CN101509908A - Combustible burning rate test device in plateau artificial oxygen-enriched environment - Google Patents

Combustible burning rate test device in plateau artificial oxygen-enriched environment Download PDF

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CN101509908A
CN101509908A CN 200910076141 CN200910076141A CN101509908A CN 101509908 A CN101509908 A CN 101509908A CN 200910076141 CN200910076141 CN 200910076141 CN 200910076141 A CN200910076141 A CN 200910076141A CN 101509908 A CN101509908 A CN 101509908A
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system
sample
combustion
chamber
testing
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CN 200910076141
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101509908B (en )
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刘应书
刘文海
辉 张
李永玲
雄 杨
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北京科技大学
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The invention provides a testing device for the combustion rate of combustibles in a plateau artificial oxygen-enriched environment, belonging to a field of fire safety. The testing device consists of the following seven parts: a combustion chamber, a positioning mechanism, an air distribution system, an airflow-circulation and concentration-monitoring system, a vacuum-pumping system, an ignition system and a data acquisition system. A sample is arranged on a sample support by a sample clamper, and then vacuum-pumping is carried out to a sealed chamber by the vacuum-pumping system; each single high-purity gases are mixed in the sealed chamber after passing through a mass flowmeter and a flow regulating valve; the total pressure of the gases is displayed by a high-precision vacuum manometer; when the requirements of the total pressure of the gases and gas compositions are met, a micro-air pump is started to mix the airflow in the sealed chamber; a laser light source is started to ignite the sample after the concentration of the gas compositions is steady; the sample combustion flame passes through two thermocouples sequentially; temperature change curves of the thermocouples are obtained by A/D conversion and the data acquisition system; and the time between two maximum temperature points of the curves corresponding to the two thermocouples is taken as the combustion time of the sample between the thermocouples with fixed distance, thus obtaining the combustion rate of the sample under the total pressure of the gases and the concentration of the gas compositions. The testing device has stable and reliable testing performance, and is simple and convenient.

Description

一种高原人工富氧环境可燃物燃烧速率测试装置 One kind of plateau artificial environment enriched fuel burn rate testing device

技术领域 FIELD

本发明属于防火安全领域,涉及一种高原人工富氧环境可燃物燃烧速率测试装置,适于测定可燃物在不同海拔高度的燃烧速率。 The present invention is in the field of fire safety, to a plateau artificial oxygen rich fuel burning rate test device suitable for measuring the height of the fuel burn rate at different altitudes. 背景技术 Background technique

随着西部大开发的深入和青藏铁路的建成通车,越来越多的人进入西部高原地区进行生产建设。 With the completion of the opening of further developing the western region and the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, more and more people into the western highlands production and construction. 平原地区的人进入高原后由于空气中含氧量的降低产生极大的不适应,表现为胸闷气短、疲劳困乏、记忆力减退、失眠烦躁、头痛头晕,甚至出现肺水肿、脑水肿等疾病,严重时危害人体生命。 People plains into the plateau due to a decrease in the oxygen content of air is a tremendous suited, chest tightness, shortness of breath, fatigue, drowsiness, memory loss, insomnia, irritability, headache, dizziness, and even pulmonary edema, cerebral edema and other diseases, serious when endanger human life. 因此,对高原地区室内或赴高原列车车厢进行富氧是解决高原缺氧的主要途径。 Therefore, the interior highlands or plateau train car to go to be oxygen-rich is the main way to solve the high altitude. 目前,在青藏铁路列车上采用了膜式制氧机来满足室内的增氧需求。 At present, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway train using a membrane oxygen plant to meet the oxygen needs of the room. 膜式制氧机出口处的氧气浓度为31 %〜34%,氧气通过管道送到车顶单元式空调机组的蒸发器通风机的出口处,经空调器处理过的空气稀释后送入通风道再进入客室内。 The oxygen concentration at the outlet of membrane oxygen is 31% ~34% oxygen to the outlet of the evaporator fan Roof air conditioning units through a pipe into the duct after dilution air conditioner-treated re-entering the passenger compartment. 如果蒸发器通风机因故停转或者制氧机有泄漏的话,则通风机出口外的送风道内或者制氧机舱内的氧气浓度也会局部上升。 If the evaporator fan stops for some reason or oxygen leak, then the fan inner air flow passage outside the outlet oxygen concentration or oxygen partial nacelle will rise. 由于司机室和车厢都是一个密闭空间,如果乘员使用的氧气袋或小型氧气罐因破损有泄漏时,会在局部区域形成极高的氧气浓度。 Since the cab and the compartment is a closed space, if the oxygen bag occupant or a small oxygen tanks used for leaks, formed in a partial region of high oxygen concentration due to breakage. 高原室内富氧的结果与车厢相似,为了满足工作人员对氧的需要,也要对人居环境(办公室、休息室、宿舍、宾馆等)进行富氧,随着氧气分压和氧气体积百分比浓度(以下简称氧浓度)的增加,材料的燃烧特性有很大变化,容易点燃且火焰蔓延速度加快,因此在低气压条件下增加氧浓度必须考虑防火安全。 Plateau indoor oxygen-rich results with similar compartment, in order to meet the oxygen needs of the staff, but also on the living environment (office, lounge, dormitories, hotels, etc.) were oxygen-rich, with the partial pressure of oxygen and the oxygen concentration in volume percent increase (hereinafter referred to as the oxygen concentration), and combustion characteristics of materials vary widely, easily ignited and the flame spread faster, thus increasing the concentration of oxygen at low pressure conditions must consider fire safety.

