CN101549468A - Image-based on-line detection and compensation system and method for cutting tools - Google Patents

Image-based on-line detection and compensation system and method for cutting tools Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101549468A
CN101549468A CNA200910082547XA CN200910082547A CN101549468A CN 101549468 A CN101549468 A CN 101549468A CN A200910082547X A CNA200910082547X A CN A200910082547XA CN 200910082547 A CN200910082547 A CN 200910082547A CN 101549468 A CN101549468 A CN 101549468A
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China
Prior art keywords
cutter
image
camera head
machine tool
compensation
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CNA200910082547XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王晨升
常红星
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北京邮电大学
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Priority to CNA200910082547XA priority Critical patent/CN101549468A/en
Publication of CN101549468A publication Critical patent/CN101549468A/en

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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of image-based online detection and compensation method for cutting tools which is used for online detection of the tool wear amount on the machine tool and compensation based on the wear amount, including the following steps: lay out camera equipment, and take the photo of the cutting tools installed on the machine tool through the camera; calibrate the images taken; extract the cutting tool features; convert the cutting tool features into the actual sizes through the camera parameter calibration; compare the actual sizes with the pre-set cutting tool sizes to generate compensation signals; supply the referred compensation signals to the machine tool controller and use machine tool controller to drive the servo motor to compensate for the deviation generated by cutting tool wear.

Description

Based on the online detection of the cutter of image and bucking-out system and method

Technical field

The present invention relates to the cutter manufacture field, relate in particular to the online detection of a kind of cutter and bucking-out system and method based on image.

Background technology

The Digit Control Machine Tool manufacture field of prior art adopts automation control, and after the processing route and processing capacity of setting cutter, cutter is carried out the process of part according to set program.But, utilize such processing method to exist such problem, because after a large amount of parts of cutting, cutter can produce wearing and tearing.Along with the increase of tool abrasion, surpass after a certain critical value, the part that causes the cutter following process to be come out all becomes waste product or defective work.The waste that this has just produced ample resources has increased production cost.

Therefore, expectation be, the online detection of a kind of cutter and bucking-out system and method are provided, can in the machined into process, can detect the wear extent of cutter in real time, then according to detected wear extent, regulate the depth of cut of cutter.

In the prior art, also do not have a kind ofly can carry out the wear extent of online detection cutter and the device of regulating in real time.In fact, because at the cutter processing site, have a large amount of vibrations and exist, cutter and the part shake constantly in process that processes, the wear extent that therefore can fast and accurately detect cutter at the scene is to perplex the technical barrier of this area always; The realization of especially online detection is difficulty especially.Along with the development of image processing technique, making provides online detection of a kind of cutter based on image and bucking-out system and method to become possibility.

Summary of the invention

Therefore, main purpose of the present invention provides online detection of a kind of cutter based on image and compensation method, with the online detection of realization cutter and according to the testing result compensation depth of cut, so that the cutter after the wearing and tearing also can process up-to-standard product.

For this reason, the invention provides online detection of a kind of cutter and compensation method based on image, be used for the tool abrasion on the online detection lathe and compensate, may further comprise the steps: arrange camera head, and be arranged on the image of the cutter on the lathe by this camera head picked-up based on wear extent; Image to the cutter that absorbed is proofreaied and correct; Extract the feature of cutter; By described camera head parameter calibration, be the actual size of cutter with the Feature Conversion of cutter; The actual size of cutter is compared with the tool dimension of presetting, generate compensating signal; And described compensating signal is supplied to machine tool controller, and utilize machine tool controller to drive the servomotor compensation deviation that tool wear produced.

On the other hand, the present invention also provides online detection of a kind of cutter based on image and bucking-out system, be used for the tool abrasion on the online detection lathe and compensate based on wear extent, comprising: camera head is used to absorb the image that is arranged on the cutter on the lathe; Processor, this processor and described camera head are adaptive, be used for the cutter image that is absorbed is handled, to extract the feature of cutter, and be actual size with this cutter Feature Conversion, and then this actual size and default tool dimension compared, with the compensating signal of the wear extent that obtains cutter, and the form that compensating signal is mended instruction with the discernible cutter of machine tool controller is sent to machine tool controller; Machine tool controller links to each other with the output port of described processor, is used to receive compensating signal, and drives the servomotor that is attached thereto; And servomotor, be used to drive cutter and carry out the cutting instruction.

