CN101535516A - Particle matrix composite drill bits with hardfacing and methods of manufacturing and repairing such drill bits using hardfacing materials - Google Patents

Particle matrix composite drill bits with hardfacing and methods of manufacturing and repairing such drill bits using hardfacing materials Download PDF

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CN101535516A
CN101535516A CN 200780041472 CN200780041472A CN101535516A CN 101535516 A CN101535516 A CN 101535516A CN 200780041472 CN200780041472 CN 200780041472 CN 200780041472 A CN200780041472 A CN 200780041472A CN 101535516 A CN101535516 A CN 101535516A
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material
drill bit
bit
wear
bit body
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CN 200780041472
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Chinese (zh)
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J·L·奥弗斯特里特
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贝克休斯公司
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Priority to US84815406P priority Critical
Priority to US60/848,154 priority
Priority to US11/823,800 priority
Application filed by 贝克休斯公司 filed Critical 贝克休斯公司
Publication of CN101535516A publication Critical patent/CN101535516A/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C29/00Alloys based on carbides, oxides, nitrides, borides, or silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides
    • C22C29/02Alloys based on carbides, oxides, nitrides, borides, or silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides based on carbides or carbonitrides
    • C22C29/06Alloys based on carbides, oxides, nitrides, borides, or silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides based on carbides or carbonitrides based on carbides, but not containing other metal compounds
    • C22C29/08Alloys based on carbides, oxides, nitrides, borides, or silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides based on carbides or carbonitrides based on carbides, but not containing other metal compounds based on tungsten carbide
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/46Drill bits characterised by wear resisting parts, e.g. diamond inserts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F5/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the special shape of the product
    • B22F2005/001Cutting tools, earth boring or grinding tool other than table ware

Abstract

A rotary drill bit includes a bit body substantially formed of a particle-matrix composite material having an exterior surface and an abrasive wear-resistant material disposed on at least a portion of the exterior surface of the bit body. Methods for applying an abrasive wear-resistant material to a surface of a drill bit are also provided.

Description

具有耐磨堆焊的颗粒基体复合材料钻头以及利用耐磨堆焊材料制造和修理这种钻头的方法 Hardfacing having a particle-matrix composite material and a method of using a drill bit hardfacing materials and repair of such a drill bit

优先权声明 Priority Claim

本申请要求提交于2007年6月27日、名称为"具有耐磨堆焊的颗粒基体复合材料钻头以及利用耐磨堆焊材料制造和修理这种钻头的方法"的美国申请序列No.11/823,800的优先权,该申请要求提交于2006 年9月29日、名称为"钻地旋转钻头,包括布置在形成于其外表面上的凹部内的耐磨表面堆焊材料"的美国临时专利申请序列No.60/848,154的优先权,上述每一申请的内容在此全文引入作为参考。 This application claims filed June 27, 2007, entitled "Method composite hardfacing materials and the use of the drill manufacture and repair of such particle-matrix bit having hardfacing" in U.S. Application Serial No.11 / 823,800 filed, which application claims priority September 29, 2006, entitled "earth-boring rotary drill bit, comprising a wear-resistant hardfacing material disposed in a recess formed in an outer surface thereof," U.S. provisional priority to Patent application serial No.60 / 848,154, the contents of each are herein incorporated by reference.

技术领域 FIELD

本发明通常涉及在钻凿地下地层中使用的颗粒基体复合材料钻头和其它工具,并且涉及在这种颗粒基体复合材料钻头和工具的表面上使用的耐磨表面堆焊材料。 The present invention generally relates to a particle-matrix composite drill bits and other tools used in drilling subterranean formations, and to the use of wear resistant surfacing material on the surface of such a particle-matrix composite drill bits and tools. 本发明还涉及用于给颗粒基体复合材料钻头和工具的表面施加耐磨表面堆焊的方法。 The present invention further relates to a method for applying wear surfacing material to the surface of the composite particle-bit and the tool body.

背景技术 Background technique

用于钻凿地下地层的传统的固定牙轮式或"切削型"旋转钻头包括具有表面区域的钻头体,在所述表面区域上支承用于切入地层的切削元件。 For drilling subterranean formations conventional fixed-cutter or a "cutting-type" cutting element rotary drill bit comprising a bit body having a surface region, the surface region on the support for cutting the formation. 钻头体可以固定到硬化钢杆上,所述硬化钢杆具有用于将钻头附接到钻柱上的螺紋销连接(例如,API螺紋销),所述钻柱包括在钻头和其它钻孔设备之间首尾相联的管状管段。 The bit body may be fixed to a steel rod hardening, the hardened steel rod having a drill bit attached to the drill string connected to a threaded pin (e.g., the API threaded pin), the drill string comprising a drill bit and other drilling equipment the tubular pipe sections end to end between the associated. 例如回转工作台或顶部驱动装置的设备可用于使管状管和钻头旋转。 For example, a rotary table or top drive apparatus may be used for rotating the tubular pipe and drill bit. 可选地,钻头杆可以联接到井下马达的驱动轴上,从而使钻头独立于回转工作台或顶部驱动装置旋转,或者与回转工作台或顶部驱动装置一起旋转。 Alternatively, the bit shaft may be coupled to the drive shaft of a downhole motor, so that the drill bit independently of the rotary table or top drive means for rotating or rotates together with the rotary table or top drive. 典型地,钻头的钻头体由钢或嵌入在颗粒基体复合材料中的钢坯复合材料制成,所述颗粒基体复合材料包括渗有例如铜合金的熔融粘结材料的硬质颗粒材料,所述硬质颗粒材料例如为碳化钨。 Typically, the drill bit body is made of a composite steel slab or embedded in the particle-matrix composite material, the particle-matrix composite material comprising impregnated with a hard particulate material, for example, fusion bonding of the copper alloy material, the hard particulate material such as tungsten carbide. 硬化钢杆通常在已经形成钻头体之后固定到钻头体上。 After hardening steel rod has been formed in the bit body is typically secured to the bit body. 可以在钻头体上或钻头体内的选定位置设置结构特征以方便钻凿过程。 Or it may be structural features of the bit body the drill bit body provided selected locations to facilitate the drilling process. 这种结构特征例如可 Such structural features may be e.g.

以包括径向和纵向延伸的刀翼、切削元件凹窝、突脊、槽脊(lands)、 喷嘴口、和钻井流体路径和通道。 To include a blade wing extending radially and longitudinally, cutting element pockets, ridges, lands (Lands), nozzle opening, and the paths and the drilling fluid passage. 切削元件通常固定到在位于钻头体表面区域上的刀翼中加工出的切削元件凹窝,例如径向和纵向延伸刀翼的前缘上。 The cutting elements are typically secured to the machined surface of the cutter wing on the bit body region of the cutting element pockets, for example, a blade extending radially and longitudinally of the wing leading edge. 这些结构特征(例如,切削元件凹窝)还可以在熔融粘结材料渗入硬质颗粒材料时由用于形成钻头体的模具制成。 These structural features (e.g., cutting element pockets) can also penetrate the hard particulate material by the fusion bonding material is made of a mold for forming the bit body. 有利地是, 颗粒基体复合材料提供可与钢材料比拟的较高强度和刚性的钻头体, 但仍然需要复杂和劳动密集的制造过程,如美国申请序列No.11/272,439中所述。 Advantageously, the particle-matrix composite material provides comparable steel with high strength and rigidity of the drill body, but still requires a complicated and labor-intensive manufacturing processes, such as described in U.S. Application No.11 / 272,439 sequences. 因此,人们希望提供一种制造适于生产包括颗粒基体复合材料的钻头体的方法,所述颗粒基体复合材料无需硬质颗粒材料渗入熔融粘结材料中。 Accordingly, it is desirable to provide a method of manufacturing suitable for producing a bit body comprising a particle-matrix composite material, the particle-matrix composite material without the hard particulate material infiltrated molten bonding material.

通常,传统固定牙轮式旋转钻头的每个切削元件包括切削表面, 其包括硬质超耐磨材料,例如相互粘结的多晶金刚石颗粒。 Typically, a conventional fixed-cutter rotary drill bit of each cutting element comprises a cutting surface comprising a hard wear-resistant material, such as mutually bonded particles of polycrystalline diamond. 这种"聚晶金刚石复合片"(PDC)牙轮已经在油气井钻探工业中的固定牙轮式旋转钻头上使用了几十年。 This "polycrystalline diamond compact" (the PDC) cutters have been secured in the oil and gas well drilling industry teeth of wheel rotation on the drill bit in use for decades.

图l显示了通常根据上述说明的传统的固定牙轮式旋转钻头10。 Figure l shows a rotary drill bit 10 generally according to a conventional fixed-cutter type described above. 旋转钻头10包括联接到钢杆14上的钻头体12。 Rotary drill bit 10 coupled to the drill bit comprises a steel rod 14 on the body 12. 纵向穿过钻头10的一部分形成有孔(未显示),以便在钻井操作期间通过喷嘴19给钻头10的表面20输送钻井流体。 10 is formed longitudinally through a portion of the drill bit with a hole (not shown), so as to deliver drilling fluid to the surface 19 of the nozzle 20 of the drill bit 10 during drilling operations through. 切削元件22(典型地,聚晶金刚石复合片(PDC)切削元件)通常通过例如铜焊、粘结或机械固定的方法结合到钻头体12的表面20上。 The cutting elements 22 (typically polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutting elements) generally bound to the surface 20 of the bit body 12 by, for example brazing, bonding or mechanical fixing method.

钻头10可以多次使用以进行连续的钻井操作,在所述钻井操作期间,钻头体12的表面和切削元件22在钻头10的切削元件22切割下面的地层时会经受非常大的作用力和应力。 The drill bit 10 can be repeatedly used for continuous drilling operations, during the drilling operation, the drill bit body surface and a cutting element 22 of drill bit 12 of the cutting element 10 is cut following the formation 22 will experience very large forces and stress . 极大的作用力和应力导致切削元件22和钻头体12的表面磨损。 Great forces and stresses cause the cutting member 22 and the surface of the bit body 12 to wear. 最终,钻头体12的表面会磨损到钻头10不再适于使用的程度。 Finally, the surface of the bit body 12 may wear to the extent that the drill bit 10 is no longer suitable for use. 因此,在本领域存在增强钻头体12 的表面耐磨性的需要。 Therefore, there is need to enhance the surface abrasion resistance of the bit body 12 in the art. 同样,切削元件22可以磨损到它们不再适于使用的程度。 Likewise, the cutting elements 22 may wear to the extent that they are no longer suitable for use.

图2是与固定到钻头体12上的图1所示类似的PDC切削元件22 的放大图。 FIG 2 is fixed to the drill bit body of FIG. 12 similar to the PDC cutting element 22 is shown enlarged in FIG. 典型地,切削元件22与钻头体12分开制造并且利用粘接材料24固定到形成于钻头体12的外(或外部)表面上的凹窝21内, 所述粘接材料例如为粘合剂,或者更典型地为如先前所述的硬钎焊合金。 Typically, the cutting elements 22 and 12 manufactured separately from the bit body and secured by an adhesive material 24 to the outer 21 formed in the inner (or outer) dimples on the surface of the bit body 12, the adhesive material is an adhesive, for example, or, more typically a braze alloy as previously described. 而且,如果切削元件22为PDC牙轮,切削元件22可以包括固定到切削元件主体或基底23上的聚晶金刚石复合台28,所述切削元件可以是整体的或者包括粘结在一起的两个部件。 Furthermore, if the cutting element 22 is a PDC cutters, the cutting element 22 may comprise a cutting element secured to the body or substrate 23 on the polycrystalline diamond compact table 28, the cutting element may be integral or bonded together comprising two component.

传统的粘结材料24与钻头10和切削元件22的其它部分和表面相比更不耐磨损。 Conventional adhesive material 24 is more resistant to abrasion compared to the other portions of the drill bit 10 and the surface 22 of the cutting element. 在使用期间,由于磨损,在粘结材料24的暴露表面上可能产生小晶簇、砂眼或其它缺陷。 During use, due to wear, may produce small vugs, blisters or other defects on the exposed surface of the adhesive material 24. 含有固体的钻井流体和在钻井过程中产生的地层残余物可能使粘结材料24上的小晶簇和砂眼进一步腐蚀、磨损和扩大。 Solids-containing drilling fluid and produced formation during drilling may cause residue adhesive material 24 on the small vugs and trachoma further corrosion, abrasion and expanded. 如果去除足够多的粘结材料24,整个切削元件22 可能在钻井操作期间与钻头主体12分离。 If sufficient adhesive material removal 24, the entire cutting element 22 may separate from the drill body 12 during drilling operations. 在钻井操作期间,切削元件22的损耗会导致其它切削元件的迅速磨损及整个钻头10的突然失效。 During drilling operations, the loss of the cutting element 22 will cause rapid wear of other cutting elements and catastrophic failure of the entire drill bit 10. 因此,本领域还需要增强粘接材料的耐磨性以有助于防止切削元件在钻井操作期间损耗的有效方法。 Thus, the need in the art for improved wear resistance of the adhesive material to facilitate an effective method of cutting elements during drilling operations to prevent loss.

理想的是,旋转钻头的材料必须极为坚硬,以便在不过度磨损的情况下经受伴随着钻凿地层的磨损和腐蚀。 Ideally, the material of the rotating drill bit must be extremely hard to withstand drilling along with the formation of wear and corrosion in the case of excessively worn. 由于钻头在钻井操作期间经受的极大作用力和应力,理想钻头的材料必须同时具有高抗裂韧性。 Due to great forces and stresses in the drill bit is subjected during drilling operations, the drill bit over the material must have a high crack toughness. 但是,实际上,具有极高硬度的材料相对易碎并且不具有高抗裂韧性, 但具有高抗裂韧性的材料相对较软并且不具有高硬度。 However, in practice, a material having high hardness relatively fragile and crack does not have a high toughness, but the toughness of a material having high crack is relatively soft and does not have high hardness. 因此,当选择用于钻头的材料时,必须兼顾硬度和抗裂韧性。 Thus, when selecting a material for a drill bit, and crack resistance must be balanced hardness and toughness.

为了同时提高旋转钻头的硬度和抗裂韧性,已经将复合材料应用于经受极大磨损的钻头表面。 In order to simultaneously improve the hardness and crack of the rotary drill bit toughness, the composite material has been applied to the surface of the drill bit is subjected to great wear. 这些复合或硬质颗粒材料通常称作"表面耐磨堆焊"材料,并且典型地包括具有较高硬度的至少一个相和具有较高抗裂韧性的另一个相。 These composite or hard particle materials are generally referred to as "hardfacing" materials, and typically include a further phase having a high hardness phase having at least a high rupture toughness. 图3是传统的表面耐磨堆焊材料的抛光和腐蚀面的显微放大图, 所述表面耐磨堆焊材料施加到钻头体的(如上所述)颗粒基体复合材料上。 FIG 3 is a micrograph of the polished and etched surface of an enlarged view of a conventional hardfacing material, the hardfacing material is applied to the particle-matrix composite material (as described above) of the bit body. 表面耐磨堆焊材料包括大体上随机分布在基体材料46的铁基基体上的碳化鵠颗粒40。 Hardfacing material includes a generally random distribution on an iron-base matrix material 46 Hu carbide particles 40. 碳化鴒颗粒40具有较高硬度,而基体材料46 具有较高抗裂韧性。 Ling carbide particles 40 have a high hardness, while the matrix material 46 having a high rupture toughness.

表面耐磨堆焊材料中使用的碳化鴒颗粒40可以包括铸造碳化鵠颗粒、烧结碳化鴒颗粒和粗结晶碳化鴒颗粒中的一种或多种。 Ling carbide hardfacing material particles 40 used in casting may include one or more of Hu carbide particles, sintered carbide alba and coarse carbide crystalline particles ling. 碳化鵠系统包括两种化学计量化合物,WC和W2C,其间具有连续的混合物范围。 Hu carbide system includes two stoichiometric compounds, WC and W2C, a mixture having a continuous range therebetween. 铸造碳化钨颗粒通常包括WC和W2C化合物的低共熔混合物。 Cast tungsten carbide particles generally includes a eutectic mixture of WC and W2C compounds. 烧结碳化鴒颗粒包括由基体材料结合在一起的较小的WC颗粒。 Ling sintered carbide particles comprise a matrix material binding together the smaller WC particles. 钴和钴合金通常用作烧结碳化鴒颗粒中的基体材料。 And cobalt alloys generally used as ling carbide sintered base material particles. 烧结碳化鴒颗粒可以通过使包括较小碳化鴒颗粒的第一粉末和包括钴颗粒的第二粉末混合在一起而形成。 Ling sintered carbide particles may be formed by a first powder comprising a carbide ling smaller particles and the second powder comprising cobalt particles are mixed together. 粉末混合物形成为"生"状态。 The powder mixture is formed as a "green" state. 生粉末混合物随后在接近钴颗粒的熔融温度的温度下烧结以形成围绕碳化鴒颗粒的钴材料基 Green powder mixture is then sintered at a temperature close to the melting temperature of the cobalt particles to form carbide-cobalt material matrix around the particles ling

体,从而形成烧结碳化鵠颗粒。 Body, thereby forming a sintered carbide particles Hu. 最后,粗结晶碳化鵠颗粒通常由WC 的单结晶构成。 Finally, Hu crude crystal carbide particles are typically composed of single crystal WC.