"西藏古建筑中装饰织物的燃烧特性研究"一文(中国科学技术大学学报,2007, 37 (3): 284-289)利用不同火源对20种西藏古建筑中典型装饰织物和4种纯涤、纯棉和涤棉织物进行了燃烧试验。 "Combustion Characteristics of ancient Tibetan architectural decorative fabrics" article (University of Science and Technology of China, 2007, 37 (3): 284-289) using different sources of ignition for 20 kinds of Tibetan ancient architecture typical decorative fabric and four kinds of pure polyester cotton and polyester fabrics combustion test. 结果表明,西藏低氧低压条件已能充分支持织物的实尺度燃烧,虽织物燃烧速率降低,燃烧时间加长,但局部燃烧加剧,火焰体积加大,具有较大的火灾危险性。 The results show that the low-pressure hypoxic conditions are Tibet fully support the real-scale combustion fabric, although the fabric burn rate is lowered, the combustion time becomes longer, but local combustion intensified, increasing the volume of the flame, having a greater fire hazard.

可燃织物材料的潜在危险性取决于材料的点燃难易性、燃烧速率、释热量和熄灭难易性, 而这些因素与大气压密切相关,因此,利用一种高原人工富氧环境可燃物燃烧速率测试装置考察不同海拔高度下可燃物的燃烧特性对于研究可燃物防火安全具有重要的现实意义。 Ease of ignition, burn rate, ease of heat release and off, and these factors are closely related to the atmospheric pressure potentially dangerous flammable fabric material depends on the material, and therefore, oxygen-rich environment, using one artificial plateau fuel burning rate test combustion characteristics of the device under study at different altitudes fuel has great significance for the study of fire safety combustibles.

在低气压密封室内对样品进行点火一般采用明火喷燃、电阻丝加热点燃和激光点燃三种方式。 Sealed chamber at low pressure is generally used for sample ignition flame burner, ignition resistance wire heating and laser ignition three ways. 明火点火可以迅速的将试件点燃,即用一根点火杆伸入燃烧室,在点火杆的前端安装一个电磁阀,当阀门打开时燃料气进入,同时高能点火器被激发将燃料气点燃。 Fire ignition can be quickly ignited test piece, i.e., with a lighting rod projecting into the combustion chamber, a solenoid valve mounted in the front end of the lighting rod, the valve is opened when the fuel gas enters, while the high-energy ignition is activated to ignite the fuel gas. 当产生的火焰将试件点着后马上关闭点火器,同时燃料气也停止进入。 When the flame produced test piece immediately off the ignition point, at the same time into the fuel gas stops. 该种点燃方式存在的问题是点火过程中消耗氧气,会改变密封室内氧浓度;此外,还会使燃料气进入燃烧室,对实验结果造成影响。 The present embodiment kind of problem is ignited ignition process consumes oxygen, the oxygen concentration in the sealed chamber will change; in addition, also the fuel into the combustion chamber, the impact on the experimental results. 电阻丝加热点燃是利用电流通过电阻丝时电阻丝会以热的形式做功,电炉丝在加热时可以达到600。 Is ignition resistance wire heating current through the resistance wire using a resistance wire would work in the form of heat, heating wire 600 can be achieved upon heating. C〜70(TC。使用电阻丝点火时在电阻丝上接一个温度传感器,同时串联一个电流调节器,这样可以通过调节电阻丝的电流大小来调节电阻丝的温度,当样品着火时可以测出着火时的温度。由于电阻丝点火不能瞬间的将试件点燃,热辐射会导致室内环境的温度升高,且在电阻丝加热的过程中,试件也会被加热,从而影响样品的燃烧过程。激光点燃是利用激光高能量的特点,在短时间和小面积范围内将材料点燃,激光能转化为热能的速率远大于材料热扩散的速率,在含能材料内部形成"点"式高温区域,最终达到着火温度。激光器发出的功率稳定,能够保证着火条件一致,可以消除因其它条件变化对燃烧造成的影响,因 C~70 (TC. When using a resistance wire connected to the resistance wire at a firing temperature sensor, and a current regulator connected in series, so that the temperature of the resistance wire can be adjusted by adjusting the current magnitude of the resistance wire, when the sample can be measured ignition ignition temperature. Since the resistance of the ignition wire test piece is not ignited instantaneously, may cause heat to indoor environment temperature rises, and the resistance wire heating process, the test piece will be heated, thus affecting the combustion process samples the laser is lit using high-energy laser characteristics, in a short and small areas of the material to ignite, laser energy into heat rate is much greater than the thermal diffusion rate of the material to form a "dot" high-temperature region within the Energetic materials finally reached ignition temperature. emitted power of the laser stable to guarantee consistent ignition conditions, can eliminate the influence of variations due to other conditions caused by combustion, because

此,选用激光点火是一个比较好的方法。 Here, the choice of laser ignition is a better way. 发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明的目的在于开发一种在低气压环境下测定可燃物燃烧性能,尤其是燃烧速率的测试装置。 Object of the present invention is to develop a of the burning fuel at low pressure environment, especially burning rate test device.