Compared with prior art, utilize method and system of the present invention, can overcome defective of the prior art, image based on the cutter of taking, detect and calculate the wear extent of cutter, and will should be sent to machine tool controller by the compensating signal relevant with this wear extent, thus the wear extent of compensation cutter.Utilize method and system of the present invention, the optical image detection system is directly installed on the numerically controlled lathe, overcome the interference to certainty of measurement such as lathe vibrations in the cutting environment, greasy dirt, by online image collection, computer image handle, size is calculated with extract, with initial tool dimension comparison and generate steps such as compensation, directly control according to compensation result of calculation logarithm car controlling bed controller by computer, realized the function of on-line measurement and compensation.

Description of drawings

The present invention will be described below by the mode of example, among the figure:

Fig. 1 is an example of online image detection of cutter and bucking-out system block diagram;

Fig. 2 is another example of online image detection of cutter and bucking-out system block diagram;

Fig. 3 is for carrying out the comparative examples of distortion correction;

Fig. 4 is the example as a result before and after the adjustment of image: (a) raw video; (b) image after proofread and correct at the elevation angle; (c) image after the barrel aberrance emendation; (d) image after gradient is proofreaied and correct;

Fig. 5 is a cutter extracted region process schematic diagram;

Fig. 6 is a cutter extracted region process schematic diagram.

The specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention will be described.It should be understood that following example only is illustrative, rather than restrictive.

With reference to figure 1-6, the online image detection of cutter of the present invention and bucking-out system and method are described.

The online detection of the present invention and the bucking-out system course of work are as follows:

(1) arranges camera head, and be arranged on the image of the cutter on the lathe by this camera head picked-up.Before the cutter processing beginning on the lathe, utilize the CCD camera under the cooperation of secondary light source, obtain the current shape image of cutter at given position.Preferably, camera is periodically to gather in the process of the image that obtains the shape of tool, for example can set default process time, after the time of Tool in Cutting one fixed length, gathers the image of cutter; This preset time can rule of thumb be chosen.For example, can also set after the raw material of cutter processing predetermined length, set and gather image.Preferably, when obtaining image, obtain image when after cutter machines, getting back to initial, set position more at every turn.In addition, the purposes of secondary light source is a floor light, and then helps to improve the quality of the cutter image that obtains, and is convenient to the image processing of back.Secondary light source can be with the camera one, also can independently be provided with.For example in one embodiment, secondary light source (for example a plurality of LED lamps or other can alight) can be arranged in around the camera, light shines on the cutter.

(2) image of the cutter that absorbed is proofreaied and correct.Because directly the image of picked-up exists a lot of distortion, therefore angular deviation and various noise need be handled the image of cutter.Can use in the following method one or more to proofread and correct in one embodiment, adopt the elevation angle corrections, gradient correction, barrel aberrance emendation or approach based on linear interpolation the image that is obtained to be corrected the distortion that causes with the elimination camera lens.As the comparative examples of distortion correction has been shown among Fig. 3; Fig. 4 is the example as a result before and after the adjustment of image: (a) raw video; (b) image after proofread and correct at the elevation angle; (c) image after the barrel aberrance emendation; (d) image after gradient is proofreaied and correct.

(3) extract the feature of cutter, the main purpose of this step is by the image after proofreading and correct is handled, thereby obtains the edge contour of cutter, further obtains the wear characteristic point of cutter, and then determines the estimator of wearing and tearing based on wear characteristic point.

Because the image of picked-up is to be made of a plurality of pixels, be generally several million or tens size, the Edge Gradient Feature of directly carrying out cutter is usually because the restriction of computer process ability, for the ease of handling, the image of cutter is divided into a plurality of zones, carries out the cutter zone respectively and adjust; Be converted to the boundary characteristic of cutter then in result with each extracted region.

