a sensor to receive electromagnetic energy from a remote source arrangement. 将已知的导管与用于允许导管位置跟踪的传感器一起布置。 A known catheter with the sensor arranged for allowing the position of the catheter tracking. 为了这一目的,将磁场投影至解剖体中以在导管的感测线圈中诱发足以描述所述导管的位置的电压信号。 For this purpose, the magnetic field projected onto the anatomical body to induce voltage signals in the sensing coils sufficient to catheter described position of the catheter. 所述传感器无线地转发作为指示了传感器在解剖体中的当前位置的所述电压信号。 The wireless sensor forwards a voltage signal indicative of the current position of the sensor in the anatomy. 为了这一目的,已知的导管包括传输和处理单元。 For this purpose, the known catheter includes a transmission and a processing unit. 可以通过传感器所接收的供电信号来供给所述传输和处理单元能量,所述供电信号以一种合适的方式提供给传输器。 And may be supplied to the transmission signal processing unit powered by energy received by the sensor, said power signal in a suitable manner to the transmission device.

[0014] 尽管文献US 6,474,341B1公开一种当将传感器设计为谐振电路时的介入设备的操作模式,但是文献US 6,474,341B1仅说明了用于允许位置信号的连续发射的功率供应。 [0014] While the document US 6,474,341B1 discloses an interventional device when the operation mode to the resonant circuit when the sensor is designed, but merely illustrative document US 6,474,341B1 for allowing a power transmission position signal continuously supply. 而本发明涉及提供能量脉冲以执行一些与身体的相互作用。 The present invention relates to and provides an energy pulse to perform some interaction with the body. 就这方面而言,接收继而向与身体相互作用的电可操作单元供电的电磁能量的电路需要满足不同的技术要求。 In this regard, the power supply circuit of the electromagnetic energy receiving unit is operable to turn electrical interaction with the body need to meet different technical requirements. 例如,当电可操作单元用于心脏起搏目的的情况时,向起搏器馈送的电流范围约从0.1mA至10mA。 For example, when the electrically operable unit where cardiac pacing for the purpose, electric current is fed to the pacemaker ranges from about 0.1mA to 10mA. 同健康人类组织的典型阻抗(若干IOOOhms+在64MHz的几十pF电容,)一起,这得到了所需的电压。 Typical impedance with healthy human tissues (several tens of pF capacitance IOOOhms + at 64MHz, and) together, which has been required voltage. 在0.1ms与IOm s之间优选地选择单一脉冲的持续时间,2ms为典型值。 Preferably selected duration of a single pulse is between 0.1ms and IOm s, 2ms typical values. 大部分商业刺激器在脉冲与结合在一个周期中的所限定的脉冲列的各种可能之间提供IO-1OOOms的时间延迟,并且对于若干个通道均如此。 Most commercial stimulator providing IO-1OOOms among the various possible time with defined pulse incorporated in a pulse column delay period, and thus for each number of channels. 为了提供上述的电流,一种使用二极管连同电容器的布置是合适的。 In order to provide the above-described current, together with the arrangement of the capacitor using a diode is suitable. 通过开启和关闭功率传输将操纵接收和延迟。 Turned on and off by the power transmitting and receiving the actuating delay. 对于本发明足够快的功率电子器件和放大器是可得到,例如,用于为MR成像传输RF的电子器件和放大器。 For the present invention is sufficiently fast electronics and power amplifiers are available, for example, MR imaging is used to transmit RF amplifier and an electronic device. 对于电可操作单元的其它实施例,馈送给其的所需电流约在0.1mA至IOmA的同一范围内。 For other embodiments of the electrically operable unit, which is fed to the desired current in the same range from about 0.1mA to the IOmA.

[0015] 在根据本发明的设备的一个实施例中,所述设备包括介入导管,并且电可操作单元包括治疗模块。 [0015] In accordance with one embodiment of the apparatus according to the present invention, the interventional device comprises a catheter, and electrically operable means includes a therapy module.

