CN101536254B - Compact multi-element antenna with phase shift - Google Patents

Compact multi-element antenna with phase shift Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101536254B
CN101536254B CN 200780036792 CN200780036792A CN101536254B CN 101536254 B CN101536254 B CN 101536254B CN 200780036792 CN200780036792 CN 200780036792 CN 200780036792 A CN200780036792 A CN 200780036792A CN 101536254 B CN101536254 B CN 101536254B
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element
radiating element
antenna
radiating
antenna system
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CN 200780036792
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101536254A (en
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杨小平
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艾尔加因公司
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Priority to PCT/US2007/080217 priority Critical patent/WO2009045210A1/en
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Publication of CN101536254B publication Critical patent/CN101536254B/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q3/00Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system
    • H01Q3/26Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system varying the relative phase or relative amplitude of energisation between two or more active radiating elements; varying the distribution of energy across a radiating aperture
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/36Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/36Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith
    • H01Q1/38Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith formed by a conductive layer on an insulating support

Abstract

本发明涉及带有相移的小型多元件天线。 The present invention relates to a multi-element antenna having a small phase shift. 一种相控阵天线系统,包括由一种材料制成的并具有被选定以便以所需的频率谐振的长度的第一辐射元件。 Phased array antenna system, comprising the resonant frequency to a desired length of the first radiating element is made of a material and having selected. 相移元件连接到所述第一辐射元件的一端。 Phase shifting element connected to one end of the first radiating element. 第二辐射元件连接到所述相移元件的与所述第一辐射元件相对的一端,以便无线电信号经过所述第一辐射元件,经过所述相移元件,并经过所述第二辐射元件,所述第二辐射元件由一种材料制成并具有被选定以进行谐振的长度,以便所述第一和第二辐射元件进行协作,以便从所述天线系统形成所需的波束方向图。 The second radiating element is connected to said phase shift element and the radiating element opposite to the first end, so that the radio signal through the first radiating element, through the phase shift element, and through said second radiating element, the radiating element is made of a second material and having a length selected to resonate, so that the first and second radiating elements cooperate to form a desired beam pattern from the antenna system.

Description

带有相移的小型多元件天线 A multi-element antenna with a small phase shift

[0001] 本申请要求2006年10月2日提出的专利申请号为60/827,846的标题为“CompactMult1-element Antenna with PhaseShift”的美国临时专利申请的优先权,通过引用将该申请的全部内容并入于此。 [0001] This application claims patent application No. 2006, October 2 made of 60 / 827,846 entitled "CompactMult1-element Antenna with PhaseShift" of US provisional patent application filed by reference all of the application the contents of which are incorporated herein.

技术领域 FIELD

[0002] 本发明涉及无线通信系统,具体来说,涉及这样的系统中所使用的定向天线。 [0002] The present invention relates to wireless communication systems, and in particular, relates to such a directional antenna system is used.

背景技术 Background technique

[0003] 在无线通信系统中,使用天线来发射和接收射频信号。 [0003] In a wireless communication system, antennas used to transmit and receive radio frequency signals. 一般而言,天线可以是全向的或定向的。 In general, the antenna can be omni-directional or directional of. 在许多应用中,将天线置于包围了使用天线的设备的壳体或机壳内是有好处的。 In many applications, the antenna is placed within a housing or enclosure enclosing the antenna apparatus used is beneficial. 然而,将天线置于机壳内并靠近设备的组件,会大大地降低天线的性能。 However, the antenna assembly and positioned within the housing close to the apparatus, significantly reduce the performance of the antenna.

[0004] 如此,需要改进被置于机壳内的天线的性能。 [0004] Thus, a need to improve performance of the antenna is disposed inside the housing.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0005] 描述了天线系统的方法、设备,以及系统,天线系统可以包含在使用天线的设备的机壳内,同时提供正增益。 [0005] The antenna system described method, apparatus, and system, the antenna system may be contained within the housing using the antenna device, while providing a positive gain. 一方面,天线系统包括天线元件阵列,这些天线元件进行协作,以形成天线波束方向图。 In one aspect, the antenna system comprising an array of antenna elements, the antenna elements which cooperate to form the antenna beam pattern. 天线元件可以组织为两个或更多同相天线元件,它们进行协作,以增大所需波束方向图中的天线系统的增益。 The antenna elements can be organized into two or more antenna elements in phase, they cooperate to increase the gain of the desired beam pattern of the antenna system. 通过使用一个以上的天线元件,可以增大整个天线系统的长度,这可以通过将那些负面影响限制到天线系统的相对来说较小的一部分,减轻机壳中的系统的其他元件的负面影响。 By using more than one antenna element, you can increase the length of the entire antenna system, which can be limited by the negative effect that a smaller portion of the antenna system is relatively, mitigate the negative effects of other elements of the system in the enclosure. 这就增大了天线系统的健壮性和容限,并允许天线利用印刷电路板组件(PCBA)或板载组件容易地嵌入到机壳中。 This increases the robustness and the antenna system tolerances, and allows the use of an antenna printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) or onboard components easily fitted into the cabinet. 一方面,使用两个或更多天线系统同时或有选择地提供不同的天线方向图。 In one aspect, the use of two or more antenna systems simultaneously or selectively to provide different antenna pattern.

[0006] 在一个实施例中,相控阵天线系统包括由一种材料制成的并具有被选定以便以所需的频率谐振的长度的第一辐射元件。 [0006] In one embodiment, the system includes a phased array antenna made of a material and having a selected resonance at a desired frequency to the first radiating element length. 诸如延迟元件之类的相移元件连接到第一辐射元件的一端。 Delay elements such as a phase shifting element or the like connected to one end of the first radiating element. 第二辐射元件连接到所述相移元件的与所述第一辐射元件相对的一端,以便无线电信号经过所述第一辐射元件,经过所述相移元件,并经过所述第二辐射元件,所述第二辐射元件由一种材料制成并具有被选定以进行谐振的长度,以便所述第一和第二辐射元件进行协作,以便从所述天线系统形成所需的波束方向图。 The second radiating element is connected to said phase shift element and the radiating element opposite to the first end, so that the radio signal through the first radiating element, through the phase shift element, and through said second radiating element, the radiating element is made of a second material and having a length selected to resonate, so that the first and second radiating elements cooperate to form a desired beam pattern from the antenna system.

[0007] 在此实施例中,第一辐射元件的长度可以大约是无线电信号的波长的四分之一,第二辐射元件的长度大约是无线电信号的波长的二分之一。 [0007] In this embodiment, the length of the first radiating element may be approximately one-quarter wavelength of the radio signal, the length of the second radiating element is approximately one-half wavelength of the radio signal. 相移元件将无线电信号的相位移动大约无线电信号的波长的二分之一。 Phase shifting one element phase-shifted radio signal wavelength is approximately two hours, the radio signal. 此外,天线可以包括开关,以便开关的操作将第二辐射元件与第一辐射元件断开。 Further, the antenna may include a switch, to switch the operation of the second radiating element and first radiating element is disconnected. 第一和第二辐射元件也可以包括可以接通或断开并改变元件谐振的频率的组件。 The first and second radiating elements may also comprise or may be turned OFF and the components of the frequency change of the resonant element.

[0008] 在另一个实施例中,相控阵天线系统包括下辐射元件,该元件包括进行协作而充当辐射元件的偶极部分和H部分。 [0008] In another embodiment, a phased array antenna system includes a radiating element, which element comprises a dipole portion cooperate and act as part H of the radiating element. 在一个实施例中,偶极部分和H部分进行协作,以充当偶极天线。 In one embodiment, the dipole portion and the H portion cooperate to act as a dipole antenna. 相移元件连接到下辐射元件。 Phase shifting element connected to the lower radiating element. 端子辐射元件连接到与下辐射元件相对的相移元件,端子辐射元件和下辐射元件进行协作,以形成所需的天线方向图。 Terminal of the radiating element and the lower radiating element is connected to the element, the terminals and the lower radiating element radiating element phase shift opposite to cooperate to form a desired antenna pattern.

[0009] 天线系统也可以在下辐射元件和相移元件之间包括开关,开关的操作将下辐射元件与相移元件和端子元件连接和断开连接。 [0009] The antenna system may be a phase shift between the radiating element and the lower element includes a switch, the switch operating element and the lower radiating element phase shifting element and the terminal connection and disconnection. 在相移元件中也可以有开关,该开关的操作改变由相移元件引入的相移量。 In the phase shift element may be a switch, the switch operation is changed the amount of phase shift introduced by the phase shift element.

[0010] 在另一个实施例中,诸如印刷线路板之类的电路板或衬底或承载体,包括由一种材料制成的并具有被选定以便以所需的频率谐振的长度的第一辐射元件。 [0010] embodiment, the circuit board or substrate or carrier, such as a printed wiring board or the like in another embodiment, including from a first material and having a selected frequency so as to resonate at the desired length a radiating element. 电路板还包括连接到第一辐射元件的一端的第一相移元件。 Further comprising a circuit board connected to one end of the first radiating element a first phase shift element. 还有连接到所述相移元件的与所述第一辐射元件相对的一端的第二辐射元件,以便无线电信号经过所述第一辐射元件,经过所述相移元件,并经过所述第二辐射元件,所述第二辐射元件由一种材料制成并具有被选定以进行谐振的长度,以便所述第一和第二辐射元件进行协作,以便从所述天线系统形成所需的波束方向图。 There is connected to the phase shift element and the first radiation element opposite to the second end of the radiating element, so that the radio signal through the first radiating element, through the phase shift element, and through said second radiating element, said second radiating element is made of a material and having a length selected for the resonance, so that the first and second radiating elements cooperate to form the desired beam from the antenna system direction of FIG.

[0011] 电路板也可以包括连接到所述第二下辐射元件的与第一相移元件相对的一端的第二相移元件;以及,连接到第二相移元件的与第二辐射元件相对的一端的第三辐射元件。 [0011] The circuit board may also include a second phase shift element and the first phase shift element is connected to the opposite end of the second radiation element; and a second phase shift element coupled to the second radiation element opposite end of the third radiating element. 无线电信号可以经过第一辐射元件,经过第一相移元件,经过第二辐射元件,经过第二相移元件,经过第三辐射元件,第三辐射元件由一种材料制成并具有被选定以进行谐振的长度,以便第一、第二和第三辐射元件进行协作,以便从天线系统形成所需的波束方向图。 The radio signal may pass through a first radiating element, through a first phase shift element, the second radiating element passes through the second phase shifting element, via a third radiating element, the third radiating element is made of a selected material and having length resonates, so that the first, second and third radiating elements cooperate to form a desired beam pattern from the antenna system. 在其他实施例中,在天线系统中可以使用任何所需数量的辐射元件和相移元件。 In other embodiments, the antenna system may be used in any desired number of radiating elements and the phase shift element.

[0012] 在再一个实施例中,电路板包括带有第一天线系统的第一面和带有第二天线系统的第二面,其中,两个天线系统以不同频率工作。 [0012] In a further embodiment, the circuit board comprising a first face and a second face having a second antenna system with a first antenna system, wherein the antenna system operates at two different frequencies. 例如,在卡的第一面,有由一种材料制成的并具有被选定以便以第一所需频率谐振的长度的第一辐射元件、连接到第一辐射元件的一端的第一相移元件、以及连接到相移元件的与第一辐射元件相对的一端的第二辐射元件,以便无线电信号经过第一辐射元件,经过相移元件,并经过第二辐射元件,第二辐射元件由一种材料制成并具有被选定以进行谐振的长度,以便第一和第二辐射元件进行协作,以便从天线系统形成所需的波束方向图。 For example, the first surface of the card, there is made of a material and having a first selected so as to resonate at the desired frequency of the first length of the radiating element, a first phase connected to one end of the first radiation element shifting element, and a second radiating element is connected to the phase-shifting element and the first end of the radiating element opposite to the first radiating element via a radio signal through the phase shift element, and through a second radiating element, a second radiating element and made of a material having a selected length to resonate, so that the first and second radiating elements cooperate to form a desired beam pattern from the antenna system. 在卡的第二面,有第二天线系统,包括由一种材料制成的并具有被选定以便以第二所需频率谐振的长度的第三辐射元件、连接到第三辐射元件的一端的第二相移元件、以及连接到第二相移元件的与第一辐射元件相对的一端的第四辐射元件,以便无线电信号经过第一辐射元件,经过相移元件,并经过第二辐射元件,第二辐射元件由一种材料制成并具有被选定以进行谐振的长度,以便第一和第二辐射元件进行协作,以便从天线系统形成所需的波束方向图。 The second surface of the card, there is a second antenna system, comprising and made from a material selected so as to have one end of the third length of the second radiating element resonates desired frequency, connected to the third radiating element a second phase shift element, and a fourth radiation element connected to the opposite end of the first radiating element and a second phase shift element, so the radio signal through a first radiating element, through the phase shift element, and through a second radiating element the second radiating element is made of a material and having a length selected to resonate, so that the first and second radiating elements cooperate to form a desired beam pattern from the antenna system.

