CN101514121B - Method for preparing culture medium of edible fungi - Google Patents

Method for preparing culture medium of edible fungi Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101514121B
CN101514121B CN200910025964A CN200910025964A CN101514121B CN 101514121 B CN101514121 B CN 101514121B CN 200910025964 A CN200910025964 A CN 200910025964A CN 200910025964 A CN200910025964 A CN 200910025964A CN 101514121 B CN101514121 B CN 101514121B
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China
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fermentation
fermentation heap
silkworm excrement
heap
culture base
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CN200910025964A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101514121A (en
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祁志平
刘文海
蒋玲娜
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常州市三新园艺有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for preparing the culture medium of edible fungi. The method comprises the following steps: (1) colleting mulberry sawdust, silkworm excrement, cotton seed hulls, wheat bran, lime and potassium dihydrogen phosphate as ingredients; (2) adding the components in Step (1) to water, mixing and evenly stirring the components to obtain mixed ingredients; and (3) constructing a primary fermentation heap from the mixed ingredients for fermentation, wherein, the temperature of the primary fermentation heap is kept at 50 to 60 DEG C, the pH value thereof is 8 to 9, and the water content thereof is 40% to 60%. By obtaining the culture medium obtained through the method of the invention, not only the contents of carbon and nitrogen can be increased, but also the proportion of carbon and nitrogen in the culture medium can be harmonized.

Description

The culture base-material making method of edible mushrooms
Technical field
The present invention relates to the culture base-material of a kind of edible mushrooms, be specifically related to the culture base-material making method of a kind of edible mushrooms.
Background technology
At present the culture base-material of the rare edible mushrooms of domestic production is quite a lot of, but kind has nothing in common with each other, and these culture base-materials mainly are to adopt cotton seed hulls, wood chip, corn cob etc. to be made.Process of growth for rare edible mushrooms; Carbon, nitrogen are indispensable elements, and above-mentioned culture base-material not to be the content of carbon source or nitrogenous source high is exactly low, the C/N (C/N ratio) that causes in the culture base-material being contained is inharmonious; Therefore cause nutritive ingredient inadequate; Satisfied not the demand of producing high-quality and efficient rare edible mushrooms, and production cost is high, does not also reach non-harmful standard.
China's silk cocoon production occupies world's monopoly position, and silkworm excrement is the leftover bits and pieces thing of breeding silkworms, and the annual above dry of 400kt of can collecting approximately is a rich in natural resources.Domestic have only a few place to extract chlorophyll with silkworm excrement, and part is used for feed, and general farm manure is only made with it in most place.
Silkworm excrement is claimed the silkworm dung again as traditional Chinese medicine, silkworm excrement, late silkworm excrement, horse ring liver, late silkworm excrement, two silkworm excrements.Silkworm excrement is to nibble the ight soil that excretes behind the mulberry.Look blackish green, is particulate state, and its size is along with going forward one by one the length of time and increasing; Little during one age like fine sand; To five age glutonous stage big like mung bean, raise 1 box silkworm egg (the 10g ant is measured, 25000 silkworms); Can obtain the fresh silkworm faeces of 100-150kg the full length of time, can obtain the dry silkworm excrement about air-dry silkworm excrement of 50-55kg or 45kg after air-dry.Silkworm faeces is formed: crude protein accounts for 16.7%, and crude fat accounts for that 3.7%/robust fibre accounts for 19%, solubility does not have that the nitrogen thing accounts for 45%, ash content accounts for 15.6%.The exsiccant silkworm excrement is the short cylindrical shape granule, and long 2~5 millimeters, 1.5~3 millimeters of diameters.The surface grey black, coarse, 6 significantly vertical ribs and 3~4 horizontal shallow lines are arranged.Two ends are slightly smooth, are six prismatics.Matter is hard and crisp, meets moist back and is prone to fragmentary.Little have green grass gas.With dry, look black is, solid, even, the inclusion-free person is good.