可以使用本领域公知的各种方法将例如图3所示的表面耐磨堆焊材料施加到钻头表面上。 Known in the art may be used in the various methods, for example, hardfacing materials shown in FIG. 3 is applied to the bit surface. 焊接杆可以配置为空心圆柱管,其由充满碳化钨颗粒的表面耐磨堆焊材料制成的基体材料形成。 Welding rods may be configured as a hollow cylindrical tube, the base material is filled with a hardfacing material made of tungsten carbide particles are formed. 可以密封空心圆 Open circles may be sealed

柱管的至少一端。 At least one end of the column tube. 管的密封端随后可以熔融或焊接到钻头的希望表面上。 Sealed end of the tube then may be melted or welded onto the desired surface of the drill bit. 随着管熔化,当熔融基体材料沉积在钻头上时,空心圆柱管内的碳化钨颗粒与所述熔融基体材料混合并悬浮在其中。 As the tube melts, when the molten matrix material is deposited on the bit, a mixture of tungsten carbide particles within the hollow cylindrical tube and the molten matrix and suspended therein. 可选方法包括形成表面耐磨堆焊材料制铸杆,使用电弧或焊枪将设置于铸杆端部的表面耐磨堆焊材料施加或焊接到钻头的希望表面上。 An alternative method comprises forming a hardfacing material cast rod, using an electric arc or torch is provided on the desired surface of the cast rod hardfacing material is applied, or an end portion welded to the drill bit. 一种通过焊枪施加表面耐磨堆焊材料的方法是使用众所周知的含氧燃料气体焊接。 A method of applying hardfacing material by torch is to use known oxy-fuel gas welding. 含氧燃料气体焊接是一组焊接过程,其在使用或不使用施加表面耐磨堆焊材料的压力的情况下,通过利用含氧燃料气体火焰对材料进行加热而产生接合。 Oxyfuel gas welding is a group of welding processes, in a case where a pressure is applied with or without hardfacing material, heating the material by using oxy-fuel gas flame is generated engagement. 一种含氧燃料气体焊接称作氧乙炔焊接(OAW),其是适合于给钻头表面施加表面耐磨堆焊材料的方法。 An oxygen-containing fuel gas referred to as oxy-acetylene welding welding (OAW), which is a method suitable for hardfacing material is applied to the drill bit surface. 还可以使用电弧焊方法将表面耐磨堆焊材料施加到钻头表面上。 It may also be applied hardfacing material to the surface of the drill bit using the arc welding method. 例如,在电极和希望施加表面耐磨堆焊材料的钻头表面的区域之间会产生等离子转移弧。 For example, the electrodes and applying a desired region of the drill bit is generated between the surface of the hardfacing material is a plasma transferred arc. 包括碳化鴒颗粒和基体材料颗粒的粉末混合物随后通过或紧接着等离子转移弧引导到钻头表面区域上。 Ling carbide powder mixture comprising other particles and the matrix material particles is then followed by a plasma transferred arc or directed onto the surface area of ​​the drill bit. 电弧产生的热量至少使基体材料颗粒熔化以形成位于钻头表面上的焊池,其随后凝固以形成位于钻头表面上的表面耐磨堆焊材料层。 Arc heat generated at least base material particles melted to form a weld pool on the surface of the drill bit, which subsequently solidifies to form a hardfacing material layer on the surface of the drill bit.

当表面耐磨堆焊材料施加给钻头表面时,可以使用比较高的温度至少使基体材料熔化。 Upon application of hardfacing material to the drill bit surface, it may be used a relatively high temperature to melt at least the matrix material. 在上述比较高的温度下,碳化钨颗粒和基体材料之间会发生溶解作用。 In the above-mentioned relatively high temperatures, dissolution may occur between the tungsten carbide particles and the matrix material. 换句话说,在施加表面耐磨堆焊材料之后, 原本包含在碳化钨颗粒中的至少一部分原子(例如,鴒和碳)可能出现在围绕碳化钨颗粒的基体材料中。 In other words, after applying the hardfacing material originally contained in the tungsten carbide particles of at least a portion of the atoms (e.g., carbon and alba) may occur in the matrix material surrounding the tungsten carbide particles. 另外,原本包含在基体材料(例 Further, originally contained in the matrix material (for example,

如,铁)中的至少一部分原子可以出现在碳化鴒颗粒中。 E.g., iron), at least a portion of the atoms can occur in the carbonization Wagtail particles. 图4是图3 所示碳化钨颗粒40的放大图;原本包含在碳化鴒颗粒40中的至少一部分原子(例如,鴒和碳)可以出现在紧紧围绕碳化鴒颗粒40的基体材料46的区域47中。 FIG 4 is an enlarged view of tungsten carbide particles 3 to 40; originally contained in the carbide particles 40 of at least a portion ling atoms (e.g., carbon and alba) may occur in the region of the base material 40 tightly around the carbide particles ling 46 47. 区域47大致包括位于假想线48以内的基体材料46的区域。 Region 47 generally comprises a base material region is located within the imaginary line 48 46. 另外,原本包含在基体材料(例如,铁)中的至少一部分原子可以存在于碳化鵠颗粒40的外周或外部区域41中。 Further, originally contained in the matrix material (e.g., iron), at least a portion of the atoms may be present in the peripheral or outer region 41 of the carbide particles 40 Hu. 外部区域41粗略地包括位于假想线42以外的碳化鴒颗粒40的区域。 Outer region 41 roughly includes a region 42 positioned outside an imaginary line 40 of carbide particles ling.

碳化鵠颗粒40和基体材料46之间的溶解作用可以使围绕碳化鴒颗粒40的区域47内的基体材料46脆化并且降低其外部区域41内的碳化钨颗粒40的硬度,降低表面耐磨堆焊材料的总有效性。 Dissolution between the matrix material 40 and particles 46 can Hu carbide region surrounding ling carbide particles 40 within the matrix material 47 and 46 to reduce the hardness embrittlement of tungsten carbide particles in its outer region 41 of 40, surface wear reduction reactor the total effectiveness of the brazing material. 溶解作用是尤其当处于高温和当基体材料46处于使基体材料的材料成分变形的液相时,将例如碳化鴒颗粒40的固体溶解到例如基体材料46的液体中的过程。 Dissolution is at a high temperature and especially when the base material 46 when the material in the liquid phase of the matrix component deformable material, for example, the carbonized particulate solid ling example 40 was dissolved into the liquid matrix material 46 in the process. 在一个方面,溶解作用是固态物质(通常在高温下)进入熔融基体材料的过程,其改变基体材料的构成。 In one aspect, dissolution is the solid matter (generally at elevated temperatures) a molten matrix material into the process, which changes in the composition of the matrix material. 在基体材料46的温度接近碳化鴒颗粒40的熔融温度时,溶解作用会更为迅速地发生。 When the temperature of the substrate material 46 approaches the melting temperature carbide particles ling 40, dissolution occurs more rapidly. 例如,因为在施加期间使铁基基体材料变成熔融状态所需要的更高温度, 铁基基体材料与镍基基体材料相比对碳化鴒颗粒40具有更大的溶解作用。 For example, during application as an iron-based matrix material into a molten state at higher temperatures required, the iron-base material compared with nickel based matrix material having a greater dissolution of carbide particles 40 Wagtail. 因此,本领域需要耐磨表面堆焊材料,其包括允许碳化鵠颗粒 Accordingly, the present need in the art wear resistant hardfacing material comprising allowing carbide particles Hu

ii和基体材料之间的溶解作用减到最小的基体材料。 Ii dissolution between the matrix material and the matrix material is minimized. 本领域还需要给颗粒基体复合材料钻头的表面施加这种耐磨表面堆焊材料的方法,以及包括这种颗粒基体复合材料的钻头和钻具。 This method is also needed in the art wear resistant surfacing material is applied to the surface of the composite particle-bit body, and a composite material comprising such particles and the matrix drill bit.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明提供了一种旋转钻头,所述旋转钻头提供缺少通常在所谓" 基体"型钻头中使用的熔融粘接剂或渗透剂的颗粒基体复合材料。 The present invention provides a rotary drill bit, said rotating bit is missing a particle-matrix composite material or penetrants melt adhesive commonly used in the so-called "matrix" type drill bit. 这种钻头的特征还在于具有"烧结"颗粒基体复合结构。 This feature is further characterized by having a bit "sintering" particle-matrix composite structure. 另外,旋转钻头包括耐磨材料,其可以称作"表面耐磨堆焊"材料,用于增强钻头表面的耐磨性。 Further, rotary drill bit comprising a wear-resistant material, which may be referred to as "hardfacing" material for enhancing the wear resistance of the surface of the drill bit.

在本发明的实施例中,旋转钻头包括钻头体,所述钻头体大体上由颗粒基体复合材料制成,并且具有外表面和布置在该钻头体外表面上的耐磨材料,所述钻头体大体上由颗粒基体复合材料制成。 In an embodiment of the present invention, a rotary drill bit comprising a bit body, the bit body is generally made of a particle-matrix composite material, and having an outer surface and a wear-resistant material disposed on the outer surface of the drill bit, said bit body substantially made on the particle-matrix composite material.

本发明还提供了用于将耐磨材料施加到根据本发明实施例的钻头表面上的方法。 The present invention also provides a method for applying a wear-resistant material to the surface of a drill bit according to embodiments of the present invention.

在结合附图和所附权利要求书阅读本发明各个实施例的详细说明的情况下,本发明的其他优点、特征和可选方面变得显而易见。 In the case of the claims reading the detailed description of various embodiments of the present invention in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and the appended claims, other advantages of the present invention, optional features and aspects will become apparent.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

尽管说明书末尾的权利要求特别指出和清楚主张了本发明的范围,但是在结合附图阅读本发明的下列说明的情况下,本发明的优点 While the specification end claims particularly pointing out and distinctly claimed in the scope of the invention, but in the case of the present invention is read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in the following description, the advantages of the present invention

将变得易于确定,其中: It will be easy to determine in which:

图l是包括切削元件的传统旋转钻头的透视图; Figure l is a perspective view of a conventional cutting element of a rotary drill bit;

图2是图1所示传统钻头的切削元件的放大图; FIG 2 is an enlarged view of the cutting element of the conventional drill of Figure 1;

图3是包括碳化鴒颗粒的传统耐磨材料的显微放大图,其中,所述碳化钨颗粒大体上随机分布在基体材料中; FIG 3 is an enlarged micrograph of FIG ling carbide particles comprise a conventional wear resistant material, wherein the tungsten carbide particles substantially randomly distributed in the matrix material;

图4是图3所示传统碳化鴒颗粒的放大图; FIG 4 is an enlarged view of a conventional carbide particles ling in Figure 3;

图5是固定牙轮式旋转钻头的侧视图,显示了形成在钻头刀翼上的大致纵向延伸的凹部,以容纳位于其上的耐磨表面堆焊材料;图6是图5所示固定牙轮式旋转钻头的一个刀翼的局部侧视图, 显示了所述刀翼的各个部分; FIG 5 is a side view of a fixed-cutter rotary drill bit showing the concave portion formed substantially in the longitudinal direction on the drill bit extending knife blade, located to receive a wear surfacing material on a surface thereof; FIG. 6 is a fixed-cutter shown in FIG. 5 a partial side view of the knife blade wheel rotary drill bit, showing the respective portions of the blade wing;

图7A是沿大致垂直于钻头纵向轴线的方向剖开的图5所示固定牙轮式旋转钻头的刀翼的剖视图,进一步显示了形成在刀翼上用于在内部容纳耐磨表面堆焊材料的凹部; 7A is a sectional view of a fixed-cutter knife blade of rotary drill bit shown in FIG. 5 in a direction substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the drill bit cutaway view further shows the formation of a wear surfacing material on a cutter accommodated inside the wing the recess;

图7B是与图7A所示类似的图5所示固定牙轮式旋转钻头的刀翼的剖视图,进一步显示了布置在预先形成在刀翼上的凹部中的耐磨表面堆焊材料; 7B is a cross-sectional view of FIG. 7A and the fixed cutter type shown in rotary drill bit of FIG 5 similar to knife blade, further wear resistant surfacing materials shown disposed in a recess formed in advance on the blade wing;

图8是与图5所示类似的另一个固定牙轮式旋转钻头的侧视图, 显示了形成在钻头刀翼上用于在内部容纳耐磨表面堆焊材料的大致周向延伸的凹部; FIG 8 is similar to Figure 5 a side view of another fixed-cutter rotary drill bit showing the recess is formed in the interior of the drill bit for receiving the wing blade wear resistant surfacing material extending substantially circumferentially;

图9是与图5和8所示类似的又一个固定牙轮式旋转钻头的侧视图,显示了形成在钻头刀翼上用于在内部容纳耐磨表面堆焊材料的大致纵向延伸的凹部和大致周向延伸的凹部; FIG 9 is a side view as shown in FIGS. 5 and 8 wheeled rotary drill bit similar to another fixed-cutter, showing the recess is formed substantially in the longitudinal direction on the drill bit within the blade airfoil for receiving wear resistant surfacing material and extending substantially circumferentially extending recess;

图IO是与图7A和图7B所示类似的剖视图,显示了通常围绕设置在旋转钻头刀翼的地层接合表面上的耐磨硬合金齿的外周形成的凹部,所述凹部用于在内部容纳耐磨表面堆焊材料; FIG IO with FIGS. 7A and 7B, a similar cross-sectional view showing the concave portion outer periphery generally engaging wear resistant hard alloy teeth on the surface of the surrounding formations provided on the rotary drill cutter blade is formed, the concave portion for accommodating the internal wear resistant surfacing material;

图ll是固定在旋转钻头刀翼上的切削元件的透视图,显示了通常围绕切削元件外周形成的用于在内部容纳耐磨表面堆焊材料的凹部; Fig ll is a perspective view of the cutting fixed to the rotary element on the drill bit blade wing showing the recess for receiving the inner wear resistant surfacing material is typically formed around the outer periphery of the cutting element;

图12是沿大致垂直于切削元件纵向轴线的方向剖开的图11所示切削元件和刀翼的一部分的剖视图,进一步显示了通常围绕切削元件外周形成的凹部; 12 is a sectional view taken along a direction substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the cutting element of the cutting portion taken blade and blade element illustrated in FIG 11, further illustrates generally surrounding the recess formed in the outer periphery of the cutting element;

图13是沿大致平行于切削元件纵向轴线的方向剖开的图11所示切削元件和刀翼的一部分的另一剖视图,进一步显示了通常围绕切削元件外周形成的凹部; Another cross-sectional view of a portion of FIG. 13 along a direction substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cutting element taken cutting blade and blade element illustrated in FIG. 11, the recess further shows a cutting element generally surrounding an outer periphery thereof;

图14是图11所示切削元件和刀翼的透视图,进一步显示了布置在围绕切削元件外周设置的凹部中的耐磨表面堆焊材料; FIG 14 is a perspective view of the cutting element and the knife blade shown in FIG. 11, further illustrates the wearable surface hardfacing material disposed in a recess provided around the outer periphery of the cutting element in;

图15是与图12所示类似的切削元件和刀翼的剖视图,进一步显示了设置在围绕切削元件外周的凹部中的耐磨表面堆焊材料;图16是与图13所示类似的切削元件和刀翼的剖视图,进一步显 FIG 15 is a cross-sectional view similar to that shown in FIG. 12 and the knife blade cutting elements, wear-resistant surface is further shown hardfacing material disposed in the recess around the outer periphery of the cutting element; FIG. 16 is similar to FIG. 13 of the cutting element shown in FIG. and a cross-sectional view of the knife blade, further significant

示了设置在围绕切削元件外周形成的凹部中的耐磨表面堆焊材料; It illustrates a cutting element surrounding the recessed portion in the outer periphery thereof provided wear resistant surfacing material;

图17是与图11所示类似的切削元件和刀翼的透视图,进一步体 FIG 17 is a perspective view similar to that shown in FIG. 11 and the knife blade cutting elements, the body further

现了本发明的教导; Now the teachings of the present invention;

图18是沿剖面线18-18剖开的图17所示切削元件的横向剖视图; 图19是沿剖面线19-19剖开的图17所示切削元件的纵向剖视图; 图20是又一固定牙轮式旋转钻头的端视图,通常显示了形成在钻 FIG 18 is a transverse sectional view of the cutting element shown in FIG. 17 taken along section line 18-18; Figure 19 is a longitudinal sectional view of the cutting element shown in FIG. 17 taken along section line 19-19; Figure 20 is another fixed cutter type rotary drill bit end view, formed typically shows the drill

头刀翼的鼻部和锥部区域上的用于在内部容纳耐磨表面堆焊材料的凹 Recess for receiving the inner wear surfacing material on the nose area of ​​the head portion and the tapered knife blade

部; unit;

图21是耐磨材料的显微放大图,其中,所述耐磨材料体现本发明的教导并且包括大体上随机分布在基体材料中的碳化鵠颗粒; 图22是图21所示碳化鴒颗粒的放大图; FIG 21 is an enlarged micrograph of FIG wear-resistant material, wherein the wear resistant material and embodied teachings of the present invention comprises a substantially randomly distributed in the matrix material Hu carbide particles; FIG. 22 is a ling carbide particle 21 shown in FIG. FIG enlarged;

图23A-23B是了耐磨表面堆焊材料的显微放大图,体现了本发明的教导并且包括大体上随机分布在基体中的碳化鵠颗粒;和 FIG. 23A-23B is an enlarged micrograph of FIG wear resistant surfacing material, embodies the teachings of the present invention and comprises a generally randomly distributed in the matrix Hu carbide particles; and

图24A-24E显示了形成内部具有颗粒基体复合材料的钻头体的方法,与图20所示旋转钻头类似。 FIGS 24A-24E show a method of forming a bit body having an internal particle-matrix composite material, similar to the rotary drill bit 20 shown in FIG.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

这里显示的附图在有些情况下不是任何特定钻头,钻头的切削元件、表面耐磨堆焊材料或其它特征的真实视图,只是用于描述本发明的理想视图。 Here shown in the drawings, in some cases than any particular drill bit cutting element, hardfacing material or other characteristics of the real view, except for the over view of the invention will be described. 另外,为方便起见,不同附图中的相似元件和特征用相同或相似的参考数字表示。 Further, for convenience, similar elements and features in the different figures represent the same or similar reference numerals.

可以使用本发明的实施例增强旋转钻头,尤其是具有颗粒基体复合材料成分的旋转钻头的耐磨性,其中,耐磨表面堆焊材料施加到所述颗粒基体复合材料成分的表面部分上。 Embodiments of the invention may be used to enhance the rotary drill, in particular a rotary drill bit wear resistance of the composite particle-matrix composition, wherein the wear resistant surfacing material is applied to the surface of the composite material portion of the particle-matrix composition. 图5显示了根据本发明实施例的旋转钻头140。 Figure 5 shows the rotary drill bit 140 according to embodiments of the present invention. 钻头140包括钻头体112,所述钻头体具有由排屑槽116隔开的通常径向突出且纵向延伸的翼部或刀翼114。 Bit 140 includes a bit body 112, having a bit body 116 separated by the flutes generally radially projecting and longitudinally extending wings or wing blade 114. 如图6所示,每个刀翼114可以包括锥部区域150、鼻部区域152、侧翼区域154、肩部区域156和保径区域158 (侧翼区域154和肩部区域156在本领域统称为刀翼的"侧翼"或"肩部")。 6, each of the blade airfoil portion 114 may include a cone region 150, nose region 152, flank region 154, a shoulder region 156 and the gage region 158 (the flank region 154 and the shoulder region 156 are collectively referred to in the art knife blade "flanking" or "shoulder"). 在一些实施例中,刀翼114 可以不包括锥部区域150。 In some embodiments, the wings 114 may not include the cutter cone region 150. 这些区域中的每一个包括最外侧表面,其构造为在钻凿期间与围绕钻孔的地下地层相接合。 Each of these includes an outermost surface region which is configured in a subterranean formation surrounding the borehole during drilling and engaged. 锥部区域150、鼻部区域152和侧翼区域154构造和定位成与位于钻孔底部的地层表面接合并支撑通过钻柱施加的大部分"钻压"(WOB)。 Cone region 150, nose region 152 and flank region 154 is configured and positioned to the surface of the formation at the bottom of the borehole by engages and supports most of the "WOB" applied to the drill string (WOB). 这些区域承载安装在位于刀翼114的表面120上的凹窝122中的大部分切削元件118, 其用于切削或刮削位于井孔底部的下伏地层。 Most of these cutting element pockets 122 located at regions knife carrier mounted on the surface 120 of the airfoil 114 118, which is positioned for cutting or scraping the bottom of the well bore at the subterranean earth formation. 肩部区域156构造和定位成桥接钻孔底部及其壁部之间的过渡区域,保径区域158构造和定位成与钻孔横向侧面上的地层表面相接合。 Shoulder region 156 configured and positioned to bridge the transition region between the bore wall and a bottom portion, and stratum holding surface 158 configured to be positioned on the lateral sides of the borehole diameter regions engaged.