[0013] 在另一个实施例中,诸如图12和13中所显示的电路板之类的承载体,可以是柔性的、刚性的、平面的、弯曲的或线性的。 [0013] Examples, such as the carrier member 12 and the circuit board 13 or the like shown in another embodiment, it may be flexible, rigid, planar, curved or linear. 承载体可以形成为某种形状,或者通过机壳的附属装置之类的约束物保持某种形状。 The carrier may be formed in a certain shape, or maintaining a certain shape by a constraint attachment casing or the like. 在另一个实施例中,天线系统可以横跨承载体的多个部分。 In another embodiment, the antenna system may span a plurality of portions of the carrier body. 承载体的部分可以以任何所需的角度彼此对齐。 Portion of the carrier member may be aligned with each other at any desired angle.

[0014] 可以在无线通信设备中使用所描述的天线。 [0014] The antenna may be used as described in a wireless communication device. 在一个实施例中,无线通信设备包括机壳。 In one embodiment, the wireless communication device includes a housing. 该设备还包括具有电子组件和接地面的印刷电路板。 The apparatus further comprises an electronic component and the ground plane of the printed circuit board. 至少有一个相控阵天线系统包括第一辐射元件、相移元件以及第二辐射元件,其中,第一和第二辐射元件连接到相移元件的相对的末端,第一和第二辐射元件进行协作,以便当处于所需的频率的射频信号被馈送到第一元件,经过相移元件然后到达第二辐射元件时,形成所需的波束方向图。 A phased array antenna system comprising a first radiating element, the phase shifting element and at least a second radiating element, wherein the first and second radiating elements are connected to opposite ends of the phase shift element, the first and second radiating element cooperate so that when the desired frequency is a radio frequency signal is fed to a first member, through a second phase shift element and then reaches the radiating element to form the desired beam pattern.

[0015] 在一个实施例中,无线通信设备包括多个相控阵天线系统,它们在设备中的取向使得形成多个波束方向图。 [0015] In one embodiment, the wireless communication device comprises a plurality of phased array antenna system, in which the orientation of the apparatus so as to form a plurality of beam patterns. 可以包括天线系统的无线通信设备的示例包括无线路由器、移动接入点或其他类型的无线设备。 Examples may include a wireless communication device antenna system includes a wireless router, access point or other type of mobile wireless devices.

[0016] 在一个实施例中,无线通信设备包括机壳、无线电装置以及置于机壳内的至少两个相控阵天线,天线系统包括第一辐射元件、相移元件以及第二辐射元件,其中,第一和第二辐射元件连接到相移元件的相对的末端,第一和第二辐射元件进行协作,以便当处于所需的频率的射频信号被馈送到至少一个相控天线系统时,形成所需的波束方向图。 [0016] In one embodiment, the wireless communications device includes a housing, a radio device, and disposed at least two phased array antenna inside the housing, the antenna system comprising a first radiating element, the phase shifting element and a second radiating element, wherein the first and second radiating elements are connected to opposite ends of the phase shift element, the first and second radiating elements collaborate, so that when a radio frequency signal at a desired frequency is fed to the at least one phased antenna system, forming the desired beam pattern. 该设备还包括将无线电装置连接到所述至少两个天线系统的开关,以及控制器,该控制器控制开关以有选择地将所述至少两个天线系统中的一个连接到无线电装置。 The apparatus further includes means connected to the radio antenna of the at least two switching systems, and a controller, the controller controls the switch to selectively connect one of the at least two radio antenna system. 在一个实施例中,通过第一辐射元件、相移元件,将无线电信号馈送到第二辐射元件。 In one embodiment, the first radiating element, the phase shift element, the radio signal fed to the second radiating element. 在另一个实施例中,第一辐射元件是下辐射元件,下辐射元件包括作为辐射元件协作的偶极部分和H部分,第二辐射元件是端子辐射元件,无线电信号被馈送到下辐射元件的连接到相移元件的一端。 In another embodiment, the first radiating element is a radiating element, the radiating element comprises a dipole radiating element and the H portion cooperating portion, a second radiating element radiating element is a terminal, a radio signal is fed to the radiating element connected to one end of the phase shifting element.

[0017] 在再一个实施例中,无线通信设备包括机壳、至少两个无线电装置以及位于机壳内的至少两个相控阵天线系统,该天线系统包括第一辐射元件、相移元件以及第二辐射元件,其中,第一和第二辐射元件连接到相移元件的相对的末端,第一和第二辐射元件进行协作,以便当处于所需的频率的射频信号被馈送到至少一个相控天线系统时,形成所需的波束方向图。 [0017] In a further embodiment, the wireless communications device includes a housing, at least two radio devices, and at least two phased array antenna system is located within the housing, the antenna system comprising a first radiating element, the phase shifting element and a second radiating element, wherein the first and second radiating elements are connected to opposite ends of the phase shift element, the first and second radiating elements collaborate, so that when the radio frequency signal at a desired frequency is fed to the at least one phase when the antenna control system, to form the desired beam pattern. 该设备可以只有一个连接到每一个无线电装置的天线,并使用基础处理电路从各种无线电装置向各个天线发送合适的信号。 The device may have only one connection to each radio antenna apparatus, and transmits appropriate signals to the respective antennas from the various radio devices using a processing circuit basis. 例如,某些无线电装置可以关闭,而其他无线电装置可以处于活动状态,或者,设备可以利用无线电信号的不同相移和振幅,以便使用定向天线使性能最佳化。 For example, some of the radio can be turned off, while the other radio device can be active, or the device may utilize different amplitude and phase shift of the radio signal for use of directional antennas optimize performance. 设备也可以包括:将至少两个无线电装置连接到至少两个天线系统的开关矩阵;和控制器,其控制开关矩阵以有选择地将无线电装置中的一个连接到一个天线系统,并且将不同的无线电装置连接到不同的天线系统。 Apparatus may comprise: at least two radios are connected to the switching matrix of the at least two antenna systems; and a controller that controls the switch matrix for selectively connecting one of the radio antenna to a system, and different the radio device is connected to a different antenna systems. 在一个实施例中,通过第一辐射元件、相移元件,将无线电信号馈送到第二辐射元件。 In one embodiment, the first radiating element, the phase shift element, the radio signal fed to the second radiating element. 在另一个实施例中,第一辐射元件是下辐射元件,下辐射元件包括作为辐射元件协作的偶极部分和H部分,第二辐射元件是端子辐射元件,无线电信号被馈送到下辐射元件的连接到相移元件的一端。 In another embodiment, the first radiating element is a radiating element, the radiating element comprises a dipole radiating element and the H portion cooperating portion, a second radiating element radiating element is a terminal, a radio signal is fed to the radiating element connected to one end of the phase shifting element. 在另一个实施例中,嵌入的天线可以不使用相移功能,而是利用从机壳内的其他组件的反射来形成所需方向图。 In another embodiment, an antenna, embedded phase shift function may not be used, but the use of a desired pattern is formed by reflection from the other components within the housing.

[0018] 在阅读了下列详细描述和附图之后,本发明的其他特征和优点对所属领域的技术人员将变得更加显而易见。 [0018] after having read the following detailed description and accompanying drawings, other features and advantages of the present invention to those skilled in the art will become more apparent.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0019] 本发明的这些及其他方面,优点和细节,无论其结构还是操作,可以通过对附图的研究部分地发现,其中,相同的参考编号表示相同的部件。 [0019] These and other aspects, advantages and details of the present invention, regardless of its structure or operation, part of the drawings study found, wherein like reference numerals refer to like parts. 附图不一定按比例,而是将着重点放在显示本发明的原理上。 Drawings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed on the principles of the present invention.

[0020] 图1A包括无线通信设备的立体图。 [0020] FIG 1A a perspective view of a wireless communication device.

[0021] 图1B是图1A中所显示的无线通信设备的截面视图。 [0021] FIG. 1B is a sectional view of the wireless communication device shown in FIG. 1A.

[0022] 图2是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线的实施例的平面图。 [0022] FIG. 2 is a plan view of an embodiment of an antenna device such as the communication device described in FIG. 1A or the like.

[0023] 图3是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线的实施例的平面图。 [0023] FIG. 3 is a plan view of an embodiment of an antenna device such as the communication device described in FIG. 1A or the like.

[0024] 图4是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线的实施例的平面图。 [0024] FIG. 4 is a plan view of an embodiment of an antenna device such as the communication device described in FIG. 1A or the like.

[0025] 图5是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线的实施例的平面图。 [0025] FIG. 5 is a plan view of an embodiment of an antenna device such as the communication device described in FIG. 1A or the like.

[0026] 图6是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线的另一个实施例的平面图。 [0026] FIG. 6 is an antenna device used in another communication device, such as described in Figure 1A a plan view of such embodiment.

[0027] 图7是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线系统的实施例的平面图。 [0027] FIG. 7 is a plan view of an embodiment of an antenna system of a communication device such as the device described in FIG. 1A or the like.

[0028] 图8是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线的另一个实施例的平面图。 [0028] FIG. 8 is an antenna for a communication device such as the device described in FIG. 1A or the like plan view of another embodiment.

[0029] 图9是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线的另一个实施例的平面图。 [0029] FIG. 9 is an antenna for a communication device such as the device described in FIG. 1A or the like plan view of another embodiment.

[0030] 图1OA是包括第一天线系统的承载体的第一面的平面图。 [0030] FIG 1OA is a plan view of a first surface of the first carrier antenna system.

[0031] 图1OB是图1OA中所显示的包括第二天线系统的承载体的第二面的平面图。 [0031] FIG 1OB is a carrier comprising a second antenna a second side plan view of the system in FIG 1OA shown.

[0032] 图1lA是包括天线系统的一部分的承载体的第一面的平面图。 [0032] FIG. 1lA is a plan view of a first face of the carrier part of the antenna system.

[0033] 图1lB是图1lA中所显示的包括天线系统的另一个部分的承载体的第二面的平面图。 [0033] FIG 1lB is a plan view of a second side shown in FIG. 1lA carrier further comprises a portion of an antenna system.

[0034] 图12是天线系统的另一个实施例的立体图。 A perspective view of an [0034] FIG. 12 is an antenna system according to another embodiment.

[0035] 图13是天线系统的另一个实施例的立体图。 A perspective view of an [0035] FIG. 13 is an antenna system according to another embodiment.

[0036] 图14是包括多个天线系统的无线通信设备机壳的立体图。 [0036] FIG. 14 is a perspective view of a wireless communication device housing a plurality of antenna systems.

[0037] 图15是无线通信设备的实施例的功能方框图。 [0037] FIG. 15 is a functional block diagram of an embodiment of a wireless communication device.

[0038] 图16是无线通信设备的另一个实施例的功能方框图。 A functional block diagram of the embodiment [0038] FIG. 16 is a wireless communication apparatus according to another embodiment.