Silkworm excrement contains organism 83.77~90.44%, ash content 9.56~16.23%, total nitrogen 1.91~3.60%.Contain chlorophyll again, available ethanol or acetone extract.It is reported, the 3rd, the 4th, the 5th age silkworm silkworm excrement, thick chlorophyll 1.6,2.0,2.4% is proposed in order, but a wherein real chlorophyll sub-fraction.For example the thick chlorophyll of the silkworm excrement in the 5th age only contains pure chlorophyll 13.19%, and all the other still have saponified 48.92%, unsaponifiables 44.45%.Silkworm excrement contains pohytol 0.25~0.29%.Other contains not saponification composition β-Gu Zaichun, cholesterol, ergosterol and carnaubyl alcohol, Lupeol.From silkworm excrement, still isolate β-Gu Zaichun-β-glycoside.
The contained total free aminoacids of silkworm excrement was once found out 13 seed amino acids such as leucine, Histidine, and along with silkworm grows up, leucine and histidine content are also cumulative many in the excrement, and silkworm excrement contains volume Serlabo.
Contain the above-mentioned element that enriches in the silkworm excrement, as farm manure or arbitrarily to abandon be a kind of waste to resource really.And the ramulus mori stay of breeding silkworms arbitrarily to abandon or burn also be the waste to resource, moreover, burning also influences environment.Therefore, under the unfavorable situation of culture base-material that the rare edible mushrooms of current production is used, if the culture base-material that can utilize silkworm excrement to be made into edible mushrooms will be to the utilization of silkworm excrement resources effective.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of method of utilizing materials such as silkworm excrement to make the culture base-material of edible mushrooms; The culture base-material that obtains through method of the present invention not only can improve the content of carbon and nitrogen, and can also impel the carbon-nitrogen ratio that contains in the culture base-material to coordinate.
The technical scheme that realizes the object of the invention is following:
The culture base-material making method of edible mushrooms may further comprise the steps:
(1) collects mulberry bits, silkworm excrement, cotton seed hulls, wheat bran, lime, potassium primary phosphate as batching;
(2) the various batchings in the step (1) are added to the water mix, and stir and obtain mix;
(3) build up mix first that fermentation heap ferments, the temperature of fermentation heap remains 50-60 ℃ first, and the pH value of fermentation heap is 8-9 first, and the water cut of fermentation heap is 40%-60% first.
Silkworm excrement was prepared burden before mixing, and the silkworm excrement batching is built bank up 40-60 hour.
The content of various feed proportionings is in the said mix: mulberry bits 25%-45%, silkworm excrement 8%-15%, cotton seed hulls 10%-30%, wheat bran 8%-15%, lime 1%-3%, potassium primary phosphate 1%-2%.
The fermentation time of said fermentation heap first is 3-5 days.
Fermentation heap is first by fermentation carried out the turning operation, build up the Secondary Fermentation heap after the turning and ferment.
The time of the fermentation of said Secondary Fermentation is 2-3 days.
The temperature of Secondary Fermentation heap remains 50-60 ℃, and the pH value of Secondary Fermentation heap is 8-9, and the water cut of Secondary Fermentation heap is 40%-60%.
Adopted such scheme, collected mulberry bits, silkworm excrement, cotton seed hulls, wheat bran, lime, potassium primary phosphate as batching.These are the main sources that form carbon source, nitrogenous source for mulberry bits in this batching, silkworm excrement, cotton seed hulls, wheat bran; Also be that rare edible fungi growth is sent out the required energy derive of bacterium, wheat bran (wheat bran) is still kept the indispensable factor of production of rare edible mushrooms normal growth simultaneously.Potassium primary phosphate is the inorganic salt that need in the substratum, regulates the life metabolism of rare edible mushrooms, and potassium primary phosphate is also as the effect of katalaze(enzyme), to accelerate the fermenting speed of various batchings simultaneously.As batching, and the culture base-material that makes through method of the present invention can make C/N (C/N ratio) bring up to 20/1 with above-mentioned material.Lime is the pH value that is used for regulating fermentation heap.Build up mix first that fermentation heap ferments, the temperature of fermentation heap remains 50-60 ℃ first, and the pH value of fermentation heap is 8-9 first, and the water cut of fermentation heap is 40%-60% first.Through leavening temperature being controlled to be 50-60 ℃, fermenting speed is accelerated in the katalysis that can urge potassium primary phosphate.And leavening temperature is controlled to be 50-60 ℃, the pH value is controlled to be 8-9, is to be used to increase actinomycetes, can kill other harmful germs in the culture base-material, to improve the bacterium rate of sending out.
