CN101496110B - Distortion estimation and cancellation in memory devices - Google Patents

Distortion estimation and cancellation in memory devices Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101496110B
CN101496110B CN2007800261211A CN200780026121A CN101496110B CN 101496110 B CN101496110 B CN 101496110B CN 2007800261211 A CN2007800261211 A CN 2007800261211A CN 200780026121 A CN200780026121 A CN 200780026121A CN 101496110 B CN101496110 B CN 101496110B
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China
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described
voltage level
cross
memory cell
analog memory
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CN2007800261211A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101496110A (en
Inventor
O·沙尔维
N·萨莫
E·格吉
A·梅斯罗斯
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苹果公司
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Priority to US74710606P priority Critical
Priority to US60/747,106 priority
Priority to US80653306P priority
Priority to US60/806,533 priority
Priority to US82706706P priority
Priority to US60/827,067 priority
Priority to US86739906P priority
Priority to US60/867,399 priority
Priority to US88502407P priority
Priority to US60/885,024 priority
Priority to US88642907P priority
Priority to US60/886,429 priority
Application filed by 苹果公司 filed Critical 苹果公司
Priority to PCT/IL2007/000576 priority patent/WO2007132453A2/en
Priority claimed from CN201210303689.6A external-priority patent/CN103208309B/en
Publication of CN101496110A publication Critical patent/CN101496110A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C11/00Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor
    • G11C11/56Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency
    • G11C11/5657Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency using ferroelectric storage elements

Abstract

A method for operating a memory (28) includes storing data in a group of analog memory cells (32) of the memory as respective first voltage levels. After storing the data, second voltage levels are read from the respective analog memory cells. The second voltage levels are affected by cross-coupling interference causing the second voltage levels to differ from the respective first voltage levels. Cross-coupling coefficients, which quantify the cross-coupling interference among the analog memory cells, are estimated by processing the second voltage levels. The data stored in the group of analog memory cells is reconstructed from the read second voltage levels using the estimated cross-coupling coefficients.

Description

Distortion estimation in the memory device and elimination

The cross reference of related application

The application requires to enjoy the rights and interests of following patented claim: the U.S. Provisional Patent Application 60/747 that is filed on May 12nd, 2006,106, be filed in the U.S. Provisional Patent Application 60/867 on November 28th, 2006,399, be filed in the U.S. Provisional Patent Application 60/806 on July 4th, 2006,533, be filed in the U.S. Provisional Patent Application 60/827 on September 27th, 2006,067, be filed in the U.S. Provisional Patent Application 60/885 on January 16th, 2007,024 and be filed in the U.S. Provisional Patent Application 60/886 on January 24th, 2007,429, the disclosure of above-mentioned application is all included in herein to quote mode at this.

Technical field

The application relates generally to memory device, is specifically related to the method and system of estimating and compensating for to the distortion of memory device.

Background technology

Multiple memory device, for example flash memory and dynamic RAM (DRAM) are stored data with the analog memory cell array.For example, in April, 2003 in " Introduction to FlashMemory " that IEEE journal 91 volumes the 4th phase 489-502 page or leaf is delivered by people such as Bez, flash memory device has been described, the document is all included this paper in to quote mode herein.

In this type of memory device, each analog memory cell generally includes a transistor, and this transistor has kept the electric charge of some, and described electric charge represents to be stored in the information in the described storage unit.Write " threshold voltage " of the described storage unit of charge affects of a particular memory location, also, need to apply voltage to storage unit so that the electric current of described storage unit conduction some.

Some memory devices are commonly referred to " single layer cell " (SLC) equipment, store single bit of information in each storage unit.Usually, the scope of the possible threshold voltage of described storage unit is divided into two zones.The magnitude of voltage that falls into a zone in these two zones represents bit value " 0 ", and belongs to another regional magnitude of voltage representative " 1 ".More highdensity equipment is commonly referred to " multilevel-cell " (MLC) equipment, two or more bits of each cell stores.In multilevel-cell, the scope of threshold voltage is divided into more than two zones, and wherein each Regional Representative is more than a bit.