[0039] 图17是无线通信设备的再一个实施例的功能方框图。 [0039] FIG. 17 is a functional block diagram of another embodiment of a wireless communication device embodiment.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0040] 这里所公开的某些实施例提供了通过宽带无线空中接口进行通信的方法、设备,以及系统。 [0040] Certain embodiments disclosed herein provide a method for communication over broadband wireless air interfaces, devices, and systems. 在阅读此描述之后,在各种替代实施例和备选申请中如何实现本发明,将变得显而易见。 After reading this description, various alternative embodiments and alternative applications how the invention will become apparent. 然而,虽然这里将描述本发明的各种实施例,但是,应该理解,这些实施例只是作为示例而给出的,而不作为限制。 However, although the various embodiments of the present invention is described, it should be understood that these examples are given by way of example, and not by way of limitation. 如此,各种替代实施例的此详细描述不应该被理解为对如所附的权利要求中阐述的本发明的范围或宽度作出限制。 Thus, various alternative embodiments of this detailed description should not be construed to limit the scope or breadth of the invention as claimed in the appended claims set forth herein.

[0041] 在一个实施例中,天线可以置于使用天线来发射和接收射频信号的设备的机壳内。 Inner [0041] In one embodiment, the antenna may be placed using the apparatus antenna transmits and receives RF signals casing. 天线可以被配置为以所需的方向或方向图进行辐射,从而与全向天线相比,在该方向或方向图上为发射的信号提供正增益。 The antenna may be configured in a desired direction or FIG radiation, compared to the full so that the antenna provides positive gain to the signal transmitted in the direction or directions in FIG. 一方面,天线包括天线元件阵列,这些天线元件进行协作,以形成所需的波束方向图。 In one aspect, the antenna includes an array of antenna elements, the antenna elements which cooperate to form a desired beam pattern. 可以使用天线元件的组织布局和馈送到元件的信号的相位关系来形成波束方向图。 The antenna elements may be used in the organizational structure and the phase relationship between signals fed to the element beam pattern is formed. 此外,也可以通过将天线元件放置在设备的机壳内并利用天线元件相对于设备中的其他电子组件的位置,来形成所需的波束方向图。 Further, the antenna elements can also be placed in the casing of the device and the antenna element relative to other electronic components of the apparatus, to form the desired beam pattern. 例如,如果设备的机壳由塑料制成,则机壳可能会对天线系统产生“塑料负载”,在确定天线元件的放置和定相(phasing)时可以加以考虑。 For example, if the device is made of a plastic casing, the casing may have an antenna system generates a "plastic load" phase can be taken into account (phasing) of the antenna element is determined and set in place. 此外,在设备中放置其他电子组件和印刷电路板(PCB)会给天线带来负载,在确定天线元件的放置和定相时可以加以考虑。 Further, other electronic components are placed and a printed circuit board (PCB) in the device will bring the antenna load may be considered in determining placement and phasing of the antenna elements. 在一个实施例中,包围在机壳内的天线被配置为在它操作并与机壳内的其他组件相互作用时形成所需的波束方向图。 In one embodiment, in a housing surrounding the antenna is configured to form a desired beam pattern in its operation and interaction with other components within the housing.

[0042] 在一个实施例中,天线包括天线元件,这些天线元件可以如此配置,以便它们进行协作,以增大天线系统在所需的波束方向图的增益。 [0042] In one embodiment, the antenna includes an antenna element, antenna elements may be configured so that they cooperate to increase the gain of a desired beam pattern of the antenna system. 通过使用一个以上的天线组件,可以增大整个天线系统的长度,这可以通过将那些负面影响限制到天线系统的相对来说较小的一部分,来减轻机壳中的系统的其他组件的负面影响。 By using more than one antenna assembly can increase the length of the entire antenna system, which can be limited by the negative effect that a smaller portion of the antenna system is relatively to mitigate the negative effects of other components of the system in the enclosure . 一方面,使用两个或更多天线同时或有选择地提供不同的天线方向图。 In one aspect, the use of two or more antennas simultaneously or selectively to provide different antenna pattern.

[0043] 在下面的描述中,以与天线一起使用的射频的波长来表示许多长度和距离。 [0043] In the following description, the wavelength of a radio frequency antenna for use with a number of lengths and distances represented. 例如,可以如此配置所描述的天线系统,以便以任何所需的频率(或以一个频率为中心的频带)执行操作,如大约2.0千兆赫(GHz),5.0Ghz或其他选定频率。 For example, the antenna system may be configured such as described, for any desired frequency (or a frequency band centered) perform operations, such as about 2.0 gigahertz (GHz), 5.0Ghz or other selected frequency. 应该理解,当使用波长(λ )时,通常考虑射频穿过的材料的介质的影响(Xd)。 It should be understood that, when the wavelength ([lambda]), typically consider the impact of the medium through which RF material (Xd). 如此,在下面的讨论中,除非特别声明,波长考虑了射频穿过的材料的介质的影响(λ d)。 Thus, in the following discussion, unless otherwise stated, considering the effect of the RF wavelength through the medium material (λ d).

[0044] 在一个实施例中,天线包括以相控(phased)关系(如阵列)排列的天线元件和相移元件。 [0044] In one embodiment, the antenna includes an antenna element in a phased (phased) relationship (e.g., an array) and arranged in phase shift element. 天线元件和相移元件进行协作,以在所需的方向或方向图形成天线的辐射波束方向图。 The antenna elements and phase shifting elements cooperate to form a radiation beam pattern of the antenna in a desired direction or directions in FIG. 天线元件和相移元件也可以如此排列,以便天线考虑到天线相对于机壳中的电路卡或印刷电路板(PCB)组件、机壳中的主要部件以及机壳本身的位置,有时,简称为机壳的塑料负载。 The antenna element and the phase shift elements can also be so arranged so as to take into account the position of the antenna assembly, the housing member and the main housing of the cabinet itself, a circuit card or printed circuit board (PCB) with respect to an antenna, sometimes referred to as the plastic casing load.

[0045] 图1包括无线通信设备100的立体图。 [0045] FIG 1 comprises a perspective view of a wireless communication device 100. 通信设备100包括外套或机壳102。 Or communication device 100 includes outer housing 102. 图1B是图1A中所显示的无线通信设备的截面视图。 FIG. 1B is a sectional view of the wireless communication device shown in FIG. 1A. 如图1B所示,包围在机箱内的有印刷电路板(或其他合适的承载体)104,其可以是多层板。 1B, enclosed within the chassis printed circuit board (or other suitable carrier) 104, which may be a multilayer board. 印刷电路板也可以包括接地面106。 The printed circuit board may also include a ground plane 106. 通信设备内包括的电路元件、半导体芯片、电源及其他组件一般表示为位于印刷电路板104上的组件llOa-e。 Circuit elements, the semiconductor chip, power supply and other components included within the communication device components generally designated llOa-e located on the printed circuit board 104. 在一个实施例中,通信设备包括无线网络卡的组件,其中,包括位于印刷电路板104上的无线电装置。 In one embodiment, the communication device comprises a component of a wireless network card, which includes the printed circuit board 104 of the radio apparatus. 或者,通信设备可以是无线路由器、移动接入点或其他类型的无线通信设备。 Alternatively, the communication device may be a wireless router, access point or other type of mobile wireless communication device.

[0046] 在一个实施例中,设备100中的天线系统108是无源相控阵。 [0046] In one embodiment, the antenna system 100 of the apparatus 108 is a passive phased array. 无源相控阵包括第一辐射元件或天线元件122、相移元件(其可以包括,例如,反相器或延迟元件124)以及第二辐射或天线元件126。 Passive phased array antenna comprising a first radiating element or elements 122, phase-shifting element (which may comprise, for example, an inverter or a delay element 124) and a second antenna or radiating element 126. 通信设备的无线电装置通过连接128连接到用于发射和接收无线电信号的第一天线元件。 Radio communication device connected to the first antenna element for transmitting and receiving radio signals through the connector 128. 在一个实施例中,连接128是同轴电缆和适当的连接件。 In one embodiment, connector 128 is connected to the coaxial cable and the appropriate member. 或者,可以通过将连接到第一天线元件122的端部的管脚(未显示)焊接到印刷电路板104来构成连接128。 Alternatively, the pin can be connected to the end of the first antenna element 122 (not shown) soldered to the printed circuit board 104 form the connection 128.

[0047] 在一个实施例中,第一和第二天线元件122和126可以是导电体,其具有选定电气长度,以便实现选定频率的所需的辐射。 [0047] In one embodiment, the first and second antenna elements 122 and 126 may be a conductive material that has a selected electrical length in order to achieve desired radiation selected frequency. 例如,导电体可以是电路板或其他合适的承载体上的迹线(trace)。 For example, the conductor may be a trace (the trace) on the circuit board or other suitable carrier. 在另一个示例中,导电体可以是连接或固定到诸如印刷线路板之类的电路板或衬底或承载体或机壳的壁的线路。 In another example, the conductor may be connected or secured to a printed wiring board such as a circuit board or like substrate or wall of the casing or carrier. 导体的长度可以基于,例如,操作频率、导电材料的介电值、导体的形状因数等等,来进行选择。 The length of the conductor may be based, for example, the operating frequency, the conductive material dielectrics, conductors and so on form factor to be selected.

[0048] 在一个实施例中,相移元件124移动相位,或将信号延迟180度。 [0048] In one embodiment, the phase shifting element 124 shifts the phase, or the signal delayed by 180 degrees. 相移元件允许两个天线元件122和126对整个天线系统108具有附加的增益效应,产生所需的天线辐射或波束方向图。 Phase shifting element allows two antenna elements 122 and 126 of the entire antenna system 108 has an additional gain effect, generating radiation or antenna beam pattern required. 在其他实施例中,相移元件124可以将馈送到第二天线元件126的信号的相位移动任何所需的量,以在两个天线元件之间获得所需要的耦合。 In other embodiments, phase shifting element 124 may be fed to the phase of the signal of the second antenna element 126 is moved in any desired amount to achieve the desired coupling between the two antenna elements.

[0049] 在一个实施例中,诸如PIN 二极管之类的开关130位于第一天线元件122和相移元件124之间。 [0049] In one embodiment, such as a PIN diode, a switch 130 at the first antenna element 122 and the phase shift between the elements 124. 控制线132可以用来控制开关130。 Control line 132 to control switch 130 can be used. 当开关被闭合时,天线系统108以上文所描述的方式进行操作。 When the switch is closed, the antenna system 108 in the manner described above operates. 当开关被打开时,只有第一天线元件122在工作。 When the switch is opened, only the first antenna element 122 at work. 如此,开关允许天线100具有两个不同的方向图。 Thus, the switch allows the antenna 100 has two different directions in FIG.

[0050] 另外,第一天线元件122和/或第二天线元件126可以包括开关组件(未显示),当组件被接通或断开时,其可以改变天线元件的谐振频率。 [0050] Further, the first antenna element 122 and / or the second antenna element 126 may include a switch assembly (not shown), when the assembly is turned on or off, which may change the resonance frequency of the antenna element. 开关组件提供使天线元件变得可配置的能力,以便它们的谐振频率可以改变。 The switch assembly provides the ability to become the antenna element may be configured so that they can change the resonance frequency. 改变天线元件的谐振频率可以被视为电气延长或缩短元件。 Changing the resonant frequency of the antenna element can be extended or shortened electrical element considered. 如此,每一个天线元件都可以被配置为根据关联的开关组件的状态,以不同频率谐振。 Thus, each antenna element may be configured according to the state of the associated switch assembly, at different resonant frequencies. 在一个实施例中,只在一个天线元件中只使用一个开关组件。 In one embodiment, only one switch assembly in only one antenna element. 可以利用控制线或利用在信号路径上施加的偏压,来控制开关组件。 Or the control line can be used with a bias applied to the signal path, to control the switch assembly.

[0051] 在一个实施例中,第一天线元件122、第二天线元件126以及相移元件124都是可配置的。 [0051] In one embodiment, the first antenna element 122, antenna element 126, and the phase shift element 124 are configurable. 例如,天线元件可以如上文所描述的那样进行配置。 For example, the antenna element may be configured as described above. 可以通过包括开关组件来配置相移元件,例如,该开关组件将相移元件的一部分电短路掉,有效地缩小相移元件124的总长度,或延迟。 The switch assembly may include a delay through the phase-shifting element is configured, for example, the phase shift switch assembly electrically shorting out some of the elements, effectively reduce the overall length of the phase shift element 124, or. 如此,天线和相移元件可以被配置为以不同的方式进行协作,以产生不同的辐射方向图。 Thus, phase shifting and antenna elements may be configured to cooperate in different ways, to produce different radiation patterns. 在另一个实施例中,相移元件可以将其总长增大,以改变由相移元件引入的相移。 In another embodiment, phase shift element may increase its overall length, to change the phase shift introduced by the phase shift element. 此外,天线和相移元件可以被配置为以不同频率操作或谐振。 Moreover, phase shifting and antenna elements may be configured to operate at a different frequency or resonance.

