CN101539405B - Multiple-view measurement data self-matching method based on attitude sensor - Google Patents

Multiple-view measurement data self-matching method based on attitude sensor Download PDF

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CN101539405B
CN101539405B CN2009100293247A CN200910029324A CN101539405B CN 101539405 B CN101539405 B CN 101539405B CN 2009100293247 A CN2009100293247 A CN 2009100293247A CN 200910029324 A CN200910029324 A CN 200910029324A CN 101539405 B CN101539405 B CN 101539405B
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coordinate
attitude sensor
measuring
measuring equipment
rotational transform
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CN101539405A (en
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王兴
韦虎
刘胜兰
石春琴
张丽艳
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Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
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Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
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Abstract

The invention discloses a multiple-view measurement data self-matching method based on an attitude sensor, which belongs to the filed of three-dimensional sensing and measuring. The attitude sensor is fixed on a measuring device, the position of a measured object keeps unchangeable during multiple measurement, and the positions of the attitude sensor and the measuring device keep relatively unchangeable. The multiple-view measurement data self-matching method comprises the following steps: calibrating rotation transformation matrixes of the attitude sensor and the measuring device between respective coordinate frames by using calibration objects, automatically obtaining the self rotation transformation matrix according to the attitude sensor, calculating the rotation transformation of the coordinate frame of the measuring device when in measurement every time, performing the corresponding rotation transformation to the measurement data every time, calculating the translation transformation of the measurement data under different views by adopting a clustering method according to the principle of same data node normal direction at an overlap region, so as to realize the multiple-view measurement data self-matching. The invention has the advantages of simple structure of used devices, low cost, flexibility, reliability and easy implementation.

Description

Based on the multiple-view measurement data of attitude sensor from combination method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind ofly, relate in particular to a kind of attitude sensor that in the measuring three-dimensional profile system, increases and realize the method for multiple-view measurement data, belong to three-dimensional sensing and fields of measurement from amalgamation in the measuring three-dimensional profile system.
Background technology
The measurement of the three-D profile data demand that has a wide range of applications in fields such as Aero-Space, shipping vehicle, machine-building, biomedicine, textile garment, industrial designs.Various measuring methods based on machinery, optics, acoustics, electromagnetics principle have all obtained huge progress, are that the optical non-contact measurement method of representative has realized commercial application in a lot of fields with laser scanning method, interferometric method and method of structured light especially.Yet, various measuring three-dimensional profile method one-shot measurements all can only obtain the surface data of limited area, the measurement of large-sized object or comprehensive profile will take multiple measurements (being called various visual angles measures) by mobile measuring equipment or mobile testee, the data that measure of homogeneous are not positioned under the different coordinate systems like this, and the measurement data amalgamation under the different coordinates is a generally acknowledged thorny problem.
Address this problem the three kinds of methods that mainly contain at present: the one, paste sphere or circular handmarking's point on the testee surface, by the common gauge point more than at least three between twice measurement, realize the coordinate transform between two measurement data set.This method has increased the preliminary work before measuring, and the measurement data of pasting the local model of gauge point itself can lack, and object this problem of enriching for small-sized and details is especially outstanding; Another kind method is the relative motion between measuring equipment and the testee during homogeneous is measured by mechanical mechanism controls, kinematic parameter by mechanical mechanism directly calculates the coordinate transform relation of measuring between point set, for example, testee is fixed on the numerical control rotary table, perhaps measuring system is installed on the complicated multi-joint manipulator arm.Adopt these numerical controlled machinery devices not only significantly increase to measure cost, and make the dirigibility of whole measuring system and the adaptability of testee size obviously reduced; The third method is carried out amalgamation by the subsequent treatment algorithm to the 3 d measurement data of exporting under the different coordinates merely, subject matter is how to extract reliable and stable feature from cloud data, it is very big that this method is influenced by the surface configuration of different testees, do not have versatility, reliability is also relatively poor.