Silkworm excrement was prepared burden before mixing, and the silkworm excrement batching is built bank up 40-60 hour.Silkworm excrement can make the germ mikrobe that wherein contains reduce through after banking up, and finally is beneficial to the raising of sending out the bacterium rate.
Fermentation heap is first by fermentation carried out the turning operation, build up the Secondary Fermentation heap after the turning and ferment.The temperature of Secondary Fermentation heap remains 50-60 ℃, and the pH value of Secondary Fermentation heap is 8-9, and the water cut of Secondary Fermentation heap is 40%-60%.Facts have proved that through turning and fermentation once more, the culture base-material that obtains is compared with the culture base-material that only obtains through one time fermentation, can make and send out bacterium rate raising about 30%.
In sum; The present invention utilizes ramulus mori, silkworm excrement to add suitable cotton seed hulls, wheat bran etc. and water as raw material; Process the culture base-material of producing rare edible mushrooms by fermentation, can solve the deficiency of existing culture medium of edible fungus material, and demonstrate fully the advantage that resource is effectively utilized.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a process flow sheet of the present invention;
Embodiment
Embodiment 1, the culture base-material making method of edible mushrooms of the present invention, and it may further comprise the steps:
(1) collects mulberry bits, silkworm excrement, cotton seed hulls, wheat bran, lime, potassium primary phosphate (KH 2PO 4) as batching; In these batchings, the mulberry bits are to adopt ramulus mori to carry out comminuted processing to obtain, and need the silkworm excrement batching be built in addition and bank up 48 hours.
(2) the various batchings in the step (1) are added to the water mix, and stir and obtain mix.The content of various batchings is in mix: mulberry bits 40%, silkworm excrement 10%, cotton seed hulls 30%, wheat bran (wheat bran) 15%, lime 3%, potassium primary phosphate 2%.
(3) building up mix first, fermentation heap ferments.When fermenting; The temperature of fermentation heap needs careful control first, therefore, and through being incubated adding a cover things such as film, straw mat above the fermentation heap first; And divide every day measure the stockpile temperature at upper and lower noon, make that the temperature of fermentation heap remains 60 ℃ first with bar thermometer.If the fermentation heap temperature does not reach 60 ℃ first, can be through adding a cover thing such as straw mat or using heating unit that its heating is heated up, if surpass this temperature, film, the straw mat that need take away and covered are lowered the temperature naturally.This fermenting process from the beginning to the end, the pH value of control Secondary Fermentation heap is 8.5.In order to control its water cut, need every day to spray suitable water on the fermentation heap first to it.Fermentation heap was through fermentation in 5 days first, and the water cut of fermentation heap is 60% first.
(4) fermentation heap is first by fermentation carried out the turning operation, this turning operation is that top layer material, underlying material and interior layered material are exchanged turning, builds up new Secondary Fermentation heap after the turning and ferments.When fermenting, the temperature of same Secondary Fermentation heap also needs careful control, and the temperature of Secondary Fermentation heap remains 60 ℃, and its hold and thermometric mode are identical with the described mode of step (3).This fermenting process from the beginning to the end, the pH value of control Secondary Fermentation heap is 8.5.In order to control its water cut, need same every day to go up the suitable water of sprinkling to the Secondary Fermentation heap.The Secondary Fermentation heap was through fermentation in 3 days, and the water cut of Secondary Fermentation heap is 60%.
Embodiment 2, and the culture base-material making method of edible mushrooms of the present invention is:
Silkworm excrement batching built bank up 55 hours.
The content of various batchings is in mix: mulberry bits 35%, silkworm excrement 15%, cotton seed hulls 30%, wheat bran (wheat bran) 15%, lime 3%, potassium primary phosphate 2%.
Building up mix first, fermentation heap ferments.The temperature of fermentation heap remains 55 ℃ first.The pH value of fermentation heap is controlled to be 8.5 first.Fermentation heap was through fermentation in 4 days first, and the water cut of fermentation heap is 50% first.