For example, " the MultilevelFlash Cells and their Trade-Offs " that is delivered by people such as Eitan on the 169-172 page or leaf on the journal of the international electron device conferences of IEEE in 1996 (IEDM) of holding in the New York, New York, described multilayer flash cell and equipment, the document is all included this paper at this in to quote mode.The document compares several multilayer flash cells, for example altogether type, DINOR type, AND type, NOR type and NAND type storage unit.

The solid-state devices that the people such as Eitan held in the Tokyo on September 21st to 24,1999 and the journal of material international conference (SSDM) the 522nd to 524 page deliver " Can NROM; a2-bit; Trapping Storage NVM Cell; Give a Real Challenge toFloating Gate Cells? " another kind of analog memory cell has been described, be called nitride ROM (NROM), the document is included this paper at this in to quote mode.3~7 February in 2002 in " A 512 MbNROM Flash Data Storage Memory with 8 MB/s Data Rate " that the 100-101 page or leaf of the journal of the international solid electronic device association of IEEE that the California, USA city of san francisco is held (ISSCC 2002) is delivered by people such as Maayan, described the NROM storage unit, it includes this paper in to quote mode herein.

Other exemplary types of analog memory cell are ferroelectric RAM (FRAM) unit, magnetic RAM (MRAM) unit, charge-trapping flash memory (CTF) and phase transformation RAM (PRAM is also referred to as phase transition storage PCM) unit.For example, in " the Future Memory Technologyincluding Emerging New Memories " that delivered by Kim and Koh on (MIEL) journal first volume 377-384 of the international association of the 24th the microelectronics page or leaf that 16 to 19 May in 2004, the Nis at Studenica Monastery held, described FRAM, MRAM and PRAM unit, it all includes this paper in to quote mode herein.

Read the sometimes distortion of threshold voltage of self simulation storage unit.This distortion has various reason, for example be coupled from the electric field of consecutive storage unit, by array in memory access operation on other storage unit and the interference noise and because the threshold voltage drift that ageing equipment causes that cause.Some common distortion mechanism are described in the article of above quoting by people such as Bez.In " Effects of Floating Gate Interference on NAND FlashMemory Cell Operation " that IEEE electron device wall bulletin (23:5) the 264-266 page or leaf in May, 2002 is delivered, the people such as Lee have also described in distortion effect, and it all includes this paper in to quote mode herein.

United States Patent (USP) 5,867,429, a kind of method for the electric field at the floating grid coupling of the read-only storage of high-density flash electro-erasable programmable (EEPROM) cell array is compensated has been described, its disclosure is all included this paper at this in to quote mode.According to disclosed method, be to compensate with the state of the storage unit of the storage unit field that just is being read coupling by at first reading all to reading of a storage unit.Then number that will be relevant with the state of the storage unit of each coupling or floating grid voltage multiply by the coupling ratio between the storage unit.Breakpoint level between each state of each storage unit is to have compensated coupling by one to adjust from the amount of the voltage of consecutive storage unit.

Summary of the invention

Embodiment of the present invention provide a kind of method for operational store, comprising:

Data are stored in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level, and described the first voltage level is selected from the set of possible values;

After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level;

Process described second voltage level to obtain corresponding hard decision, each hard decision is all corresponding to the analog value in the possible values of described the first voltage level;

Estimate cross-coupling coefficient based on described second voltage level and corresponding hard decision, the cross-couplings that this cross-coupling coefficient quantizes between the described analog memory cell is disturbed; And

Use estimated cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the second voltage level reconstruct of reading.

In some embodiments, estimating that cross-coupling coefficient comprises uses the piece estimation procedure to process described second voltage level and corresponding hard decision.Alternatively, estimate that cross-coupling coefficient comprises that use converges to the sequence estimation process of described cross-coupling coefficient with the described second voltage level of P-SCAN and corresponding hard decision.Estimate that cross-coupling coefficient can comprise that minimizing of employing is at the estimation procedure of the described second voltage level that reads and the distance metric between the corresponding hard decision.

In one embodiment, described method comprises that not only based on reading from the second voltage level of the first analog memory cell but also based on the second voltage level that reads from the second analog memory cell, estimation is disturbed by the cross-couplings for described the second analog memory cell that described the first analog memory cell causes in described storer.