Be widely used in the attitude sensor in aerial navigation, tracking Control, the platform stable field, can export the attitude angle and the angular velocity of displacement in real time, has stable performance, characteristics such as precision height, and small-sized attitude sensor volume only has the matchbox size, weight only has tens grams, very is easy to install and use.If therefore can be applied in the measuring three-dimensional profile system by the attitude sensor that structure is small and exquisite, make system carry out various visual angles when measuring to testee changing position and attitude, can determine the coordinate transform of himself voluntarily, thereby need not to paste gauge point, also need not numerical controlled machinery devices such as universal stage, mechanical arm, just can reliablely and stablely solve the data amalgamation problem that various visual angles are measured, beyond doubt an extraordinary approach.But since the small and exquisite attitude angular transducer of structure can not perception self translational movement, and attitude angle sensor coordinate system has the coordinate system of self, therefore to realize this conception, need to solve that the attitude sensor coordinate system is demarcated with the relation between the measuring system coordinate system, translation vector such as finds the solution at problem between the measurement data set of rotation relationship under definite.Still at present and do not find to have correlation technique open.
Summary of the invention
The present invention proposes a kind of multiple-view measurement data based on attitude sensor from combination method for the dirigibility that improves the three-D profile DATA REASONING and stability.
A kind of multiple-view measurement data based on attitude sensor is from combination method, implements by fix an attitude sensor that can obtain self coordinate system attitude running parameter in real time on 3-D measuring apparatus, specifically comprises the steps:
A. to the rotational transform matrix R between measuring equipment coordinate system and the attitude sensor coordinate system CDemarcate;
B. testee is measured first, obtain the three-dimensional data point coordinate in the testee surface measurement zone under the measuring equipment coordinate system, and to get the measuring equipment coordinate of this time when measuring be global coordinate system, writes down the attitude parameter of this time attitude sensor when measuring simultaneously;
C. keep testee motionless, the position that changes measuring equipment is measured testee from different visual angles with attitude: when measuring, all self attitude parameter of catching automatically according to attitude sensor calculates the rotational transform matrix R of attitude sensor when measuring first at every turn M, and by the rotational transform matrix R of this attitude sensor when measuring first MWith the rotational transform matrix R that obtains in the steps A CCalculate the rotational transform matrix R of measuring equipment coordinate system with respect to global coordinate system L, utilize this this rotational transform matrix R with respect to global coordinate system LThe measurement data point coordinate is rotated conversion;
D. the measuring equipment coordinate system is with respect to the translation transformation vector of global coordinate system in the each measurement after determining to measure first, and utilizes resulting translation transformation vector that each measurement data point coordinate is carried out translation transformation;
E. multiple-view measurement data being transformed on the basis of global coordinate system, utilize alternative manner to carry out the global optimization of each measurement data coordinate amalgamation through step C and step D.
The present invention increases attitude sensor in measuring system, need not to arrange gauge point in testee surface and measurement scene, also need not to adopt special numerical controlled machinery device, and simplified measurement preliminary work increases the dirigibility of measuring greatly; The rotational transform of measuring equipment coordinate system and global coordinate system relation is obtained in real time by attitude sensor under the different visual angles, and definite employing of translation transformation is based on the statistical method of cluster, this has higher stability with respect to the method for merely carrying out the amalgamation of multi-view angle three-dimensional measurement data by subsequent treatment algorithm extract minutiae, and amalgamation speed is also faster; This method can can't realize carrying out multiple-view measurement data from amalgamation from the testee of amalgamation based on feature extracting method to surfaces of revolution etc.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a method flow diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is attitude sensor and the binocular solid sensor measurement synoptic diagram in the preferred embodiment of the present invention.
Embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of multiple-view measurement data based on attitude sensor is from combination method, implements by fix an attitude sensor that can obtain self coordinate system attitude running parameter in real time on 3-D measuring apparatus, comprises the steps:
A. to the rotational transform matrix R between measuring equipment coordinate system and the attitude sensor coordinate system CDemarcate;
B. testee is measured first, obtain the three-dimensional data point coordinate in the testee surface measurement zone under the measuring equipment coordinate system, and to get the measuring equipment coordinate of this time when measuring be global coordinate system, writes down the attitude parameter of this time attitude sensor when measuring simultaneously;
C. keep testee motionless, the position that changes measuring equipment is measured testee from different visual angles with attitude: when measuring, all self attitude parameter of catching automatically according to attitude sensor calculates the rotational transform matrix R of attitude sensor when measuring first at every turn M, and by the rotational transform matrix R of this attitude sensor when measuring first MWith the rotational transform matrix R that obtains in the steps A CCalculate the rotational transform matrix R of measuring equipment coordinate system with respect to global coordinate system L, utilize this this rotational transform matrix R with respect to global coordinate system LThe measurement data point coordinate is rotated conversion;
D. the measuring equipment coordinate system is with respect to the translation transformation vector of global coordinate system in the each measurement after determining to measure first, and utilizes resulting translation transformation vector that each measurement data point coordinate is carried out translation transformation;
E. multiple-view measurement data being transformed on the basis of global coordinate system, utilize alternative manner to carry out the global optimization of each measurement data coordinate amalgamation through step C and step D.
More than be the general steps of the inventive method, existing is device for carrying out said with binocular three-dimensional measuring system and attitude sensor, and implementation step is described in detail in detail in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:
(e θ) represents to rotatablely move, and wherein: e is the forward of turning axle with φ, θ ∈ [0, π] is the angle of pressing the right-hand rule rotation around the turning axle forward, the then φ (e that rotatablely moves of rigid body, rotational transform matrix R that θ) can unique definite turning axle e place coordinate system, it is determined to close and is:
R = e x 2 ( 1 - cos θ ) + cos θ e x e y ( 1 - cos θ ) - e z sin θ e x e z ( 1 - cos θ ) + e y sin θ e x e y ( 1 - cos θ ) + e z sin θ e y 2 ( 1 - cos θ ) + cos θ e y e z ( 1 - cos θ ) - e x sin θ e x e z ( 1 - cos θ ) - e y sin θ e y e z ( 1 - cos θ ) + e x sin θ e z 2 ( 1 - cos θ ) + cos θ - - - ( 1 )
Wherein: e x, e y, e zBe respectively three components of turning axle forward e.
Otherwise, if known coordinate is rotational transform matrix R={r Ij; character according to rotation matrix; know that rotation matrix must have three eigenwerts; be respectively 1; cos θ ± isin θ, wherein eigenwert 1 pairing proper vector is the direction (in the same way or oppositely) of turning axle, θ ∈ [0; π] be the anglec of rotation around the turning axle forward, therefore set up relation of plane down:
1+2cosθ=tr(R),θ∈[0,π] (2)
(R-I)e=0 (3)
When R ≠ I, separating of (3) formula is the dimension solutions space, the solution vector e=(e of the unit of establishing x, e y, e z) TAccording to the matrix element size of (1) formula comparator matrix R, can get the following fact about the diagonal line symmetry:
e z ≥ 0 if r 21 ≥ r 12 e y ≤ 0 if r 31 ≥ r 13 e x ≥ 0 if r 32 ≥ r 23 - - - ( 4 )
In conjunction with the relation of (4) formula, can determine to find the solution the forward vector of unit length of the turning axle that obtains by (3) formula, anglec of rotation θ determines by (2) formula is unique.
Present embodiment is fixed on attitude sensor on the binocular three-dimensional measuring equipment, and remain attitude sensor and binocular three-dimensional measuring equipment relative position is constant, as shown in Figure 2, when binocular three-dimensional measuring equipment was done rigid motion, attitude sensor was also done identical rigid motion.If the attitude sensor coordinate is O M, the binocular three-dimensional measuring device coordinate is O L, O MWith O LExist rigid body translation between the coordinate system, remember that rotation matrix is R in this rigid body translation C, translation vector is T C, then have
P M=R CP L+T C (5)
Wherein: P LFor the point on the testee at O LUnder coordinate, P MFor this point at O MUnder coordinate.