[0052] 在一个实施例中,天线元件可以位于通信设备的组件IlOa-1lOe的上方,并且一般沿着与印刷电路板的平面平行的平面取向。 [0052] In one embodiment, the antenna elements may be located above the component IlOa-1lOe communication device, and the general orientation of the plane along a plane parallel to the printed circuit board. 相对于例如将同一天线系统放置在印刷电路板的表面上的情况,此取向可以减小那些组件的失调效应。 For example, with respect to the same antenna system is placed on a surface of the printed circuit board, this orientation may be reduced to offset the effect of those components.

[0053] 在一个实施例中,印刷电路板104的接地面106可以充当天线系统的反射器,以产生更具方向性的天线方向图。 [0053] In one embodiment, the ground plane 106 of the printed circuit board 104 may serve as a reflector antenna system, to produce a more directional antenna pattern. 反射的量受天线系统和接地面之间的距离的影响。 Effect of the distance between the antenna system and reflected by the amount of ground. 例如,传输路径中的发射的信号的波长的大约四分之一Ud/4)的范围之内的距离可以提供令人满意的反射率。 For example, within the range of about a quarter of the distance Ud / 4) the wavelength of the signal transmitted in the transmission path may provide a satisfactory reflectivity.

[0054] 机壳100可以充当天线系统108的负载。 [0054] The housing 100 may act as a load of the antenna system 108. 例如,天线元件相对于机壳的壁、顶部以及底部的位置会改变由天线系统108生成的波束方向图。 For example, the antenna element relative to the wall of the housing, the top and bottom position will change by the antenna beam pattern 108 generated by the system. 在设计和放置天线元件时,可以考虑机壳的各个方面,如机壳的壁厚、制造机壳时所使用的材料等,以产生所需的辐射方向图。 In the design and placement of the antenna elements, various aspects of the cabinet may be considered, such as the thickness, the material used in the manufacture of the housing cabinet and the like, to produce the desired radiation pattern.

[0055] 图2是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线200的实施例的平面图。 [0055] FIG. 2 is a plan view of an embodiment of an antenna device such as the communication device described in FIG. 1A or the like 200. 天线200包括第一天线元件202,其从舌片204延伸到相移元件206。 The antenna 200 includes a first antenna element 202, a tongue 204 extending from element 206 to the phase shifter. 在一个实施例中,舌片204可以焊接到印刷电路板或其他承载体,例如,焊接到一个通道或一个带状线,该通道或带状线给天线提供到无线电装置的连接。 In one embodiment, the tongue 204 may be soldered to a printed circuit board or other carrier, for example, welded to a channel or a strip line, strip line or the channel provides a connection to the antenna of the radio device. 在一个实施例中,第一天线元件202的尺寸大约是传输路径中的发射信号的波长的二分之一(Xd/2)。 In one embodiment, the size of the first antenna element 202 is approximately one (Xd / 2) the wavelength of the signal transmitted in the transmission path of the two. 在此实施例中,相移元件206被配置为传输路径中的发射的信号的波长的二分之一(λ/2)的延迟线。 In this embodiment, the phase shift of one wavelength delay line element 206 is configured to emit a signal in the transmission path of the half (λ / 2).

[0056] 在图2的示例中,第二天线元件208连接到相移元件206的输出。 [0056] In the example of FIG. 2, the second antenna element 208 is connected to the output 206 of the phase shift element. 第二天线元件208的相对的末端连接到第二相移元件,或延迟线210,其为传输路径中的发射的信号的波长的大约四分之一(Ad/4)的反射距离。 Opposite end of the second antenna element 208 is connected to a second phase shift elements, or delay line 210, which reflects about one-quarter of the distance (Ad / 4) the wavelength of the signal transmission path emitted. 可以在考虑到使用的天线的频率范围、传输路径的介电常数以及天线的所需的效率的情况下选择反射距离。 Reflection distance can be selected in the case of taking into account the desired efficiency of the antenna used in a frequency range, the dielectric constant of the transmission path and antenna. 在一个实施例中,相移210的与第二天线元件208相对的一端被焊接到天线200的接地连接。 In one embodiment, the phase shift of the opposite end of the second antenna 208 is soldered to the ground antenna element 200 is connected 210. 在此实施例中,天线具有到印刷电路板的两个连接点,以提供机械支持和信号连接。 In this embodiment, the antenna having two points of attachment to the printed circuit board to provide mechanical support and signal connections.

[0057] 图3是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线300的另一个实施例的平面图。 [0057] FIG. 3 is another antenna device may be used for communication devices such as those described in FIG. 1A or the like 300 a plan view of the embodiment. 天线300,类似于图2的天线200,包括从第一舌片304延伸的第一天线元件302。 The antenna 300, antenna 200 is similar to FIG. 2, comprises a first antenna element 302 extending from the first tongue 304. 第一天线元件302的相对末端连接到相移元件306。 Opposite ends of the first antenna element 302 is connected to the phase shift element 306. 相移元件的相对末端连接到第二天线元件308。 Opposite ends of the phase shift element 308 is connected to the second antenna element. 在此实施例中,第二天线元件308的相对末端是电断路的且未被连接的。 In this embodiment, opposite ends of the second antenna element 308 is electrically opened and not connected.

[0058] 图4是用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线400的再一个实施例的平面图。 [0058] FIG. 4 is a device for re-antenna communication devices such as those described in FIG. 1A or the like 400 in a plan view of the embodiment. 天线400类似于图2的天线200,包括从第一舌片404延伸的第一天线元件402。 The antenna 400 is similar to antenna 200 of FIG. 2, comprises a first antenna element extending from the first tongue 404,402. 第一天线元件402的相对末端连接到相移元件406。 Opposite ends of the first antenna element 402 is connected to the phase shift element 406. 相移元件的相对末端连接到第二天线元件408,第二天线元件408的相对末端接合到第二相移元件410。 Opposite ends of the phase shift element 408 is connected to the second antenna element, opposite ends of the second antenna element 408 is bonded to the second phase shift element 410. 第二相移线410连接到第二舌片412。 Second phase shift line 410 is connected to the second tongue 412. 图4的天线400被配置为以与图2的天线200不同的频率操作。 Antenna 400 of Figure 4 is configured to be different from the antenna 200 of FIG. 2 frequency. 例如,可以利用不同的材料制造第一天线元件402和第二天线元件404,或者使他们具有不同的形状因数。 For example, using different materials of the first antenna element 402 and second antenna element 404, or so that they have a different form factor. 在图4的示例中,相移元件408和410可以通过利用不同的材料制造或具有不同的形状因数,以不同的频率提供所需的相移。 In the example of Figure 4, the phase shift elements 408 and 410 can be manufactured by using a different material or having different shape factors, different frequencies provide a desired phase shift. 例如,图4的第一相移元件406和第二相移元件410的总长度可以比图2的相移元件206和210的总长度短。 For example, FIG. 4 of the first phase shift element 406 and second phase shifting element 410 may be the total length of the phase shift element of FIG. 2 is shorter than the total length of 206 and 210.

[0059] 图5是用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线500的另一个实施例的平面图。 [0059] FIG. 5 is an antenna device of another communication device, such as described in FIG. 1A or the like 500 a plan view of the embodiment. 天线500类似于图4的天线400,并包括第一天线元件402、第一舌片404、相移元件406、第二天线元件408、第二相移元件410和第二舌片412。 The antenna 500 is similar to antenna 400 of FIG. 4, and comprises a first antenna element 402, a first tongue 404, the phase shift element 406, a second antenna element 408, a second phase shift element 410 and the second tongues 412. 天线500还包括连接到第二天线元件408的负载502。 The antenna 500 further comprises a second antenna element connected to a load of 502,408. 可以选择负载502,以改变第二天线元件的谐振频率和天线匹配。 Load 502 may be selected to change the resonance frequency of the antenna and the second antenna element matching.

[0060] 尽管图5显示了连接到第二天线元件408的负载502的示例,但是,在其他实施例中,负载可以连接到天线500中的其他元件。 [0060] Although FIG. 5 shows an example of a load connected to the second antenna element 502,408 is, however, in other embodiments, the load may be connected to other elements in the antenna 500. 此外,负载可以连接到天线500中的一个以上的元件。 Furthermore, the load may be connected to the antenna 500 one or more elements. 此外,可以如此配置负载,以便它可以切换以连接到或不连接到天线元件。 Furthermore, the load may be so arranged so that it can be switched to be connected to or not connected to the antenna element.

[0061] 图6是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线600的另一个实施例的平面图。 [0061] FIG 6 is another antenna device may be used for communication devices such as those described in FIG. 1A or the like 600 a plan view of the embodiment. 图6中所显示的天线600类似于图4的天线400,并包括第一天线元件602、第一舌片404、相移元件406、第二天线元件408、第二相移元件410和第二舌片412。 Antenna 600 in FIG. 6 is similar to FIG displayed antenna 4004 and comprises a first antenna element 602, a first tongue 404, the phase shift element 406, a second antenna element 408, a second phase shift element 410 and the second tongues 412. 在图6的示例中,第一天线元件602与图4的第一天线元件402具有不同的形状因数。 In the example of Figure 6, the first antenna element 602 of FIG. 4 the first antenna element 402 has a different form factor. 图6的第一天线元件602的不同的形状因数可以使第一天线元件602的谐振频率与图4中的第一天线元件402的谐振频率不同。 FIG 6 is different from the first antenna element 602 may be of the form factor of the resonance frequency of the first antenna element 602 of FIG. 4 of the first antenna element 402 of different resonance frequencies.

[0062] 图7是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线700的实施例的平面图。 [0062] FIG. 7 is a plan view of an embodiment of an antenna device such as the communication device described in FIG. 1A or the like 700. 在图7中所显示的示例中,天线系统700包括如图4所示的天线400,其通过塑模成形720包裹在聚合物或塑料中。 In the example shown in FIG. 7, the antenna system 700 comprises an antenna 400 shown in FIG. 4, the forming mold 720 by wrapping in plastic or polymer. 通常,外壳会改变天线的介电常数。 Typically, the housing will change the dielectric constant of the antenna. 例如,聚合物或塑料壳体通常会减小Xd,相应地,可以制造较小的(较短的)天线元件。 For example, a polymer or plastic housing generally reduces Xd, respectively, may be made smaller (shorter) antenna elements. 天线的导电元件可以作为衬底上的冲模铜片或被构图的导电箔很便宜地制造出来。 Conductive elements of the antenna can be manufactured cheaply as a conductive copper foil or the die on the patterned substrate. 或者,外壳也可以包括模子和注入到模子中的导电材料。 Alternatively, the housing may also comprise a conductive material injected into the mold and in the mold. 天线上的外壳可以包括适用于真空取放机的平坦表面,其可以大大地简化整个设备的装配。 The antenna housing may include a flat surface suitable for vacuum pick and place machines, which can greatly simplify assembly of the entire apparatus. 值得注意的是,此实施例不需要RF连接件或同轴电缆。 It is noted that this embodiment does not require a coaxial cable or RF connection. 天线可以是单独的预先调谐的组件,其容易地与电路板组件相结合。 The antenna may be a separate component of the pre-tuning, which is readily combined with the circuit board assembly. 在其他实施例中,可以装入不同配置的天线。 In other embodiments, the antenna can be charged with different configurations.