In another embodiment, reconstruct data comprises that using one of following process that described cross-couplings is disturbed removes from described second voltage level, described process is: linear equalization process, decision feedback equalization (DFE) process, maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation procedure and maximum-likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) process.In another embodiment, estimate described cross-coupling coefficient in the processing stage of estimating that cross-coupling coefficient and reconstruct data are included in first, and follow-up in described first the processing stage second the processing stage in eliminate estimated cross-couplings interference.In another embodiment, estimate that cross-coupling coefficient and reconstruct data comprise the follow-up situation of estimated cross-coupling coefficient for described second processing stage, and and if only if just repeat described first when failing the described data of reconstruct the processing stage.

In a disclosed embodiment, the storage data comprise uses error correcting code (ECC) the described data of encoding, and reconstruct data comprises based on estimated cross-coupling coefficient computing error correction tolerance and uses the described ECC of described error correction tolerance decoding.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of method for operational store also is provided, comprising:

Data are stored in the analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level, and the subset of wherein said analog memory cell has related distortion;

After the described data of storage, the one or more analog memory cells from described subset read corresponding second voltage level, and this second voltage level is described the first voltage level owing to described related distortion is different from;

The second voltage level from described one or more analog memory cells is read in processing, in order to estimate the corresponding degree of distortion (distortion level) in described second voltage level;

Other analog memory cells from described subset read a second voltage level;

Based on the corresponding degree of distortion of the one or more analog memory cells in the estimated described subset, the degree of distortion in the second voltage level of described other analog memory cells is read in prediction;

Use the degree of distortion of prediction, proofread and correct the second voltage level that reads from described other analog memory cells; And

Based on the second voltage level of proofreading and correct, the data that reconstruct is stored in described other analog memory cells.

In some embodiments, the subset of storage unit comprises at least one the subset type that is selected from following one group of subset type: be positioned at storage unit on the common bit lines, be positioned at storage unit on the common word line, have the storage unit of omnibus circuit and the storage unit that approaches of position each other.

In one embodiment, process the second voltage level and comprise the only single value of buffer memory, the degree of distortion of the second voltage level that reads in one or more analog memory cells of this value indication from described subset, and wherein the predicted distortion degree comprises the degree of distortion of calculating prediction based on the described single value of buffer memory.In another embodiment, predicted distortion comprises that the subset of following the trail of for described analog memory cell is total distortion parameter, and described distortion parameter is stored in the data structure.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of method for operational store also is provided, comprising:

Be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level;

Carry out memory access operations on the first analog memory cell in described storer;

In response to the memory access operations of carrying out, the second analog memory cell from described storer reads the second voltage level;

Process described second voltage level, thereby estimate the disturbance level (level of disturbance) in described second voltage level, this disturbance level is caused by the memory access operations of carrying out at described the first analog memory cell;

Use estimated disturbance level, proofread and correct described second voltage level; And

Based on the second voltage level of proofreading and correct, the data that reconstruct is stored in described the second analog memory cell.

In some embodiments, memory access operations comprises at least a operation that is selected from following one group of operation: programming operation, read operation and erase operation.Process and proofread and correct the second voltage level and can comprise estimated disturbance level and predefine level are made comparisons, and if only if estimated disturbance level is just proofreaied and correct described second voltage level during above described predefine level.In one embodiment, proofread and correct the second voltage level and comprise the data reprogramming of storing in described the second analog memory cell.In another embodiment, proofreading and correct the second voltage level comprises and will be stored in data Replica in described the second analog memory cell in other analog memory cells that are different from described the second analog memory cell.Alternatively, proofread and correct the second voltage level and can comprise the first voltage level that increases for storing data in described the second analog memory cell.Can during the idle period of described data not being done storage and reading, carry out the processing to the second voltage level.