一种高原人工富氧环境可燃物燃烧速率测试装置,该装置由燃烧室、定位机构、配气系统、气流循环与浓度监测系统、抽真空系统、点火系统和数据采集系统七部分组成。 One kind of oxygen-rich environment artificial plateau Fuel combustion rate of the test apparatus by a combustion chamber, the positioning means, gas distribution systems, air circulation and the concentration monitoring system, vacuum system, ignition system and data acquisition system composed of seven parts.

其中所述燃烧室由室门、密封条、有机玻璃窗和燃烧室壳体构成,密封条通过室门上的环形凹槽固定,当关闭室门时,采用螺栓固定,抽真空会导致外界大气压高于室内压力,从而将室门压紧,密封条与燃烧室壳体外壁吻合,保证气密性。 Wherein the combustion chamber is constituted by a door, seals, and combustor casing organic glazing, by an annular sealing strip on the chamber door fixing groove, when the chamber door was closed, bolted, vacuum will cause external atmospheric pressure higher than the pressure in the chamber, so that the compression chamber door, sealing the combustion chamber outer housing wall strip fit, air tightness is ensured. 燃烧室内下部放置一片石棉垫, 当激光点燃样品时,不会直接灼烧燃烧室材质,通过石棉垫将热量吸收,保护了燃烧室壳体。 Place a lower part of the combustion indoor asbestos pad, when the laser ignition of the sample, the combustion chamber does not directly burn the material, the heat absorbed by the asbestos pad to protect the combustor housing. 燃烧室内体积的大小由所燃烧样品的质量和所需气体组分浓度决定。 The volume of the combustion chamber is determined by the size and quality of the desired burned gas component concentration of the sample. 燃烧室内气体总压可以通过高精度真空压力表读出。 The total gas pressure of the combustion chamber can be accurately read out by a vacuum gauge.

所述定位机构由样品托和样品夹持器组成,样品托上设有一个镂空燃烧孔和两个定位柱与定位孔相配合。 The positioning mechanism and the holder by the sample composed of the sample holder, provided with a hollow combustion holes and two positioning holes cooperating with the positioning posts on the sample holder. 定位柱用于样品夹持器定位,镂空燃烧孔便于室内气体对流通过。 Positioning posts for positioning the sample holder, the hollow hole to facilitate the combustion chamber by gas convection. 样品夹持器与普通纸夹相似,由上、下两片薄板组成,中央分别镂空形成上、下燃烧窗,放置样品时,只需将夹子打开,将样品平铺在夹持器中央,然后夹合,依靠夹持器材质自身重力压紧样品,放置于样品托上。 The sample holder is similar to ordinary paper clips, by the upper and lower thin plates composed of the hollow center formed respectively, when the fire window, the sample is placed, simply open the clip, the sample holder in the middle of the tile, and sandwich, relying on gravity holder pressing material sample placed on the sample holder. 在燃烧过程中,只有燃烧窗部位的可燃物能够燃烧,其余部会保持完好,这样可以根据燃烧样品大小来改变样品托镂空燃烧孔和样品夹持器上、下燃烧窗的大节阀B组成,根据所需气量进行配送,气体经气瓶减压后流入质量流量计,进行流量累积计量,经控制流量的流量调节阀后进入燃烧室。 In the combustion process, only the combustion window portion combustibles can be burned, the remaining portion will remain in good condition, which can be changed on a sample holder hollowed combustion holes and the sample holder according to the combustion sample size, fire window large section valve B composed of for distribution in accordance with the desired gas flow into the cylinder through the gas mass flowmeter under reduced pressure, flow accumulation measured by the flow control valve regulating the flow into the combustion chamber.

所述气流循环与浓度监测系统由微型气泵、流量调节阀和氧浓度传感器构成,当燃烧室内气压稳定后,打开流量调节阀,启动微型气泵,燃烧室内气体经过流量调节阀、燃烧室和氧浓度传感器进行闭路循环流动,对燃烧室内气体进行混合。 The air circulation and the concentration of the micro-pump monitoring system, flow rate control valve and the oxygen concentration sensor configuration, when the combustion chamber pressure stabilized, the flow regulating valve is opened to start the micro-pump, the combustion chamber through the gas flow rate control valve, a combustion chamber and the oxygen concentration closed circulation flow sensors, gas mixing in the combustion chamber.