Fermentation heap is first by fermentation carried out the turning operation, build up the Secondary Fermentation heap after the turning and ferment.When fermenting, the temperature of Secondary Fermentation heap remains 55 ℃.This fermenting process from the beginning to the end, the pH value of control Secondary Fermentation heap is 8.5.Secondary Fermentation through fermentation in 3 days, the water cut of Secondary Fermentation heap is 50%.Remaining operation is identical with embodiment 1.
Embodiment 3, and the culture base-material making method of edible mushrooms of the present invention is:
Silkworm excrement batching built bank up 45 hours.
The content of various feed proportionings is in mix: mulberry bits 40%, silkworm excrement 13%, cotton seed hulls 28%, wheat bran (wheat bran) 15%, lime 2%, potassium primary phosphate 2%.
Building up mix first, fermentation heap ferments.The temperature of fermentation heap remains 50 ℃ first.Fermentation heap was through fermentation in 3 days first, and the water cut of fermentation heap is 45% first, and the pH value of fermentation heap is 8 first.
Fermentation heap is first by fermentation carried out the turning operation, build up the Secondary Fermentation heap after the turning and ferment.When fermenting, the temperature of Secondary Fermentation heap remains 50 ℃.This fermenting process from the beginning to the end, the pH value of control Secondary Fermentation heap is 8.Secondary Fermentation through fermentation in 2 days, the water cut of Secondary Fermentation heap is 45%.Remaining operation is identical with embodiment 1.
On the culture base-material that embodiment 1-3 obtains, cultivate edible mushrooms, can obtain high-quality mushroom class.And method of the present invention had both helped environment protection, the minimizing pollution; Considerable economic can be turned waste into wealth, produce again, the cultivation production of various edible mushroomss can be widely used in.

Claims (6)

1. the culture base-material making method of edible mushrooms is characterized in that may further comprise the steps:
(1) collects mulberry bits, silkworm excrement, cotton seed hulls, wheat bran, lime, potassium primary phosphate as batching; The content of various batchings is in the said mix: mulberry bits 25%-45%; Silkworm excrement 8%-15%, cotton seed hulls 10%-30%, wheat bran 8%-15%; Lime 1%-3%, potassium primary phosphate 1%-2%;
(2) the various batchings in the step (1) are added to the water mix, and stir and obtain mix;
(3) build up mix first that fermentation heap ferments, the temperature of fermentation heap remains 50-60 ℃ first, and the pH value of fermentation heap is 8-9 first, and the water cut of fermentation heap is 40%-60% first.
2. the culture base-material making method of edible mushrooms according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the silkworm excrement batching was built the silkworm excrement batching and is banked up 40-60 hour before mixing.
3. the culture base-material making method of edible mushrooms according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the fermentation time of said fermentation heap first is 3-5 days.
4. the culture base-material making method of edible mushrooms according to claim 1 is characterized in that: fermentation heap is first by fermentation carried out the turning operation, build up the Secondary Fermentation heap after the turning and ferment.
5. the culture base-material making method of edible mushrooms according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: the time of the fermentation of said Secondary Fermentation is 2-3 days.
6. the culture base-material making method of edible mushrooms according to claim 4 is characterized in that: the temperature of Secondary Fermentation heap remains 50-60 ℃, and the pH value of Secondary Fermentation heap is 8-9, and the water cut that Secondary Fermentation is piled is 40%-60%.
CN200910025964A 2009-03-16 2009-03-16 Method for preparing culture medium of edible fungi CN101514121B (en)

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CN104609985B (en) * 2015-02-08 2017-06-20 中山市绿和食用菌有限公司 A kind of Mushroom planting substrate and preparation method thereof
CN104663250A (en) * 2015-03-12 2015-06-03 象州县科学技术局 Method for cultivating phoenix mushroom with mulberry twigs
CN104973934A (en) * 2015-05-13 2015-10-14 广西宜州市宜源桑杆菌业有限公司 Preparation method of edible fungus culture medium
CN104876698A (en) * 2015-05-13 2015-09-02 广西宜州市宜源桑杆菌业有限公司 Preparation method of Pleurotu comucopiae culture medium
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CN105060956B (en) * 2015-07-08 2019-04-09 翔天农业开发集团股份有限公司 A kind of mushroom culture medium raw material ageing method
CN105123274A (en) * 2015-09-08 2015-12-09 广西大学 Method for cultivating clitocybe maxima through silkworm excrement
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