[0016] 优选地,治疗模块包括心脏起搏或消融设备。 [0016] Preferably, the cardiac pacing therapy module comprises or ablation device. 由于RF发热,MR机器内部的高度导电结构是有危害的,因此使用磁共振(MR)作为成像模态用于导管介入带来了对所使用的装置的严格的限制。 Since the RF heat, highly conductive structure within the MR machine is harmful, so the use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality as for catheterization bring severe restrictions on the use of the apparatus. 因此,用于X射线荧光透视检查的标准导管对于在MR中使用是不安全的,这是由于其采用了导电导线用于信号传输。 Thus, a standard catheter for X-ray fluoroscopy for use in the MR is not safe, since it uses a conductive wire for signal transmission. 特别是在心脏介入期间,导管必须提供三个基本功能:对ECG信号进行绘图,传输起搏信号以及用于消融的RF功率。 Particularly during a cardiac intervention, the catheter must provide three basic functions: plotting an ECG signal, the transmission power for the pacing signal and the RF ablation. 尽管可以通过使用高电阻导线使ECG绘图成为RF安全的,但提供安全的功率传输是更困难的。 While making ECG plot by using a high resistance conductor becoming RF security, but provides a safe power transfer is more difficult. 所提出的将功率传输至RF安全导管的尖端电极(例如用于心脏起搏)的方式是基于使用布置为谐振电路的专用传感器的RF传输。 The power transfer mode of the proposed safety catheter tip to the RF electrode (for example, cardiac pacing) is arranged to use as the RF transmission resonant circuit dedicated sensor. 可以通过完全地避免危害导线而提供功率传输的RF安全性。 It can provide RF power transmission safety by completely avoiding harm to the wire. 采用一个或多个体外的传输天线而完成向导管的功率传输,身体的信号通过谐振电路在导管尖端处拾取到。 Of one or more transmission antennas is completed in vitro catheter of power transfer, to the pickup body at the tip of the catheter through the resonant circuit. 通过这样做,可以使EP导管的所有基本信号转输功能成为RF安全的,并且因此使得这种成像模态可用于此应用。 By doing so, an EP catheter can make all the basic functions become RF signal distribution, security, and thus makes such imaging modalities available for this application. 另外,在导管尖端实现拾取电路是具有成本效益的,并且易于实现使所提出的发明特别地适合于诸如EP导管的一次性设备。 Further, the catheter tip is achieved pickup circuit having a cost-effective, and easy to realize the proposed invention makes is particularly suitable for a disposable device such as EP catheters. 所述设置优选地包括两个谐振电路,一个在传输器侧,另一个在传感器侧。 The set preferably comprises two resonant circuits, a transmission side, the other side of the sensor. 一个或多个天线位于身体外部并且用于RF功率传输,而传感器位于导管的尖端用于起搏。 One or more antennas external to the body and for RF transmission power, and the sensor located in the tip of the catheter for pacing. 所述传感器包括谐振电路,将所述谐振电路调整为与传输器具有相同的频率,从而使得其可在没有任何大量的功率损失的情况下,拾取入射RF功率。 The sensor comprises a resonant circuit, the resonant circuit is adjusted to have the same transmission frequency, so that it can without any loss of large amounts of power, the RF power incident on the pickup. 一旦将RF功率存储在谐振器中,(例如)使用二极管对该RF功率进行整流,并且使用低通滤波器提取DC脉冲。 Once the RF power stored in the resonator, (e.g.) the RF power using a diode for rectifying and low-pass filter to extract a DC pulse. 将后者传递给一对电极,所述电极将能量传递至患者组织。 The latter is transmitted to the pair of electrodes, said electrodes energy to patient tissue.

[0017] 在根据本发明的另一个实施例中,所述设备包括介入导管,并且电可操作单元包括诊断模块。 [0017] In another embodiment of the present invention, the interventional device comprises a catheter, and electrically operable means includes a diagnostic module.

[0018] 可在导管的尖端上操作并且需要外部电源的诊断模块的合适的例子可包括下列: [0018] may operate on the tip of the catheter and examples of suitable diagnostic module requires an external power source may include the following:

[0019] 传感器,其用于确定血压和/或例如O2的分压。 [0019] The sensor for determining blood pressure and / or the partial pressure of O2, for example.