The extraction in I, cutter zone

As shown in Figure 5, show the schematic diagram of cutter extracted region process.In one embodiment of the invention, because cutter, has unique color usually with respect to installing rack and surrounding environment, shown in preceding two views among Fig. 6.In such cases, generate the confidence level image of target area by selecting suitable feature (as (3R+G-4B)/4) for use, utilize optimal threshold to cut apart again and obtain candidate's cutter zone.Optimal threshold obtains with RCOstu (Range-Constrained OstuMethod) method, and concrete steps are as follows:

(a) lower bound and the upper bound r of calculating optimal threshold Low, r High

r low = max { i | Σ k = 1 i h ( k ) ≤ h low } , r high = min { i | Σ k = i i max h ( k ) ≤ h high }

Wherein h (k) is the normalization histogram of confidence level image, h Low, h HighBe respectively the occupied minimum scale in background area and target area.

(b) to r k∈ (r Low, r High), obtain the segmentation result to transitional region: C 1∈ [r Low, r k], C 2∈ (r k, r High].Calculate classification C 1, C 2Probability P r (C 1), Pr (C 2) and class internal variance D (C 1), D (C 2).

(c) optimal threshold is determined by following formula:

θ RCOtsu = min r k { Pr ( C 1 ) D ( C 1 ) + Pr ( C 2 ) D ( C 2 ) }

Thus, can extract the provincial characteristics of finishing cutter extracts, after executing a part of zone, then carry out the extraction in other zones of cutter, after more a plurality of extracted region being finished, next step profile that each extracted region need be gone out connects as a whole cutter profile diagram, and concrete implementation is as follows:

II, the image after proofreading and correct is carried out boundary characteristic extract.

Boundary characteristic extracts and adopts improved Canny algorithm commonly used in the prior art, also can adopt other algorithms, with the Canny algorithm is that example describes, carrying out boundary characteristic extracts the result who promptly utilizes extracted region and rejects noise among the edge extracting result, and to utilizing various algorithms that boundary point is carried out filtering, inhibition and being connected, to obtain the cutter profile;

Specific as follows:

(a) adopting Gauss Low-Pass filtering technique to remove ambient noise, also can utilize other filtering methods in the image processing, is that example describes with Gauss Low-Pass filtering technique, and its mathematic(al) representation is as follows:

G(x,y)=f(x,y)*H(x,y), H ( x , y ) = e - x 2 + y 2 2 σ 2 - - - ( 1 )

Wherein: (x y) is Gaussian function structure wave filter to H; (x is that raw video is at (x, the gray value of y) locating y) to f; (x is at (x, the gray value of y) locating through image behind the gaussian filtering y) to G; σ is the standard deviation of Gaussian noise.

(b) adopt the finite difference calculation of filtered of 2 * 2 neighborhood single order local derviations and image G (x, gradient magnitude y) after the rectification And gradient direction

H 1 = - 1 - 1 1 1 H 2 = 1 - 1 1 - 1 - - - ( 2 )

(c) gradient magnitude being carried out non-maximum suppresses.If (x, y) gradient magnitude of pixel More than or equal to gradient magnitude, judge that then this point is possible marginal point along two neighbor pixels on the gradient direction.

(d) usefulness dual threshold method detects and is connected the edge.The dual threshold algorithm suppresses two threshold tau of image effect to non-maximum 1And τ 2, and 2 τ 1≈ τ 2Thereby, can obtain two threshold value edge image N 1[i, j] and N 2[i, j].Because N 2[i, j] uses high threshold to obtain, thereby contains false edge seldom, but interruption (not closed) is arranged.The dual threshold method will be at N 2In [i, j] edge is connected into profile, when arriving the end points of profile, this algorithm is just at N 1The edge that can be connected on the profile is sought in the 8 adjoint point positions of [i, j], and like this, algorithm is constantly at N 1Collect edge in [i, j], up to N 2Till [i, j] couples together.

Can obtain the boundary characteristic of image thus, as shown in Figure 6, schematically illustrate final profile schematic diagram among the figure.