The concrete grammar that rotational transform between measuring equipment coordinate system and attitude sensor coordinate system relation is demarcated is: measure first demarcating thing earlier, mobile then binocular three-dimensional measuring equipment carries out the measurement second time from different visual angles to demarcating thing, the variation of the position of measuring equipment integral body and attitude can be considered as rigid motion between twice measurement, make φ (e, θ) represent rotatablely moving in this rigid motion, φ (e then, θ) the determined anglec of rotation is necessarily identical under attitude sensor coordinate system and measuring equipment coordinate system, and turning axle forward difference.If the coordinate system O of calibration measurements for the second time LAnd O MWith respect to the first time calibration measurements have rotation matrix R respectively LAnd R MFor calculating rotation matrix R L, need in this twice calibration measurements, measure at least and demarcate on the thing three not identical data points of conllinear, might as well establish P iAnd P i' (i=1,2 ..., the k) coordinate of identical data point in the measuring equipment coordinate system on the demarcation thing that measures the expression first time and the second time respectively, and note:
P ‾ = 1 k Σ i = 1 k P i , P ‾ ′ = 1 k Σ i = 1 k P i ′ , Q i=P i-P,Q i′=P i′P′
Structural matrix W = Σ i = 1 k Q i Q i ′ T , W is carried out svd obtain W=UDV T, wherein: U, V are orthogonal matrix, and D is a diagonal matrix, then has
R L=VU T (6)
Matrix R MBe to transform by the anglec of rotation that attitude sensor feeds back automatically to obtain around three coordinate axis of himself coordinate system.(e, θ) the turning axle forward vector of unit length under two different coordinates is e can to determine φ respectively according to (3) (4) LAnd e M, e then LAnd e MBetween certainly exist rotational transform, that is:
R Ce L=e M (7)
Determine rotation matrix R C, need three groups of above-mentioned equations (7) at least, therefore require in calibration process, need at least from different visual angles to carry out measurement more than four times or four times to demarcating thing.Suppose inferior measurement, obtain n equation through n+1 (n 〉=3):
R Ce Li=e Mi,i=1,2,3,...,n (8)
Adopting singular value decomposition method to carry out least square to (8) formula finds the solution.The note matrix W ′ = Σ i = 1 n e Li e Mi T , W ' is carried out svd obtain W '=U ' D ' V ' T, wherein U ', V ' they are orthogonal matrix, and D ' is a diagonal matrix, and then the least square solution of (8) formula is:
R C=V′U′ T (9)
Concern scaling method according to the rotational transform between measuring equipment coordinate system of the present invention and the attitude sensor coordinate system, only need carry out the calibration measurements of different visual angles more than four times or four times to the demarcation thing, and the rotational transform matrix that measuring equipment is produced when only requiring can to calculate each calibration measurements according to the calibration measurements result gets final product, simple to operate, be easy to realize.
In to the testee measuring process, testee is maintained static, change the position and the attitude of measuring equipment, carry out various visual angles and measure.Get measuring equipment coordinate system when testee measured first as global coordinate system.When measuring for the second time, attitude sensor self coordinate system O when this is measured by the attitude sensor captured in real time MRotational transform matrix R with respect to global coordinate system M, according to R MCan try to achieve φ (e by (2) (3) (4) formula M, θ M), again according to e L=R C Te MAnd θ LM, can determine the measuring equipment coordinate system O of this measurement LThe φ (e that rotatablely moves with respect to global coordinate system L, θ L).With e L, θ LCan try to achieve the rotational transform matrix R of measuring equipment coordinate system in substitution (1) formula with respect to global coordinate system L
With above-mentioned rotation matrix R LThe three-dimensional point coordinate of measuring for the second time gained is implemented rotational transform, and measuring equipment coordinate system and global coordinate system only differ a translation transformation during feasible the measurement for the second time.In order to find the solution this translation transformation, between the measurement data in the requirement measurement data second time and the global coordinate system partial data must be arranged is overlapped data, promptly has on the testee in the measurement of partial data under at least two visual angles to occur simultaneously.Because this moment, overlapping region three-dimensional point coordinate only differed a translation transformation, therefore for the second time in measurement data and the global coordinate system in the measurement data its direction of normal of data point in the corresponding overlapping region be consistent, around this principle, the present invention utilizes clustering method to find the solution unknown translation vector, and concrete grammar is as follows:
If the measurement data point set second time after being in the measurement data point set in the global coordinate system and having passed through rotational transform is designated as { P respectively iAnd { Q j, in the present embodiment with { P iAnd { Q jCarry out trigonometric ratio respectively and estimate that the method at place, each summit vows that corresponding with data point set, notation is vowed and is respectively { NP iAnd { NQ j.If three components that each some place per unit system is vowed are regarded the coordinate of a point as, then these points are inevitable be the centre of sphere with the initial point, and radius is on 1 the sphere.Owing to the data transformation of attitude sensor self sum of errors measurement data overlapping region overlaps and reason such as measuring system self error, determining method is vowed NP among the embodiment iAnd NQ jFor identical, only work as NP iAnd NQ jInequality below satisfying:
NP i·NQ j>cos1 0 (10)
To { P iIn each the some P sMethod vow NP s, at { Q jIn search obtain Q t, make NP sNQ tMaximum, and satisfy (10) formula, note P sAnd Q tBetween translation vector be:
T st=P s-Q t (11)
T then StIt is a possible translation vector.(10) and (11) formula of utilization calculates { P iAnd { Q jBetween all possible translation vector, and the starting point of these translation vectors moved to true origin, terminal point with each translation vector is the centre of sphere again, make the ball that radius is r (getting r=0.5 among the embodiment), statistics falls into the number of other translation vector terminal point in this ball, obtain comprising the pairing ball of maximum translation vector terminal points, the translation transformation vector the when centre of sphere of then getting this ball is measured for the second time for this between measuring equipment coordinate system and the global coordinate system.
Utilize the translation vector of being tried to achieve, to measurement data point set { the Q second time jCarry out translation transformation, the unification of measuring equipment coordinate system is in global coordinate system in the time of can being measured the second time.For the third time and follow-up each measurement all adopt and for the second time measure identical method measurement data is transformed under the global coordinate system.Utilize alternative manner (as iterative closest point (ICP) method) that all cloud datas are carried out overall amalgamation optimization at last, further improve multiple-view measurement data from the amalgamation precision.
Be appreciated that for a person skilled in the art, on the inventive method basis, may have multiple improvement type.Thereby foregoing description and relevant accompanying drawing are signal of the present invention and be not limited to this.

Claims (4)

  1. One kind based on the multiple-view measurement data of attitude sensor from combination method, it is characterized in that: implement by on 3-D measuring apparatus, fixing an attitude sensor that can obtain self coordinate system attitude running parameter in real time, specifically comprise the steps:
    A. to the rotational transform matrix R between measuring equipment coordinate system and the attitude sensor coordinate system CDemarcate;
    B. testee is measured first, obtain the three-dimensional data point coordinate in the testee surface measurement zone under the measuring equipment coordinate system, and to get the measuring equipment coordinate of this time when measuring be global coordinate system, writes down the attitude parameter of this time attitude sensor when measuring simultaneously;
    C. keep testee motionless, the position that changes measuring equipment is measured testee from different visual angles with attitude: when measuring, all self attitude parameter of catching automatically according to attitude sensor calculates the rotational transform matrix R of attitude sensor when measuring first at every turn M, and by the rotational transform matrix R of this attitude sensor when measuring first MWith the rotational transform matrix R that obtains in the steps A CCalculate the rotational transform matrix R of measuring equipment coordinate system with respect to global coordinate system L, utilize this this rotational transform matrix R with respect to global coordinate system LThe measurement data point coordinate is rotated conversion;
    D. the measuring equipment coordinate system is with respect to the translation transformation vector of global coordinate system in the each measurement after determining to measure first, and utilizes resulting translation transformation vector that each measurement data point coordinate is carried out translation transformation;
    E. multiple-view measurement data being transformed on the basis of global coordinate system, utilize alternative manner to carry out the global optimization of each measurement data coordinate amalgamation through step C and step D.