当刀翼114的各个区域的地层接合表面在施加WOB和旋转期间抵靠地层滑动和刮削以钻凿地层时,刀翼114在其地层接合表面处的材料易于磨损。 When the formation of each blade wing region 114 engaging surface during application of WOB and rotation of the sliding and scraping against the formation strata to drilling, the cutter wing 114 is susceptible to wear in the material at the surface thereof engaging the formation. 刀翼114在地层接合表面处的材料磨损会导致切削元件损耗和/或钻头失稳(例如,钻头涡动),其进一步导致钻头140突然失效。 Wing blade 114 engages the surface of the ground material will lead to wear of the cutting element loss and / or bit instability (e.g., bit whirl), which further leads to catastrophic failure of the drill bit 140.

在减少刀翼114在地层接合表面处的材料磨损的尝试中,在刀翼114的这些表面上和/或表面中设置各种耐磨结构和材料。 In the attempt to reduce the material in a formation 114 engaging blade wing at the surface of wear, the wear-resistant structures and materials provided and / or on the surface of the blade surface of the wing 114. 举例来说, 由例如碳化鴒的耐磨材料形成的诸如磨块、柱块和抗磨结的硬合金齿插入刀翼114的地层接合表面中。 For example, for example, as grinding block ling carbide wear-resistant material is formed, the studs and hard alloy blade wear knot insertion wing teeth engaging surface 114 of the formation.

如图5所示,多个耐磨硬合金齿126 (每个耐磨硬合金齿可以包括例如碳化鴒磨块)可以在位于保径区域158中的刀翼114的地层接合表面121处插入刀翼114中。 5, a plurality of teeth 126 shown in FIG wear-resistant hard alloy (each wear hard alloy carbide teeth may comprise, for example, grinding blocks alba) wing blade 114 may be positioned in the gage region 158 engaging surface 121 of the formation blade insert 114 wing. 在附加实施例中,刀翼114可以包括位于刀翼114的其它区域的地层接合表面上或中的耐磨结构,所述其它区域包括如参照图6所述的锥部区域150、鼻部区域152、侧翼区域154和肩部区域156。 In additional embodiments, the knife 114 may include a wing region other blade wing formation 114 engages the upper surface or wear in the structure, said other region comprises a tapered region as described with reference to FIG 6150, nose region 152, 154 flanking region and the shoulder region 156. 举例来说,耐磨硬合金齿可以设置在位于一个或多个切削元件118旋转后方的刀翼114的锥部区域150和/或鼻部区域152的地层接合表面上或中。 For example, a hard wear-resistant alloy may be provided on the teeth and / or the formation of the nose region 152 engaging surface 118 is located behind one or more cutting elements rotating cutter wing cone region 114 or 150.

耐磨表面堆焊材料(即,表面耐磨堆焊材料)还可以施加在位于刀翼114的地层接合表面上的选定位置处。 Wear resistant surfacing material (i.e., hardfacing material) may also be applied at selected locations on the surface of the blade wing 114 located in the engagement formation. 举例来说,可以使用用于施加氧乙炔焊接(OAW)的焊枪或电弧焊机至少部分地熔化耐磨表面堆焊材料以有助于耐磨表面堆焊材料施加到刀翼114的表面上。 By way of example, may be used for applying a torch or electric arc welder oxy-acetylene welding (OAW) at least partially molten wear-resistant hardfacing material to facilitate application of wear-resistant hardfacing material to the upper surface 114 of the blade wing. 下文描述了耐磨表面堆焊材料(即表面耐磨堆焊材料)施加到钻头体112 上。 Described below wear surface hardfacing material (i.e., hardfacing material) is applied to the bit body 112.

继续参考图5,可以在刀翼114中形成用于在内部容纳耐磨表面堆焊材料的凹部142。 With continued reference to FIG. 5, the recess 142 may be formed in the interior for receiving wear-resistant hardfacing material 114 in the blade wing. 作为实例并且非限制性的,凹部142可以沿着刀翼114大致纵向延伸,如图5所示。 Non-limiting, the recess 142 can extend longitudinally along the blade as an example and a generally wing 114, as shown in FIG. 可以沿着由刀翼114的地层接合表面121和旋转前缘面146之间的交接部界定的边缘形成或以其他方式设置纵向延伸凹部142。 It can be defined along the transition portion 146 is formed between the edge or otherwise disposed longitudinally extending concave surface portions 142 and 121 engage the leading edge surface by the rotating blade wing formation 114. 另外,可以沿着由刀翼114的地层接合表面121和旋转后缘面148之间的交接部界定的边缘形成或以其他方式设置纵向延伸凹部142。 Further, the transfer unit may be defined between the edge surfaces 121 and 148 are formed along the rotating surface engaged by the trailing edge 114 of the formation blade wing or otherwise disposed longitudinally extending recess 142. 一个或多个凹部142可以沿着刀翼114与一个或多个耐磨硬合金齿126相邻地延伸。 A plurality of recesses 142 or a hard wear-resistant alloy teeth 126 can extend along one or more adjacent blade airfoil 114.

图7A是沿着剖面线7A-7A剖开的图5所示刀翼114的剖视图。 7A is a cross-sectional view of the airfoil blade 114 of FIG 5 along line 7A-7A in FIG taken. 如图7A所示,凹部142可以具有大致半圆形横截面形状。 7A, the recess 142 may have a substantially semicircular cross-sectional shape. 然而,本发明不限于此,在附加实施例中,凹部142可以具有大致三角形、大致矩形(例如,正方形)、或任意其它形状。 However, the present invention is not limited thereto, in additional embodiments, the recess 142 may have a generally triangular, generally rectangular (e.g., square), or any other shape.

凹部142形成或以其他方式设置在刀翼114中的方式取决于制造刀翼114的材料。 Concave portion 142 is formed or otherwise provided on the wing blade 114 depends on the material of the blade wing 114. 举例来说,如果刀翼114包括硬质合金或其它颗粒基体复合材料,如下所迷,凹部142可以利用例如传统铣床或其它传统机加工工具(包括手持式机加工工具)形成在刀翼114中。 For example, if the blade wing 114 comprises a cemented carbide or other particle-matrix composite material, as the fans, the recessed portion 142 may be utilized, for example, a conventional milling machine or other conventional machining tool (including hand-held machining tools) are formed in the blade wing 114 . 选择性地,凹部142可以在刀翼114形成期间设置在刀翼114中。 Wing 114 disposed in the tool during the selective recessed portion 142 may be formed in the blade wing 114. 然而,本发明不限于凹部142形成在钻头140的钻头体112的刀翼114中的方式,可以使用在特定钻头中形成凹部142的任何方法提供体现本发明教导的钻头。 However, the present invention is not limited to the recessed portion 142 is formed at the drill bit blade wing 114 of the body 140 in the embodiment 112, any of the methods of the recess 142 may be formed using the teachings of the present invention is provided embodied in a particular drill bit.

如图7B所示,耐磨表面堆焊材料160可以"没置在凹部142中。 在一些实施例中,设置在凹部142中的耐磨表面堆焊材料160的暴露外表面可以与刀翼114的相邻暴露外表面大体上共同延伸。换句话说, 耐磨表面堆焊材料160可以不从刀翼114的表面显著伸出。在这个构造中,在用耐磨表面堆焊材料160充满凹部142之后的刀翼114的外表面的形貌特征可以与形成凹部142之前的刀翼114的外表面的形貌特征大体上相似。描述另一个方法,耐磨表面堆焊材料160的暴露表面可以沿着刀翼114与耐磨表面堆焊材料160相邻的区域大致垂直的方向与刀翼114邻近耐磨表面堆焊材料160的表面大体上平齐或齐平。 通过大体上保持刀翼114的外表面的原始形貌特征,施加到刀翼114 7B, the wear-resistant hardfacing material 160 may be the surface "is not set in the recess portion 142. In some embodiments, the wearable surface is provided in the recess 142 in the hardfacing material 160 may be exposed outer surface of the wing 114 and the cutter substantially adjacent the exposed outer surface coextensive. in other words, wear-resistant hardfacing material 160 may not protrude from the surface of the wing blade 114 is significant. in this configuration, the concave portion filled with a wear resistant surface 160 welding materials topography topography outer surface of the blade 142 after the outer surface of the wing 114 may be recessed portion 142 of the blade before the wing 114 is formed substantially similar to another described method, wear-resistant hardfacing material 160 may be an exposed surface of the surface 114 adjacent the wear resistant surface 114 along cutter wing wear resistant hardfacing material 160 and the region adjacent to the knife direction substantially perpendicular to the wing hardfacing material 160 substantially flush or flush with the knife holder 114 through a generally wing original topography of the exterior surface of the wing 114 is applied to the tool

114上。 114. 反地,当耐磨表面堆焊材料160从刀翼114的外表面伸出时, 随着地层接合耐磨表面堆焊材料160的这些突出部分,可以在紧邻耐磨表面堆焊材料160的突出部分的区域内的刀翼114中产生增大的局部应力。 Conversely, when the wear-resistant hardfacing material 160 projecting from the outer surface of the blade wing 114, as the formation engages these projections wear resistant surfacing material portion 160 may be protruding proximate wear resistant surfacing material 160 knife in the region of the wing portion 114 is generated in an increased local stress. 这些增大的局部应力的大小通常与突出部分从刀翼114的表面沿朝向被钻地层的方向伸出的距离成正比。 Proportional to the distance increases the size of these local stress direction generally along the knife from the surface of the projecting portion 114 toward the wing formation being drilled projecting. 因此,通过将耐磨表面堆焊材料160的暴露外表面构造为与形成凹部142时去除的刀翼114 的暴露外表面相匹配,可以减少或消除这些增大的局部应力,这可以减少钻头140的磨损和延长钻头140的使用寿命。 Thus, by exposing the outer surface of the wear-resistant hardfacing material 160 configured as blade flap 142 formed upon removal of the exposed outer surface of the concave portion 114 of the matching, can reduce or eliminate these localized stress increases, which may reduce the bit 140 wear and extend the life of the drill bit 140.

在本发明的其它实施例中可以认识到,表面耐磨堆焊材料可以在不产生凹部142的情况下有选择地直接施加到钻头体112的表面120 上,同时仍然保持钻头体表面的耐磨性。 In other embodiments of the present invention may be appreciated, the hardfacing material may be a case where there is no recess portion 142 is selectively applied directly to the surface of the bit body 112 to 120, while still maintaining the wear surface of the bit body sex.

图8显示了根据本发明实施例的另一个旋转钻头170。 Figure 8 shows another embodiment of the rotary drill bit 170 according to the embodiment of the present invention. 钻头170 通常与先前参照图5描述的钻头140类似,并且包括由排屑槽116隔开的多个刀翼114。 The drill bit 170 is generally similar to previously described with reference to 140 in FIG. 5, and comprises flutes separated by more than 116 114 knife wings. 多个耐磨硬合金齿126插入位于钻头体112的保径区域158中的每个刀翼114的地层接合表面121内。 A plurality of wear-resistant hard alloy insert teeth 126 located within each blade wing gage region 158 of the bit body 112 engage the inner surface 114 of formation 121. 钻头170还包括多个凹部172,所述凹部与每个刀翼114包括多个耐磨硬合金齿126 的区域相邻地形成。 Drill bit 170 further includes a plurality of recessed portions 172, the recessed portion 114 of each blade airfoil region comprises a plurality of hard wear-resistant alloy is formed adjacent the teeth 126. 凹部172通常与先前参照图5、 6、 7A和7B描述的凹部142类似。 Recess 172 generally previously with reference to FIG. 5, 6, 7A and 7B is similar to recess 142 described. 然而,位于钻头表面120内的凹部172围绕钻头170 沿与钻头170在钻凿期间的旋转方向大致平行的方向大致周向延伸。 However, the inner surface of the drill bit recesses 172, 170 120 in a substantially circumferential extension direction of rotation during drilling the drill bit 170 substantially parallel to the direction around the drill bit.

图9显示了体现本发明教导的又一钻头180。 Figure 9 shows a further embodies teachings of the present invention is a drill bit 180. 固定牙轮式旋转钻头180通常与钻头140和钻头170类似,并且包括多个刀翼114、排屑槽116和耐磨硬合金齿126,所述耐磨硬合金齿插入位于刀翼保径区域158内的每个刀翼114的地层接合表面121内。 Fixed-cutter rotary drill bit 180 is generally similar to the drill bit 140 and 170, and includes a plurality of wing knives 114, flutes 116 and teeth 126 wear-resistant hard alloy, the wear-resistant hard alloy blade wing teeth positioned insertion gage region each blade wing formations 114 engage the inner surface 158 of the inner 121. 然而,钻头180 包括如同钻头140的大致纵向延伸凹部142和如同钻头170的大致周 However, as the drill bit 180 includes a drill bit 140 of generally longitudinally extending portion 142 and a substantially circumferential recess 170 of the drill bit as

17向延伸凹部172。 17172 extending recess. 在这个构造中,每个耐磨硬合金齿126的外周大体上由充满耐磨表面堆焊材料160 (图7B)的凹部142、 172围绕,通常直到刀翼114的暴露外表面。 In this configuration, the outer periphery of each of the wear-resistant hard alloy substantially 142 teeth 126, 172 is surrounded by the concave portion is filled wear resistant hardfacing material 160 (FIG. 7B), usually until the exposed outer surface of the blade wing 114. 通过大体上围绕包括多个耐磨硬合金齿126的刀翼114的每个区域的外周,可以减少或消除与多个耐磨硬合金齿126相邻的刀翼114的材料磨损,这可以防止在钻凿期间一个或多个耐磨硬合金齿126的损耗。 By substantially around the periphery comprises a plurality of hard wear resistant alloy cutter wing 126 of each region 114, can be reduced or eliminated more wear resistant hard alloy blade wing teeth 126 adjacent the wear material 114, which may prevent a plurality of wear or loss of hard alloy tooth 126 during drilling.

在图9所示实施例中,刀翼114包括多个耐磨硬合金齿126的区域在外周大体上由充满耐磨表面堆焊材料160 (图7B)的凹部142、 172围绕。 In the embodiment shown in FIG. 9, the knife 114 comprises a plurality of wing teeth wear resistant hard alloy region substantially surrounds the outer periphery 126 of the recess filled with wear resistant hardfacing material 160 (FIG. 7B) 142, 172 Fig. 在附加实施例中,钻头的一个或多个耐磨硬合金齿在外周大体上分别由充满耐磨表面堆焊材料的凹部围绕。 In additional embodiments, one or more of the drill bit tooth wear resistant hard alloy are substantially surrounded by the outer periphery recesses filled with wear resistant hardfacing material.

图IO是体现本发明教导的另一钻头的刀翼114的剖视图。 FIG IO is a cross-sectional view of another drill bit of the present invention, the teachings of the airfoil blade 114 of the embodiment. 该剖视图与图7A-7B所示剖视图类似。 The cross-sectional view and a sectional view similar to FIG. 7A-7B shown in FIG. 然而,图10所示刀翼114包括耐磨硬合金齿126,所述耐磨硬合金齿在外周大体上分别由充满耐磨表面堆焊材料160的凹部182围绕。 However, the wing blade 114 shown in FIG. 10 comprises a wear-resistant stellite teeth 126, the teeth of wear resistant hard alloy are substantially surrounded by the outer peripheral recesses filled with wear resistant hardfacing material 160 182. 凹部182可以与先前所述凹部142、 172 (图5、 8和9)大体上类似,并且可以充满耐磨表面堆焊材料160。 The concave portion 182 may be substantially similar to the previously described recesses 142, 172 (FIGS. 5, 8 and 9), and may be filled with wear-resistant hardfacing material 160. 在这个构造中,硬合金齿126的暴露外表面、耐磨表面堆焊材料160 和刀翼114与耐磨表面堆焊材料160相邻的区域通常为同延的和平面的,以减少或消除由从刀翼114通常朝向被钻地层伸出的任何耐磨表面堆焊材料160引起的应力局部集中。 In this configuration, the hard alloy exposed outer surface of the teeth 126, 160 and wear-resistant hardfacing material 114 and the wing blade wear resistant hardfacing material 160 adjacent to the region generally coextensive and planar to reduce or eliminate stress from any wear resistant hardfacing material from the blade airfoil 114 extending generally toward the drill 160 due to the formation of localized concentration.

在附加实施例中,可以围绕切削元件设置凹部。 In additional embodiments, recesses may be provided around the cutting element. 图ll是一个切削元件118的透视图,所述切削元件固定在位于与每个前述钻头相似的钻头的刀翼114上的凹窝122内。 Fig ll is a perspective view of one cutting element 118 secured within the cutting element pockets 122 located on the drill bit similar to each of the wings 114 of the knife. 如图11-13所示,凹部190可以形成在大体上在外周围绕切削元件118的刀翼114上。 11-13, recesses 190 may be formed on the blade wing 114 substantially surrounds the outer periphery of the cutting element 118. 如图12-13所示, 凹部l卯可以具有大体三角形的横截面形状,但是,在附加实施例中, 凹部190可以具有任何其他形状。 As shown in Figure 12-13, the concave portion d l may have a generally triangular cross-sectional shape, but, in additional embodiments, the recess 190 may have any other shape. 切削元件118可以利用粘接材料124 固定在凹窝122内,例如,粘合剂或钎焊合金可以设置在接合面处并用于将切削元件118固定和附接到刀翼114上。 The cutting element 118 may be secured using an adhesive material 124 in the recess 122, e.g., an adhesive or brazing alloy may be provided at the engagement surface for the cutting element 118 and the fixed wing and is attached to the knife 114.

图14-16分别与图11-13大体上类似,但进一步显示了布置在围绕切削元件118设置的凹部190中的耐磨表面堆焊材料160。 14-16 are substantially similar to FIGS. 11-13, but further shows the wear surfaces in the recess portion 190 disposed about the cutting element 118 disposed in the hardfacing material 160. 耐磨表面堆焊材料160的暴露外表面和刀翼114与耐磨表面堆焊材料160相邻的区域通常可以为同延的。 Wear resistant surfacing material is exposed to the outer surface 160 of the wing 114 and blade wear resistant hardfacing material 160 and the adjacent regions may be generally coextensive. 此外,耐磨表面堆焊材料160可以构造为不延伸穿过刀翼114的相邻表面,从而减少或消除由从刀翼114通常朝向被钻地层伸出的任何耐磨表面堆焊材料160引起的应力局部集中。 Further, wear resistant hardfacing material 160 may be configured to not extend through the adjacent surfaces of the blade wing 114, thereby reducing or eliminating any wear resistant hardfacing material from the formation being drilled generally toward the blade 160 causes the wings 114 projecting locally concentrated stress.