所述抽真空系统由真空泵、球阀A和球阀B组成,对燃烧室进行抽真空操作。 The system was evacuated by the vacuum pump, ball and ball B A composition of the combustion chamber for vacuuming operation. 取放样品时, 燃烧室外部空气通过球阀A流入燃烧室,使燃烧室内外压力平衡,从而可以打开室门进行取放样操作。 When handling the sample, the combustion chamber inflow of external air through a ball valve A combustion chamber pressure balance inside and outside the combustion chamber, which can be taken to open the compartment door loft operation. 抽真空时,关闭燃烧室室门,打开真空泵,再打开球阀B,真空泵将燃烧室内气体抽至外部。 During evacuation, the door closed combustion chamber, the vacuum pump, and then the ball valve B open, the vacuum pump draws gas in the combustion chamber to the outside.

所述点火系统由激光器、单晶锡化锌组成,激光器发出的高强度激光通过单晶锡化锌进入燃烧室,高温光点打在样品一端,使样品点燃。 The ignition system by the laser, consisting of a single crystal of tin, zinc, high-intensity laser light emitted by the laser crystal of tin, zinc into the combustion chamber, a high temperature spot hit the end of the sample, the sample is ignited.

所述数据采集系统由两支热电偶、补偿导线、A/D转换模块和计算机组成,热电偶产生的热电动势(电压信号)经补偿导线后输入A/D模块,模拟信号A/D模块转化为数字信号,再传至上位计算机,经软件绘出温度曲线,并可进行实时显示和数据保存。 The data acquisition system consists of two thermocouple, compensation wire, A / D converter module and a computer, the thermoelectromotive force (voltage signal) generated by the thermocouple input wire compensated A / D module, the analog signal A / D conversion module a digital signal, and transmits it to the upper computer, temperature curve plotted by software, and data storage and real-time display.

可燃物燃烧速率测试过程如下:首先,将样品通过样品夹持器安装在样品托上,然后, 通过真空系统对燃烧室抽真空,之后,各单一高纯气体经质量流量计和流量调节阀在密封室内混合,通过质量流量计控制各气体的百分比,由高精度真空压力表显示气体总压,当满足所气体总压和气体组分要求时,启动微型气泵对密封室内气体进行混合,通过氧浓度传感器监测气体组分浓度,浓度稳定后启动激光器,激光经单晶锡化锌后点燃样品,样品燃烧时, 火焰先后通过两热电偶,热电偶产生的热电动势为电压信号,通过A/D转换模块和上位计算机得到热电偶温度变化曲线,选取两条热电偶对应曲线最高温度点间的时间差作为样品在两个固定距离热电偶间的燃烧时间,从而得出样品在该种气体总压和气体组分浓度下的燃烧速率。 Fuel burning rate test procedure as follows: First, the sample was mounted on a sample holder through the sample holder, and then, through vacuum system for evacuating the combustion chamber after each single high purity gas through the mass flow meter and the flow rate control valve sealing the mixing chamber, by controlling the percentage of each gas mass flow meter, the total pressure of the gas is shown by high precision vacuum gauge, when the total pressure of the gas satisfies the requirements and gaseous components, micro-pump startup sealing gas mixing chamber, through an oxygen monitoring the gas component concentration sensor concentrations, the concentration of stabilized after starting the laser, after the single crystal of tin, zinc laser ignited sample, the sample is burning, the flame has passed the two thermocouples, thermo-electromotive force generated by the thermocouple into a voltage signal by the a / D converting module and the host computer to obtain the thermocouple temperature profile, select the time difference between two points corresponding to the maximum temperature of the thermocouple combustion of the sample curve as a time distance between the two fixed thermocouples, the kind of the sample to arrive at a total gas pressure and burn rate of the gas component concentration.

本发明提出的循环配气、激光点火、低压控制、富氧条件、样品定位、精确测温等方式保证了该发明装置测试性能的稳定可靠,简单方便,是研究可燃物燃烧特性参数的有力试验装置,适用于不同材质可燃物的着火温度、燃烧速率的测量,还可应用于不同可燃蒸气(如乙醇、乙醚、丙酮等)的测量。 The present invention is proposed with the cycle gas, laser ignition, a low pressure control, oxygen-rich conditions, the sample positioning, accurate temperature measurement, etc. to ensure a stable performance of the test device of the invention a reliable, simple and convenient, the research of fuel combustion characteristics parameter powerful test means adapted to measure the ignition temperature of fuel of different materials, the combustion rate is also applicable to various flammable vapors (e.g. ethanol, ether, acetone, etc.) is measured. 附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图l是本发明装置的工作原理示意图; Figure l is a schematic view of the working principle of the device of the present invention;

图l中:1.燃烧室壳体;2.室门;3.密封条;4.有机玻璃窗;5.氮气瓶;6.质量流量计 . Figure l: a combustor housing; door 2; 3 seal; organic glass window 4; nitrogen gas cylinder 5; 6 mass flowmeter.....