[0063] 图8是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线800的另一个实施例的平面图。 [0063] FIG. 8 is another antenna device may be used for communication devices such as those described in FIG. 1A or the like 800 a plan view of the embodiment. 图8中所描述的天线可以形成为一小片印刷电路板或其他合适的承载体或衬底801上的铜迹线。 The antenna described in Figure 8 may be formed as a small printed circuit board or other suitable support or copper traces on the substrate 801. 在图8中所显示的实施例中,天线系统800包括H部分802,该H部分802包括接地连接804。 Embodiment shown in FIG. 8, the antenna system 800 includes a portion 802 H, the H section 802 includes a ground connection 804. 上偶极部分806包括将上偶极部分806连接到无线电装置的传输路径连接808。 Upper portion 806 includes a dipole-dipole upper portion 806 connected to the transmission path 808 is connected to the radio apparatus. 上偶极部分806和H部分802共同地称为下辐射元件,它们进行协作,以充当辐射元件。 H dipole and the upper portion 806 collectively referred to as the lower portion 802 radiating elements which cooperate to act as a radiating element. 在一个实施例中,上偶极部分806和H部分802进行协作,以充当偶极天线。 In one embodiment, the upper portion of the dipole portion 802 and H 806 cooperate to act as a dipole antenna. 上偶极部分806连接到相移元件810。 Upper portion of the dipole element 806 is connected to the phase shifter 810. 在一个实施例中,相移元件810是传输路径中的发射的信号的波长的大约二分之一(Ad/2)的延迟线。 In one embodiment, the phase shift element 810 is approximately one wavelength of the transmission path of the transmitted binary signal (Ad / 2) delay lines. 相移元件810的相对末端连接到端子辐射元件812。 Opposite ends of the phase shift element 810 is connected to a terminal 812 radiating elements. 端子辐射元件812和下辐射元件对整个天线系统800具有附加的增益效应,以形成所需的天线方向图。 Terminal 812 and the lower radiating element radiating element has the additional effect of a gain of the entire antenna system 800, to form the desired antenna pattern. H部分802还为天线匹配和调谐提供其他尺寸。 H size portions 802 also provide antenna matching and tuning.

[0064] 在一个实施例中,诸如PIN 二极管之类的开关814位于下辐射元件和相移元件810之间。 [0064] In one embodiment, such as a switch 814 PIN diode, located below the radiating element 810 and the phase shift between the elements. 在另一个实施例中,开关814位于沿着相移元件810的所希望的位置。 In another embodiment, the switch 814 is located in a position 810 along a desired phase shift element. 可以使用控制线(未显示)来控制开关814。 You can use the control line (not shown) to control the switch 814. 当开关814被闭合时,天线系统800以上文所描述的方式进行操作。 When the switch 814 is closed, an antenna system 800 as described above is operated. 当开关814打开时,只有下辐射元件在工作。 When the switch 814 is opened, only the lower radiating element at work. 如此,开关814可以允许天线系统800具有两个不同的辐射方向图或波束方向图。 Thus, the switch 814 may allow the antenna system 800 having two different radiation patterns or beam pattern.

[0065] 另外,下辐射元件和/或端子辐射元件812可以包括开关组件(未显示),当这些组件被接通或断开时,可以改变天线元件的谐振频率。 [0065] Further, the radiating elements and / or terminals radiating element 812 may include a switch assembly (not shown), when these components are turned on or off, may change the resonance frequency of the antenna element. 开关组件提供使天线元件变得可配置的能力,以便它们的谐振频率可以改变。 The switch assembly provides the ability to become the antenna element may be configured so that they can change the resonance frequency. 改变天线元件的谐振频率可以被视为电气延长或缩短元件。 Changing the resonant frequency of the antenna element can be extended or shortened electrical element considered. 如此,每一个天线元件都可以被配置为根据关联的开关组件的状态,以不同频率谐振。 Thus, each antenna element may be configured according to the state of the associated switch assembly, at different resonant frequencies. 在一个实施例中,只在一个天线元件中只使用一个开关组件。 In one embodiment, only one switch assembly in only one antenna element. 可以利用控制线或利用在信号路径上施加的偏压,来控制开关组件。 Or the control line can be used with a bias applied to the signal path, to control the switch assembly.

[0066] 图9是可以用于诸如图1A中所描述的通信设备之类的设备的天线900的另一个实施例的平面图。 [0066] FIG. 9 is another antenna device may be used for communication devices such as those described in FIG. 1A or the like 900 a plan view of the embodiment. 图9中所描述的天线系统显示了带有多个天线元件的天线系统的示例。 The antenna system depicted in FIG. 9 shows an example of an antenna system with a plurality of antenna elements. 如图9所示,天线系统900包括第一天线元件902、第一移相元件904、第二天线元件906、第二相移元件908以及第三天线元件910。 9, antenna system 900 includes a first antenna element 902, a first phase shift element 904, a second antenna element 906, a second phase shift element 908 and the third antenna element 910. 尽管图9的示例显示了三个天线元件和两个相移元件,但是在天线系统中可以使用任何所需数量个天线元件和相移元件。 While the example of Figure 9 shows three phase-shifting antenna elements and two elements, may be used any desired number of antenna elements in the antenna element and the phase shift system. 在一个实施例中,第一天线元件902的尺寸大约是波长的四分之一(λ d/4),并且相移元件及其他天线元件大约是传输路径中发射的信号的波长的二分之一(Xd/2)。 In one embodiment, the size of the first antenna element 902 is about one quarter (λ d / 4) the wavelength and the phase shift element and the other antenna elements is approximately one-half the wavelength of the signal transmitted in the transmission path a (Xd / 2). 在其他实施例中,这些元件可以是波长的其他分数。 In other embodiments, these elements may be other fractional wavelengths.

[0067] 图1OA是诸如电路板或衬底之类的承载体1001的第一面的平面图。 [0067] FIG 1OA is a plan view of the first surface of the carrier or substrate such as a circuit board or the like 1001. 如图1OA所示,承载体或电路板1001的第一面1006包括可以被配置为以第一频率进行操作的第一天线1002。 As shown in FIG 1OA, a first carrier surface of the circuit board or 10,061,001 may be configured to include a first antenna 1002 operating at a first frequency. 图1OB是图1OA中所显示的承载体1001的第二面的平面图。 FIG 1OB is a plan view of a second side of the carrier member 1001 shown in FIG. 1OA. 如图1OB所示,承载体1001的第二面1008包括可以被配置为以第二频率进行操作的第二天线1004。 As shown in FIG 1OB, the second surface 1008 of the carrier 1001 may be configured to include a second antenna operating at a second frequency 1004. 如此,图1OA和1B中所显示的天线系统可以以两个不同的频率作为双频带天线来进行操作。 Thus, FIGS. 1OA and antenna system 1B shown may operate at two different frequencies as a dual band antenna. 在其他实施例中,其他天线系统可以包括在承载体1001上,以具有多频带天线。 In other embodiments, the antenna system may include other on the carrier member 1001 to have a multi-band antenna. 在另一个实施例中,第一和第二天线可以被配置为以相同频率操作。 In another embodiment, the first and second lines may be configured to operate at the same frequency. 天线1002和1004可以根据图2-9中所显示的任何一个示例来实现。 Antennas 1002 and 1004 may be implemented according to any one of Examples 2-9 shown in FIG.

[0068] 图1lA是包括天线系统的一部分的承载体的第一面的平面图。 [0068] FIG. 1lA is a plan view of a first face of the carrier part of the antenna system. 如图1lA所示,承载体或电路板1101的第一面1104可以包括天线1102的一部分,如第一天线元件1110、相移元件1112、以及第二天线元件1114的一部分。 The first surface 1104 shown in FIG. 1lA, carrier or circuit board 1101 may include a portion of the antenna 1102, as in the first antenna element 1110, a phase shift, the second antenna element 1112 and a part 1114 elements. 图1lB是图1lA中所显示的承载体的包括天线系统的另一部分的第二面的平面图。 FIG 1lB is a plan view of the second surface of the carrier shown in FIG. 1lA comprises another part of the antenna system. 如图1lB所示,第二天线元件1114穿过一个通道延伸到承载体或电路板1101的第二面,或在同一个PCB上制造。 FIG 1lB, the second antenna element 1114 passes through a channel extending to the second surface of the carrier or circuit board 1101, or fabricated on the same PCB. 在另一个实施例中,天线围绕承载体或电路板1101的一端延续到承载体或电路板的第二面上。 In another embodiment, the antenna extended to a second surface of the carrier or around the end of the circuit board or carrier board 1101. 天线元件延伸到承载体的第二面的点可以位于沿着第一天线元件或第二天线元件或相移元件的长度的任何地方。 Point of the antenna element extends to the second surface of the carrier may be located along the first antenna element or second antenna element anywhere in length or phase shift elements. 在一个实施例中,两个或更多元件可以位于不同的频带或多频带中,其以所需的频率谐振。 In one embodiment, two or more elements may be located in a different frequency or frequency band, the resonance at a desired frequency. 天线1102可以根据图2-9中所显示的任何一个示例来实现。 The antenna 1102 may be implemented according to any one of Examples 2-9 shown in FIG.

[0069] 图12是天线系统的另一个实施例的立体图。 A perspective view of an [0069] FIG. 12 is an antenna system according to another embodiment. 如图12所示,承载体或电路板包括两个部分1200和1201。 12, the carrier or circuit board comprises two portions 1200 and 1201. 这两个部分可以彼此形成角度。 These two parts may form an angle with each other. 例如,它们可以彼此形成直角或成60度的角,或45度角或任何所需的角度。 For example, they may be formed at right angles or at an angle of 60 degrees, or 45 degrees, or any desired angle. 在一个实施例中,承载体的部分1200和1201各自包括天线系统1202和1204。 In one embodiment, the carrier body portion 1200 and 1201 each include antennas 1202 and 1204 systems. 在其他实施例中,在承载体的部分1200和1201上可以有任何所需数量的天线系统,各个部分的天线系统的数量可以不同。 In other embodiments, the upper portion 1200 and the carrier 1201 can have any desired number of antenna system, the number of parts of the antenna system may be different. 在一个实施例中,这两个承载体部分1200和1201是两个单独的部分,它们接合在一起。 In one embodiment, the two carrier portions 1200 and 1201 are two separate parts, they are joined together. 在另一个实施例中,两个承载体部分是单个单元。 In another embodiment, the two portions of a single carrier unit. 天线1202和1204可以根据图2-9中所显示的任何一个示例来实现。 Antennas 1202 and 1204 may be implemented according to any one of Examples 2-9 shown in FIG.

[0070] 图13是天线系统的另一个实施例的立体图。 A perspective view of an [0070] FIG. 13 is an antenna system according to another embodiment. 类似于图12的实施例,在图13中,承载体或电路板包括两个部分1300和1301。 Example 12 is similar to FIG, in FIG. 13, the carrier or circuit board comprises two portions 1300 and 1301. 这两个部分可以彼此形成角度。 These two parts may form an angle with each other. 例如,它们可以彼此形成直角或成60度的角,或45度角或任何所需的角度。 For example, they may be formed at right angles or at an angle of 60 degrees, or 45 degrees, or any desired angle. 在一个实施例中,承载体部分1300和1301各自包括天线系统1302的至少一部分。 In one embodiment, the carrier body portion 1300 and 1302 each include at least part of an antenna system 1301. 例如,在图13的示例中,第一部分1300包括第一辐射元件1310、相移元件1312和第二辐射元件1314的一部分。 For example, in the example of FIG. 13, the first portion 1300 includes a first radiating element 1310, element 1312 and the second portion of the radiating element 1314 phase shift. 第二辐射元件1314延伸到承载体的第二部分1301上。 The second radiating element 1314 that extends onto the second portion 1301 of the carrier body. 在其他实施例中,天线1302的延伸到承载体的第二部分1301的那一部分可以是天线1302的任何部分。 In the part other embodiments, the antenna 1302 extending into the second portion of the carrier 1301 may be any part of the antenna 1302. 此外,在其他实施例中,在承载体部分1300和1301上可以有任何所需数量的天线系统,每一个部分上的天线系统的数量可以是不同的。 Further, in other embodiments, the carrier body can have any desired number of upper portion 1300 and antenna system 1301, the number of antennas on each system may be different portions. 在一个实施例中,两个承载体部分1300和1301是接合起来的两个单独的部分。 In one embodiment, the two parts 1300 and 1301 are two separate parts joined together carrier. 在另一个实施例中,两个承载体部分是单个单元。 In another embodiment, the two portions of a single carrier unit. 天线1302可以根据图2-9中所显示的任何一个示例来实现。 The antenna 1302 may be implemented according to any one of Examples 2-9 shown in FIG.