另外,在这种构造中,耐磨表面堆焊材料160可以覆盖和保护用于将切削元件118固定在凹窝122内的一部分粘接材料124,可以使粘接材料124在钻凿期间免受磨损。 Further, in this configuration, wear-resistant hardfacing material 160 may cover and protect a portion of the cutting member 118 fixed to the adhesive material within the recess 122, 124, 124 can be made from adhesive material during drilling abrasion. 通过使粘接材料124在钻凿期间免受磨损,耐磨表面堆焊材料160可以有助于防止切削元件118与刀翼114分离、对钻头体造成损坏和钻头的突然失效。 By bonding material 124 from wear, wear-resistant hardfacing material 160 may help prevent the cutting blade 118 and element 114 separated wings, causing damage and catastrophic failure of the drill bit body during the drilling.

图17-19分别与图11-13大体上类似,但进一步显示了布置在将切削元件118固定到旋转钻头140上的粘接材料124上的耐磨表面堆焊材料160。 17-19 are substantially similar to FIGS. 11-13, but further illustrates an adhesive material on the cutting member 124 is fixed to the rotary drill bit 118 on the surface 140 of the wear surfacing material 160 is disposed. 旋转钻头140在结构上类似于图l所示的旋转钻头10, 并且包括多个切削元件118,所述切削元件定位并固定于设置在钻头体112的外表面上的凹窝内。 FIG rotary drill bit 140 is similar in structure to rotary drill bit shown in FIG. 10 l, and 118 includes a plurality of cutting elements, the cutting elements are positioned and fixed to a recess provided in the outer surface of the bit body 112. 如图17所示,每个切削元件118可以沿其与钻头体U2之间的接合面固定到钻头140的钻头体112上。 As shown in FIG 17, each cutting element 118 may be fixed to the drill bit 140 along the body 112 with the interface between the bit body U2. 例如粘合剂或钎焊合金的粘接材料124可以布置在接合面处,并用于将每个切削元件118固定和附接到钻头体112上。 For example, an adhesive or bonding material 124 braze alloy may be disposed at the joint surface, and for each of the cutting element 118 is fixed and attached to the bit body 112. 粘接材料124不如钻头体112和切削元件118的材料耐磨损。 124 adhesive material 112 and the inferior bit body 118 of the cutting element wear. 每个切削元件118可以包括沿接合面附接和固定到切削元件主体或基底123上的聚晶金刚石复合台128。 Each cutting element 118 may include an engagement surface along the attachment and fixing to the cutting element body or substrate 123 of polycrystalline diamond compact table 128.

旋转钻头140还包括布置在钻头140的表面上的耐磨材料160。 Rotary drill bit 140 further comprises a wear resistant material 160 disposed on a surface of the drill bit 140. 此外,耐磨材料160的区域可以构造为保护粘接材料124的暴露表面。 Further, wear resistant material region 160 may be configured to protect the exposed adhesive surface 124.

图18是沿剖面线18-18剖开的图17所示切削元件118的横向剖视图。 FIG 18 is a cross sectional view taken along section line 18-18 shown in FIG. 17 of the cutting element 118. 如图18所示,耐磨材料160的连续部分可以粘接到钻头体112 的外表面区域和切削元件118的侧表面上,并且每个连续部分可以在钻头体112和切削元件118的侧表面之间的至少一部分接合区域上延伸。 18, successive portions of the wear resistant material 160 may be adhered to the side surface of the outer surface area of ​​the cutting element 112 and the bit body 118, and the side surface 112 and the cutting element 118 may be a continuous portion of each of the bit body at least a portion extending between the engaging region.

图19是沿剖面线19-19剖开的图17所示切削元件118的纵向剖视图。 FIG 19 is a longitudinal sectional view of the cutting element 118 taken along section line 19-19 shown in Figure 17. 如图19所示,耐磨材料160的另一连续部分可以粘接到钻头体112的外表面区域和切削元件118的侧表面上,并且可以在钻头体112 和与聚晶金刚石复合台128相对的切削元件118的纵向端面之间的至少一部分接合面上延伸。 19, another continuous portion of the wear resistant material 160 may be adhered to the outer side surface of the cutting element and the surface region 112 of the bit body 118 and can body 112 and a polycrystalline diamond compact table 128 relative to the drill bit extending over at least a portion of the interface between the longitudinal end faces 118 of the cutting element. 耐磨材料160的再一连续部分可以粘接到钻头体112的外表面区域和聚晶金刚石复合台128的一部分暴露表面上。 Then a wear-resistant material 160 may be bonded to a portion of the continuous portion of the outer surface area of ​​the bit body 112 and the polycrystalline diamond compact table 128 is exposed on the surface. 耐磨材料160的连续部分可以在钻头体112和聚晶金刚石复合台128 表面之间的至少一部分接合面上延伸。 Successive portions of abradable material 160 on at least a portion thereof may be the interface between the surfaces 128 and 112 extend in a polycrystalline diamond compact bit table.

在这种构造中,耐磨材料160的连续部分可以覆盖布置于切削元件118和钻头体112之间的至少一部分粘接材料124并防止其在钻凿操作期间磨损。 In this configuration, the continuous portions of the wear resistant material 160 may cover a cutting element disposed on at least part of the drill bit 118 and the adhesive material 124 between the body 112 and prevent wear during drilling operations. 通过防止粘接材料124在钻井操作中受到磨损,耐磨材料160有助于防止切削元件118和钻头体112在钻井操作期间分离, 损坏钻头体112以及旋转钻头140突然失效。 124 by preventing the adhesive material is subject to wear during drilling operations, the wear-resistant material 160 helps to prevent the cutting element 118 and the bit body 112 during drilling operations separated, damage to the bit body 112 and rotary drill bit 140 sudden failure.

覆盖和保护粘接材料124的暴露表面的耐磨材料160的连续部分可以构造为沿着钻头体112和切削元件118的接合面边缘并于其上设置的耐磨材料160制成的凸缘。 Cover and protect the adhesive material of the continuous portion of the wear resistant material 124 exposed surface 160 may be configured as a drill bit engaging surface along the cutting edge 112 and the body member 118 and disposed thereon a flange 160 of the wear resistant material on steel. 耐磨材料160提供了增强粘接材料124 的耐磨性以有助于防止切削元件118在钻井操作期间损坏的有效方法。 Abrasion-resistant material 160 provides enhanced abrasion resistance of the adhesive material 124 to facilitate efficient method of cutting elements 118 during drilling operations to prevent damage.

图20是又一旋转钻头200的端视图。 FIG 20 is an end view of yet another rotary drill bit 200. 如图20所示,在本发明的一些实施例中,凹部202可以设置在切削元件118之间。 20, in some embodiments of the present invention, the recess portion 202 may be disposed between the cutting element 118. 例如,凹部202可以围绕钻头(未显示)的纵向轴线在定位于锥部区域150(图6) 和/或鼻部区域152 (图6)中的切削元件118之间大致周向延伸。 For example, the recess 202 may surround the drill bit (not shown) in the longitudinal axis of the cutting element is positioned in the cone region 150 (FIG. 6) and / or the nose region 152 (FIG. 6) extends circumferentially between substantially 118. 此外,如图20所示,在本发明的一些实施例中,凹部204可以*没置在切削元件118的旋转后方。 Further, as shown in FIG. 20, in some embodiments of the present invention, the recess portion 204 may be disposed in the rear * no rotation of the cutting element 118. 例如,凹部204可以沿着位于定位在锥部区域150(图6)和/或鼻部区域152 (图6)中的一个或多个切削元件118 旋转后方的刀翼114大致纵向延伸。 For example, the recess 204 may be positioned along a portion located in the rear area of ​​a tapered portion 150 (FIG. 6) and / or the nose region 152 (FIG. 6) or a plurality of cutting elements 118 rotating blade wing 114 extending generally longitudinally. 在附加实施例中,凹部204可以不是细长的,并且可以具有通常圆形或通常矩形形状。 In additional embodiments, the recesses 204 may not be elongated and may have a generally circular or a generally rectangular shape. 这种凹部204 可以位于一个或多个切削元件118的旋转正后方,或者位于相邻切削元件118的旋转后方,但是位于相邻切削元件118之间的径向位置(从钻头200的纵向轴向算起)。 This concave portion 204 may be located in a positive rotation or a plurality of cutting elements 118 rearward of or adjacent the rear of the rotating cutting element 118, but between the radial position of the cutting element 118 (the longitudinal axis 200 from adjacent the drill bit counting). 耐磨材料160可以施加在凹部202、 204 The wear resistant material 160 may be applied in the recesses 202, 204

20中或者可以施加在旋转钻头的其他表面上以有助于减少磨损。 20 or may be applied on the other surface of the rotary drill bit in order to help reduce wear and tear.

这里描述的耐磨表面堆焊材料可以包括例如陶磁金属复合材料 Wear-resistant hardfacing materials described herein may include, for example, ceramic metal composite material

(即,"金属陶瓷"材料),该陶磁金属复合材料包括分布在整个金属基体材料中的多个硬陶覺相区域或颗粒。 (I.e., "cermet" material), the ceramic composite material comprising a metal distributed throughout a metal matrix material in a plurality of hard ceramic phase regions or particles sleep. 硬陶资相区域或颗粒可以包 Owned hard ceramic phase regions or particles may be coated

括碳化物、氮化物、氧化物和硼化物(包括碳化硼(B4C))。 Including carbides, nitrides, oxides, and borides (including boron carbide (B4C)). 更具体地,石更陶资相区域或颗粒可以包括由例如W、 Ti、 Mo、 Nb、 V、 Hf、 Ta、 Cr、 Zr、 Al和Si的元素组成的碳化物和硼化物。 More particularly, the stone more ceramic phase regions or particles may resources comprise carbides and borides made e.g. W, Ti, Mo, Nb, V, Hf, Ta, Cr, Zr, Al and Si elemental composition. 作为实例并且非限制性的,可用于形成硬陶瓷相区域或颗粒的材料包括碳化鴒、 碳化钛(TiC)、碳化钽(TaC) 、 二硼化钛(TiB2)、碳化铬、氮化钛(TiN )、氧化铝(A1203)、氮化铝(A1N )和碳化硅(SiC )。 As the material of example and not limitation, it may be used to form hard ceramic phase regions or particles include ling carbide, titanium carbide (of TiC), tantalum carbide (TaC), titanium diboride (of TiB2), chromium carbides, titanium nitride ( TiN), aluminum oxide (A1203), aluminum nitride (A1N) and silicon carbide (SiC). 陶磁金属复合材料的金属基体材料可以包括例如钴基、铁基、镍基、铁镍基、钴镍基、铁钴基、铝基、铜基、镁基和钛基合金。 Metal matrix ceramic-metal composite material may comprise, for example, cobalt-based, iron-based, nickel-based, iron and nickel-based, cobalt and nickel-based, iron and cobalt-based, aluminum-based, copper-based, magnesium-based, and titanium-based alloys. 基体材料还可以选择商业纯元素,例如,钴、铝、铜、镁、钛、铁和镍。 The matrix material may also be selected commercially pure elements such as cobalt, aluminum, copper, magnesium, titanium, iron, and nickel.

在本发明的实施例中,耐磨表面堆焊材料可以施加到钻头体或钻具主体上,并且包括如下文所述的材料。 In an embodiment of the present invention, the wear-resistant hardfacing material may be applied to the surface of the bit body or tool body and include materials as described below. 当在此使用时,术语"钻头" 不仅包括传统的钻头,还包括取芯钻头、双中心钻头、偏心钻头、以及在钻凿井孔中使用的工具。 When used herein, the term "bit" includes not only conventional drill bits, further comprising a coring bit, bi-center bits, eccentric bits, as well as tools used in drilling a drill hole.

图21显示了根据本发明实施例,尤其适合于将"表面耐磨堆焊" 材料施加到具有颗粒基体复合材料的钻头上的耐磨材料54的抛光和腐蚀面。 Figure 21 shows an embodiment of the present invention is particularly adapted to be applied "hardfacing" to the polishing materials and corrosion resistant materials on the surface of a drill bit having a particle-matrix composite material 54. 图23A和23B是根据本发明实施例的耐磨材料的抛光和腐蚀面的实际显微放大图。 23A and 23B are an enlarged view of an actual micrograph of the polished and etched surface of the abradable material in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. 参考图21,耐磨材料54包括大体上随机分布在基体材料60中的多个烧结碳化鴒球粒56和多个铸造碳化鴒细粒58。 Referring to Figure 21, a plurality of wear-resistant material 54 comprises sintered carbide pellets 56 and a plurality ling cast carbide granules substantially randomly distributed ling material 60 in the matrix 58. 每个烧结碳化钨球粒56可以具有通常球形球粒结构。 Each sintered tungsten carbide pellets 56 may have a generally spherical pellet configuration. 在此使用的术语"球粒"表示具有通常球形形状的任何颗粒。 As used herein, the term "pellets" means any particle having a generally spherical shape. 球粒不是真正的球 Pellets not a real ball

形,而是缺少通常在压碎及其它非球形碳化鵠颗粒中发现的角、锋利边缘和角状突起。 Shape, but the lack of angular commonly found in crushed and other non-spherical carbide particles Hu, sharp edges and angular projections. 在本发明的一些实施例中,铸造碳化鴒细粒可以是或包括铸造碳化鴒球粒,如图23B所示。 In some embodiments of the present invention, the casting alba carbide granules may be or include cast carbide pellets alba, shown in Figure 23B. 在本发明的其它实施例中, 铸造碳化鴒细粒可以是或包括碎铸造碳化鵠或碎烧结碳化鴒,如图23A所示。 In other embodiments of the present invention, the cast carbide granules may be or include alba broken or crushed cast carbide sintered carbide ling Hu, shown in Figure 23A. 角、锋利边缘和角状突起可以产生残余应力,其可能导致在耐磨 Angles, sharp edges, and angular projections may produce residual stresses, which may result in wear

材料54施加到钻头表面上的时候,紧邻残余应力的颗粒区域内的碳化鴒材料在较低温度下熔化。 When material 54 is applied to the bit surface, close to the residual stress in the carbonized material particles ling zone melting at a lower temperature. 碳化鵠材料在施加期间熔化或部分熔化会有利于碳化鴒颗粒和周围基体材料之间的溶解作用。 Hu carbonized molten or partially molten material will facilitate the dissolution of carbide ling between the particles and the surrounding matrix material during application. 如先前所讨论的, 基体材料60和烧结碳化鴒球粒56以及铸造碳化鵠细粒58之间的溶解作用会使围绕碳化鵠球粒56和铸造碳化鵠细粒58的区域内的基体材料60脆化,并且尤其是当基体材料60为铁基时可以降低表面耐磨堆焊材料的刚性。 As previously discussed, dissolution between the matrix material 60 and sintered carbide pellets 56 and cast ling Hu carbide granules 58 will in the region of the base material 58 around the carbide pellets 56 and cast Hu Hu carbide granules 60 embrittlement, and especially when the base material 60 can reduce the rigidity of the iron-based hardfacing material. 这种溶解作用可以削弱耐磨材料54的整体物理性质。 Such dissolution may weaken the overall physical properties of wear-resistant material 54. 使用烧结碳化鴒球粒56 (可选择地,和铸造碳化鵠球粒58 )来代替包括角、锋利边缘和角状突起的传统碳化鵠颗粒可以减少这种溶解作用, 从而在耐磨材料54施加到钻头及其它工具表面上的过程中,保持基体材料60和烧结碳化鴒球粒56 (可选择地,和铸造碳化鴒球粒58 )的物理性质。 Ling sintered carbide pellets 56 (alternatively, the cast and Hu carbide pellets 58) instead comprises an angular, Hu conventional carbide particles sharp edges and angular projections may reduce such dissolution, the wear-resistant material 54 is applied so that process to the drill bit and on the other surface of the tool, the base material holder 60 and the sintered carbide pellets 56 alba (alternatively, the cast and carbide pellets 58 alba) physical properties.

基体材料60可以占耐磨材料54的重量比的大约20%到大约50%。 Matrix material 60 may comprise from about 20 wt.% Of wear-resistant material 54 to approximately 50%. 更特别地,基体材料60可以包括大约35%到45%重量比的耐磨材料54。 More particularly, the matrix material 60 may comprise from about 35% to 45% by weight of the abradable material 54. 多个烧结碳化钨球粒56可以包括大约30%到大约55%重量比的耐磨材料54。 A plurality of sintered tungsten carbide pellets 56 may include a wear resistant material 54 from about 30% to about 55% by weight. 而且,多个铸造碳化鵠细粒58可以包括小于大约35%重量比的耐磨材料54。 Further, the plurality of cast carbide granules 58 may include a swan less than about 35% by weight of the wear resistant material 54 ratio. 更特别地,多个铸造碳化鴒细粒58可以包括大约10%到大约35%重量比的耐磨材料54。 More particularly, the plurality of cast carbide granules 58 may comprise ling from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the wear resistant material 54 ratio. 例如,基体材料60可以是大约40%重量比的耐磨材料54,多个烧结碳化鴒球粒56可以是大约48%重量比的耐磨材料54,多个铸造碳化鴒细粒58可以是大约12%重量比的耐磨材料。 For example, the matrix material 60 may be about 40% by weight of the wear resistant material than 54, a plurality of sintered carbide pellets 56 ling a wear-resistant material may be about 48% by weight of 54, a plurality of cast carbide granules 58 may be about alba 12% by weight ratio of the wear-resistant material.

烧结碳化鴒球粒56可以在尺寸上大于铸造碳化鴒细粒58。 Ling sintered carbide pellets 56 may be larger than the cast carbide granules 58 ling in size. 而且, 每单位体积耐磨材料54中的铸造碳化鴒细粒58的数目可以高于每单位体积耐磨材料54中的烧结碳化鴒球粒56的数目。 Further, the number of wear-resistant material cast carbide granules alba 54 58 per unit volume may be greater than the number per unit volume of the abradable material 54 is a sintered carbide pellets 56 ling.