[0020] 涉及压力传感器的为血流测量,其对于判断狭窄程度是有用的, [0020] relates to a pressure sensor for measuring blood flow, which is useful for determining the degree of stenosis,

[0021] 用于确定温度的传感器。 Temperature sensor [0021] for determining. 其在当使起搏原理和消融结合时会特别地有用。 It will be particularly useful at the time when the principles of pacing and ablation combined. 得到可靠的温度信息以此能够估计对组织的损害程度是人们所关心的。 Reliable temperature information in order to be able to estimate the extent of damage to the organization is that people care about. 尽管可以以若干种方式来传输输出信号(无线,使用高电阻导线,通过光学方法,等等),但是可以通过使用整流后的RF功率信号来完成DC电源的提供。 Although the output signal may be transmitted in several ways (wireless, high resistance wire, by an optical method, etc.), but may be accomplished by an RF power supply providing a DC power rectified signal after use. 还注意到的是,根据本发明的介入设备可包括多个诊断模块。 Also note that the interventional device according to the present invention may include a plurality of diagnostic modules. 从JFLGoose 等,“Silicon Sensors for use in Catheters”, 1stAnnual InternationalIEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Micro technologies inMedicine andMicrobiol ogy, October 12-14, Lyon, 2000, France 已知了在介入导管内布置的多个诊断模块的合适的例子。 From JFLGoose other, "Silicon Sensors for use in Catheters", 1stAnnual InternationalIEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Micro technologies inMedicine andMicrobiol ogy, October 12-14, Lyon, 2000, France is known a plurality of diagnostic modules disposed in the interventional catheter suitable examples.

[0022] 在根据本发明的介入设备的另一个实施例中,将谐振电路布置为以Larmor频率操作。 [0022] In another interventional device of the present invention, the embodiment is arranged as a resonant circuit at the Larmor frequency operation.

[0023] 以Larmor频率操作是有利的,这是由于接收电路可以吸收例如由正交体线圈(QBC)或任何其它传输线圈在MR频率处所传递的能量。 [0023] In the Larmor frequency operation is advantageous because the receiving circuit energy can be absorbed by a quadrature body coil, for example (the QBC) or any other transmission coil transmitting the premises in the MR frequency. 则RF传输的持续时间限定了起搏脉冲的长度。 Length defines the length of the RF transmission pacing pulses. 在这一假设中,起搏将必须与成像交错。 In this assumption, the pacing will be interleaved with the imaging. 在成像阶段,必须使用(例如)变容二极管来解调谐振电路。 In the imaging stage, it must be used (e.g.) to varactor demodulation resonant circuit. 为了使用于起搏的RF对自旋系统的干扰最小化,优选地,使用在所负载QBC的谐振的最边缘处的RF起搏频率,但该频率在没有梯度存在的情况下远离水的谐振。 In order to use the pacing system spin RF interference is minimized, preferably, in a loaded QBC resonant RF at the edge most pacing rate, but the frequency gradient away from water without the presence of a resonance .

[0024] 注意的是,对于MR应用而言,当在Larmor频率传输功率时,应该在成像期间执行与在表面线圈中所使用的解调可比的拾取电路的解调。 [0024] Note that, for MR applications, when the transmission power Larmor frequency, the pickup should be comparable demodulation circuit demodulating performed during imaging in surface coil used. 在成像期间,必须使接收器的谐振频率从Larmor频率移位若干个MHz。 During imaging, the resonant frequency of the receiver must be shifted from the Larmor frequency of several MHz. 确切的数目取决于传输/接收曲线的宽度。 The exact number depends on the width of the transmission / reception curve. 如果谐振器为高质量的,则传输曲线变得非常狭窄,通过将这一曲线移位几个MHz而简便地完成了足够的解调。 If the resonator becomes very narrow, the curve shifted by several MHz and easily completed enough for high-quality demodulation of the transfer curve. 当接收电路的质量变差,例如由于电阻损失,则曲线变宽并且为了达到有效的解调,频率移位必须更大。 When the receiving circuit quality is deteriorated, for example due to resistance loss, and the curve is widened in order to achieve effective demodulation, the frequency shift to be larger. 后者为接收器在质量相当差的导管尖端的情况(由于其尺寸以及与组织/身体液体的近距离接触)。 The latter is a rather poor quality in the receiver of the catheter tip case (due to their size and / close physical contact with the tissue fluid). 在任何情况下,根据经验知识,解调电路应该优选地使在操作频率处的(功率)灵敏度下降大约30dB。 In any case, knowledge based on experience, that the demodulation circuit should preferably be lowered at about 30dB (power) at the operating frequency sensitivity. [0025] 在根据本发明的介入设备的另一个实施例中,将谐振电路布置为以与Larmor频率极大不同的频率操作。 [0025] In another interventional device of the present invention, the resonant circuit is arranged at the Larmor frequency greatly different frequencies embodiment.