[0071] 在另一个实施例中,诸如图12和13中所显示的承载体之类的承载体,可以是柔性的、刚性的、平面的、弯曲的或线性的。 [0071] Examples, such as the carrier member 12 and carrier member 13 or the like shown in another embodiment, may be flexible, rigid, planar, curved or linear. 承载体可以形成为某种形状,或者通过机壳的附属装置之类的约束物来保持某种形状。 The carrier may be formed in a certain shape, or to maintain a certain shape by a constraint of the housing attachment or the like. 在另一个实施例中,天线可以横跨承载体的多个部分。 In another embodiment, the antenna may span portions of a plurality of carrier. 承载体的多个部分可以以任何所需的角度彼此对齐。 A plurality of carrier portions may be aligned with each other at any desired angle.

[0072] 在另一个实施例中,可以在分集系统中使用两个或更多天线系统。 [0072] In another embodiment, two or more may be used in antenna systems diversity system. 图14是包括多个天线系统的无线通信设备机壳1400的立体图。 FIG 14 is a perspective view of an antenna system comprising a plurality of radio communication equipment housing 1400. 如图14的示例所示,设备1400 —般而言是矩形的。 Example of FIG. 14, the apparatus 1400 - as terms is rectangular. 在其他实施例中,机壳也可以是其他形状,如椭圆形、圆形或其他不规则的形状。 In other embodiments, the housing may be other shapes, such as elliptical, circular, or other irregular shapes.

[0073] 在图14中所显示的示例中,机壳1400中包括四个天线系统1402、1404、1406以及1408。 [0073] In the example shown in FIG. 14, the housing 1400 includes four antennas 1402,1404,1406 and 1408 systems. 每一个天线系统1402、1404、1406以及1408都沿着机壳1400的一个侧壁对齐。 Each antenna system, 1402,1404,1406 and 1408 are aligned along a side wall of the housing 1400. 天线系统可以根据图2-13中所显示的任何一个示例来实现。 The antenna system may be implemented in accordance with any one example shown in Figure 2-13. 在一个实施例中,每一个天线系统都被配置为产生一般而言向外延伸并垂直于天线系统的波束方向图。 In one embodiment, each antenna system are arranged extending perpendicular to the beam pattern of the antenna system to generate a generally outwardly.

[0074] 尽管图14的示例包括四个天线系统1402、1404、1406,以及1408,但是,在其他实施例中,可以使用不同数量的天线系统。 [0074] Although the example of FIG. 14 comprises four antenna systems 1402,1404,1406, and 1408, however, in other embodiments, a different number of antenna systems. 例如,机壳可以使用一个、两个、三个、四个或更多天线系统。 For example, the housing may be one, two, three, four or more antenna systems. 同样,可以使用天线系统的不同取向来产生所需的波束方向图。 Similarly, it is possible to produce a desired beam pattern using different orientations of the antenna system.

[0075] 这里所描述的天线系统可以用于各种无线通信协议,以及各种频率范围。 [0075] The antenna system described herein may be used for various wireless communication protocols and various frequency ranges. 例如,系统可以用于具有围绕2.0Ghz和5.0Ghz为中心的频带的频率范围。 For example, the system may be used having a frequency range centered around 2.0Ghz and 5.0Ghz band.

[0076] 这里所描述的实施例包括与各种无线电系统组合的并一起使用的所描述的天线系统的组合。 [0076] Example embodiments described herein comprise a combination of an antenna system and used with the described radio systems with various combinations. 图15是可以使用多个天线(如图2-13中所显示的天线)的无线通信设备1500的实施例的功能方框图。 Functional block diagram of FIG. 15 is a plurality of antennas (antennas as shown in Figure 2-13) of a wireless communication device 1500 embodiment. 无线设备1500可以是,例如,无线路由器、移动接入点、无线网络适配器,或另一种无线通信设备。 The wireless device 1500 may be, for example, a wireless router, mobile access points, wireless network adapter, or another wireless communication device. 此外,无线设备可以使用MIMO(多入多出(multiple-1nmultiple-out))技术。 Further, the wireless device may use MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output (multiple-1nmultiple-out)) technology. 通信设备1500包括与无线电系统1504进行通信的两个天线系统1502a和1502b。 And a radio communication device 1500 includes two antenna systems 1504 in communication systems 1502a and 1502b. 在其他实施例中,可以使用不同数量的天线1502。 In other embodiments, a different number of antennas 1502. 在图15中所显示的示例中,每一个天线都被配置为以预定的方向图进行辐射。 In the example shown in Figure 15, each antenna is configured to radiate a predetermined pattern. 在其他实施例中,天线可以可控制地被配置为以不同的方向图进行辐射。 In other embodiments, the antenna may be configured to be controlled in different radiation patterns.

[0077] 无线电系统1504包括无线电子系统1522。 [0077] The radio system comprises a radio subsystem 1504 1522. 在图15的示例中,无线电子系统1522包括两个无线电装置1510a和1510b。 In the example of FIG. 15, the radio subsystem 1522 includes two radios 1510a and 1510b. 在其他配置中,可以包括不同数量的无线电装置1510。 In other configurations, it may include a different number of radio apparatus 1510. 无线电装置1510a和1510b与MMO信号处理模块或信号处理模块1512进行通信。 1510a and 1510b with the radio MMO signal processing module 1512 or the signal processing module in communication. 无线电装置1510a和1510b生成由天线1502a和1502b发射的无线电信号,并从天线1502a和1502b接收无线电信号。 1510a and 1510b generates a radio signal transmitted from the radio antennas 1502a and 1502b, and receives radio signals from the antenna 1502a and 1502b. 在一个实施例中,开关矩阵或多个开关1506有选择地将无线电装置1510a和1510b连接到发射和接收线路1508a和1508b,以将无线电装置连接到选定的天线系统1502a和1502b。 In one embodiment, a plurality of switches or switch matrix 1506 is selectively connected to the transmitting and receiving lines 1508a and 1508b 1510a and 1510b radio, to connect the selected antenna to the radio system 1502a and 1502b. 控制器1507可以控制开关矩阵1506的操作,以有选择地将无线电装置1508a和1508b连接到所需的天线系统1502a和1502b。 The controller 1507 may control the operation of the switching matrix 1506, to selectively 1508a and 1508b connected to the radio antenna to a desired system 1502a and 1502b. 在另一个实施例中,每一个天线1502a和1502b都连接到单个对应的无线电装置1510a和1510b。 In another embodiment, each of antennas 1502a and 1502b are connected to a single corresponding radio devices 1510a and 1510b. 虽然每一个无线电装置都被描述为通过发射和接收线路1508a和1508b与对应的天线进行通信,但是,也可以使用更多这样的线路。 While each of the radio apparatus are described to communicate by transmitting and receiving lines 1508a and 1508b to the corresponding antenna, however, also possible to use more such lines.

[0078] 信号处理模块1512进行MMO处理。 [0078] MMO signal processing module 1512 for processing. MMO处理在现有技术中是已知的,并包括使用天线1502a和1502b通过两个或更多无线电信道发出信息并通过多个无线电信道和天线接收信息的处理。 MMO treatment are known in the art, and include the use of antennas 1502a and 1502b to send a message by two or more radio channels and processing information received by the antenna and a plurality of radio channels. 信号处理模块可以将通过多个天线接收到的信息组合为单个数据流。 The signal processing module may be received through a plurality of antennas into a single stream of information. 信号处理模块可以对于无线电系统实现某些或全部媒体访问控制(MAC)功能,并控制无线电装置的操作,以便充当MMO系统。 The signal processing module may implement some or all of the radio system for the media access control (MAC) function, and controls the operation of the radio device to act as MMO system. 一般而言,MAC功能的作用是在往返于通信设备的传输中在一个或多个物理信道上分配可用带宽。 Generally effect, MAC function is to allocate the available bandwidth in one or more physical channels and from the communication device transmissions. MAC功能可以根据它们的QoS施加的优先级和规则,在各种服务之间分配可用带宽。 MAC functions may be based on priority and QoS rules applied to them, allocate the available bandwidth between the various services. 此外,MAC功能还可以在较高层(如TCP/IP),以及物理层(如物理信道)之间传输数据。 In addition, MAC functions may also transmit data between the higher layers (e.g., TCP / IP), and a physical layer (the physical channel). 这里所描述的功能与图中的具体功能块的关联只是为了方便描述。 FIG functions associated with a specific functional blocks described herein merely for convenience of description. 各种功能可以在各个块之间移动,在各种块之间共享,以各种方式分组。 Various functions can be moved between the various blocks, shared between various blocks, groups in various ways.

[0079] 中央处理器(CPU) 1514与信号处理器模块1512进行通信。 [0079] The central processing unit (CPU) 1514 and signal processor 1512 in communication modules. CPU 1514可以与信号处理模块1512共享某些MAC功能。 1512 CPU 1514 can share some of the MAC functions with the signal processing module. 此外,CPU还可以包括数据流量控制模块1516。 Additionally, CPU may further include a traffic control module 1516. 数据流量控制可以包括,例如,与数据流量关联的择路处理,如DSL连接和/或TCP/IP择路处理。 Data flow control may comprise, for example, road traffic associated with selective data processing, such as DSL connection and / or TCP / IP route selection process. 可以使用可以被信号处理模块1512和CPU 1514访问的共用的或共享的存储器1518。 May be used may be a common signal processing module 1512 and a CPU 1514 to access the shared memory or 1518. 这允许在CPU和信号处理模块之间高效传输数据分组。 This allows efficient transmission between the CPU and the signal processing module data packets.

[0080] 在一个实施例中,CPU 1514可以控制天线1502a和1502b中的开关模块(未显示)。 [0080] In one embodiment, CPU 1514 can control the antenna 1502a and 1502b of the switching module (not shown). 例如,CPU 1514可以提供配置天线1502a和1502b中的开关的控制信号。 For example, CPU 1514 may provide control signals 1502a and 1502b in the configuration of the antenna switch. 或者,CPU1514可以向天线1502a和1502b中的控制器(未显示)提供表示开关模块的所需的配置的信号,然后天线中的控制器可以控制开关模块。 Alternatively, CPU1514 represent may be provided to the antenna switch module 1502a and 1502b of the controller (not shown) signals the desired configuration, then the controller may control the antenna switch module. 在另一个实施例中,用于控制开关模块的控制信号可以与无线电信号相结合。 In another embodiment, for controlling the switching module control signal may be combined with the radio signal.

[0081] 在一个实施例中,可以监视通信链路上的每一个接收到的信号和/或发射的信号的信号质量度量,以判断天线的哪一个波束方向图方向是首选的,例如,希望向哪个方向辐射或接收RF信号。 [0081] In one embodiment, each may be a signal received and / or transmitted on the signal quality metric monitors communications link signal, to which a beam pattern of the antenna is the preferred direction is determined, for example, it is desirable radiation or receive RF signals which direction. 可以从MMO信号处理模块1512提供信号质量度量。 Signal quality metric may be provided from the signal processing module 1512 MMO. MMO信号处理模块具有在提供无线通信设备1500和无线通信设备与其进行通信的站之间的通信链路的信号质量度量之前考虑MMO处理的能力。 MMO signal processing module has the ability to consider MMO treatment before providing the wireless communications device 1500 and the wireless communication device and its signal quality metric of the communication link between the communication stations. 例如,对于每一个通信链路,信号处理模块可以从接收分集、最大比值合并以及空间多路复用的MMO技术中选择。 For example, for each communication link, the signal processing module may be received from a diversity, maximum ratio combining and a spatial multiplexing technique selected MMO. 它也可以使用这样的技术:选择哪些无线电装置来激活,这种方式在只发射或接收功能中或者这两种功能中有效地利用分集,同时利用了连接到不同无线电装置的不同天线的天线方向图是有方向性的这一事实。 It can also use this technique: selection means which radio activation, in this way effectively used in diversity only transmit or receive function or both functions at the same time using the different antenna connected to the radio device different antennas Figure is directional fact. 从信号处理模块接收到的信号质量度量,例如,数据吞吐量或错误率,可以随着所使用的MMO技术而变化。 Received from the signal processing module to the signal quality metric, e.g., data throughput, error rate, may vary with the technology used MMO. 也可以从一个或多个无线电装置1510a和1510b提供诸如接收到的信号强度之类的信号质量度量。 It may also provide a signal quality metric such as a signal strength received from one or more radio devices 1510a and 1510b. 可以使用信号质量度量来确定或选择希望使用哪一个天线,以及天线的波束方向图的方向。 Signal quality metric may be used to determine or select which antenna is desired, and the direction of the antenna beam pattern used. 例如,可以使用信号度量来确定天线1502a和1502b中的开关模块的所需的配置。 For example, the signal may be used to determine the required metric 1502a and 1502b in the configuration of the antenna switch module.