烧结碳化鵠球粒56可以包括多个-10 ASTM(美国材料试验协会) 目球粒。 Hu sintered carbide pellets 56 may include a plurality of -10 ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) mesh pellets. 当在此使用时,短语"-10 ASTM目球粒"是指能够穿过ASTM No.lO美国标准试验篩的球粒。 When used herein, the phrase "-10 ASTM mesh pellets" refers to the American Standard Test ASTM No.lO through sieve pellets. 这种烧结碳化鵠球粒具有小于大约1680微米的平均直径。 Such Hu sintered carbide pellets having an average diameter of less than about 1680 microns. 烧结碳化鵠球粒56的平均直径可以比铸造碳化鵠细粒58的平均直径大大约0.8倍到大约20倍。 The average diameter of 56 sintered carbide pellets may be larger Hu about 0.8 times to about 20 times greater than the average diameter of the cast carbide granules 58 Hu. 铸造碳化鴒细粒58可以包括-16 ASTM目细粒。 Ling cast carbide granules 58 may include -16 ASTM mesh granules. 当在此使用时,短语"-16ASTM目细粒"是指能够穿过ASTM No.16美国标准试验篩的细粒。 When used herein, the phrase "-16ASTM mesh fines" refers to fine particles passing through U.S. standard test ASTM No.16 sieve. 更特别地, 铸造碳化鴒细粒58可以包括-100 ASTM目细粒。 More particularly, the casting 58 may include a fine carbide alba -100 ASTM mesh granules. 当在此4吏用时,短语"-lOO ASTM目细粒"是指能够穿过ASTM No.100美国标准试验筛的细粒。 When this 4 officials, the phrase "-lOO ASTM mesh granules" means granules capable of passing through U.S. standard test ASTM No.100 sieve. 这种铸造碳化鵠细粒58具有小于大约150微米的平均直径。 Such cast carbide granules 58 having Hu mean diameter less than about 150 microns.

举例来说,烧结碳化鴒球粒56可以包括-20/+30 ASTM目球粒, 铸造碳化鵠细粒58可以包括-100/+270 ASTM目细粒。 For example, sintered carbide pellets 56 may comprise alba -20 / + 30 ASTM mesh pellets, Hu cast carbide granules 58 may include -100 / + 270 ASTM mesh granules. 当在此使用时, 短语"-20/+30 ASTM目球粒"是指能够穿过ASTM No.20美国标准试验筛,但不能穿过ASTMNo.30美国标准试验篩的球粒。 When used herein, the phrase "-20 / + 30 ASTM mesh pellets" refers to the American Standard Test ASTM No.20 through a sieve, but not passing through the U.S. Standard Testing Sieve ASTMNo.30 pellets. 这种烧结碳化钨球粒56可以具有小于大约840微米且大于大约590微米的平均直径。 Such sintered tungsten carbide pellets 56 may have an average diameter of less than about 840 microns and greater than about 590 microns. 而且,当在此使用时,短语"-100/+270 ASTM目细粒"是指能够穿过ASTMNo.100美国标准试验筛,但不能穿过ASTMNo.270美国标准试验筛的细粒。 Further, when used herein, the phrase "-100 / + 270 ASTM mesh fines" refers to American Standard Testing Sieve through ASTMNo.100, but can not pass through the fine ASTMNo.270 of U.S. Standard Testing Sieve. 这种铸造碳化鴒细粒58可以具有大约50微米到大约150微米的平均直径。 Such cast carbide granules 58 may have ling average diameter of about 50 microns to about 150 microns.

作为另一实例,多个烧结碳化鴒球粒56可以包括多个-60/+80 ASTM目烧结碳化鵠球粒和多个-120/+270 ASTM目烧结碳化鵠球粒。 As another example, the plurality of sintered carbide pellets 56 may include a ling a plurality of -60 / + 80 ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets and a plurality of Hu -120 / + 270 ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets Hu. 多个-60/+80 ASTM目烧结碳化鴒球粒可以包括大约30%到大约40% 重量比的耐磨材料54,多个-120/+270 ASTM目烧结碳化鴒球粒可以包括大约15%到大约25。 A plurality of -60 / + 80 ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets may comprise ling about 30% to about 40% by weight ratio of the wear-resistant material 54, the plurality of -120 / + 270 ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets may comprise about ling 15% to about 25. /。 /. 重量比的耐磨材料54。 The weight ratio of the wear-resistant material 54. 当在此使用时,短语"-120/+270 ASTM目球粒"是指能够穿过ASTM No.120美国标准试验筛,但不能穿过ASTM No.270美国标准试验篩的球粒。 When used herein, the phrase "-120 / + 270 ASTM mesh pellets" refers to the American Standard Test ASTM No.120 through a sieve, but not passing through the U.S. Standard Testing Sieve ASTM No.270 pellets. 这种烧结碳化钨球粒56可以具有大约50微米到大约125微米的平均直径。 Such sintered tungsten carbide pellets 56 may have an average diameter of about 50 microns to about 125 microns.

在一个特定实施例中,仅仅举例说明,耐磨材料54可以包括大约40%重量比的基体材料60,大约48%重量比的-20/+30 ASTM目烧结碳化鴒球粒56,和大约12%重量比的-140/+325 ASTM目铸造碳化鴒细粒58。 In a particular embodiment, illustrated only, wear-resistant material 54 may comprise from about 60 to 40% by weight of the base material, about 48% by weight of the -20 / + 30 ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets 56 ling, and about 12 % by weight of -140 / + 325 ASTM mesh cast carbide granules 58 ling. 当在此使用时,短语"-20/+30 ASTM目球粒"是指能够穿过ASTM No.20美国标准试验筛,但不能穿过ASTM No.30美国标准试验筛的球粒。 When used herein, the phrase "-20 / + 30 ASTM mesh pellets" refers to the American Standard Test ASTM No.20 through a sieve, but not passing through the U.S. Standard Testing Sieve ASTM No.30 pellets. 类似地,短语"-140/+325 ASTM目球粒"是指能够穿过ASTM No.140美国标准试验篩,但不能穿过ASTM No.325美国标准试验筛的球粒。 Similarly, the phrase "-140 / + 325 ASTM mesh pellets" refers to the American Standard Test ASTM No.140 through a sieve, but not passing through the U.S. Standard Testing Sieve ASTM No.325 pellets. 基体材料60可以包括镍基合金,其还可以包括一种或多种例如铬、硼和硅的添加元素。 Matrix material 60 may include a nickel-based alloy, which may further comprise one or more additional elements such as chromium, boron and silicon. 基体材料60还可以具有低于大约110(TC的熔点,并且具有洛氏硬度B标下大约87到洛氏硬度C标下大约60的硬度。这里的硬度值表示显微硬度测量中的真实或换算硬度。更具体地,基体材料60具有洛氏硬度C标下大约20到大约55 的硬度。例如,基体材料60在洛氏硬度C标下具有大约40的硬度。 Matrix material may also have less than 60 (TC melting point of about 110, and having a hardness of about 60 at about 87 to the Rockwell C scale Rockwell B scale. The hardness value here indicates microhardness of the real or conversion hardness. more specifically, the base material 60 has a hardness of about 20 to about 55 in Rockwell hardness C scale. For example, the matrix material 60 has a hardness of about 40 Rockwell hardness in C scale.

还可以使用除了碳化鴒之外的碳化物铸造细粒和烧结球粒来提供体现本发明教导的耐磨材料。 It may also be cast carbide granules and sintered carbide pellets in addition to providing ling embodying the teachings of the invention, the wear resistant material. 其它这类碳化物包括但不限于碳化铬、 碳化钼、碳化铌、碳化钽、碳化钛和碳化钒。 Such other carbides include, but are not limited to, chromium carbide, molybdenum carbide, niobium carbide, tantalum carbide, titanium carbide, and vanadium carbide.

基体材料60可以包括熔点低于大约1460。 Matrix material 60 may comprise a melting point less than about 1460. C的金属合金材料。 C of metal alloy material. 更特别地,基体材料60可以包括熔点低于大约1100。 More particularly, the matrix material 60 may comprise a melting point less than about 1100. C的金属合金材料。 C of metal alloy material. 而且,多个烧结碳化钨球粒56中的每个烧结碳化钨球粒56可以包括利用熔点高于大约1200°C的粘结合金(binder alloy )结合在一起的多个碳化鵠颗粒。 Furthermore, each sintered tungsten carbide pellets 56 in a tungsten carbide pellets 56 may include a plurality of sintered carbide Hu plurality of particles, the melting point above about 1200 ° C the alloy binder (binder alloy) joined together. 例如,粘结合金可以包括熔点低于大约1200。 For example, the binder alloy may comprise a melting point less than about 1200. C的钴基金属合金材料或镍基合金材料。 C cobalt based metal alloy material or a nickel based alloy material. 在这种构造中,基体材料60在将耐磨材料54施加到钻具(例如,钻头)表面上的时候大体上熔化,但铸造碳化鴒细粒58、或粘结合金或烧结碳化鴒球粒56的碳化鴒颗粒大体上不熔化。 In this configuration, the matrix material 60 in the wear-resistant material 54 is applied to the tool (e.g., drill) when the upper surface is substantially melted, but cast carbide granules 58 ling or binder alloy or a sintered carbide pellets ling ling carbide particles 56 substantially does not melt. 这能够使耐磨材料54在较低温度下施加到钻具表面上,从而使烧结碳化钨球粒56和基体材料60以及铸造碳化鴒细粒58和基体材料60之间的溶解作用减到最小。 This enables the wear resistant material 54 is applied onto the surface of the drill at lower temperatures, so that the sintered tungsten carbide pellets 56 and the matrix material 60 and between the cast carbide dissolution ling fines 58 and the matrix material 60 to minimize .

如先前所讨论的,将基体材料60与烧结碳化鴒球粒56以及铸造碳化鴒细粒58之间的原子扩散减到最小有助于在将耐磨材料54施加到钻头及其它钻具表面上的时候保持基体材料60、烧结碳化鴒球粒56 和铸造碳化鴒细粒58的化学成分和物理性质。 As previously discussed, the atomic ratio between the base material 60 and the sintered carbide pellets 56 and cast ling ling carbide helps minimize diffusion fine particles 58 on the wear resistant material 54 is applied to the surface of the drill bit and other drilling tools when the base material 60 holding the chemical composition of sintered carbide pellets 56 and cast ling ling carbide granules 58 and the physical properties.

基体材料60还可以包括较少数量的其它元素,例如碳、铬、硅、 硼、铁、银和镍。 Matrix material 60 may also include a small number of other elements, such as carbon, chromium, silicon, boron, iron, silver, and nickel. 而且,基体材料60还可以包括例如硅锰合金的助熔剂、例如铌的合金元素、以及例如聚合物材料的结合剂。 Further, the matrix material 60 may further include manganese alloys, for example, flux, e.g. alloying elements niobium, and binding agent such as a polymeric material.

图22是图21所示烧结碳化鵠球粒56的放大图。 FIG 22 is a swan sintered carbide pellets 56 shown in an enlarged view in FIG. 21. 烧结碳化鵠球粒56的硬度在所有球粒中大体上相同。 56 grains hardness of sintered carbide ball Hu substantially the same in all pellet. 例如,烧结碳化钨球粒56可以包括烧结碳化钨球粒56的外周或外部区域57。 For example, sintered tungsten carbide pellets 56 may comprise sintered tungsten carbide pellets outer periphery of the outer region 57 or 56. 外部区域57可以粗略地包括位于假想线64以外的烧结碳化钨球粒56的区域。 Outer region 57 may roughly region comprises sintered tungsten carbide pellets 64 is located outside the imaginary line 56. 外部区域61 大致包括位于假想线66以内的基体材料60的区域。 Outer region 61 generally includes a region 60 of the base material 66 within the imaginary line. 烧结碳化鴒球粒56在由假想线64包围的球粒的中心区域具有第一平均硬度,在位于假想线64以外的球粒的外周区域57内的部位具有第二平均硬度。 Ling sintered carbide pellets 56 has a first average hardness in a central region of the pellet enclosed by the phantom line 64, in the outer peripheral portion of the region of the pellets 64 located outside the imaginary line 57 having a second average hardness. 烧结碳化鴒球粒56的第二平均硬度可以高于烧结碳化钨球粒56的第一平均硬度的大约99%。 Ling second average hardness of the sintered carbide pellets 56 may be greater than about 99% sintered tungsten carbide pellets 56 of the first average hardness. 举例来说,第一平均硬度在洛氏硬度A标下为大约91,第二平均硬度在洛氏硬度A标下对于镍基基体材料来说为大约卯,在洛氏硬度A标下对于铁基基体材料来说为大约86。 For example, the first average hardness in A scale Rockwell hardness of about 91, a second average hardness for the nickel-base material is from about Mao in Rockwell hardness A scale, the iron in Rockwell hardness A scale alkyl of about 86 for material. 应当认识到,在施加表面耐磨堆焊材料56之前,烧结碳化鴒球粒在含有大约16% Co到大约4。 It should be appreciated that, prior to applying hardfacing material 56, a sintered carbide pellets alba containing from about 4 to about 16% Co. /。 /. Co时相应地具有洛氏硬度A标下大约85到洛氏硬度A标下大约92的总硬度。 Accordingly, having a total hardness of approximately 92 to approximately 85 Rockwell A scale Rockwell hardness A scale at time Co. 同时,烧结碳化钨球粒在含有大约6% Co时具有洛氏硬度A标下89-91的平均硬度。 Meanwhile, sintered tungsten carbide pellets having an average hardness of 89-91 Rockwell hardness in A scale while containing from about 6% Co. 通常,在施加表面耐磨堆焊材料期间,镍基基体复合材料通常允许烧结碳化钨球粒大体上保持其初始硬度。 Typically, during the application of hardfacing material, typically a nickel-base composite material allows sintered tungsten carbide pellets substantially retain its initial hardness. 然而,铁基基体复合材料可以在靠近其边缘处部分地溶解烧结碳化鴒球粒,从而使施加后硬度比其施加前硬度降低几个洛氏点。 However, iron-based matrix composite material may dissolve in near its edges partially sintered carbide pellets ling so that before applying the hardness Rockwell hardness decreased few points than after application.

烧结碳化鴒球粒56相对于铸造碳化鴒细粒58而言具有较高的抗裂韧性,而铸造碳化鴒细粒58相对于烧结碳化鵠球粒56而言具有较高的硬度。 Ling sintered carbide pellets 56 with respect to the fine particles 58 in terms of casting ling carbide has a high toughness, cracking, and the casting 58 with respect to the fine carbide ling Hu sintered carbide pellets 56 in terms of having a high hardness. 通过使用此处描述的基体材料60,在将耐磨材料54施加到钻头或其它钻具上时,在耐磨材料54中可以保持烧结碳化钨球粒56的抗裂韧性和铸造碳化鴒细粒58的硬度,从而提供相对于本领域已知耐磨材料性能提高的耐磨材料54。 Described herein by using a base material 60, when the wear resistant material 54 is applied to the drill bit or other drilling tool, the wear-resistant material 54 may be maintained in the crack toughness sintered tungsten carbide pellets 56 and cast carbide granules ling hardness 58, thereby providing a wear-resistant material with respect to the material properties known in the art to improve the wear resistance of 54.

根据本发明实施例的耐磨材料(例如图21-22所示的耐磨材料54 ) 可以施加给旋转钻头(例如图1所示旋转钻头10)、滚动切削钻头(通常称作"牙轮钻头")、以及经受磨损的其它钻具(例如随钻扩眼工具及可扩张的扩眼器刀翼)的表面上的选定区域,所有这些及其它设备包括在先前所述的术语"钻头"的范围内。 (E.g., wear-resistant material shown in FIG. 21-2254) may be applied to a rotary drill bit (e.g., rotary drill bit 10 shown in FIG. 1) in accordance with an embodiment of the wear resistant material of the present invention, the rolling cutter bits (commonly referred to as a "rock bit "), and other drilling tools subject to wear (e.g., a selected area on the surface of the reaming drilling tools and expandable reamer cutter wing), and all of these and other devices included in the previous term" bit " In the range.

25钻头表面上的某些位置可能需要较高硬度,而钻头表面上的其它 Certain locations on the surface of the drill bit 25 may require high hardness, and on the other surface of the drill bit

位置可能需要较高的抗裂韧性。 Position may require a higher crack toughness. 可以有选择地改变基体材料60、多个烧结碳化鵠球粒56和多个铸造碳化鴒细粒58的相对重量百分比,从而提供具有适合于特定工具或工具表面上特定区域的物理性质的耐磨材料54。 The base material 60 may be varied selectively, Hu carbide pellets 56 and a plurality of relatively fine cast carbide ling 58 weight percent of a plurality of sintered, adapted to provide a wear having a particular specific surface area of ​​tools or physical properties material 54. 例如,除了摩擦类型的研磨或磨削力之外,滚动切削刀具型钻头上的切齿表面可能经受较大的冲击力。 For example, in addition to the type of milling or grinding the friction force, the cutting teeth on the rolling surface of the cutting tool type drill bit may be subjected to a large impact force. 因此,施加到切齿表面上的耐磨材料54可以包括较大重量百分比的烧结碳化鴒球粒56以便提高耐磨材料54的抗裂軔性。 Therefore, wear-resistant material 54 is applied to the upper surface of the cutting teeth may include a larger weight percent of the sintered carbide pellets 56 ling firmware to improve the crack resistance of the wear resistant material 54. 相反,钻头保径面可能经受较小的沖击力, 但是经受较大的摩擦类型的研磨或磨削力。 In contrast, the gage face of the drill bit may be subjected to small impact force, it is subjected to large friction type abrasive or grinding forces. 因此,施加到钻头保径面上的耐磨材料54可以包括较大重量百分比的铸造碳化鴒细粒58以便提高耐磨材料54的硬度。 Thus, the drill bit is applied to the gage face of the wear-resistant material 54 may include a larger percentage of the weight of cast carbide granules ling 58 so as to increase the hardness of wear resistant material 54.

除了施加到经受磨损的钻头和钻具的表面上选定区域之外,可以使用根据本发明实施例的耐磨材料以保护更易受到磨损的钻头和钻具的结构特征或材料,包括上面提到的实例。 In addition to the drill bit and the drill string is applied to selected areas of the surface subject to wear, wear-resistant materials may be used according to embodiments of the present invention to protect structural features or materials more susceptible to wear and drill bit, comprising the above-mentioned examples.

耐磨材料54可用于覆盖和保护钻头或其它钻具的任意两个结构或特征之间的接合面。 Bonding between any two structures or features of wear resistant material 54 may be used to cover and protect the drill bit or other drilling tool. 例如,钻头体和钻头体中的抗磨结或各种硬合金齿的外周之间的接合面可以由耐磨材料54覆盖和保护。 For example, the interface between the outer periphery of a hard or abrasion junction alloy body and the teeth of the various bits in the bit body 54 may be covered and protected by wear resistant material. 另外,耐磨材料54不局限于在结构或特征之间的交界处使用,并且可以在经受磨损的钻头或钻具的任何表面上的各个部位处使用。 Further, the wear resistant material 54 is not limited to use in the junction between the structures or features, and may be used at each site on any surface subject to wear of a drill bit or drill.