[0026] 对于RF安全性而言,远离Larmor频率而操作功率传输是更优选的。 [0026] For RF in terms of safety, away from the Larmor frequency and operating power transmission is more preferable. 这可通过在Larmor频率以上或以下选择操作频率而完成。 This is accomplished by selecting the operating frequency above or below the Larmor frequency is completed. 对于高频率端,由于足够的功率必须到达接收器,因此人类组织的吸收将会设置一个天然的操作边界。 For high-frequency side, because a sufficient power must arrive at the receiver, the absorption of human tissue will set a natural operational boundaries. 已发现高达GHz频率的操作应该是可能的。 It has been found up to GHz frequency operation should be possible.

[0027] 在较低端,天线设计和所传输功率的生理有效性将可能设置所述限制。 [0027] at the lower end, the physiological effectiveness of the antenna design and the transmission power may be set to the limit. 因此,从若干IOOkHz以前,所述原理在原则上应该可以实行。 Thus, from several IOOkHz before, the principles can be implemented in principle.

[0028] 为了避免成像与安全问题的干扰,应将“极大地不同”一词理解为当功率拾取与在Larmor频率的功率拾取相比下降了约30dB时的频率选择。 The term [0028] In order to avoid interfere with the imaging and security issues, should be "significantly different" is understood that when the power pick-and-frequency power pickup Larmor frequency selection when compared to down about 30dB. 根据电路的确切特征,这确定了所需要的频率移位。 The exact nature of the circuit, which determines the frequency shift required.

[0029] 这种操作模式保证了基本上无干扰的MR成像。 [0029] This mode of operation ensures that substantially no interference MR imaging. 因此成像和起搏可独立地执行。 Thus the imaging may be performed independently and pacing. 在心脏起搏的情况下,例如,可以通过开启和关闭传输器来调整脉冲的长度。 In the case of cardiac pacing, e.g., the length of the pulse can be adjusted by opening and closing the transmitter. 在这两种情况下,整流和低通滤波提取了预期的、为RF信号包络的DC脉冲。 In both cases, rectification and lowpass filtering to extract the expected, the DC pulse of the RF signal envelope.

[0030] 当在远离MR频率传输时,也可能使用经整流的电流用于显现活动的跟踪导管。 [0030] When the frequency of the transmission remote from the MR, also possible to use for tracking the rectified current activity appears catheter. 除了如上所述的向一对电极传递电压之外,适当设计的感应元件,例如,线圈也可位于该位置。 In addition to deliver a voltage to the electrode than the above one pair of sensing elements properly designed, for example, the position of the coil may be located. 由流经电感的DC电流所生成在图像中的伪影可用于主动地跟踪导管尖端。 In the image generated by the DC current flowing through the inductor of the artifact may be used to actively track the catheter tip.

[0031] 优选地,为了保证基本上取向不变地接收供电信号,根据本发明的介入设备的传感器包括多个线圈,将其布置在互相为非平面的构型中。 [0031] Preferably, in order to ensure a substantially constant orientation signal received power, the sensor according to the present invention, the interventional device comprises a plurality of coils, which is disposed in mutually non-planar configuration.

[0032] 根据本发明的一种向介入设备无线传输电磁功率的系统包括无线传输器,以及根据上述的介入设备。 [0032] includes a wireless transmitter, and the interventional device in accordance with the above-described radio transmission device to the intervention of the electromagnetic power system according to the present invention. 在附属权利要求8-10中说明了根据本发明的系统的其它有利实施例。 According to other embodiments described advantageous embodiment of the system of the present invention are in the dependent claims 8-10.

[0033] 参照附图将更详细地描述本发明的这些及其他方面。 These and other aspects of the present invention will be described in detail with [0033] reference to the accompanying drawings.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0034] 图1以示意性的方式示出了根据现有技术的介入设备,所述设备以远离Larmor频率操作; [0034] In embodiment of FIG. 1 schematically shows a prior art interventional device, the device away from the Larmor frequency operation;

[0035] 图2以示意性的方式示出了根据本发明的系统的实施例; [0035] FIG. 2 shows in a schematic way an embodiment of a system according to the invention;

[0036] 图3示出了非平面传感器构型的示意性视图。 [0036] FIG. 3 shows a schematic view of a non-planar configuration of the sensor.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0037] 图1以示意性的方式示出了根据现有技术的介入设备,所述设备以远离Larmor频率操作。 [0037] FIG. 1 schematically shows an embodiment of an interventional device of the prior art, the operation of the device away from the Larmor frequency. 本发明的中心部件为位于导管12的尖端12a的接收器电路。 The central member of the present invention is a receiver circuit located in the catheter tip 12a 12. 在图1中示出了作为Spice电路的示意性实现,在这个具体实施例中,其仅适合于远离MR频率而传输。 In FIG 1 shows a schematic circuit realized as Spice, in this particular embodiment, it is only suitable for transport away from the MR frequency. 否则,当以Larmor频率操作时,由于在用于成像的信号传输时需要进行解调,电路变得较复杂。 Otherwise, when operating at the Larmor frequency, since the time required for demodulating a signal transmitted from the imaging, the circuit becomes more complex.