In a disclosed embodiment, read the second voltage level and comprise from corresponding a plurality of the second analog memory cells and read a plurality of second voltage level, and process the second voltage level to comprise a plurality of because memory access operations and assess to the second analog memory cell of program level from wiping level conversion.In another embodiment, the storage data comprise described data are stored in a plurality of groups of described analog memory cell in proper order, read the second voltage level and comprise with backward and read a plurality of groups of described analog memory cell, and process the second voltage level and comprise the disturbance level of estimating that the second voltage in response to the analog memory cell in described group that read causes described the first analog memory cell before described the first analog memory cell.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of method for operational store also is provided, comprising:

Be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level;

After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, at least some in the described second voltage level are different from corresponding the first voltage level;

Identification causes potentially for the subset that reads from the analog memory cell of the distortion of the second voltage level of target simulation storage unit;

Based on data is stored in corresponding time in the described analog memory cell and data and is stored in relation between time in the described target simulation storage unit, and the analog memory cell in the described subset is divided into a plurality of classes;

Estimate the corresponding distortion that caused for the second voltage level in the described target simulation storage unit by the analog memory cell in such for each of described class;

Use to be each the estimated corresponding distortion in the one or more classes in the described class, proofread and correct the second voltage level that reads from described target simulation storage unit; And

Based on the second voltage level of proofreading and correct, the data that reconstruct is stored in described target simulation storage unit.

In some embodiments, storage data and read the second voltage level and comprise application programming and checking (P﹠amp; V) process.In one embodiment, the classification analog memory cell comprises that the ratio described target simulation storage unit more new near-earth of identification in the described subset stores data in analog memory cell wherein, and wherein proofreaies and correct the second voltage level and comprise based on the distortion in the analog memory cell of identifying only and proofread and correct the second voltage level that reads from described target simulation storage unit.In a substituting embodiment, the classification analog memory cell comprises: the definition first kind, and it is included in the more new near-earth of the described target simulation storage unit of ratio in the described subset and stores data in wherein analog memory cell; Equations of The Second Kind, it is included in the described target simulation storage unit of ratio in the described subset and earlier stores data in wherein analog memory cell; With the 3rd class, it is included in and stores data in concomitantly wherein analog memory cell with described target simulation storage unit in the described subset.

In another embodiment, reading second voltage level, distortion estimator and correction second voltage level comprises, process the second voltage level that reads from described target simulation storage unit with first resolution, and to process the second voltage level that reads the analog memory cell in described subset than the more coarse second resolution of described first resolution.In another embodiment, the storage data comprise the time mark when the described data of storage are stored in described analog memory cell, and the classification analog memory cell comprises the mark that inquiry is stored.In another embodiment, distortion estimator comprises in response at least one parameter that is selected from following one group of parameter and comes the distortion estimator degree, and described parameter comprises: the programming number of times of described analog memory cell, be stored in the number of times of programming-erase cycles that the data in the described analog memory cell, described analog memory cell have experienced recently with respect to position and the described Destination Storage Unit of described target simulation storage unit.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of method for operational store also is provided, comprising:

Accept to be used for being stored in the data of described storer;

Determine corresponding the first voltage level, be used for one group of analog memory cell programming to described storer, thereby so that the analog value of the physical quantity of the described data of described analog memory cell storage expression;

Use the first voltage level of determining that the analog memory cell in described group is programmed;

After to the programming of described analog memory cell, read the second voltage level and from described second voltage level reconstruct data from corresponding analog memory cell.

In some embodiments, determine that the first voltage level comprises when being stored in described data in the target simulation storage unit, the distortion for the value that is stored in the physical quantity in the described target simulation storage unit that is caused by the value that is stored in the physical quantity in one or more other analog memory cells is estimated, and proofreaied and correct in advance first voltage level of programming for described target simulation storage unit in response to estimated distortion.In another embodiment, reconstruct data comprises: when reading described second voltage level, based on the second voltage level that reads the distortion for the value that is stored in the physical quantity in the target simulation storage unit that is caused by the value that is stored in the physical quantity in one or more other analog memory cells is estimated; Use estimated distortion correction to read second voltage level from described target simulation storage unit; And be stored in data in the described target simulation storage unit based on the second voltage level reconstruct of proofreading and correct.

The programming analog memory cell can comprise the first voltage level that checking has been programmed.In some embodiments, physical quantity comprises electric charge.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of method for operational store also is provided, comprising:

Be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level;

After the described data of storage, the analog memory cell from described group reads the second voltage level, and at least some in the described second voltage level are different from corresponding the first voltage level;

Estimate to read the degree of distortion in the second voltage level in described analog memory cell; And

When estimated degree of distortion has been violated predetermined distortion criterion, described data are reprogrammed in the analog memory cell of described storer.