A; 7.流量调节阀A; 8.氧气瓶;9.质量流量计B; 10.流量调节阀B; 11.微型气泵;12.氧浓度传感器(氧化锆);13.流量调节阀C; 14.真空泵;15.球阀A; 16.球阀B; 17.激光器;18.单晶锡化锌;19.样品托;20.样品夹持器;21.热电偶A; 22.热电偶B; 23.热电偶接线端子;24.A/D转换模块;25.上位计算机;26.高精度真空压力表; A; 7. Flow control valve A; 8. oxygen bottles; 9 mass flow meter B; 10. a flow regulating valve B; 11. micro-pump; oxygen concentration sensor 12 (zirconia);.. C 13 flow regulating valve; 14. A vacuum pump; 15 ball A; 16. ball B; 17. lasers; 18 monocrystalline tin, zinc; 19 sample holder; 20 sample holder; 21 thermocouples A; 22. thermocouples B; 23. The thermocouple terminals; 24.A / D converter module; 25 host computer; precision vacuum gauge 26.;

图2是本发明装置中样品托简图; FIG 2 is a system schematic of the present invention in the sample holder;

图3是本发明装置中样品夹持器简图; FIG 3 is a device of the present invention in a schematic sample holder;

19.样品托;20.样品夹持器;22.热电偶B; 27.定位柱;28.镂空燃烧孔;29.石棉垫;30.上燃烧窗;31.下燃烧窗;32.定位通孔; 19. The sample holder;. A sample holder 20; 22 thermocouples B; 27. positioning post; 28 hollowed hole burning;. Asbestos mat 29; 30 on the burner window; window 31 at the combustion; 32 positioning through. hole;

具体实施方式 detailed description

本发明实施实例通过模拟不同海拔高度大气压和相同大气压下不同氧浓度对可燃物滤纸进行燃烧速率试验。 Examples of embodiment of the present invention the combustion rate of the fuel filter test by simulating different altitudes with different oxygen concentrations and atmospheric pressure at the same atmospheric pressure. 根据滤纸成分中碳氢含量完全燃烧时所需氧气量和保持1%误差的要求设 And the required amount of oxygen required to maintain a 1% error based upon the hydrocarbon content of the paper component provided complete combustion

计所需燃烧空间的体积。 Total volume of the combustion space required. 本实施实例取一张直径为ll.lcm的滤纸,质量为0.7685g,取滤纸的大小为10x50 mm2,其质量为0.037g其摩尔量为:0.037/163-2.284xl()4mo1,完全燃烧2.284xl()4mo1 C6H10O5需要0.00137mol氧气,1L标准大气中含氧气:0.209/22,4=0.00933mol。 Take an example embodiment of the present ll.lcm diameter filter paper, the quality of 0.7685g, take the paper size of 10x50 mm2, which is a mass of 0.037g molar amount: 0.037 / 163-2.284xl () 4mo1, complete combustion 2.284 xl () 4mo1 C6H10O5 requires 0.00137mol oxygen, 1L standard atmosphere containing oxygen: 0.209 / 22,4 = 0.00933mol. 取耗氧量占总的氧含量在1%以内时不考虑氧气在燃烧过程中的减少对燃烧造成的影响,则燃烧室内需要氧气0.137mol则只需要0.137/0.00933-14.68L的标准大气就可以满足条件。 Take the total oxygen consumption of the oxygen content less than 1% are not considered to reduce the impact when the oxygen in the combustion process caused by the combustion, the combustion chamber need only requires standard atmospheric oxygen 0.137mol 0.137 / 0.00933-14.68L would be To meet the conditions. 考虑低气压的影响,当大气压力只有标准大气压的一半时(相当于海拔5700多米)氧含量也只有标况的50%,因此要使燃烧室含0.137mol氧气就需要燃烧室的容积为29.36L。 Influenced by the low pressure, when the atmospheric pressure is only half of the standard atmospheric pressure (corresponding to over 5700 meters above sea level) the oxygen content is only 50% of the standard condition, to make the combustion chamber thus requires an oxygen-containing 0.137mol chamber volume of 29.36L . 这儿我们选取燃烧室为300x300x350mm3的长方体(体积为31.5L)可以满足要求。 Here we select the combustion chamber is 300x300x350mm3 rectangular (volume of 31.5L) meet the requirements. 实际上在实验过程中当环境压力达至i卜0.35MPa的时候滤纸就已经不能点燃了,且实验大部分是在富氧的条件下进行,因此实验过程中的氧气消耗量远低于1%。 In fact during the experiment when the ambient pressure of 0.35MPa to time i Bu paper has not ignited, and the experiment was carried out in the most oxygen-rich, and therefore the oxygen consumption during the experiment is much lower than 1% .