[0038] 根据图1,为了拾取信号3,需要包括了合适的感应器2a和电容2b的谐振结构2。 [0038] According to FIG. 1, 3 to pick up a signal, comprising a resonant structure requires suitable sensors 2a and 2b of the capacitor 2. 优选地以一种方式规定电感2a的维度,即所诱发的电压为IOV量级。 Preferably in a manner inductor 2a predetermined dimensions, i.e., the induced voltage of the order of IOV. 这可由具有一些10绕组的线圈在9F(3mm)的导管上而实现,假定在所述设备1.5T的位置处,谐振电路的Q因子为30,并且入射B1场为I μ T0可使用若干传输器增加可得到的B1场的强度。 This may have some of the coil windings 10 on 9F (3mm) of the catheter is achieved, it is assumed that the Q factor at the position of the resonant circuit of the device 30 is 1.5T, and the B1 field of the incident I μ T0 may use several transmission increase the strength of the B1 field is available.

[0039] 必须谨慎处理以下情况:当操作装备有如以上提出的起搏机制的导管时,可以改变有关外部传输器的接收电路中的感应器的取向。 [0039] careful handling the following: When the operation of the catheter equipped with mechanisms like a pacemaker set forth above, the receiving circuit can change the orientation about the external transmitter in the inductor. 这将导致所诱发的电压的变化。 This will result in a change of the induced voltage. 一种对这一问题进行补偿的方式为使用多个彼此之间位于直角处的传输线圈(未显出)或至少传输器的非平面构型。 A way of compensating for this problem is to use among a plurality of transmitting coils positioned at right angles to each other (not show), or at least non-planar configuration of the transmitter.

[0040] 另外或备选地,导管12也可装备有正交马鞍形线圈以及两个整流器电路以克服取向问题。 [0040] Additionally or alternatively, the catheter 12 may be equipped with two orthogonal saddle coil and a rectifier circuit to overcome alignment problems. 另外,正交体线圈(QBC)可用于传输(在这种情况下在Larmor频率处),从而提供圆形极化RF场。 Further, the quadrature body coil (the QBC) available for transmission (in this case at the Larmor frequency), to provide a circularly polarized RF field. 这还将有利地辅助提供足够的、传感器可拾取的RF功率。 This will also assist in providing sufficient advantageously, the sensor can pick up the RF power.

[0041] 在使用QBC的情况下,可得到在1.5T的约20 μ T的场强度,因此降低了所需绕组的数目。 [0041] In the case of using the QBC obtained at 1.5T field strength of about 20 μ T, thus reducing the required number of windings. 将RF能量存储在由电容2b和电感2a形成的谐振电路中,之后将其转移至一对电极El,E2。 RF energy stored in the resonant circuit formed by the capacitance and inductance 2a, 2b, after which it was transferred to a pair of electrodes El, E2. 使用二极管6和低通电路,例如分路电容4,则对RF脉冲进行了整流以及滤波,从而提取了DC波形。 Using a diode 6 and the low-pass circuit, for example a shunt capacitance 4, of the RF pulse rectifier and filter, thereby extracting a DC waveform. 在图1中,电容器8和电阻器10代表描述了与导管尖端接触的人类组织的复阻抗的典型值。 In Figure 1, resistor 10 and the capacitor 8 depicts a typical representative of the value of the complex impedance of the human tissue in contact with the catheter tip. 对于用于MR成像的典型频率而言,由电阻器10描述的所述复阻抗的实部为若干个IOOOhms,而由电容器8所描述的虚部约为15pF。 For a typical frequency for MR imaging, the real part of the complex impedance described by the resistor 10 is several IOOOhms, while the imaginary part of the capacitor 8 described about 15pF.