In some embodiments, predetermined distortion criterion comprises the thresholding of the degree of distortion of a definition largest tolerable.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of method for operational store also is provided, comprising:

Be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level;

After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, at least some in the described second voltage level are different from corresponding the first voltage level;

Identification causes potentially for the subset that reads from the analog memory cell of the distortion of the second voltage level of target simulation storage unit;

The first instantaneous the second instantaneous poor between the second degree of distortion of described target simulation storage unit that is caused by the analog memory cell in described subset that is read for the first degree of distortion of described target simulation storage unit and described target simulation storage unit that is caused by the analog memory cell in described subset that estimation is programmed in described target simulation storage unit; And

It is estimated poor to use, and proofreaies and correct the second voltage level that reads from described target simulation storage unit.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of method for operational store also is provided, comprising:

Be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level;

After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level;

Estimate cross-coupling coefficient, it disturbs quantification by processing described second voltage level with the cross-couplings between the described analog memory cell; And

Use estimated cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the second voltage level reconstruct of reading.

In some embodiments, not only based on reading from the second voltage level of the first analog memory cell but also based on the second voltage level that reads from the second analog memory cell, assessment was disturbed for the cross-couplings that the second analog memory cell in the storer causes by the first analog memory cell.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Interface, its functionally with the memory communication that comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described interface and is arranged to: corresponding first voltage level of data as the set that is selected from possible values is stored in one group of analog memory cell; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level; Process described second voltage level to obtain corresponding hard decision, each hard decision is all corresponding to the analog value in the possible values of described the first voltage level; Estimate cross-coupling coefficient based on described second voltage level and corresponding hard decision, the cross-couplings that this cross-coupling coefficient quantizes between the described analog memory cell is disturbed; And use estimated cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the reconstruct of described second voltage level.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Interface, its functionally with the memory communication that comprises a plurality of analog memory cells, the subset of the analog memory cell of described storer has related distortion; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described interface and is arranged to: data are stored in the described analog memory cell as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, the one or more analog memory cells from described subset read corresponding second voltage level, and this second voltage level is described the first voltage level owing to described related distortion is different from; The second voltage level from described one or more analog memory cells is read in processing, in order to estimate the corresponding degree of distortion in described second voltage level; Other analog memory cells from described subset read a second voltage level; Based on the corresponding degree of distortion of the one or more analog memory cells in the estimated described subset, the degree of distortion in the second voltage level of described other analog memory cells is read in prediction; Use the degree of distortion of prediction, proofread and correct the second voltage level that reads from described other analog memory cells; And based on the second voltage level of proofreading and correct, the data that reconstruct is stored in described other analog memory cells.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Interface, its functionally with the memory communication that comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described interface and is arranged to: data are stored in one group of analog memory cell as corresponding the first voltage level; Carry out memory access operations on the first analog memory cell in described storer; In response to the memory access operations of carrying out, the second analog memory cell from described storer reads the second voltage level; Process described second voltage level, thereby estimate the disturbance level in described second voltage level, this disturbance level is caused by the memory access operations of carrying out at described the first analog memory cell; Use estimated disturbance level, proofread and correct described second voltage level; And based on the second voltage level of proofreading and correct, the data that reconstruct is stored in described the second analog memory cell.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Interface, its functionally with the memory communication that comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described interface and is arranged to: data are stored in one group of analog memory cell as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, at least some in the described second voltage level are different from corresponding the first voltage level; Identification causes potentially for the subset that reads from the analog memory cell of the distortion of the second voltage level of target simulation storage unit; Based on data is stored in corresponding time in the described analog memory cell and data and is stored in relation between time in the described target simulation storage unit, and the analog memory cell in the described subset is divided into a plurality of classes; Estimate the corresponding distortion that caused for the second voltage level in the described target simulation storage unit by the analog memory cell in such for each of described class; Use to be each the estimated corresponding distortion in the one or more classes in the described class, proofread and correct the second voltage level that reads from described target simulation storage unit; And based on the second voltage level of proofreading and correct, the data that reconstruct is stored in described target simulation storage unit.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Interface, its functionally with the memory communication that comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described interface and is arranged to: the data of accepting to be used for being stored in described storer; Determine corresponding the first voltage level, be used for one group of analog memory cell programming, thereby so that the analog value of the physical quantity of the described data of described analog memory cell storage expression; Use described the first voltage level that the analog memory cell in described group is programmed; After to described analog memory cell programming, read the second voltage level from corresponding analog memory cell; And from described second voltage level reconstruct data.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Interface, its functionally with the memory communication that comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described interface and is arranged to: data are stored in one group of analog memory cell as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, the analog memory cell from described group reads the second voltage level, and at least some in the described second voltage level are different from corresponding the first voltage level; Estimate to read the degree of distortion in the second voltage level in described analog memory cell; And when estimated degree of distortion has been violated predetermined distortion criterion, described data are reprogrammed in the analog memory cell in described group.