参见图1和图2,燃烧室由燃烧室壳体l、室门2构成,其体积大小由滤纸样品质量决定。 Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, the combustion chamber is composed of L combustor casing, door 2, which is determined by the size of the volume mass of filter paper samples. 室门2上安有一有机玻璃窗4,可以通过其观察内部燃烧情况,室门2通过软性密封条3与燃烧室壳体1接触,实现密封功能,在密封室下部放有一石棉垫29,用于阻挡激光束,以免损伤燃烧室壳体l。 An upper chamber door 2 there is an organic glass window 4 and to be combustion chamber through the inner door 2 which was observed by contacting a soft seal 3 and the combustion housing 1, sealing function, a lower sealing chamber placed asbestos mat 29, for blocking the laser beam, so as not to damage the combustor housing l. 燃烧室外设有一高精度真空压力表26,用于显示室内压强。 Peripheral combustion chamber 26 has a precision vacuum gauge for displaying the pressure chamber. 样品夹持器20由上、下两片有机板组成,分别开有上燃烧窗30和下燃烧窗31,供样品燃烧使用,样品夹持器20靠近中缝处上、下板片左右方分别开有一定位通孔32,用于固定样品夹持器20。 A sample holder 20, the two plates of organic, are open to a combustion fire window 30 and window 31, used for combustion of the sample, the sample holder 20 near the seam on the right and left side, respectively, the lower plate opening a positioning hole 32 for fixing the sample holder 20. 样品托19上设有一个镂空燃烧孔28和两个定位柱27,定位柱27与定位通孔32相配合。 The sample holder is provided with a hollow bore 28 and two combustion positioning posts 27, the posts 27 and the positioning hole 32 fitted on the positioning through 19. 两个测温热电偶A21和热电偶B22固定在样品托19上方,呈悬空状,通过热电偶接线端子23与A/D转换模块24相连。 Two thermocouples and thermocouple A21 B22 is fixed above the sample holder 19, was suspended state, terminal 23 is connected to A / D converter module 24 via thermocouple wires. 将滤纸样品放于样品夹持器20中央,合紧样品夹持器20,通过定位通孔32固定在样品托19上,关闭室门。 The filter sample was placed in the center of the sample holder 20, the sample holder 20 is securely closed, the positioning through-hole 32 is fixed to the sample holder 19, chamber door was closed. 关闭球阀B16,打开球阀A15,启动真空泵14 (抽速2L/s),当高精度真空压力表26指示10Pa时,关闭球阀A15。 Close the valve B16, opening ball valve A15, the vacuum pump 14 (pumping speed 2L / s), when the precision vacuum gauge 26 indicates 10Pa, close the ball valve A15. 根据试验气体总压计算所需氮气和氧气分压,打开氮气瓶5和流量调节阀A7,通过质量流量计A6控制通入燃烧室的氮气量;同理,打开氧气瓶8和流量调节阀BIO,通过质量流量计B9控制通入燃烧室的氧气量。 The test to calculate the required total pressure and the oxygen partial pressure of nitrogen gas, the nitrogen cylinder 5 is opened and the flow regulating valve A7, the amount of nitrogen introduced into the combustion chamber through a mass flow meter control A6; Similarly, open the cylinder 8 and the flow rate control valve BIO the amount of oxygen into the combustion chamber through a mass flow meter control B9. 气体配好完毕后,关闭流量调节阀A7与流量调节阀B10,打开流量调节阀C13,启动微型气泵ll,促进燃烧室壳体l内气流循环,使气流更加均匀,当氧浓度传感器(氧化锆)12指示氧浓度不变时,关闭流量调节阀C 13和微型气泵ll。 Gas with a good finished, closes the flow control valve and the flow regulating valve BlO A7, the flow regulating valve is opened C13, micro-pump startup ll, l housing facilitate air circulation inside the combustion chamber, the air flow more uniform, when the oxygen concentration sensor (zirconia ) indicative of the oxygen concentration constant at 12, closes the flow control valve and micro-pump C 13 ll. 打开真空泵14,微调球阀A15,将压力调至某一海拔高度对应压力,关闭真空泵14、球阔A15。 The vacuum pump 14, the ball valve trim A15, the pressure was adjusted to a pressure corresponding to the altitude, the vacuum pump 14, the ball wide A15. 打开激光器,激光通过单晶锡化锌18打在滤纸一端,滤纸点燃后火焰从一端移至另一端,先后经过热电偶A21、热电偶B22、热电偶接线端子23,电压信号经A/D转换模块24传至上位计算机25上,分别测得两条曲线,曲线中最高点对应火焰经过热电偶时的温度,记下两最高温并点时间,计算时间差,用两热电偶间的距离除以时间差,即可得到滤纸的燃烧速率。 Open lasers, laser 18 by single crystal of tin, zinc hit the end of the filter paper, filter paper to ignite the flame from one end to another end, has a thermocouple through A21, thermocouple B22, thermocouple terminals 23, the voltage signal by the A / D converter 25, respectively, as measured 24 to the host computer module two curves, the curve corresponding to the highest point of the flame temperature through thermocouple, note the two highest temperature and time point, the time difference is calculated, by dividing the distance between the two thermocouples the time difference, the burning rate can be obtained filter paper.

Claims (5)