[0042] 图2以示意性的方式示出了根据本发明的系统的实施例。 [0042] FIG. 2 shows in a schematic way an embodiment of a system according to the present invention. 所述系统(图2的所有)包括介入设备,特别是包括电极El和E2的导管12,其它部分与如参考图1所讨论的部分相同。 The system (all of FIG. 2) comprises an interventional device, including especially electrodes El and E2 of conduit 12, other portions of the portion as discussed with reference to Figure 1 the same. 系统20(见上)还包括无线传输器22,其包括功率装置29以及布置为具有感应元件29a和电容元件29b的谐振电路的传输器。 System 20 (see above) also includes a wireless transmitter 22, which comprises a power means 29 and is arranged to have sensing element 29a and the capacitive element 29b of the transmitter resonant circuit. 所述系统20 (见上)还包括反馈回路25以及布置为根据传输至电极El,E2的功率而调整功率单元29的控制单元27。 The system 20 (see above), and further includes a feedback loop 25 is arranged according to the transmission electrodes El, E2 and the power adjustment control unit 29 of the power unit 27.

[0043] 由于相对于传输场接收线圈变化的取向的问题,有利地由反馈回路25监测在电极El处出现的电压。 [0043] Because of problems with respect to the receiving coil changes the transmission field orientation, 25 advantageously monitor the voltage appearing at the electrodes El of the feedback loop. 优选地,使用高电阻导线用于此目的。 Preferably, the high resistance conductor for this purpose. 所述监测将允许生成调整所传输功率水平至实际接收器位置的反馈回路。 The monitoring will allow to generate an adjusted power level actually transmitted to the feedback loop receiver location. 另外,对于介入应用,不能将组织参数视为常数,结果改变电极之间的阻抗。 In addition, the application for intervention, the organization can not be regarded as constant parameters, the result of changes in impedance between the electrodes. 还将反馈布置为补偿该效应。 Feedback is also arranged to compensate for this effect. 可以以MR安全方式采用本身已知的高电阻导线来测量通过正好插入电极El后面的电阻24的电压。 MR may be safe manner known per se be measured by a high resistance conductor inserted just behind the voltage electrodes El resistor 24. 向控制单元馈送通过电阻器24所测量的电压,所述控制单元生成输入与预先选择的电压相比的时间相关误差信号。 Voltage fed to the control unit through a resistor 24 measured, the control unit generates an input voltage compared to the preselected time correlation error signals. 以合适的方式对所述误差信号进行修改,并且使用其来操纵功率源,所述功率源驱动谐振传输器电路,所述谐振传输器电`路继而向导管尖端的接收器传递RF功率。 In a suitable manner to modify the error signal, and use it to manipulate the power source, the power source of the receiver transmitter drive the resonant circuit, the resonant electrical transmission path `catheter tip is then transmitted RF power.

[0044] 图3示出了非平面传感器构型的示意性视图。 [0044] FIG. 3 shows a schematic view of a non-planar configuration of the sensor. 已发现将接收器的线圈的线路布置为基本上非平面构型是有利的。 The arrangement has been found that the line receiver coil is substantially non-planar configuration is advantageous. 图3示出了这种合适的构型的示意性视图,其中,将介入导管31与传感器布置为类似马鞍形构型33。 FIG 3 shows a suitable configuration of such a schematic view, wherein the interventional catheter 31 and the sensor arrangement 33 is similar to the saddle-shaped configuration. 对于具有螺旋布置的线路37的导管35而言,示出了另一种合适的对形成谐振电路的传感器的线路的非平面布置。 The catheter having a helical line 37 of the arrangement 35, it is shown another suitable layout for non-line sensor resonant circuit is formed. 通过使用接收器所提供的空间交叉的正交线圈37或者马鞍形线圈35,其对于任何取向的平面传输器都是敏感的。 By using the space provided by the receiver coil 37 or intersecting orthogonal saddle coil 35, which is sensitive to the orientation of any plane of the transmitter.

[0045] 尽管已经在附图和上述描述中详细地说明并描述了本发明,但是应将这种说明和描述视为说明性的或者示范性的而非限制性的;本发明不受到所公开实施例的限制。 [0045] While there has been illustrated and described the invention in detail in the drawings and foregoing description, such illustration and description but should be considered illustrative or exemplary and not restrictive; the invention is not to be disclosed limited to the examples.