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Interface, its functionally with the memory communication that comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described interface and is arranged to: be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, at least some in the described second voltage level are different from corresponding the first voltage level; Identification causes potentially for the subset that reads from the analog memory cell of the distortion of the second voltage level of target simulation storage unit; The first instantaneous the second instantaneous poor between the second degree of distortion of described target simulation storage unit that is caused by the analog memory cell in described subset that is read for the first degree of distortion of described target simulation storage unit and described target simulation storage unit that is caused by the analog memory cell in described subset that estimation is programmed in described target simulation storage unit; And use estimated poorly, proofread and correct the second voltage level that reads from described target simulation storage unit.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Interface, its functionally with the memory communication that comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described interface and is arranged to: be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level; Estimate cross-coupling coefficient, it disturbs quantification by processing described second voltage level with the cross-couplings between the described analog memory cell; And use estimated cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the second voltage level reconstruct of reading.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Storer, it comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described storer and is arranged to: corresponding first voltage level of data as the set that is selected from possible values is stored in one group of analog memory cell; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level; Process described second voltage level to obtain corresponding hard decision, each hard decision is corresponding to the analog value in the possible values of described the first voltage level; Estimate cross-coupling coefficient, it is based on described second voltage level and corresponding hard decision, and interference quantizes to the cross-couplings between the described analog memory cell; And use described cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the reconstruct of described second voltage level.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Storer, it comprises a plurality of analog memory cells, and the subset of wherein said storage unit has related distortion; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described storer and is arranged to: data are stored in one group of analog memory cell as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, the one or more analog memory cells from row of array read corresponding second voltage level, and this second voltage level is described the first voltage level owing to distortion is different from; The second voltage level from described one or more analog memory cells is read in processing, in order to estimate the corresponding degree of distortion in described second voltage level; Other analog memory cells from described row read a second voltage level; Based on the corresponding degree of distortion of the one or more analog memory cells in the estimated described row, the degree of distortion in the second voltage level of described other analog memory cells is read in prediction; Use the degree of distortion of predicting, proofread and correct the second voltage level that reads from described other analog memory cells; And based on the second voltage level of proofreading and correct, the data that reconstruct is stored in described other analog memory cells.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Storer, it comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described storer and is arranged to: data are stored in one group of analog memory cell as corresponding the first voltage level; Carry out memory access operations on the first analog memory cell in described storer; In response to the memory access operations of carrying out, the second analog memory cell from described storer reads the second voltage level; Process described second voltage level, thereby estimate the disturbance level in described second voltage level, this disturbance level is caused by the memory access operations of carrying out at described the first analog memory cell; Use estimated disturbance level, proofread and correct described second voltage level; And based on the second voltage level of proofreading and correct, the data that reconstruct is stored in described the second analog memory cell.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Storer, it comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described storer and is arranged to: data are stored in one group of analog memory cell as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, at least some in the described second voltage level are different from corresponding the first voltage level; Identification causes potentially for the subset that reads from the analog memory cell of the distortion of the second voltage level of target simulation storage unit; Based on data is stored in relative time in the described analog memory cell and data and is stored in relation between time in the described target simulation storage unit, and the analog memory cell in the described subset is divided into a plurality of classes; Estimate the corresponding distortion that caused for the second voltage level in the described target simulation storage unit by the analog memory cell in such for each of described class; Use to be each the estimated corresponding distortion in the one or more classes in the described class, proofread and correct the second voltage level that reads from described target simulation storage unit; And based on the second voltage level of proofreading and correct, the data that reconstruct is stored in described target simulation storage unit.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Storer, it comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described storer and is arranged to: the data of accepting to be used for being stored in described storer; Determine corresponding the first voltage level, be used for one group of analog memory cell programming, thereby so that the analog value of the physical quantity of the described data of described analog memory cell storage expression; Use described the first voltage level that the analog memory cell in described group is programmed; After to described analog memory cell programming, read the second voltage level from corresponding analog memory cell; And from described second voltage level reconstruct data.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Storer, it comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described storer and is arranged to: data are stored in one group of analog memory cell as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, the analog memory cell from described group reads the second voltage level, and at least some in the described second voltage level are different from corresponding the first voltage level; Estimate to read the degree of distortion in the second voltage level in described analog memory cell; And when estimated degree of distortion has been violated predetermined distortion criterion, described data are reprogrammed in described group the analog memory cell.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Storer, it comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described storer and is arranged to: be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, at least some in the described second voltage level are different from corresponding the first voltage level; Identification causes potentially for the subset that reads from the analog memory cell of the distortion of the second voltage level of target simulation storage unit; The first instantaneous the second instantaneous poor between the second degree of distortion of described target simulation storage unit that is caused by the analog memory cell in described subset that is read for the first degree of distortion of described target simulation storage unit and described target simulation storage unit that is caused by the analog memory cell in described subset that estimation is programmed in described target simulation storage unit; And use estimated poorly, proofread and correct the second voltage level that reads from described target simulation storage unit.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a kind of data storage device also is provided, comprising:

Storer, it comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And

Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described storer and is arranged to: be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level; Estimate cross-coupling coefficient, it disturbs quantification by processing described second voltage level with the cross-couplings between the described analog memory cell; And use estimated cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the second voltage level reconstruct of reading.

To the detailed description of embodiment of the present invention, in conjunction with following accompanying drawing, can more completely understand the present invention from hereinafter.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the block diagram that schematically shows according to the system that is used for the memory signals processing of one embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram that schematically shows according to the memory cell array of one embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 3 to Fig. 8 is the process flow diagram of method that be used for to estimate and eliminate the distortion of memory cell array that schematically shows according to embodiment of the present invention, and

Fig. 9 is the process flow diagram in the method for memory cell array refresh data of being used for that schematically shows according to embodiment of the present invention.

Embodiment

General introduction

Embodiment of the present invention provide be used for estimating and compensation at the method and system of the distortion of analog memory cell.In the embodiment of describing hereinafter, data are stored as charge level, and it is written into the analog memory cell array.Charge level is determined the corresponding threshold voltage of storage unit.Memory signals processor (MSP) reads voltage level from storage unit, and estimates adaptively to be included in degree of distortion wherein.MSP usually produces the voltage of proofreading and correct, with this proofread and correct, elimination or compensating distortion.The voltage reconstruct that use is proofreaied and correct is stored in the data in the storage unit.

This paper describes several exemplary distortion estimations and removing method.Certain methods is decision-directed, also, uses the output of hard decision cutting procedure.In some cases, what the distortion estimation process was considered is, with respect to the moment that disturbed storage unit is programmed, and the moment that the potential interference storage unit is programmed.Additive method is based on the distortion of other storage unit of the same row (bit line) that are arranged in memory cell array, predicts the distortion in certain storage unit.Some disclosed methods have been proofreaied and correct when distortion forms the turbulent noise that the operation by other storage unit in the array causes.

In some embodiments, use programming and checking (P﹠amp; V) process is programmed to storage unit, and MSP does compensation to the distortion in when programming, perhaps both to when the programming also the distortion at read memory cell the time do compensation.

Replenishing or substituting as what distortion was compensated, MSP can carry out in response to estimated distortion the action of other kinds.For example, when estimated distortion surpassed maximum tolerable degree of distortion, MSP can refresh (that is, reprogramming) data.