  2. 2. the multiple-view measurement data based on attitude sensor according to claim 1 is characterized in that from combination method: in the described steps A to the rotational transform matrix R between measuring equipment coordinate system and the attitude sensor coordinate system CThe method of demarcating comprises the steps:
    F. demarcate thing and keep motionless, mobile measuring equipment is measured demarcating thing from least four different visual angles;
    G. calculate the rotational transform matrix that the measuring equipment coordinate system is produced at every turn when measuring to demarcating the result that thing is measured, the rotational transform matrix that the attitude sensor coordinate system that attitude sensor is fed back when obtaining this time measurement is simultaneously produced according to each;
    H. according to the rotational transform matrix of the each measuring equipment coordinate system that obtains among the step G, calculate the turning axle forward vector of unit length and the anglec of rotation of each measuring equipment rigid motion, the rotational transform matrix that produces according to the each attitude sensor coordinate system that obtains among the step G calculates the turning axle forward vector of unit length and the anglec of rotation of each attitude sensor rigid motion simultaneously;
    Differ the constraint condition of same rotational transform during I. according to each the measurement between the turning axle forward vector of unit length of the turning axle forward vector of unit length of measuring equipment coordinate system rotation conversion and the conversion of attitude sensor coordinate system rotation, find the solution the rotational transform matrix between measuring equipment coordinate system and the attitude sensor coordinate system.
  3. 3. the multiple-view measurement data based on attitude sensor according to claim 1 is characterized in that from combination method: calculate the rotational transform matrix R of measuring equipment coordinate system with respect to global coordinate system among the described step C LMethod comprise the steps:
    J. according among the step C when measuring first the rotational transform matrix R of attitude sensor MCalculate the φ (e that rotatablely moves M, θ M), wherein: e M-turning axle forward vector of unit length, θ M-the anglec of rotation;
    K. calculate the φ (e that rotatablely moves of measuring equipment L, θ L), and by this φ (e that rotatablely moves L, θ L) determine the rotational transform matrix R of measuring equipment coordinate system with respect to global coordinate system L, wherein: turning axle forward vector of unit length e L=R C Te M, anglec of rotation θ LM
  4. 4. the multiple-view measurement data based on attitude sensor according to claim 1 is characterized in that from combination method: the measuring equipment coordinate system comprises the steps: with respect to the method for the translation transformation vector of global coordinate system in the each measurement after determining among the described step D to measure first
    L. be arranged in the three-dimensional data points of global coordinate system and passing through the rotational transform matrix R of step C with respect to global coordinate system LIn the data point of rotational transform, the method for searching is vowed identical corresponding point, and calculates the translation vector between every pair of corresponding point respectively;
    M. all translation vectors that obtain among the step L are carried out cluster analysis, the pairing translation vector of central point that will comprise that maximum class of translation vector number is as the translation transformation vector of measuring equipment coordinate system to be determined with respect to global coordinate system.
CN2009100293247A 2009-04-09 2009-04-09 Multiple-view measurement data self-matching method based on attitude sensor Expired - Fee Related CN101539405B (en)

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US8896631B2 (en) 2010-10-25 2014-11-25 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Hyper parallax transformation matrix based on user eye positions
CN102062587B (en) * 2010-12-13 2013-02-20 上海克来机电自动化工程有限公司 Laser sensor-based method for determining poses of multiple mobile robots
CN103020598B (en) * 2012-12-11 2015-08-19 杭州电子科技大学 A kind ofly carry out knowledge method for distinguishing for attitude variation when people being completed to specific action
CN105404238B (en) * 2015-10-22 2018-07-06 南京航空航天大学 A kind of linearisation scaling method of the gauge head pose in machine laser measurement
CN106017355A (en) * 2016-03-22 2016-10-12 武汉武大卓越科技有限责任公司 Three-dimensional measuring sensor based on line structured light
CN106959704B (en) * 2017-03-20 2020-05-15 安徽金盾三维高科技有限公司 Control method and system of three-dimensional topography measuring instrument
CN106874626B (en) * 2017-03-21 2020-08-04 中国人民解放军国防大学联合勤务学院 Adaptive target indication data estimation method based on three-dimensional characteristic value space
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CN108692661A (en) * 2018-05-08 2018-10-23 深圳大学 Portable three-dimensional measuring system based on Inertial Measurement Unit and its measurement method
CN111735410A (en) * 2020-06-23 2020-10-02 西北工业大学 Bell-shaped spherical shell part measuring device and measuring method thereof

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