  1. 1. 一种高原人工富氧环境可燃物燃烧速率测试装置,其特征是该装置由燃烧室、定位机构、配气系统、气流循环与浓度监测系统、抽真空系统、点火系统和数据采集系统七部分组成;其中所述燃烧室由室门(2)、密封条(3)和燃烧室壳体(1)构成,密封条(3)通过室门(2)上的环形凹槽固定,当关闭室门时,采用螺栓固定,抽真空会导致外界大气压高于室内压力,从而将室门压紧,密封条与燃烧室壳体外壁吻合,保证气密性;燃烧室内下部放置一片石棉垫(29),当激光点燃样品时,不会直接灼烧燃烧室材质,通过石棉垫将热量吸收,保护了燃烧室壳体;燃烧室内体积的大小由所燃烧样品的质量和所需气体组分浓度决定;燃烧室内气体总压能通过高精度真空压力表(26)读出;所述定位机构由样品托(19)和样品夹持器(20)组成,样品托(19)上设有一个镂空燃烧孔(28)和两 An artificial oxygen rich combustible plateau burning rate test device, characterized in that the device consists of a combustion chamber, the positioning means, gas distribution systems, air circulation and the concentration monitoring system, vacuum system, ignition system and data acquisition systems seven parts; wherein said combustion chamber is constituted by a door (2), the sealing strip (3) and the combustion chamber housing (1), the sealing strip (3) by an annular groove on the door (2) is fixed, when the closing when the chamber door, bolted, vacuum chamber leads to above the ambient atmospheric pressure, so that the compression chamber door, sealing the combustion chamber outer housing wall strip coincide, to ensure air tightness; a lower combustion chamber disposed an asbestos mat (29 ), when the laser ignites the sample, the material does not directly fired combustion chamber, the heat absorbed by the asbestos mat to protect the combustor housing; the volume of the combustion chamber is determined by the size and quality of the desired concentration of the combustion gas component sample ; total pressure of the combustion chamber gas with high accuracy by a vacuum gauge (26) is read out; the positioning mechanism by a sample holder (19) and sample holder (20) composed of a hollow burner is provided on the sample holder (19) hole (28) and two 定位柱(27),定位柱(27)与定位通孔(32)相配合;两个对称定位柱(27)用于样品夹持器定位,镂空燃烧孔(28)便于室内气体对流通过;样品夹持器由上、下两片薄板组成,中央分别镂空形成上燃烧窗(30)、下燃烧窗(31),放置样品时,只需将夹子打开,将样品平铺在夹持器中央,然后夹合,依靠夹持器材质自身重力压紧样品,放置于样品托上;在燃烧过程中,只有燃烧窗部位的可燃物能够燃烧,其余部会保持完好,这样能根据燃烧样品大小来改变样品托镂空燃烧孔和样品夹持器上、下燃烧窗的大小;所述配气系统由氮气瓶(5)、质量流量计A(6)、流量调节阀A(7)、氧气瓶(8)、质量流量计B(9)和流量调节阀B(10)组成,根据所需气量进行配送,气体经气瓶减压后流入质量流量计,进行流量累积计量,经控制流量的流量调节阀后进入燃烧室;所述气流循环与浓度监测系 Positioning column (27), positioning column (27) with positioning through-hole (32) cooperates; two symmetrical positioning posts (27) for positioning the sample holder, the combustion hollow bore (28) to facilitate a gas chamber by convection; Sample holder from the upper and lower sheets composed of two, respectively central combustion window (30) formed on the hollow, fire window (31), when the sample is placed, simply open the clip, the sample was plated in the center of the holder, then sandwich, relying on gravity holder pressing material sample placed on the sample holder; in the combustion process, only the window portion of the combustion fuel can be combusted, the remaining portion will remain intact, so that the combustion can be varied according to a sample size of samples hollow holder and the sample holder hole burning, fire window size; the gas distribution system by a nitrogen bottle (5), a mass flow meter a (6), the flow rate control valve a (7), an oxygen bottle (8) , mass flow meter B (9) and the flow rate control valve B (10) consisting, for distribution according to the amount of gas flowing into the cylinder through the gas mass flowmeter under reduced pressure, the cumulative traffic measurement, the flow rate through the flow control regulating valve into the combustion chamber; and the airflow circulating concentration monitoring system 由微型气泵(11)、流量调节阀C(13)和氧浓度传感器(12)构成,当燃烧室内气压稳定后,打开流量调节阀C,启动微型气泵,燃烧室内气体经过流量调节阀、燃烧室和氧浓度传感器进行闭路循环流动,对燃烧室内气体进行混合;所述抽真空系统由真空泵(14)、球阀A(15)和球阀B(16)组成,对燃烧室进行抽真空操作。 A micro-pump (11), the flow regulating valve C (13) and an oxygen concentration sensor (12) configured, when the combustion chamber pressure stabilized, the flow regulating valve C is opened, starting micro-pump, the combustion chamber through the gas flow rate control valve, a combustion chamber and an oxygen concentration sensor for closed loop flow of mixed gas in the combustion chamber; the vacuum system by the vacuum pump (14), the ball valve A (15) and the ball valve B (16) consisting of a combustion chamber for vacuuming operation. 取放样品时,燃烧室外部空气通过球阀A流入燃烧室,使燃烧室内外压力平衡,从而可以打开室门进行取放样操作;抽真空时,关闭燃烧室室门,打开真空泵,再打开球阀B,真空泵将燃烧室内气体抽至外部;所述点火系统由激光器(17)、单晶锡化锌(18)组成,激光器发出的高强度激光通过单晶锡化锌进入燃烧室,高温光点打在样品一端,使样品点燃;所述数据采集系统由测温热电偶A(21)、热电偶B(22)、热电偶接线端(23)、A/D转换模块(24)和上位计算机(25)组成,测温热电偶A(21)和热电偶B(22)固定在样品托(19)上方,呈悬空状,通过热电偶接线端子(23)与A/D转换模块(24)相连;热电偶产生的电压信号经热电偶接线端子后输入A/D模块,模拟信号A/D模块转化为数字信号,再传至上位计算机,经软件绘出温度曲线,并能进行实时显示和数据保存。 