Claims (12)

1.一种设想为定位在身体内的介入设备(12),其包括设想为一旦接收到电功率,则实施与所述身体相互作用的电可操作单元(El,E2),其中,所述设备还包括传感器(2),其布置为无线地接收来自作为远程源的无线传输器(22)的电磁能量,所述传感器布置为谐振电路(2a,2b),并且设想为将所接收的电磁能量转换成所述电功率,其中,所述介入设备(12)经由布置为监测提供给所述电可操作单元(E1,E2)的所述电功率的反馈回路(25)连接至所述无线传输器(22)。 An interventional device is contemplated (12) is positioned within the body, which is envisaged comprising upon receiving electric power, the electrically operable unit embodiment (El, E2) interacts with the body, wherein the device further comprising a sensor (2), which is arranged to wirelessly receiving electromagnetic energy from the wireless transmitter as a remote source (22), the sensor is arranged as a resonant circuit (2a, 2b), and is conceived to electromagnetic energy received is converted into the electrical power, wherein the interventional device (12) is provided to the electrically operable monitoring means (E1, E2) arranged in a feedback loop via the electric power (25) connected to the wireless transmitter ( twenty two).
2.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述反馈回路(25)包括高电阻导线,所述介入设备(12)经由所述高电阻导线连接至所述无线传输器(22)。 2. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said feedback loop (25) comprises a high-resistance conductor, the interventional device (12) connected to the wireless transmitter (22) via the high resistance conductor.
3.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述设备包括介入导管(12),并且所述电可操作单元包括治疗模块。 3. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the interventional device comprises a conduit (12), and said electrically operable means includes a therapy module.
4.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述设备包括介入导管,并且所述电可操作单元包括诊断模块。 4. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the interventional device comprises a catheter, and the electrically operable means includes a diagnostic module.
5.根据权利要求2或3所述的设备,其中,所述谐振电路布置为以Larmor频率操作。 5. The apparatus of claim 2 or claim 3, wherein said resonant circuit is arranged to operate the Larmor frequency.
6.根据权利要求2或3所述的设备,其中,所述谐振电路布置为以与Larmor频率极大不同的频率操作。 6. The apparatus of claim 2 or claim 3, wherein said resonant circuit is arranged at the Larmor frequency greatly different frequencies.
7.根据从属于权利要求2或3的权利要求5所述的设备,其中,所述单元包括感应元件,其设想为一旦由所述功率供给能量,则产生局部磁场。 The appended to claim 2 or 3, apparatus according to claim 5, wherein said sensing means comprises a member which is contemplated upon, the energy generated by the power supply the local magnetic field.
8.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中,所述传感器包括以互相为非平面的构型布置的多个线圈(33,37)。 8. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein each said sensor comprises a plurality of non-planar coils (33, 37) arranged in configuration.
9.一种将电磁功率无线传输至介入设备(12)的系统(20),所述系统包括无线传输器(22)以及根据先前权利要求中的任一项所述的介入设备。 The system (20), said system comprising a wireless transmitter (22) 9. A wireless transmit electromagnetic power to the intervention apparatus (12) according to any one of the preceding claims, and in one of the interventional device.
10.根据权利要求9所述的系统,其中,所述无线传输器(22)以基本非平面构型布置。 10. The system according to claim 9, wherein said wireless transmitter (22) in a substantially non-planar configuration disposed.
11.根据先前权利要求9或10中的任一项所述的系统(20),其中,所述反馈回路(25)布置为监测向所述电可操作单元(El,E2)提供的功率,并根据向所述电可操作单元(E1,E2)提供的功率控制所述无线传输器(22)。 11. The system of any of the previous 9 or 10 of any one of claims (20), wherein said feedback loop (25) is arranged to monitor the electrical power unit is operable (El, E2) is provided, and controls the wireless transmitter (22) according to the power supplied to the electric unit is operable (E1, E2).
12.根据先前权利要求9或10中的任一项所述的系统(20),其中,所述反馈回路(25)包括高电阻导线,所述电可操作单元(El,E2)经由所述高电阻导线连接至所述无线传输器(22)的控制单元(27)以调整所传输的功率水平。 12. The system of any of the previous 9 or 10 of any one of claims (20), wherein said feedback loop (25) comprises a high-resistance conductor, the electrically operable unit (El, E2) via the high resistance conductor control unit (27) connected to the wireless transmitter (22) to adjust the transmitted power level.
CN 200780046969 2006-12-21 2007-12-17 Wireless interventional device and system for wireless energy transmission CN101563034B (en)

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WO2008078251A1 (en) 2008-07-03

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