III, after extracting the edge feature of cutter, need further extract the wear characteristic point of cutter, and compare according to wear characteristic point and unworn cutter profile, to obtain the estimator of tool wear degree, specifically may further comprise the steps:

(a) utilize the result of extracted region to reject noise among the edge extracting result, obtain the cutter profile; This step is above-mentioned steps II.Because the result by extracted region exists a lot of noises, therefore utilize the filtering method among the above-mentioned steps II, get rid of noise spot, obtain the gradient magnitude of image then, and carry out non-maximum according to this gradient magnitude and suppress, and then judge marginal point, use the detection of dual threshold method then and be connected the edge, thereby obtain the boundary profile of cutter.It should be understood that the method for the top marginal point that is used for definite image, adopt the non-maximum of gradient magnitude to suppress to obtain, be understood that easily the additive method that can also adopt those skilled in the art to expect comes the marginal point of decision influence.Similarly, detect and be connected the edge and also can utilize additive method known in the art to realize.

(b) utilize moments method to obtain having the marginal position of sub-pixel precision; Although got access to the edge feature of image by above-mentioned steps, precision is inaccurate, for example on the edge the sub-pix point can not determine.For this reason, need utilize moments method to obtain having the marginal position of sub-pixel precision, moments method is an image treatment method in the prior art, it should be understood that to utilize additive method of the prior art to replace this method.

(c) utilize the SUSAN operator extraction to go out angle point on the cutter, with different line segment that profile point is playbacked.The SUSAN operator is a prior art.

(d) utilize the fitting a straight line algorithm to obtain the parameter of each contour edge of road, and ask for the intersection point of two straight lines.Utilize this step to utilize the method for fitting a straight line to fit to straight line the pixel of contour edge, and the intersection point of definite straight line, utilize this intersection point for determining the reference point of tool wear characteristic point.

(e) zone that extracts with the zone of two rectilinear(-al)s and the cutter that do not wear and tear compares, and obtains the estimator to the cutter degree of wear.

(4) utilize the camera calibration parameter that the cutting tools measurement value of extracting is converted into actual size.The measurement of tool dimension parameter is calculated by camera calibration parameter process by the cutter characteristic curve that extracts, in one exemplary embodiment, main profit obtains in the following method: suppose that a known dimensions L is P apart from the image pixel number that the camera distance obtains during for D, then at same locational object, obtaining the image pixel number as it is P NThe time, Dui Ying dimension of object value L then PNBe:

L PN = L P × P N - - - ( 5 )

Be understood that easily, much be used for determining the method for actual size in the prior art in addition.

(5) tool dimension with current actual tool dimension and setting compares, and generates compensating signal according to the two difference.The tool dimension of setting refers to process when initial the not cutting tools measurement size of experience wear.Current actual tool dimension refers to the tool dimension that online image detection system is measured.

(6) compensating signal feeds back to machine tool controller, and carries out correct motion by its control servomotor.Compensating signal is mended instruction format by the discernible cutter of numerically controlled lathe controller and is sent.

In the above step, all can prelist from (2)~(5) becomes executable program code, to realize on computers.

The present invention also provides online detection of a kind of cutter based on image and bucking-out system, is used for the tool abrasion on the online detection lathe and compensates based on wear extent, and comprising: camera head is used to absorb the image that is arranged on the cutter on the lathe; Processor, this processor and described camera head are adaptive, be used for the cutter image that is absorbed is handled, to extract the feature of cutter, and be actual size with this cutter Feature Conversion, and then this actual size and default tool dimension compared, with the compensating signal of the wear extent that obtains cutter, and the form that compensating signal is mended instruction with the discernible cutter of machine tool controller is sent to machine tool controller; Machine tool controller links to each other with the output port of described processor, is used to receive compensating signal, and drives the servomotor that is attached thereto; And servomotor, be used to drive cutter and carry out the cutting instruction.Wherein, processor can be that computer or other can be carried out the intelligent processor of executable instruction.

Be understood that easily, the principle of technical scheme of the present invention, mainly be based on cutter is carried out image collection and handles the definite and compensation that realizes tool abrasion, but also can carry out IMAQ by sharp outer profile size to the part after the cutting of wearing and tearing cutter, thereby measure the current size of part, and the further theoretical size comparison after cutting with the cutter that do not wear and tear, form compensation to generate, and finally realize online real-time detection and compensation.Wherein, based on cutter is carried out image collection and handle realize tool abrasion determine and all technical schemes of compensation all can suitably be adjusted to be attached to handle based on the image of cutting back part and realize in on-line monitoring and the bucking-out system.For the sake of simplicity, omit its detailed description.