根据本发明实施例的耐磨材料(例如耐磨材料54)可以利用本领域已知方法的变形施加到钻头或钻具的选定表面上。 The wear-resistant material (e.g., wear-resistant material 54) embodiment of the present invention may be applied to selected surfaces of a drill bit or drilling tool using a modification of methods known in the art. 例如,根据本发明实施例的使用前耐磨材料可以焊条形式提供。 For example, the electrode may be provided in the form of wear-resistant material according to the prior use of embodiments of the present invention. 焊条可以包括由耐磨材料54构成的固态的铸造或挤压棒材。 It may comprise a solid rod made of a wear resistant material cast or extruded bar 54. 可选地,焊条可以包括由基体材料60制成并充满多个烧结碳化鵠球粒56和多个铸造碳化鵠细粒58 的中空圆柱管。 Alternatively, electrode 60 may be made of a material comprising a substrate and filled with a plurality of sintered carbide pellets 56 and a plurality of Hu casting Hu carbide fine hollow cylindrical tube 58. 可以使用OAW焊枪或任何其他类型的气体燃料焊枪将焊条的至少一部分加热到高于基体材料60的熔点的温度。 OAW torch may be used or any other type of gas fuel torch electrode at least a portion heated to a temperature above the melting point of the base material 60. 这可以使发生于基体材料60和烧结碳化鵠球粒56及铸造碳化鵠细粒58之间的原子扩散程度减到最小。 This can occur in the degree of atomic diffusion between the matrix material 60 and sintered carbide pellets 56 and cast Hu Hu carbide granules 58 is minimized.

发生于基体材料60和烧结碳化鵠球粒56以及铸造碳化鴒细粒58之间的溶解速率至少部分地与发生溶解的温度相关。 It occurs between the base material 60 and sintered carbide pellets 56 and cast Hu ling carbide dissolution rate of fine particles 58 at least partially related to the dissolution temperature occurs. 因此,溶解作用两者相关。 Thus, both related to dissolution. ^J此,;以通过使用良好的热管理控制手段控制发生于基 This ^ J,; through the use of good heat management control means controls occurred in group

体材料60和烧结碳化鴒球粒56以及铸造碳化钨细粒58之间的溶解作用的程度。 The degree of dissolution of the material between 60 and sintered carbide pellets 56 and ling cast tungsten carbide granules 58.

OAW喷枪能够将材料加热到1200。 OAW gun 1200 capable of heating the material. C以上的温度。 C above the temperature. 有利地是仅仅在将耐磨材料54施加到表面上之前,使将要施加耐磨材料54的钻头或钻具的表面略微熔化。 Advantageously before the wear resistant material is only applied to the surface 54, the drill bit or the drill 54 to be applied to the surface of the wear resistant material is slightly melted. 例如,可以使OAW焊枪非常接近钻头和钻具的表面,并且使该表面加热到足够高的温度以略微熔化或"熔解"表面。 For example, the OAW torch extremely close to the surface of the drill bit and drill string, and so that the surface is heated to a sufficiently high temperature to slightly melt or "melt" surface. 包括使用前耐磨材料54的焊条随后可以非常接近所述表面,并且焊枪和焊条之间的距离可以调节至将至少一部分焊条加热到高于基体材料60的熔点的温度,从而使基体材料60熔化。 Including the use of wear resistant material 54 before the welding can then be very close to the surface, and the distance between the torch and the welding rod may be adjusted to at least a portion of the electrode is heated to a temperature above the melting point of the base material 60 so that the base material 60 is melted . 熔化的基体材料60、 至少一部分烧结碳化鴒球粒56和至少一部分铸造碳化鴒细粒58可以施加到钻头的表面上,并且熔化的基体材料60可以通过控制冷却而凝固。 The molten matrix material 60, at least a portion ling sintered carbide pellets 56 and at least a portion of the fine particles 58 may be cast carbide ling applied to the surface of the drill bit, and the molten matrix material 60 may be solidified by controlled cooling. 可以控制冷却速率来控制耐磨材料54的微观结构和物理性质。 The cooling rate may be controlled to control the microstructure and physical properties of wear-resistant material 54.

可选地,耐磨材料54可以利用诸如等离子转移弧焊接方法的电弧焊方法施加到钻头或钻具的表面上。 Alternatively, wear-resistant material 54 may be utilized, such as a plasma transferred arc welding method of arc welding method applied to the surface of the drill bit or drill. 例如,基体材料60可以粉末(基体材料60的小颗粒)形式提供。 For example, the matrix material 60 may be a powder (the base material 60 is small particles) form. 多个烧结碳化鴒球粒56和多个铸造碳化鵠细粒58可以与粉末状基体材料60混合,从而提供粉末混合物形式的使用前耐磨材料。 Ling plurality of sintered carbide pellets 56 and a plurality of cast carbide granules 58 may be mixed with Hu powdered matrix material 60, thereby providing the powder mixture prior to use in the form of wear-resistant material. 随后可以使用等离子转移弧焊机将使用前耐磨材料的至少一部分加热到高于基体材料60的熔点且低于大约1200。 It may then be transferred using a plasma arc welding machine will be used before the wear-resistant material is heated to a melting point higher than at least part of the matrix material 60 and less than about 1200. C的温度,从而使基体材料60熔化。 C temperature, so that the base material 60 is melted.

例如金属惰性气体(MIG)电弧焊方法、鴒极隋性气体(TIG) 电弧焊方法和火焰喷焊方法的其它焊接方法在本领域中已知,并且可用于将耐磨材料54施加到钻头或钻具的表面上。 For example, metal inert gas (MIG) arc welding method alba polar inert gas (TIG) arc welding methods, and other methods of flame spray methods known in the art, and may be used for the wear-resistant material 54 is applied to the drill bit or drill surface.

耐磨材料(即,表面耐磨堆焊)适合于施加在由颗粒基体复合材料或所谓"硬质合金"材料制成的钻头体上。 Wear-resistant material (i.e., hardfacing) adapted to be applied on a particle-matrix composite material or so-called "cemented carbide" made of a material in the bit body. 现在结合一些术语介绍钻头体的颗粒基体复合材料以有助于正确理解本发明。 Some of the terms are now described in conjunction with the particle-matrix composite bit body to facilitate proper understanding of the present invention.

在这里使用的术语"生"表示未烧结的。 As used herein, the term "green" means unsintered. 在这里使用的术语"生钻头体"表示未烧结的结构,包括用粘结材料结合在一起的离散颗粒,所述结构具有这样的大小和形状以允许通过包括但不限于机加工和致密化的后续制造工艺由该结构制造适用于钻地钻头的钻头体。 The term used herein "green bit body" means an unsintered structure comprising bonded together with an adhesive material, discrete particles, the structure having such a size and shape to allow but not limited to machining and densification subsequent manufacturing processes suitable for use in earth-boring drill bit from the structure.

在这里使用的术语"半生"表示部分烧结。 The term used herein "half-life" means partially sintered.

在这里使用的术语"半生钻头体"表示部分烧结的结构,包括至少一部分已经部分地长在一起以提供相邻颗粒之间的至少部分粘结的多个颗粒,所述结构具有这样的大小和形状,以允许通过包括但不限于机加工和进一步致密化的后续制造工艺由该结构制造适用于钻地钻头 Sintered moieties, used herein includes the term "brown bit body" means at least a portion of the long been partially plurality of particles together to provide at least partial bonding between adjacent particles, the structure having such a size and shape to allow the subsequent manufacturing processes including, but not limited to, machining and further densification produced by the structure is applied to earth-boring drill bit

的钻头体。 The bit body. 半生钻头体可以通过例如至少部分地烧结生钻头体而形成。 Brown bit body may be, for example, at least partially sintering the green bit body formed by.

在这里使用的术语"烧结"是指颗粒成分的致密化,包括去除利用聚合结合在一起的起始颗粒之间的至少一部分孔隙(伴随有收缩)和使相邻颗粒粘结。 The term "sintering" used herein means densification of a particulate component, comprising removing at least a portion of the pores using (accompanied by shrinkage) between the polymerization-initiating particles bonded together and bonding adjacent particles.

当在此使用时,术语"[金属I基合金"(其中,[金属l为任意金属) 是指除金属合金外的商业纯[金属l,其中,合金中[金属】的重量百分比大于合金中任何其它成分的重量百分比。 When used herein, the term "[Metal I base alloy" (where [metal l is any metal) means commercially pure except for the metal alloy [Metal l, wherein the alloy [metal] is the weight percentage is greater than the alloy the weight percentage of any other component.

当在此使用时,术语"材料成分"是指材料的化学成分和微观结构。 When used herein, the term "material component" refers to the chemical composition and microstructure. 换句话说,具有相同化学成分但是不同微观结构的材料被认为具有不同的材料成分。 In other words, having the same chemical composition but a different microstructure are considered to having different material compositions.

当在此使用时,术语,,碳化鵠,,是指包含鵠和碳的化合物的任何材 When used herein, the term ,, ,, Hu carbide refers to any material comprising a compound of carbon and a swan

料组成,例如,wc、 W2C以及wc和W2C的组合。 Feed composition, e.g., a combination of wc, wc and W2C and W2C is. 碳化鵠例如包 Hu carbide such as package

括铸造碳化鴒、烧结碳化鵠和粗晶碳化鵠。 Including carbonized ling casting, sintered carbide, and macrocrystalline carbide Hu Hu.

图5所示的旋转钻头140包括大体上由颗粒基体复合材料形成和组成的钻头体112。 Rotary drill bit shown in FIG. 5 is formed by a substantially 140 includes a particle-matrix composite material and a body composed of 112 bit. 钻头140还可以包括附接到钻头体112上的钻杆(未显示)。 Bit 140 may also include a drill bit attached to the drill pipe 112 (not shown). 然而,钻头体112不包括与之整体形成的钢坯,如上述渗透颗粒基体材料通常所需的那样,以将钻头体112连接到钻杆上。 However, the bit body 112 does not include a slab formed integrally therewith, as described generally infiltrate a particulate matrix material as required, to the bit body 112 is connected to the drill rod.

钻头体112的颗粒基体复合材料包括随机散布在基体材料中的多个硬质颗粒。 Particle-matrix composite material includes a bit body 112 randomly dispersed in the matrix material in a plurality of hard particles. 硬质颗粒可以包括金刚石或陶资材料,例如碳化物、氮化物、氧化物和硼化物(包括碳化硼(B4C))。 The hard particles may comprise diamond or ceramic material resources, such as carbides, nitrides, oxides, and borides (including boron carbide (B4C)). 更具体地,硬质颗粒可以包4舌由例如W、 Ti、 Mo、 Nb、 V、 Hf、 Ta、 Cr、 Zr、 Al和Si的元素组成的碳化物和硼化物。 More specifically, the hard particles may be coated carbides and borides tongue 4 for example, W, Ti, Mo, Nb, V, Hf, Ta, Cr, Zr, Al and Si elemental composition. 作为实例并且非限制性的,可用于形成硬质颗粒的材料包括碳化钨、碳化钛(TiC)、碳化钽(TaC)、 二硼化钛(TiB2)、碳化铬、氮化钛(TiN)、氧化铝(A1203)、氮化铝(A1N)和碳化硅(SiC)。 As the material of example and not limitation, it may be used to form hard particles include tungsten carbide, titanium (of TiC), tantalum carbide (TaC), titanium diboride (of TiB2), chromium carbides, titanium nitride (TiN), alumina (A1203), aluminum nitride (A1N) and silicon carbide (SiC). 而且,不同硬质颗粒的组合可用于调整颗粒基体复合材料的物理性能和特征。 Furthermore, combinations of different hard particles may be used in the composite physical properties and characteristics of the particle-matrix adjustment. 硬质颗粒可以利用本领域技术人员公知的方法获得。 The hard particles may be utilized known to those skilled obtained by the method. 对于硬质颗粒而言最合适的材料为市场上销售的那些,其余材料的获得在本领域普通技术人员的能力范围之内。 Those obtained for the remaining material of the hard particles most suitable materials are on the market within the ability of one of ordinary skill in the art.

颗粒基体复合材料的基体材料60可以包括例如钴基、铁基、镍基、 铁镍基、钴镍基、铁钴基、铝基、铜基、镁基和钛基合金。 Particle-matrix composite material 60 may comprise, for example, cobalt-based, iron-based, nickel-based, iron and nickel-based, cobalt and nickel-based, iron and cobalt-based, aluminum-based, copper-based, magnesium-based, and titanium-based alloys. 基体材料还可以选择商业纯元素,例如,钴、铝、铜、镁、钛、铁和镍。 The matrix material may also be selected commercially pure elements such as cobalt, aluminum, copper, magnesium, titanium, iron, and nickel. 作为实例并且非限制性的,基体材料可以包括碳钢、合金钢、不锈钢、工具钢、哈德菲尔德锰钢、镍或钴超合金材料以及低热膨胀铁基或镍基合金,例如INVAR®。 By way of example and not limitation, the matrix material may include carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, tool steel, Hadfield manganese steel, nickel or cobalt superalloy material, and low thermal expansion iron or nickel-based alloys such as INVAR®. 当在此使用时,术语"超合金"是指具有至少12%重量百分比的铬的铁基、镍基、钴基合金。 When used herein, the term "superalloy" refers to iron-based, nickel-based, cobalt-based alloy having at least 12% by weight of chromium. 可用作基体材料的其它示例性合金包括奥氏体钢,例如INCONEL®625M或Rene 95的镍基超合金,以及热膨胀系数与特定颗粒基体复合材料中所用硬质颗粒的热膨胀系数极为相近的INVAR⑧型合金。 Other examples of alloys useful as matrix material include austenitic steels, for example, or very close INCONEL®625M nickel-base superalloy Rene 95, and the thermal expansion coefficient of the thermal expansion coefficient with a particular particle-matrix composite material used in the hard particles INVAR⑧ type alloy. 使基体材料的热膨胀系数与硬质颗粒的热膨胀系数更为接近是有利的,例如减少与残余应力和热疲劳相关的问题。 Thermal expansion coefficient of the matrix material with a thermal expansion coefficient closer to the hard particles is advantageous, for example, to reduce the residual stresses and thermal fatigue related problems. 适用基体材料的另一实例是Hadfield奥氏体锰钢(铁具有大约12%重量比的锰,和1.1%重量比的碳)。 Another example of suitable matrix materials are Hadfield austenitic manganese steel (Fe with approximately 12% by weight ratio of manganese, and 1.1% by weight to carbon ratio).

在本发明的实施例中,颗粒基体复合材料可以包括多个-400 ASTM(美国材料试验协会)目碳化鴒颗粒。 In an embodiment of the present invention, the particle-matrix composite material may include a plurality of -400 ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) mesh ling carbide particles. 当在此使用时,短语"-400 ASTM目颗粒"是指能够穿过按照名称为"试验目的用金属丝布和篩网的标准规范"的ASTM规范E11-04所定义的ASTM No.400网筛的颗粒。 When used herein, the phrase "-400 ASTM mesh particles" refers to passing through the specification E11-04 defined as "standard test purposes Specification for Wire Cloth and screen" according to the name of ASTM No. 400 mesh ASTM sieve. 这种碳化钨颗粒的直径小于大约38微米。 Such tungsten carbide particles diameter of less than about 38 microns. 基体材料可以包括金属合金,其包括大约50%重量比的钴和大约50%重量比的镍。 The matrix material may include a metal alloy comprising about 50% cobalt by weight and about 50% nickel by weight. 碳化钨颗粒可以占颗粒基体复合材料重量比的大约60%到大约95%,并且基体材料可以占颗粒基体复合材料重量比的大约5%到大约40%。 Tungsten carbide particles may comprise from about 60% to about 95% by weight of a particle-matrix composite material ratio, and the matrix material may comprise from about 5% by weight of particle-matrix composite material to more than about 40%. 更具体地,碳化鴒颗粒可以占颗粒基体复合材料重量比的大约70%到大约80%,并且基体材料可以占颗粒基体复合材料重量比的大约20%到大约30%。 More specifically, alba carbide particles may comprise about 70% by weight of particle-matrix composite material to more than about 80%, and the matrix material may comprise about 20% by weight of the particle-matrix composite material to more than about 30%.

在本发明的另一个实施例中,颗粒基体复合材料可以包括多个-635 ASTM目碳化鵠颗粒。 In another embodiment of the present invention, the particle-matrix composite material may include a plurality of -635 ASTM mesh carbide granules Hu. 当在此使用时,短语"-635ASTM目颗粒" 是指能够穿过按照名称为"试验目的用金属丝布和筛网的标准规范" 的ASTM规范E11-04所定义的ASTM No.635网筛的颗粒。 When used herein, the phrase "-635ASTM mesh particles" refers to passing through the mesh in accordance with ASTM No.635 entitled "Standard Wire Cloth Test object and the screen specification" in ASTM Specification E11-04 defined particle. 这种碳化鵠颗粒的直径小于大约20微米。 Hu diameter of such carbide particles are less than about 20 microns. 基体材料可以包括钴基金属合金,其包括大体上商业纯钴。 The matrix material may include a cobalt-based metal alloy comprising substantially commercially pure cobalt. 例如,基体材料可以包括高于大约98%重量比的钴。 For example, the matrix material may comprise greater than about 98% by weight of cobalt. 碳化鴒颗粒可以占颗粒基体复合材料重量比的大约60%到大约95%,并且基体材料可以占颗粒基体复合材料重量比的大约5%到大约40%。 Ling carbide particles may comprise between about 60% to about 95% by weight of a particle-matrix composite material ratio, and the matrix material may comprise from about 5% by weight of particle-matrix composite material to more than about 40%.

图24A-24E显示了形成按照本发明上述实施例所用钻头体的方法。 FIGS 24A-24E show a method of the above-described embodiment of the drill bit body in accordance with the present invention for forming. 钻头体(例如,图20所示钻头体200)大体上由颗粒基体复合材料形成和组成。 The bit body (e.g., bit body 200 shown in FIG. 20) and is formed substantially composed of a particle-matrix composite material. 该方法通常包括提供粉末混合物,压制粉末混合物以形成生坯,和至少部分地烧结粉末混合物。 The method generally includes providing a powder mixture, pressing the powder mixture to form a green body, and at least partially sintering the powder mixture.

参见图24A,可以在模型或容器80内利用大体上等静压力挤压粉末混合物78。 Referring to FIG 24A, the powder mixture may be extruded using a 78 substantially isostatic pressure within the mold or container 80. 粉末混合物78可以包括多个如前所述的石更质颗粒和多个同样如前所述的包括基体材料的颗粒。 The powder mixture 78 may include a plurality of particulate stone more as described above and the particle-matrix material comprises a plurality of the same as previously described. 选择性地,粉末混合物78 可进一步包括在压制粉末混合物时通常使用的添加剂,例如,用于在压制期间提供润滑和给压制粉末成分提供结构强度的粘结剂,用于使粘结剂更为柔韧的增塑剂以及用于减少颗粒间摩擦的润滑剂或压缩助剂。 Optionally, the powder mixture 78 may further comprise additives, when pressing the powder mixture is typically used, e.g., for providing lubrication to binder and pressed powder component provides structural strength during press, for others the adhesive flexible plasticizer and for reducing inter-particle friction lubricant or compression aids.