[0082] 在另一个实施例中,无线通信设备1500不包括开关矩阵1506。 [0082] In another embodiment, the wireless communication apparatus 1500 does not include a switch matrix 1506. 在此实施例中,每一个无线电装置1510a和1510b都通过发射和接收线路1508a和1508b分别连接到天线1502a和1502b。 In this embodiment, each of the radio devices 1510a and 1510b and 1508b are respectively connected to the lines by transmitting and receiving antennas 1508a 1502a and 1502b. 在此配置中,信号处理模块1512,或CPU 1512,或其他模块,在设备1500的操作过程中,可以选择一个无线电装置或另一个无线电装置。 In this configuration, the signal processing module 1512, or the CPU 1512, or other modules, during operation of the apparatus 1500 can select a radio or other wireless device.

[0083] 图16是可以使用天线系统1612(可以是如图2到13所示的一个或多个天线)的无线通信设备1600的另一个实施例的功能方框图。 [0083] FIG. 16 is a functional block diagram of the embodiment may use an antenna system 1612 (which may be one or more antennas as shown in FIG. 2 to 13) to another wireless communication apparatus 1600. 无线设备1600可以是,例如,无线路由器、移动接入点、无线网络适配器,或其他类型的无线通信设备。 The wireless device 1600 may be, for example, a wireless router, mobile access points, wireless network adapter, or another type of wireless communication device. 在图16的实施例中,通信设备1600包括与无线电系统1604进行通信的天线系统1602。 In the embodiment of FIG. 16, the communication device 1600 includes an antenna system for communicating with the radio system 1602 1604. 在图14的示例中,无线电系统1604包括无线电模块1606、处理器模块1608,以及存储器模块1610。 In the example of FIG. 14, the radio system 1604 includes a radio module 1606, processor module 1608, and a memory module 1610. 无线电模块1606与处理器模块1608进行通信。 The radio module 1606 and module 1608 communicate with the processor. 无线电模块1606生成由天线系统1602发射的无线电信号,并从天线系统接收无线电信号。 The radio module 1606 generates a radio signal transmitted by the antenna system 1602, and receives radio signals from the antenna system.

[0084] 处理器模块1608可以对于无线电系统1604实现某些或全部媒体访问控制(MAC)功能,并控制无线电模块1606的操作。 [0084] Processor 1604 module 1608 may implement some or all of the media access control (MAC) functions for the radio system and a radio control module 1606 operation. 一般而言,MAC功能在往返于通信设备1400的传输中在一个或多个物理信道上分配可用带宽。 Generally, MAC transmission function and from the communication device 1400 in allocating the available bandwidth in one or more physical channels. MAC功能可以根据它们的QoS施加的优先级和规则,在各种服务之间分配可用带宽。 MAC functions may be based on priority and QoS rules applied to them, allocate the available bandwidth between the various services. 此外,MAC功能还可以在较高层(如TCP/IP)以及物理层(如物理信道)之间传输数据。 In addition, MAC functions may also transmit data between the higher layers (e.g., TCP / IP) and a physical layer (the physical channel). 这里所描述的功能与图中的具体功能块的关联只是为了方便描述。 FIG functions associated with a specific functional blocks described herein merely for convenience of description. 各种功能可以在各个块之间移动,在各种块之间共享,以各种方式分组。 Various functions can be moved between the various blocks, shared between various blocks, groups in various ways. 处理器还在操作过程中与存储器模块1610以及临时存储器进行通信,存储器模块1610可以存储代码,该代码由处理模块1608在设备1600的操作过程中执行。 The processor is also in communication operation, the memory module 1610 may store the code and the memory module 1610 and a temporary storage process, the code is executed by the processing module 1608 during operation of the device 1600.

[0085] 在图16的示例中,天线1602包括传感器/开关模块1614和控制模块1616。 [0085] In the example of FIG. 16, the antenna 1602 includes a sensor / switch module 1614 and a control module 1616. 在一个实施例中,传感器/开关模块与天线1612a和1612b和无线电模块1604进行通信,以便向无线电装置传送信号,并从无线电装置向天线1612a和1612b传送信号。 In one embodiment, the sensor / switch module 1612a and 1612b and the antenna and the radio communication module 1604 to transmit a signal to the radio apparatus from the radio apparatus and antennas 1612a and 1612b to transmit signals. 传感器/开关模块1614可以控制天线系统1602中的开关模块,以选择和/或配置天线1612a和1612b,以便以所需的配置形成波束方向图。 Sensor / switch module 1614 can control the antenna switch module in the system 1602, to select and / or configure antennas 1612a and 1612b, to form the beam pattern in a desired configuration. 传感器/开关模块1614也可以向控制器1616提供信号质量的指示,控制器1616可以控制传感器/开关模块1614,以便基于信号质量的指示,选择天线1612a和1612b和/或以所需的配置来配置天线1612a和1612b。 Sensor / switch module 1614 can also provide an indication of the signal quality to the controller 1616, the controller 1616 may control the sensor / switch module 1614, based on an instruction to signal quality, the antenna 1612a and 1612b and / or arranged in a desired configuration The antenna 1612a and 1612b. 例如,开关/传感器可以测量发射的信号的反射系数。 For example, the switch / sensor may measure the reflection coefficient of the transmitted signal. 可以采用各种配置来配置天线,再将与每一种配置关联的信号质量指示进行比较,以选择所需的配置。 Various configurations may be employed to configure the antenna, then the signal quality indication associated with each configuration are compared to select the desired configuration.

[0086] 尽管图16描述了传感器/开关1614位于天线系统1602中的情况,但是,传感器/开关也可以位于其他位置,例如,位于无线电系统中。 [0086] Although Figure 16 depicts the sensor / switch 1614 is located where the antenna system 1602, however, the sensor / switch may be located elsewhere, e.g., located in a radio system. 此外,由传感器/开关1614执行的功能也可以在整个系统的其他模块中执行。 Further, the function performed by the sensor / switch 1614 may also be performed in other modules of the overall system.

[0087] 图17是包括天线系统(可以是如上文所描述的图2-13所描述的一个或多个天线)的无线通信设备1700的再一个实施例的功能方框图。 Then [0087] FIG. 17 is a system comprising an antenna (which may be one or more antennas as described in FIGS. 2-13 described above) of the wireless communication device 1700 of a functional block diagram of the embodiment. 无线设备1700可以是,例如,无线路由器、移动接入点、无线网络适配器,或另一种无线通信设备。 The wireless device 1700 may be, for example, a wireless router, mobile access points, wireless network adapter, or another wireless communication device. 在图17的实施例中,通信设备1700包括与无线电系统1704进行通信的天线系统1702。 In the embodiment of FIG. 17, the communication device 1700 includes an antenna system 1702 to communicate with the radio system 1704. 在图17的示例中,无线电系统1704包括无线电模块1706、处理器模块1708,以及存储器模块1710。 In the example of FIG. 17, the radio system 1704 includes a radio module 1706, processor module 1708, 1710 and a memory module. 无线电模块1706与处理器模块1708进行通信。 The radio module 1706 communicates with the processor module 1708. 无线电模块1706生成由天线系统1702发射的无线电信号,并从天线系统接收无线电信号。 The radio module 1706 generates a radio signal transmitted by the antenna system 1702, and receives radio signals from the antenna system.

[0088] 在图17的示例中,天线1702可以被配置为在所需的方向辐射。 [0088] In the example of FIG. 17, the antenna 1702 may be configured to radiate in a desired direction. 可以由传感器/开关模块1714控制天线辐射的方向。 Direction can be controlled by the sensor / switch module 1714 of antenna radiation. 传感器/开关模块1714的操作可以响应诸如接收到的信号强度之类的信号质量度量来选择从天线系统1712辐射信号的所需的方向。 Operating the sensor / switch module 1714 may be responsive to a signal quality metric such as a signal strength received from the desired selected direction of the antenna system 1712 of the radiated signal. 在一个实施例中,信号度量可以从无线电装置1706传递到处理器模块1708,然后处理器模块1706对传感器/开关模块1714进行操作,以选择所需的方向。 In one embodiment, the metric may be a signal from the radio device 1706 is transmitted to the processor module 1708, processor module 1706 and the sensor / switch module 1714 operates to select the desired direction. 在另一个实施例中,传感器/开关模块1714将信号度量的指示传递到处理器模块1708,然后处理器模块对传感器/开关模块1714进行操作,以便采用所需的配置来配置天线。 Embodiment, the sensor / switch module 1714 passes to the instruction signal metric processor module 1708] In another embodiment, the processor module and the sensor / switch module 1714 operates, in order to adopt the desired configuration of the antenna configuration.

[0089] 尽管图17描述了传感器/开关模块1714位于天线系统1702中的情况,但是,传感器/开关也可以位于其他位置,例如,位于无线电系统中。 [0089] While FIG. 17 depicts the sensor / switch module 1714 of the antenna system 1702, however, the sensor / switch may be located elsewhere, e.g., located in a radio system. 此外,由传感器/开关1714执行的功能也可以在整个系统的其他模块中执行。 Further, the function performed by the sensor / switch 1714 may also be performed in other modules of the overall system.

[0090] 在其他实施例中,这里所描述的天线系统可以与在2005年8月22日提出的标题为“Optimized Direct1nal antennaSystem” 的美国专利申请第11/209,358 号中所描述的系统相结合,在此引用该申请的全部内容作为参考。 U.S. Patent Application No. 209,358 of system 11 as described in [0090] In other embodiments, the antenna system described herein may title on August 22, 2005 proposed "Optimized Direct1nal antennaSystem" of the / phase incorporated in this application by reference the entire contents of which is incorporated by reference. 例如,在该申请的图6中所描述的系统中,上文所描述的天线系统可以用作元件602。 For example, in the system described in FIG. 6 of the application, the antenna system described above may be used as element 602. 对于图7的元件703a-n和图8的元件602也是同样的道理。 For elements 703a-n element 602 of FIG. 7 and FIG. 8 is the same reason. 在另一个实施例中,这里所描述的天线系统可以与在2006年12月19日提出的标题为“Optimized Direct1nal MIMO Antenna System”的美国临时专利申请第60/870,818号中所描述的系统相结合,在此引用该申请的全部内容作为参考。 US Provisional Patent Application In another embodiment, the antenna system described herein may be heading in the December 19, 2006 submitted to "Optimized Direct1nal MIMO Antenna System" system No. 60 / 870,818 described combining herein entire contents of which application is incorporated herein by reference. 例如,在该案子的图6中所描述的系统中,上文所描述的天线系统可以用作元件602。 For example, the system in the case described in FIG. 6, the antenna system described above may be used as element 602. 对于图7的元件703a-n、图8A和8b的元件802a_d,和图10的元件602也是同样的道理。 For elements 703a-n in FIG. 7, 8A and 8b elements 802a_d, and element 602 in FIG. 10 is the same reason.

[0091] 这里在实施例中作为示例利用诸如波长和频率之类的参数描述了天线的各种特征。 [0091] Here as an example the use of parameters, such as wavelength and frequency such various characteristics of the antenna described in the examples. 应该理解,所提供的示例描述了在电的方面表现出所需的特征的方面。 It should be understood that the examples provided describe aspects exhibit the desired characteristics in terms of electricity.