So far,, describe the present invention by the mode of embodiment, but it should be understood that, on the basis that does not deviate from spirit of the present invention, can also carry out various modifications and changes to the present invention, these modifications and changes should be encompassed in the spirit and scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1, online detection of a kind of cutter based on image and compensation method are used for the tool abrasion on the online detection lathe and compensate based on wear extent, it is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
Arrange camera head, and be arranged on the image of the cutter on the lathe by this camera head picked-up;
Image to the cutter that absorbed is proofreaied and correct;
Extract the feature of cutter;
By described camera head parameter calibration, be the actual size of cutter with the Feature Conversion of cutter;
The actual size of cutter is compared with the tool dimension of presetting, generate compensating signal; And
Described compensating signal is supplied to machine tool controller, and utilizes machine tool controller to drive the servomotor compensation deviation that tool wear produced.
2, method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, arranges that the step of camera head further comprises the layout light source, improves the quality of the cutter image that obtained with floor light and then help.
3, method according to claim 2, it is characterized in that, the adjustment of image step comprises one or more in the following step: elevation angle correction, gradient correction, barrel aberrance emendation or approach based on linear interpolation are corrected the image that is obtained, to eliminate the distortion that camera lens causes.
4, method according to claim 3 is characterized in that, the feature of extracting cutter further may further comprise the steps:
Image after proofreading and correct is carried out the cutter extracted region;
Image after proofreading and correct is carried out boundary characteristic to be extracted;
Utilize the result of extracted region to reject noise among the edge extracting result, obtain the cutter profile.
5, method according to claim 4, it is characterized in that, after obtaining the cutter profile, determine to have the marginal position of sub-pixel precision, utilize the fitting a straight line algorithm to obtain the parameter of each contour edge of road then, and ask for the intersection point of each bar straight line, to determine the abration position stoichiometric point of cutter; The zone of two rectilinear(-al)s of contrast and to the difference of the cutter that do not wear and tear, to obtain estimator to the cutter degree of wear.
6, method according to claim 5, it is characterized in that, with the Feature Conversion of stage property is that the actual size of cutter specifically is to demarcate by following method, suppose that a known dimensions L is P apart from the image pixel number that camera distance obtains during for D, then at same locational object, obtaining the image pixel number as it is P NThe time, Dui Ying dimension of object value L then PNBe:
L PN = L P × P N
7, online detection of a kind of cutter based on image and bucking-out system are used for the tool abrasion on the online detection lathe and compensate based on wear extent, it is characterized in that, comprising:
Camera head is used to absorb the image that is arranged on the cutter on the lathe;
Processor, this processor and described camera head are adaptive, be used for the cutter image that is absorbed is handled, to extract the feature of cutter, and be actual size with this cutter Feature Conversion, and then this actual size and default tool dimension compared, with the compensating signal of the wear extent that obtains cutter, and the form that compensating signal is mended instruction with the discernible cutter of machine tool controller is sent to machine tool controller;
Machine tool controller links to each other with the output port of described processor, is used to receive compensating signal, and drives the servomotor that is attached thereto; And
Servomotor is used to drive cutter and carries out the cutting instruction.
According to system described in the claim 7, it is characterized in that 8, described camera head further comprises light source, be used for the quality that floor light and then help improve the cutter image that obtains.
9, online detection of a kind of cutter and compensation method based on image, be used for the size of the part after the cutter cutting on the online detection lathe and the accessory size after this wear extent and the cutter cutting of not wearing and tearing is compared, to compensate, it is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
Arrange camera head, and absorb the image of the part after the cutter that is arranged on the lathe cuts by this camera head;
Image to the part that absorbed is proofreaied and correct;
Extract the feature of part;
By described camera head parameter calibration, be the actual size of part with the Feature Conversion of part;
The actual size of part and the accessory size after the cutting of unworn cutter are compared, generate compensating signal; And
Described compensating signal is supplied to machine tool controller, and utilizes machine tool controller to drive the servomotor compensation deviation that tool wear produced.
CNA200910082547XA 2009-04-24 2009-04-24 Image-based on-line detection and compensation system and method for cutting tools CN101549468A (en)

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