容器80可以包括可变形的流体密封构件82。 Container 80 may include a fluid-tight deformable member 82. 例如,可变形的流体密封构件82可以是包括可变形聚合物材料的大体圆柱形袋。 For example, fluid-tight deformable member 82 may include a generally cylindrical bag may be deformable polymer material. 容器80可以进一步包括大体上刚性的密封板84。 Container 80 may further comprise a substantially rigid sealing plate 84. 可变形构件82例如可以由弹性体形成,所述弹性体例如为橡胶、氯丁橡胶、硅酮或聚亚安酯。 The deformable member 82 may be formed of an elastomer, said elastomer, for example rubber, neoprene, silicone, or polyurethane. 可变形构件82可以用粉末混合物78装满,并且进行振动以使粉末混合物78均匀分布在可变形构件82内。 The deformable member 82 may be filled with powder mixture 78 and vibration to the powder mixture 78 uniformly distributed within the deformable member 82. 至少一个移动件或插入件86 At least one moving member or insert 86

30可以设置在可变形构件86内,以便界定钻头体的特征,例如,纵向孔15(图6)。 30 may be provided within the deformable member 86, so as to define features of the bit body, e.g., the longitudinal bore 15 (FIG. 6). 可选地,可以不使用插入件86,并且纵向孔15可以在随后的过程中利用传统的机加工方法形成。 Alternatively, the insert 86 may not be used and the longitudinal bore 15 may be formed using conventional machining methods in a subsequent process. 密封板84随后附接或结合到可变形构件82上,以便在其间提供流体密封。 The sealing plate 84 is then attached or bonded to the deformable member 82 to provide a fluid-tight seal therebetween.

容器80 (具有容纳于内部的粉末混合物78和任何希望的插入件86)可以放置在压力室90内。 Container 80 (having housed inside the powder mixture 78 and any desired inserts 86) may be placed in the pressure chamber 90. 可卸盖91可用于提供通向压力室90内部的入口。 Removable cover 91 may be used to provide access to the interior of the inlet chamber 90 pressure. 例如水、油或气体(例如,空气或氮气)的流体(其为大体上不可压缩的)利用泵(未显示)经过开口92在高压下泵入压力室90中。 For example, water, oil, or gas (e.g., air or nitrogen) in the fluid (which is generally incompressible) using a pump (not shown) through the opening 92 into the pump under high pressure chamber 90. 流体高压导致可变形构件82的壁产生变形。 High-pressure fluid causes the walls of the deformable member 82 is deformed. 流体压力可以大体上均匀地传递给粉末混合物78。 Fluid pressure may be transmitted substantially uniformly to the powder mixture 78. 在等静压压制期间,压力室90内的压力会大于大约35兆帕(大约5,000磅/平方英寸)。 During the isostatic pressing, the pressure in the pressure chamber 90 may be greater than about 35 megapascals (about 5,000 pounds / square inch). 更特别地,在等静压压制期间,压力室90内的压力会大于大约138兆帕(大约20,000磅/平方英寸)。 More specifically, during the isostatic pressing, the pressure in the pressure chamber 90 may be greater than about 138 MPa (about 20,000 pounds / square inch). 在其它方法中,可以在容器80内提供真空,并且大于大约0.1兆帕(大约15磅/平方英寸)的压力可以(例如通过大气)施加给容器80的外表面以压实粉末混合物78。 In other methods, vacuum may be provided within the container 80, and a pressure greater than about 0.1 megapascals (about 15 pounds / square inch) can be (e.g., through the atmosphere) is applied to the outer surface 80 of the container 78 to compact the powder mixture. 等静压制粉末混合物78可以形成图24B所示的生粉末部件或生钻头体94,其可以在压制之后从压力室90和容器80中取出。 Isostatic pressing the powder mixture 78 may form a green powder component or FIG. 24B green bit body 94 shown, which can be removed from the pressure chamber 90 and container 80 after pressing.

在压制粉末混合物78以形成图24B所示生钻头体94的另一方法中,可以利用粉末加工领域的普通技术人员公知的方法使用机械或液压致动的柱塞将粉末混合物78压入(例如,利用单轴压力机)模型或模具(未显示)中。 In the method of pressing the powder mixture to form 78 shown in FIG. 24B green bit body 94 in another method, the powder can be processed using one of ordinary skill in the art using known mechanical or hydraulic actuation of the plunger 78 is pressed into the powder mixture (e.g. by a uniaxial press) model or mold (not shown).

图24B所示生钻头体94可以包括通过提供于粉末混合物78 (图24A)中的粘结材料结合在一起的多个颗粒(硬质颗粒和基体材料颗粒),如前所述。 As shown in FIG. 24B plurality of particles green bit body 94 may include the provision in 78 (FIG. 24A) binder material powder mixture is bonded together (the hard particles and the matrix material particles), as described above. 可以利用传统机加工方法,例如切削方法、磨削方法和钻削方法在生钻头体94上机加工出某些结构特征。 Using conventional machining techniques including, for example, turning techniques, milling techniques, and drilling techniques on the green bit body 94 machined certain structural features. 还可以使用手持工具手动形成或成形位于生钻头体94上或内的特征。 It may also be formed or shaped green features located on or within the drill bit body 94 using a manual hand tool. 作为实例并且非限制性的,可以在生钻头体94上机加工或以其他方式形成刀翼114、排屑槽116 (图20)和表面96以形成图24C所示的成形生钻头体98。 By way of example and not limitation, may be machined or otherwise formed in the wing blade on the green bit body 94114, flutes 116 (FIG. 20) and the surface 96 to form a shaped green bit body 24C shown in FIG. 98.

图24C所示成形生钻头体98可以至少部分地烧结以提供图24D所示的半生钻头体102,其密度小于希望的最终密度。 The shaped green bit body shown in FIG. 24C 98 may at least partially sintered to provide a final density of the bit body 102 shown in half, less than a desired density in FIG. 24D. 在部分地烧结成形生钻头体98之前,成形生钻头体98会经受适当升高的温度和压力以烧尽或去除包括在粉末混合物78 (图24A)内的任何不稳定添加剂,如前所述。 In the part before sintering the shaped green bit body 98, the shaped green bit body 98 may be subjected to moderately elevated temperatures and pressures to burn off or remove any fugitive additives within the powder mixture 78 (FIG. 24A), as previously described . 而且,成形生钻头体98会经受适当的环境变化以有助于去除这种添加剂。 Furthermore, the shaped green bit body 98 may be subjected to a suitable atmosphere to aid in the removal of such additives. 这种环境例如可以包括大约500'C下的氢气。 Such environments may include, for example, about 500'C under hydrogen.

半生钻头体102由于内部残余的孔隙而可以大体上进行机加工。 Brown bit body 102 due to the internal residual porosity can be substantially machined. 可以利用传统机加工方法,例如切削方法、磨削方法和钻削方法在半生钻头体102上机加工出某些结构特征。 Using conventional machining techniques including, for example, turning techniques, milling techniques, and drilling techniques in the brown bit body 102 machined certain structural features. 还可以使用手持工具手动形成或成形位于半生钻头体102上或内的特征。 You may also form or shape features in or on the brown bit body 102 in a manual hand tool. 可以使用包括超硬涂层或镶嵌件的工具以方便对半生钻头体102进行机加工。 Can facilitate the machining of the brown bit body 102 using a tool comprising a superhard coatings or inserts. 另外,材料涂层可以施加到要进行机加工的半生钻头体102的表面上以减少半生钻头体102的切屑。 Further, the coating may be applied to the material to be machined in the brown bit body 102 to reduce the surface of the chip brown bit body 102. 这种涂层可以包括固定材料或其它聚合物材料。 Such a coating may comprise a polymeric material or other fastening material.

作为实例并且非限制性的,可通过机加工或其它方法在半生钻头体102中形成内部流体通道119、凹窝36和支肋38 (未显示)以形成图24E所示的成形半生钻头体106。 Shaped brown bit way of example and not limitation, by machining or other methods of forming the internal fluid passageway 102 in the brown bit body 119, dimples 36 and the ribs 38 support (not shown) to form the body 106 shown in FIG. 24E . 而且,如果钻头200包括与钻头体112 —体形成的多个切削元件的话,切削元件可以定位在形成于半生钻头体102中的凹窝36内。 Further, if the bit 200 includes a bit body 112 and - a plurality of cutting elements formed of it, may be positioned within the cutting element formed in the brown bit body 102 in the recess 36. 在随后烧结半生钻头体102时,切削元件可以粘结到钻头体112上并与之一体形成。 112 integrally formed therewith and the subsequent 102, the cutting element may be bonded to the sintered bit body brown bit body.

图24E所示的成形半生钻头体106随后可以完全烧结到希望的最终密度以提供先前所述的图20所示钻头体112。 FIG 24E shaped half bit body 106 then may be fully sintered to a desired final density to provide the previously described FIG 20 bit body 112 shown in FIG. 由于烧结涉及使结构内的孔隙度致密化和去除,被烧结的结构将在烧结过程中收缩。 Since sintering involves densification and removal of porosity within a structure, the structure being sintered will shrink during the sintering process. 结构在从生坯状态到希望的最终密度的烧结期间会产生10%到20%的线性收缩。 Structure during sintering from a green state to a desired final density will produce 10% to 20% linear shrinkage. 因此,当设计未完全烧结的结构内的工具(模型、模具等)或机加工特征时,必须研究和考虑三维收缩。 Thus, when the tool (models, molds, etc.) or machining features in the design of the machine is not fully sintered structure, dimensional shrinkage must be considered and research.

在所有的烧结和部分烧结过程中,可以使用耐火结构或移动件(未显示)以在烧结过程中支撑钻头体的至少一部分,从而在致密化过程中保持希望的形状和尺寸。 In all sintering and partial sintering processes, the refractory structure may be used, or the movable member (not shown) to support at least a portion of the bit body during the sintering process to maintain desired shapes and dimensions during the densification. 可以使用这种移动件例如在烧结过程中保持凹窝36和内部流体通道119的尺寸和几何结构方面的一致性。 This movement member can be used, for example, consistent size and geometry and aspects of the recess 36 of the internal fluid passageway 119 in the sintering process. 这种耐火结构例如由石墨、硅石或矾土形成。 Such refractory structures, for example, formed of graphite, silica or alumina. 由于矾土比石墨的活性差,因此人们希望使用矾土移动件代替石墨移动件,从而将烧结期间的原子扩散减到最少。 Since the difference in specific activity of alumina graphite, and therefore it is desirable to use alumina graphite instead of moving member moving member, so that the atomic diffusion during sintering is minimized. 另外,例如矾土、氮化硼、氮化铝或其它市售材料的涂层可以施加到耐火结构上以防止耐火结构中的碳或其它原子在致密化期间扩散到钻头体中。 Further, such as alumina, boron nitride, aluminum nitride, or other commercially available coating material may be applied to the refractory structures to prevent the refractory structure carbon or other atoms diffuse into the bit body during densification.

在其它方法中,图24B所示生钻头体94可以部分地烧结以形成没有进行预先机加工的半生钻头体,并且可以在将半生钻头体完全烧结到希望的最终密度之前在半生钻头体上进行所有必需的机加工。 In other methods, as shown in FIG. 24B green bit body 94 may be partially sintered to form a brown bit body without pre-machining, and can be performed on the brown bit body before the half fully sintered bit body to a desired final density all necessary machining. 可选地,可以在图24B所示生钻头体94上进行所有必需的机加工,所述生钻头体随后完全烧结到希望的最终密度。 Alternatively, all necessary machining performed on the green bit body 94 shown in FIG. 24B, the green bit body then fully sintered to a desired final density.

这里描述的烧结方法包括真空炉内的普通烧结法,真空炉内烧结之后进行传统的高温等静压工艺,并且烧结之后立即在接近烧结温度的温度下进行等静压制(通常称作烧结HIP (高温等静压))。 For a conventional high-temperature isostatic pressing after sintering processes described herein, including ordinary vacuum sintering furnace, vacuum sintering furnace, and immediately after sintering at a temperature close to the sintering temperature isostatic pressing (commonly referred to as the HIP sintering ( hot isostatic pressing)). 而且,这里描述的烧结方法可以包括液相线下(subliquidus )金相烧结。 Furthermore, the sintering processes described herein may include a lower liquidus (subliquidus) metallurgical sintering. 换句话说,可以在接近但低于基体材料金相图的液相线的温度下进行烧结工艺。 In other words, the sintering process may be performed at a temperature near, but below the liquidus line of the material microstructure of the matrix of FIG. 例如,可以利用本领域普通技术人员已知的许多不同方法实施这里描述的烧结方法,所述方法例如为快速全方向压紧(ROC)方法、CeraconTM方法、高温等静压(HIP)、或这类方法的改进。 For example, using a number of different methods known to those of ordinary skill in the sintering method described here, for example, the compression method (ROC) method, CeraconTM method, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a rapid omnidirectional, or that improved methods of the class.

概括地并且仅仅举例来说,利用ROC方法烧结生粉末压块涉及在较低温度下将生粉末压块仅预烧结到产生足以对粉末压块进行处理的强度的足够程度。 Broadly and example only, the method using the ROC sufficient degree of sintering the green powder compact at a relatively low temperature relates to the green powder compact to produce only presintered powder compact enough to be processed strength. 最终的半生结构包裹在例如石墨薄膜的材料中以密封半生结构。 The final structure of the half wrapped in a graphite material such as a thin film to seal the brown structure. 包裹的半生结构放入容器中,所述容器充满陶瓷、聚合物或玻璃材料制成的颗粒,其熔点远低于半生结构中的基体材料的熔点。 Wrapped brown structure is placed in a container, the container is filled with ceramic, polymer, or particles made of a glass material having a melting point much lower than the melting point of the matrix material in the brown structure. 容器加热到希望的烧结温度,其高于陶乾、聚合物或玻璃材料制成的颗粒的熔融温度,但是低于半生结构内基体材料的液相线温度。 Vessel was heated to the desired sintering temperature, which is higher than the dry ceramic, melting temperature of the particles made of polymer or glass material, but below the liquidus temperature of the matrix material brown structure. 容纳有熔化的陶瓷、聚合物或玻璃材料(和浸没于其中的半生结构)的受热容器放到用于给熔化的陶瓷或聚合物材料加压的机械压力机或液压机,例如锻压机中。 Containing the molten ceramic, polymer, or glass material (and the brown structure immersed therein) is placed in heating vessel for a mechanical or hydraulic press to a molten ceramic or polymer material, pressing, for example, forging machine. 熔化陶瓷、聚合物或玻璃材料中的等静压力有利于半生结构在高温下压实并烧结在容器内。 Melting ceramics, isostatic pressure polymer or glass material facilitate compacting and sintering the brown structure at an elevated temperature within the container. 熔化的陶资、聚合物或玻璃材料用于将压力和热量传递给半生结构。 Melting owned ceramic, polymer or glass materials for transmitting pressure and heat to the brown structure. 这样,熔化的陶资、聚合物或玻璃起到压力传递介质的作用,压力在烧结期间通过所述压力传递介质施加给所述结构。 Thus, funding molten ceramic, polymer or glass plays the role of pressure transmitting medium during sintering pressure is applied to the transfer medium by said pressure structure. 在减压冷却之后,烧结构造从液化陶瓷、 After cooling under reduced pressure, the sintered ceramic structure from a liquefied,

聚合物或玻璃材料中取出。 Polymer or glass material removed. 美国专利Nos.4,094,709、 4,233,720、4,341,557、 4,526,748、 4,547,337、 4,562,990、 4,596,694、 4,597,730、4,656,002、 4,744,943和5,232,522更为详细地描述了ROC工艺及实施该工艺的适用设备。 US Patent Nos.4,094,709, 4,233,720,4,341,557, 4,526,748, 4,547,337, 4,562,990, 4,596,694, 4,597,730,4,656,002, 4,744,943 and 5,232,522 more For describing the embodiment of the ROC process and the process in detail.

与上述ROC工艺类似的CeraconTM工艺也适合于在本发明中使用,从而将半生结构完全烧结到最终密度。 ROC process described above CeraconTM similar process is also suitable for use in the present invention, so that the brown structure is fully sintered to a final density. 在CeraconTM工艺中,半生结构涂覆有例如矾土、氧化锆或氧化铬的陶瓷涂层。 In CeraconTM process, the brown structure is coated with a ceramic coating, for example, alumina, zirconium oxide or chromium oxide. 还可以使用其它类似的、硬质的、通常惰性的、保护性的和可去除的涂层。 Also other similar, hard, generally inert, and a removable protective coating. 通过利用陶乾颗粒(代替ROC工艺中的流体介质)给覆层半生结构施加至少大体上等静压力而使覆层半生结构完全加固。 By applying a coating brown structure using ceramic particles of dry (instead of fluid medium ROC process) is at least substantially equal hydrostatic pressure layer overlying the brown structure fully consolidated. 美国专利No.4,499,048对CeraconTM工艺进行了更为详细地描述。 US Patent No.4,499,048 to CeraconTM process is described in more detail.

而且,在颗粒基体复合钻头体中使用碳化鴒的具体实施例中,这里描述的烧结方法可以包括适于改进碳化鴒材料的化学计量的碳控制周期。 Further, the use of particle-matrix composite bit body carbonized ling particular embodiment, the sintering processes described herein may include a carbon control cycle adapted to improve the stoichiometry ling carbonized material. 作为实例并且非限制性的,如果碳化钨材料包括WC,则这里描述的烧结方法可以包括使碳化钨材料在高温下经受包括氢气和甲烷在内的气体混合物。 Sintering method of example and not limitation, if the tungsten carbide material includes WC, the herein described may tungsten carbide material comprises subjecting a gas mixture comprising hydrogen and methane, including at high temperatures. 例如,碳化鴒材料可以在大约1000。 For example, the carbonized material may be about 1000 alba. C下经受包括氢气和甲烷的气体流。 Subjected to a gas stream comprising hydrogen and methane under C. 美国专利No.4,579,713描述了用于碳化物的碳量控制的方法。 U.S. Patent No.4,579,713 describes a method for controlling the amount of carbon in the carbide.

通过连接钻杆(未显示),例如如上所述的API螺紋销而形成钻头体112。 By connecting rods (not shown), such as API threaded pin and the bit body 112 as described above is formed. 可以使用几种不同的方法将钻杆连接到钻头体112上,上述方法在美国申请序列No.11/272,439中进行了描述。 Several different methods may be used to connect to the drill bit body 112, the method described above in U.S. Application Serial No.11 / 272,439 are described. 具有连接于其上的颗粒基体复合材料和耐磨表面堆焊材料的钻头体112在钻凿地下地层时更耐磨损。 A drill bit having a wear surface and a composite particle-matrix hardfacing material attached thereto body 112 more resistant to wear when drilling a subterranean formation.