When handling the sample, the combustion chamber inflow of external air through a ball valve A combustion chamber pressure balance inside and outside the combustion chamber, which can be taken to open the compartment door loft operation; during evacuation, the door closed combustion chamber, the vacuum pump, and then open the ball valve B the vacuum pump draws gas in the combustion chamber to the outside; the ignition system by a laser (17), a single crystal of tin, zinc (18), with high-intensity laser beam emitted by a laser into the combustion chamber by single crystal of tin, zinc, play spot temperature One end of the sample, the sample ignite; the data acquisition system by a thermocouple A (21), a thermocouple B (22), the thermocouple terminals (23), A / D converter module (24) and host computer ( 25) composition, thermocouple A (21) and a thermocouple B (22) is fixed above the sample holder (19), was suspended state, terminals are connected by a thermocouple (23) and the A / D converter module (24) ; the voltage signal generated by the thermocouple thermocouple input terminal a / D module, the analog signal is a / D module into a digital signal, and transmits it to the upper computer, temperature curve plotted by software, and can display real-time data and save.
  2. 2. 如权利要求l所述的高原人工富氧环境可燃物燃烧速率测试装置,其特征是可燃物燃烧速率测试过程如下:首先,将样品通过样品夹持器安装在样品托上,然后,通过真空系统对燃烧室抽真空,之后,各单一高纯气体经质量流量计和流量调节阀在密封室内混合,通过质量流量计控制各气体的百分比,由高精度真空压力表显示气体总压,当满足所气体总压和气体组分要求时,启动微型气泵对密封室内气体进行混合,通过氧浓度传感器监测气体组分浓度,浓度稳定后启动激光器,激光经单晶锡化锌后点燃样品,样品燃烧时,火焰先后通过两热电偶,热电偶产生的热电动势为电压信号,通过A/D转换模块和上位计算机得到热电偶温度变化曲线,选取两条热电偶对应曲线最高温度点间的时间差作为样品在两个固定距离热电偶间的燃烧时间,从而得出样品在该 2. Plateau artificial oxygen rich fuel burning rate test apparatus according to claim l, characterized in that the burning rate of the combustible test were as follows: First, the sample holder through the sample mounted on the sample holder, and then, by the vacuum system was evacuated to the combustion chamber, then, each of the single high purity gas flow through the mass flow meter and control valve in a sealed mixing chamber, the flow meter through controlling the percentage of each gas quality, high-precision vacuum gauge shows the total pressure of the gas, when when the total pressure of the gas satisfies the requirements and gaseous components, micro-pump startup sealing gas mixing chamber, the gas component concentration is monitored by an oxygen concentration sensor, the concentration of stabilized after starting the laser, after the single crystal of tin, zinc laser ignition samples, the sample burning flame has passed two thermocouples, thermo-electromotive force generated by the thermocouple into a voltage signal, a thermocouple temperature obtained by a / D converter module and the host computer curve, select the time difference between two points corresponding to the maximum temperature of the thermocouple as curve samples burning time between two thermocouples fixed distance, so as to arrive at the sample 种气体总压和气体组分浓度下的燃烧速率。 Species burning rate under pressure and gas composition the total concentration of the gas.
  3. 3. 如权利要求l所述的高原人工富氧环境可燃物燃烧速率测试装置,其特征是燃烧室室门上设一透明有机玻璃窗(4),能对室内燃烧过程实时监测。 Plateau artificial oxygen rich fuel burning rate testing device l according to claim 2, characterized in that a transparent organic glass window is provided (4) on the combustion chamber door, the combustion chamber can be real-time monitoring process.
  4. 4. 如权利要求l所述高原人工富氧环境可燃物燃烧速率测试装置,其特征是所述的定位机构通过圆柱和通孔对齐,通过镂空燃烧孔和上、下燃烧窗保证了不同样品燃烧部分相同, 确保了取样的精确度。 4. The artificial plateau claim l oxygen rich fuel combustion rate of the test apparatus, wherein said positioning means are aligned by the cylinder and the through hole, and through the hollow hole burning on the window to ensure that the fire burning different samples the same parts, to ensure the accuracy of sampling.
  5. 5. 如权利要求1所述的高原人工富氧环境可燃物燃烧速率测试装置,其特征是所述的点火系统采用激光点火,激光通过固定在燃烧室壳体上的单晶体进入室内,避免了明火点火过程中可燃气体的增加和室内氧量的消耗。 5. The artificial oxygen rich plateau Fuel combustion rate of the test apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said ignition system uses a laser firing, a single crystal by the laser into the interior of the combustion chamber is fixed to the housing, to avoid the fire and increase the indoor oxygen consumption during ignition of combustible gas.
CN 200910076141 2009-01-09 2009-01-09 Combustible burning rate test device in plateau artificial oxygen-enriched environment CN101509908B (en)

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