[0092] 提供了所公开的实施例的上述描述,以允许任何本领域技术人员实施或使用本发明。 [0092] The foregoing description of the disclosed embodiments to enable any person skilled in the art or use the present invention. 对这些实施例的很多修改方案对所属领域的技术人员是显而易见的,在不偏离本发明的精神或范围的情况下,这里所描述的一般原理可以应用于其他实施例。 Many modifications of these embodiments of ordinary skill in the art will be apparent, without departing from the spirit or scope of the present invention, the general principles described herein may be applied to other embodiments. 如此,本发明不仅限于这里所显示的实施例,而应当被授予根据与这里所公开的原理和新颖的特征一致的最宽的范围。 Thus, the present invention is not limited to the embodiments shown herein, but should be granted according to principles consistent with the herein disclosed novel features and widest scope.

[0093] 参考这里所公开的实施例所描述的各种说明性逻辑块、模块和电路可以利用通用处理器、数字信号处理器(DSP)、专用集成电路(ASIC)、现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)或其他可编程逻辑器件、分立的门或晶体管逻辑、分立的硬件组件、或被设计为执行这里所描述的功能的其任何组合,来实现或执行。 The various illustrative logical blocks, modules, and circuits [0093] The embodiments disclosed herein with reference to the described embodiments may utilize general purpose processor, a digital signal processor (DSP), application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), field programmable gate arrays ( FPGA) or other programmable logic device, discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete hardware components, or designed to perform the functions described herein in any combination thereof, designed to perform. 通用处理器可以是微处理器,但是在备选方案中,处理器可以是任何处理器、控制器、微控制器或状态机。 A general purpose processor may be a microprocessor, but in the alternative, the processor may be any processor, controller, microcontroller, or state machine. 处理器也可以作为计算设备的组合来实现,例如,DSP和微处理器的组合、多个微处理器、和DSP内核结合的一个或多个微处理器,或任何其他这样的配置。 The processor may also be implemented as a combination of computing devices, e.g., one or more microprocessors combination of a DSP and a microprocessor, a plurality of microprocessors, and a combination of a DSP core, or any other such configuration.

[0094] 这里所公开的实施例所描述的方法或算法的步骤可以直接以硬件、以由处理器执行的软件模块或以这两者的组合来实现。 [0094] The steps of a method or algorithm described embodiments disclosed herein may be embodied directly in hardware, in a software module executed by a processor, or in a combination of the two is achieved. 软件模块可以驻留在RAM存储器、闪速存储器、ROM存储器、EPROM存储器、EEPROM存储器、寄存器、硬盘、可移动磁盘、CD-ROM,或任何其他形式的存储介质中。 A software module may reside in RAM memory, flash memory, ROM memory, EPROM memory, EEPROM memory, registers, hard disk, a removable disk, CD-ROM, or any other form of storage medium. 示范性存储介质可以连接到处理器,以便处理器可以从存储介质中读取信息,并向存储介质中写入信息。 An exemplary storage medium may be coupled to the processor such that the processor can read information from the storage medium, and write information to the storage medium. 在备选方案中,存储介质可以与处理器集成在一起。 In the alternative, the storage medium may be integral to the processor. 处理器和存储介质可以驻留在ASIC中。 The processor and the storage medium may reside in an ASIC.

[0095] 此外,那些所属领域的技术人员将理解,结合上文所描述的图和这里所公开的实施例所描述的各种说明性逻辑块、模块、电路以及方法步骤,常常可以作为电子硬件、计算机软件,或两者的组合来实现。 [0095] Further, those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that, in conjunction with FIG described above and the various illustrative logical blocks, modules, circuits, and method steps of the embodiments disclosed herein described embodiments, can often be implemented as electronic hardware , computer software, or a combination of both to achieve. 为清楚地显示硬件和软件的此互换性,上文已经一般就其功能而言描述了各种说明性组件、块、模块、电路,以及步骤。 To clearly show this interchangeability of hardware and software, the foregoing has generally described in terms of its function, various illustrative components, blocks, modules, circuits, and steps. 这样的功能是作为硬件还是作为软件来实现取决于特定的应用以及施加于整个系统的设计约束。 Such functionality is implemented as hardware or software depends upon the particular application and design constraints imposed on the overall system. 那些本领域技术人员可以对于每一个特定应用以各种方式来实现所描述的功能,但是这样的实现方式的决定不应该被解释为导致偏离本发明的范围。 Those skilled in the art may each particular application a variety of ways to implement the described functionality for, but such implementation decisions should not be interpreted as causing a departure from the scope of the present invention. 此外,对一个模块、块、电路或步骤内的功能的分组也只是为了描述方便。 In addition, a grouping module, block or circuit functions within the steps is only for convenience of description. 在没有偏离本发明的情况下,特定功能或步骤可以从一个模块、块或电路中移到另一个模块、块或电路中。 Without departing from the present invention, the specific functions or steps can be moved from one module, block or circuit to another module, block or circuit.

Claims (14)

1.一种用于无线通信设备中的相控阵天线系统,所述天线系统包括: 包括导电材料并具有被选定以便以所需的频率谐振的长度的第一辐射元件; 连接到所述第一辐射元件的一端的相移元件;以及连接到所述相移元件的与所述第一辐射元件相对的一端的第二辐射元件,以便无线电信号经过所述第一辐射元件,经过所述相移元件,并经过所述第二辐射元件,所述第二辐射元件包括导电材料并具有被选定以进行谐振的长度,以便所述第一和第二辐射元件进行协作,以便从所述天线系统形成所需的波束方向图, 其中所述第一辐射元件、所述相移元件以及所述第二辐射元件都沿着与印刷电路板的平面平行的平面取向,以及其中所述相移元件本身不重叠。 A phased array antenna system for a wireless communication device, the antenna system comprising: an electrically conductive material and is selected to have a desired resonant frequency of the first radiating element length; connected to the end of the first phase shifting element radiating element; a second radiating element and the opposite end connected to said phase shift element and the first radiating element, so that the radio signal through the first radiating element, through the phase shifting element, and through said second radiating element, said second radiating element comprises a conductive material and having a length selected to resonate, so that the first and second radiating elements cooperate in order from the the antenna system to form the desired beam pattern, wherein said first radiating element, the phase shifting element and said second radiating element are phase-shifted along a plane parallel to the printed circuit board plane orientation, and wherein said elements themselves do not overlap.
2.根据权利要求1所述的天线系统,进一步包括位于所述第一辐射元件和所述第二辐射元件之间的开关,以便所述开关的操作将所述第二辐射元件从所述第一辐射元件断开,允许天线系统具有两个不同的天线方向图。 2. The antenna system according to claim 1, further comprising a switch located between the first radiating element and said second radiating element, so that the operation of the second switch from the first radiating element a radiating element opens, allowing the antenna system having two different antenna patterns.
3.根据权利要求1所述的天线系统,其中,所述第一辐射元件、所述相移元件以及所述第二辐射元件连接到承载体。 3. The antenna system of claim 1, wherein said first radiating element, said second radiating element and the phase shift element is connected to the carrier member.
4.一种相控阵天线系统,包括: 包括相互协作以形成辐射元件的偶极部分和H部分的下辐射元件,所述偶极部分包括将偶极部分连接到无线电装置的传输路径连接; 连接到所述下辐射元件的相移元件;以及连接到与所述下辐射元件相对的所述相移元件的端子辐射元件,所述端子辐射元件和所述下辐射元件进行协作,以形成所需的波束方向图, 其中所述相移元件本身不重叠,以及其中所述下辐射元件、所述相移元件以及所述端子辐射元件印刷在平面电路板上。 A phased array antenna system, comprising: a portion cooperate to form a dipole radiating element and the lower part of the radiating element H, of the dipole portion includes a connecting portion to the dipole is connected to radio transmission path; connected to the lower radiating element phase shifting element; and a connection to a terminal of the radiating element and the lower radiating element opposite to the phase shift element, the radiating element and the lower terminal of the radiating elements cooperate to form the desired beam pattern, wherein the phase shift element per se does not overlap, and wherein the lower radiating element, the phase shifting element and the terminal of the radiating element in the plane of the printed circuit board.
5.根据权利要求4所述的天线系统,在所述下辐射元件和所述相移元件之间进一步包括开关,所述开关的操作将下辐射元件与所述相移元件和所述端子元件连接和断开连接。 The antenna system according to claim 4, in the radiation element and the phase shift between the switching element further comprising, operating the switch will lower radiating element and the phase shifting element and the terminal element connection and disconnection.
6.根据权利要求4所述的天线系统,进一步包括所述相移元件中的开关,所述开关的操作改变所述相移元件的相移量。 6. The antenna system according to claim 4, further comprising a switch operating element in the phase shift, the phase changing switches the phase shift elements shift amount.
7.根据权利要求4所述的天线系统,其中,所述H部分连接到接地线,并且所述偶极部分连接到无线电装置。 7. The antenna system of claim 4, wherein the H portion is connected to the ground line, and a portion of the dipole is connected to the radio.
8.根据权利要求4所述的天线系统,进一步包括: 包括作为辐射元件协作的偶极部分和H部分的第二下辐射元件; 连接到所述第二下辐射元件的第二相移元件;以及连接到与所述第二下辐射元件相对的所述第二相移元件的第二端子辐射元件,所述第二端子辐射元件和所述第二下辐射元件进行协作,以便以不同于由所述下辐射元件、所述相移元件和所述端子辐射元件形成的所述波束方向图的频率的频率形成所需的天线方向图, 其中所述第二相移元件本身不重叠。 8. The antenna system of claim 4, further comprising: a dipole radiating element comprising a second portion and a lower portion H as a radiating element cooperating; a second phase coupled to the second radiating element of the shifting element; and a connection to the radiating element at second opposite terminal of said second radiating element of the second phase shift element, the second terminal of the radiating element and the second lower radiating element cooperate, so as to be different from the the lower radiating element, the frequency shift of the beam pattern of the radiating element and the element forming the terminal phase to form the desired antenna pattern, wherein the second phase shift element per se does not overlap.
9.一种无线通信设备,包括: 机壳; 包括电子组件和接地面的印刷电路板;以及位于所述机壳内的至少一个相控阵天线系统,所述天线系统包括第一辐射元件、相移元件以及第二辐射元件,其中,所述第一和第二辐射元件连接到所述相移元件的相对的末端,并且所述第一和第二辐射元件进行协作,以便当处于所需的频率的射频信号被馈送到所述至少一个相控天线系统时,形成所需的波束方向图, 其中所述第一辐射元件、所述相移元件以及所述第二辐射元件印刷在平面电路板上,以及其中所述相移元件本身不重叠。 9. A wireless communications apparatus, comprising: a housing; and an electronic component comprises a printed circuit board ground plane; and at least one phased array antenna system, the antenna system is located within said housing comprises a first radiating element, phase shifting element and a second radiating element, wherein said first and second radiation element connected to opposite ends of the phase shift element, and the first and second radiating elements cooperate so that, when in the desired radio frequency signal is fed to the at least one phased antenna system to form the desired beam pattern, wherein said first radiating element, the phase shifting element and said second radiating element in the plane of the printed circuit plate, and wherein the phase shift elements themselves do not overlap.
10.根据权利要求9所述的设备,进一步包括多个相控阵天线系统,它们在设备中的取向使得形成多个波束方向图。 10. The apparatus according to claim 9, further comprising a plurality of phased array antenna system, in which the orientation of the apparatus so as to form a plurality of beam patterns.
11.根据权利要求10所述的设备,其中,第一阵列天线系统以第一谐振频率操作,而第二天线系统以第二谐振频率操作。 11. The apparatus of claim 10, wherein the first array antenna system operating at a first resonant frequency, and the second antenna at a second resonant frequency of the system operation.
12.根据权利要求9所述的设备,其中,所述设备包括无线路由器。 12. The apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the device comprises a wireless router.
13.根据权利要求9所述的设备,其中,通过所述第一辐射元件、所述相移元件,将无线电信号馈送到所述第二辐射元件。 13. The apparatus according to claim 9, wherein said first radiating element through the phase shift element, the radio signal fed to the second radiating element.
14.根据权利要求9所述的设备,其中,无线电信号被馈送到与所述相移元件连接的所述第二辐射元件的一端。 14. The apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the radio signal is fed into one end of the phase-shifting element is connected with a second radiating element.
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