尽管这里已经相对于特定的优选实施例对本发明进行了描述,但是本领域的普通技术人员应当考虑和认识到本发明不限于此。 While there have been implemented with respect to certain preferred embodiments of the present invention has been described, those of ordinary skill in the art should take into account and recognize that the invention is not limited thereto. 相反,在不脱离如下文要求保护的本发明范围的情况下,可以对优选实施例进行多种增加、删除和改变。 In contrast, as described without departing from the scope of the claimed invention, various embodiments can be preferably increased, deletions and changes. 另外, 一个实施例的特征可以与另一个 Additionally, the features of one embodiment may be another

34实施例的特征结合,但仍然处于由本发明人考虑的发明范围内。 A further embodiment of the binding 34, but still within the scope of the invention contemplated by the present invention. 另夕卜,本发明在具有不同和各种钻头外形及切削元件类型的钻头和取芯钻头中具有实用性。 Another Bu Xi, the present invention and various bits having different shape and a cutting element type drill bit and coring have utility.

Claims (21)

1. 一种用于钻凿至少一个地下地层的旋转钻头,所述旋转钻头包括:一钻头体,其大体上由颗粒基体复合材料形成并具有外表面;和布置在所述钻头体的至少一部分外表面上的耐磨材料。 A drilling at least a rotary drill bit for subterranean formation, the rotary drill bit comprising: a bit body substantially formed of a particle-matrix composite material and having an outer surface; at least a portion of the bit body and arranged the outer surface of the wear resistant material.
2. 如权利要求1所述的旋转钻头,其中,布置在所述钻头体的至少一部分外表面上的耐磨材料包括具有使用前比率的下列材料:基体材料,所述基体材料占所述耐磨材料的重量比的大约20%到大约50%,所述基体材料包括至少75%重量比的镍,并具有低于大约146(TC的熔点;大体上随机分布在所述基体材料中的多个-10 ASTM目烧结碳化鵠球粒,所述多个烧结碳化鴒球粒占所述耐磨材料重量比的大约30% 到大约55%,每个烧结碳化鴒球粒包括利用粘结合金粘结在一起的多个碳化鴒颗粒,所述粘结合金具有高于大约1200'C的熔点;和大体上随机分布在所述基体材料中的多个-18 ASTM目铸造碳化鵠细粒,所述多个铸造碳化鵠细粒占所述耐磨材料重量比的大约35% 以下。 2. A rotary drill bit according to claim 1, wherein the wear resistant material disposed at least a portion of an outer surface of the bit body comprises a front ratios using the following materials: a matrix material, the matrix material is resistant to the grinding material by weight from about 20% to about 50% ratio, the matrix material comprises at least 75% by weight of nickel ratio, and having less than about 146 (TC melting point; substantially randomly distributed in the matrix material in a multi- a -10 ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets Hu, a plurality of about 30% to about 55% sintered carbide pellets ling account the wear ratio of the weight of material, each comprising a sintered carbide pellets using a ling adhesive binder alloy a plurality of carbide particles ling junction together, the binder alloy having a melting point higher than about 1200'C; and a substantially randomly distributed in the matrix material in a plurality of -18 ASTM mesh cast Hu carbide granules, the Hu said plurality of cast carbide granules comprises from about 35% less wear than the material weight.
3. 如权利要求2所述的旋转钻头,其中,所述多个-10ASTM目烧结碳化鵠球粒包括多个-60/+80 ASTM目烧结碳化鴒球粒,并且其中, 所述多个-18 ASTM目铸造碳化鴒颗粒包括多个-100/+270 ASTM目铸造碳化鴒细粒。 3. A rotary drill bit according to claim 2, wherein said plurality of -10ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets comprises a plurality of Hu -60 / + 80 ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets ling, and wherein said plurality - ling 18 ASTM mesh carbide granules comprises a plurality of casting -100 / + 270 ASTM mesh cast carbide granules ling.
4. 如权利要求2所述的旋转钻头,其中,所述多个-10ASTM目烧结碳化鵠球粒包括多个-60/+80 ASTM目烧结碳化鴒球粒和多个-120/+270 ASTM目烧结碳化鵠球粒,所述多个-60/+80 ASTM目烧结碳化鴒球粒占所述耐磨材料重量比的大约30%到大约35%,所述多个-120/+270 ASTM目烧结碳化鵠球粒占所述耐磨材料重量比的大约10%到大约20%。 4. A rotary drill bit according to claim 2, wherein said plurality of -10ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets comprises a plurality of Hu -60 / + 80 ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets and a plurality ling -120 / + 270 ASTM Hu mesh sintered carbide pellets, the plurality of -60 / + 80 ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets ling about 30 percent by weight of said abrasion resistant than the material to about 35%, the plurality of -120 / + 270 ASTM Hu mesh sintered carbide pellets account for about 10 percent to about 20 percent by weight of said wear-resistant material.
5. 如权利要求1-4中任意一项所述的旋转钻头,还包括:直接连接到所述钻头体上的钻杆,所述钻杆包括构造为将所述钻杆连接到钻柱上的部分,并且其中,所述钻头体大体上由颗粒基体复合材料形成,所述颗粒基体复合材料包括随机分布在基体材料中的多个硬质颗粒,所述硬质颗粒选自金刚石、碳化硼、氮化硼、氮化铝、和W、 Ti、 Mo、 Nb、 V、 Hf、 Zr和Cr的碳化物或硼化物,所述基体材料选自钴基合金、铁基合金、镍基合金、钴镍基合金、铁镍基合金、铁钴基合金、铝基合金、铜基合金、镁基合金和钛基合金。 5. The rotary drill bit of any one of claims 1-4, further comprising: the drill pipe directly connected to the bit body, comprising the drill rod configured to connect the drill string to the drill portion, and wherein the bit body substantially formed of a particle-matrix composite material, the particle-matrix composite material comprising a matrix material randomly distributed in a plurality of hard particles, the hard particles are selected from diamond, boron carbide , boron nitride, aluminum nitride, and W, Ti, Mo, Nb, V, Hf, Zr, and Cr carbide or boride, the matrix material is selected from cobalt-based alloys, iron-based alloys, nickel-based alloy, cobalt and nickel-based alloys, iron-nickel-based alloys, iron-cobalt-based alloys, aluminum based alloys, copper based alloys, magnesium-based alloys and titanium based alloys.
6. 如权利要求5所述的旋转钻头,其中,所述耐磨材料布置在从外表面延伸到钻头体中的至少一个凹部中,沿与邻近耐磨材料的钻头体外表面大体上垂直的方向观察,所述耐磨材料的暴露表面与邻近耐磨材料的钻头体外表面大体上齐平。 6. The rotary drill bit direction of claim 5, wherein said wear resistant material is arranged in at least one recess extending from the outer surface to the drill bit body, the bit adjacent the outer surface of the wear resistant material along a substantially vertical observation, the outer surface of the drill bit wear resistant material adjacent the exposed surface of the wear resistant material is substantially flush.
7. 如权利要求6所述的旋转钻头,其中,所述钻头体还包括多个刀翼,并且其中,所述至少一个凹部延伸到所述刀翼的地层接合表面中并且沿着由包括钻头体的一部分外表面的两个表面之间的接合面界定的边缘延伸。 7. A rotary drill bit according to claim 6, wherein the bit body further comprises a plurality of wing knives, and wherein said at least one recess extending into the blade wing formations along a joining surface and includes a drill bit bonding edges extending between two surfaces defining an outer surface of the body portion.
8. 如权利要求6或7所述的旋转钻头,其中,所述钻头体构造为支承多个切削元件,颗粒基体复合材料的材料成分在钻头体内变化。 8. The rotary drill bit of claim 6 or claim 7, wherein the bit body configured to support a plurality of cutting elements, the material composition of the particle-matrix composite material in vivo bit change.
9. 如权利要求8所述的旋转钻头,其中,所述颗粒基体复合材料的材料成分在钻头体内大体上连续地变化。 9. A rotary drill bit according to claim 8, wherein said composite material component particle-matrix changes substantially continuously in the bit body.
10. 如权利要求1或2所述的旋转钻头,还包括: 沿接合面固定到所述钻头体上的至少一个切削元件;和布置在所述钻头体和位于所述接合面处的所述至少一个切削元件之间的钎焊合金,所述钎焊合金将所述至少一个切削元件固定到所述钻头体上,所述耐磨材料的至少一连续部分粘接到所述钻头体的外表面和所述至少一个切削元件的表面上,在所述钻头体和所述至少一个切削元件之间的接合面上延伸并且覆盖所述钎焊合金的至少一部分。 10. The rotary drill bit of claim 1 or claim 2, further comprising: bonding along at least one cutting element secured to the bit body on; and arrangements and the joint surface located at said bit body brazing alloy between at least one cutting element, the brazing alloy to the at least one cutting element secured to the bit body, at least the wear resistant material is bonded to a portion of the continuous outer bit body and at least one surface of said upper surface of the cutting element, extending over the joint surface between the bit body and the at least one cutting element and covering at least a portion of the braze alloy.
11. 如权利要求10所述的旋转钻头,其中,所述钻头体包括位于所述钻头体外表面上的凹窝,所述至少一个切削元件的至少一部分布置在所述凹窝内,所述接合面沿所述钻头体和所述至少一个切削元件的相邻表面延伸,并且其中,所述钻头体还包括形成在邻近所述接合面的钻头体外表面上的至少一个凹部,所述耐磨材料的至少一部分布置在所述至少一个凹部中。 11. The rotary drill bit according to claim 10, wherein the bit body comprises a recess located on the outer surface of the drill bit, at least a portion of said at least one cutting element is disposed within the recess, the engagement along the surface of the bit body and the at least one adjacent surface of the cutting element extends, and wherein the bit body further comprises at least one recess portion is formed on the drill bit engaging surface adjacent the outer surface of the wear resistant material at least a portion disposed in said at least one recess.
12. 如权利要求10或11所述的旋转钻头,其中,所述至少一个切晶金刚石复合台。 12. The rotary drill bit of claim 10 or claim 11, wherein the at least one polycrystalline diamond compact cutting table.
13. —种用于将耐磨材料施加到钻头表面上的方法,所述方法包括:提供由颗粒基体复合材料制成的钻头,所述钻头包括具有外表面的钻头体;使多个-10 ASTM目烧结碳化鴒球粒和多个-18 ASTM目铸造碳化鴒细粒在基体材料中混合以提供使用前耐磨材料,所述基体材料包括至少75%重量比的镍,所述基体材料具有低于1455。 13. - kind of wear-resistant material for applying onto a surface of a drill bit, the method comprising: providing a drill bit made of the particle-matrix composite material, the drill bit comprising a bit body having an outer surface; a plurality -10 ling ASTM mesh sintered carbide pellets and a plurality of -18 ASTM mesh cast carbide granules ling mixed prior to use to provide a wear-resistant material in the matrix material, the matrix material comprises at least 75% by weight of nickel ratio, the matrix material having lower than 1455. C的熔点,每个烧结碳化鴒球粒包括利用粘结合金粘结在一起的多个碳化鴒颗粒,所述粘结合金具有高于大约1200。 Melting point C, each sintered carbide pellets comprises a plurality ling ling carbide particles bonded together using a binder alloy, the binder alloy having greater than about 1200. C的熔点,所述基体材料占所述使用前耐磨材料重量比的大约20%到大约60%,所述多个烧结碳化钨球粒占所述使用前耐磨材料重量比的大约30%到大约55%,所述多个铸造碳化鴒细粒占所述使用前耐磨材料重量比的大约35%以下;加热所述基体材料,包括将所述使用前耐磨材料的至少一部分加热到高于所述基体熔点的温度;将熔化的基体材料、至少一部分烧结碳化鵠球粒和至少一部分铸造碳化鵠细粒施加到钻头体的外表面的至少一部分上;和凝固熔化的基体材料。 C of the melting point of the matrix material comprises by weight of the wear resistant than the material prior to use about 20% to about 60%, of the plurality of sintered tungsten carbide pellets representing the weight of the material prior to use wear resistant than about 30% to about 55%, of the plurality of cast carbide granules comprises from ling prior to use wear resistant than the material of about 35 wt% or less; and heating the matrix material comprising the wear resistant material before use is heated to at least a portion at least a portion of the molten matrix material, at least a portion of the sintered carbide pellets and at least a portion of the Hu cast carbide fine particles applied to the outer surface of Hu bit body;; melting point higher than the temperature of the substrate and solidifying the molten matrix material.
14. 如权利要求13所述的方法,其中,加热基体材料包括利用电弧加热基体材料、利用等离子转移弧加热基体材料和在大体上纯氧中燃烧乙炔来加热基体材料中的至少一种。 14. The method as claimed in claim 13, wherein heating the matrix material comprising a base material by using electric arc heating using a plasma transferred arc heating base material and a substantially pure oxygen for combustion of acetylene to heat at least one matrix material.
15. 如权利要求13所述的方法,其中,提供由颗粒基体复合材料形成的钻头还包括形成具有颗粒基体复合材料的钻头体,包括:提供第一粉末混合物,包括:多个硬质颗粒,其选自金刚石、碳化硼、氮化硼、氮化铝、和w、Ti、 Mo、 Nb、 V、 Hf、 Zr和Cr的碳化物或硼化物;和包括基体材料的多个颗粒,所述基体材料选自钴基合金、铁基合金、镍基合金、钴镍基合金、铁镍基合金、铁钴基合金、铝基合金、铜基合金、镁基合金和钛基合金;和粘结材料;利用大体上等静压力挤压所述粉末混合物以形成大体上由颗粒基体复合材料组成的生主体;和烧结所述生主体以提供完全烧结的钻头体,所述完全烧结的钻头体大体上由具有希望最终密度的颗粒基体复合材料组成。 15. The method of claim 13, wherein the drill bit is formed to provide a particle-matrix composite material further comprises forming a bit body having a particle-matrix composite material, comprising: providing a first powder mixture, comprising: a plurality of hard particles, selected from diamond, boron carbide, boron nitride, aluminum nitride, and w, Ti, Mo, Nb, V, Hf, Zr, and Cr carbide or boride; and a plurality of particles comprising a matrix material, the matrix material is selected from cobalt-based alloys, iron-based alloys, nickel-based alloys, cobalt and nickel-based alloys, iron-nickel-based alloys, iron-cobalt-based alloys, aluminum based alloys, copper based alloys, magnesium-based alloys, and titanium-based alloys; and a binder material; substantially isostatic pressure using a pressing said powder mixture to form a green body substantially of a particle-matrix composite material; and sintering the green body to provide a fully sintered bit body, the fully sintered bit body substantially the particle-matrix composite material having a desired density of the final composition.
16. 如权利要求15所述的方法,其中,烧结所述生主体以提供完全烧结的钻头体包括:部分地烧结所述生主体以提供半生主体; 在所述半生主体上机加工至少一个特征;和烧结所述半生主体以提供完全烧结的钻头体。 16. The method of claim 15, wherein sintering the green body to provide a fully sintered bit body comprises: partially sintering the green body to provide a body half; machining at least one feature on the half-body ; and sintering the half body to provide the fully sintered bit body.
17. 如权利要求15所述的方法,其中,烧结所述生主体以提供完全烧结的钻头体包括使所述生主体线性收缩大约10%到大约20%。 17. The method of claim 15, wherein sintering the green body to provide a fully sintered bit body comprising a green body of said linear shrinkage of about 10% to about 20%.
18. 如权利要求15所述的方法,还包括: 提供构造为连接到钻柱上的钻杆;通过对位于所述完全烧结的钻头体和所述钻杆之间的接合面进行焊接、硬钎焊和软钎焊之一将所述钻杆直接连接到所述完全烧结的钻头体上;和将多个切削元件连接到所述完全烧结的钻头体的表面上。 18. The method of claim 15, further comprising: providing a drill pipe configured to connect to the drill string; by welding, hard-on engagement surface located between the fully sintered bit body and the drill pipe one of brazing and soldering the drill pipe is directly connected to the fully sintered bit body; and a plurality of cutting elements connected to the upper surface of the fully sintered bit body.
19. 如权利要求13所述的方法,其中,提供由颗粒基体复合材料形成的钻头包括提供钻头,所述钻头包括:一钻头体,所述钻头体具有外表面和位于其上的凹窝,所述凹窝构造为接收切削元件的一部分,所述方法还包括:使切削元件的一部分定位在位于所述钻头体外表面上的凹窝内; 熔化钎焊合金;将熔融钎焊合金施加到位于所述切削元件和所述钻头体外表面之间的接合面上;使所述熔融钎焊合金凝固;和将所述耐磨材料施加到所述钻头体的外表面上,所述耐磨材料的至少一连续部分粘接到切削元件的表面和所述钻头体的外表面的一部分上,在所述切削元件和所述钻头体外表面之间的接合面上延伸并覆盖所述钎焊合金。 19. The method according to claim 13, wherein the drill bit is formed to provide a particle-matrix composite material comprises providing a drill bit comprising: a bit body, the bit body having an outer surface and a dimple thereon, the recess is configured as part of, receiving the cutting element, the method further comprising: positioning a portion of the cutting element in a recess located on the outer surface of the drill bit; molten braze alloy; applying to a molten braze alloy is located the interface between the element and the outer surface of the cutting bit; the solidified molten braze alloy; and wear-resistant material is applied to the outer surface of the bit body, said wear resistant material a continuous portion bonded to the portion of the surface and the outer surface of the cutting element of the bit body, and extending to cover at least the brazing alloy on the joint surface between the cutting element and the outer surface of the drill bit.
20. 如权利要求19所述的方法,还包括在邻近所述凹窝的所述钻头体外表面上形成至少一个凹部,所述凹窝构造为接收所述切削元件, 并且其中,施加所述耐磨材料还包括将所述耐磨材料施加到位于所述至少一个凹部内的所述钻头体外表面上。 20. The method according to claim 19, further comprising forming at least one recess in the drill bit adjacent the outer surface of said recess, said recess configured to receive the cutting element, and wherein the resistance is applied grinding the material further comprises wear resistant material is applied to the upper outer surface positioned within the drill bit at least one recess.
21. 如权利要求13所述的方法,还包括设置至少一个凹部,所述凹部延伸到钻头的钻头体外表面内;将所述使用前耐磨材料施加到所述至少一个凹部中;加热所述使用前耐磨材料以使所述基体材料熔化; 和沿着与邻近所述耐磨材料的钻头体外表面大致垂直的方向,使所述齐, 21. The method according to claim 13, further comprising at least one recess, said recess extending into the bit outer surface of the drill bit; to the at least one recess in the wear-resistant material before use; heating the prior to use wear-resistant material to melt the matrix material; and along with the wear resistant material adjacent the outer surface of the drill bit substantially perpendicular to a direction, the homogeneous,
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CA2664212A1 (en) 2008-04-10
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WO2008042330B1 (en) 2008-06-12
RU2009115956A (en) 2010-11-10
CN101605920A (en) 2009-12-16

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