Distortion estimation described herein and compensation method can be used to improve with several approach the data memory property of memory device.For example, can reduce the probability of error that when reconstruct data, reaches, can increase accessible memory capacity, and/or can prolong the accessible data maintenance phase.Improved performance can be then used in cost and the complexity that reduces memory device and/or increase their program speed.These improve in to the responsive especially MLC equipment of distortion and are even more important.

System is described

Fig. 1 is the block diagram that schematically shows according to the system 20 that is used for the memory signals processing of one embodiment of the invention.System 20 can be used in the different host computer system and equipment, for example is used for computing equipment, cell phone or other communication terminals, removable memory module (" USB flash disk " equipment), digital camera, music and other media players and/or any other storage and takes out the system or equipment of data.

System 20 comprises memory device 24, and it stores data in the memory cell array 28.Storage array 28 comprises a plurality of analog memory cells 32.In the context of present patent application and in claims, term " analog memory cell " is used for describing the arbitrarily storage unit of the continuous analog value that keeps the physical parameter such as voltage or electric charge.Array 28 can comprise the analog memory cell of any kind, for example, for example, NAND, NOR and CTF flash cell, PCM, NROM, FRAM, MRAM and DRAM unit.Be stored in the charge level in the storage unit and/or write with the aanalogvoltage of reading storage unit and be referred to as in this article the analogue value.

The data that are used for being stored in memory device 24 are provided for described equipment and are buffered in the data buffer 36.Then described data are converted into aanalogvoltage and use in read/write (R/W) unit 40 write storage units 32, and the function of this read/write cell 40 will be described in further detail hereinafter.When from array 28 sense data, read/write cell 40 converts the aanalogvoltage of electric charge and storage unit thus 32 to numeral sample.Each numeral sample has the resolution of one or more bits.These samples are buffered in the impact damper 36.The operation of memory device 24 and sequential are managed by steering logic 48.

Storage and the taking-up of data turnover memory device 24 are carried out by memory signals processor (MSP) 52.As hereinafter being shown in detail, MSP 52 uses novel method, to be used for estimating and being reduced in the various distortion effect of memory cell array 28.

In some embodiments, MSP 52 comprises encoder/decoder 64, and this encoder/decoder 64 uses ECC that the data that will write equipment 24 are encoded, and when data are read from equipment 24 described ECC is decoded.Signal processing unit 60 is processed the data that are written into equipment 24 and take out from equipment 24.Particularly, signal processing unit 60 is estimated the influential distortion of the voltage of reading from storage unit 32.Signal processing unit 60 can compensate or reduce the effect of estimated distortion.Alternatively, signal processing unit 60 can be taked based on estimated distortion the action of other kinds, will describe in detail hereinafter.

MSP 52 comprises data buffer 72, and this data buffer 72 is used for the storage data and is used for mutual with memory device 24 by signal processing unit 60.MSP 52 also comprises I/O (I/O) impact damper 56, and this I/O (I/O) impact damper 56 forms interface between described MSP and described main frame.Operation and the timing of controller 76 management MSP 52.Signal processing unit 60 and controller 76 can be realized with hardware.Alternatively, signal processing unit 60 and/or controller 76 can comprise the microprocessor of the software that operation is suitable, the perhaps combination of hardware and software element.

Configuration among Fig. 1 is exemplary system configuration, and it illustrates for clear concept purely.Also can use arbitrarily other suitable configurations.For clarity sake, for understanding principle of the present invention and non-essential element, for example various interface, addressing circuit, timing and sequencing circuit, data disorder circuit and debug circuit all omit from accompanying drawing.

In the configuration of the example system shown in Fig. 1, memory device 24 and MSP 52 are implemented as two independent integrated circuit (IC).Yet, in an alternative embodiment, described memory device and MSP can be integrated among the single IC or SOC (system on a chip) (SoC) in.In some embodiments, single MSP 52 can be connected to a plurality of memory devices 24.Be further used as alternatively, some or all function of MSP 52 can realize with software, and be carried out by processor or other elements of host computer system.The aspect of the other framework of some embodiment of realization system 20, the U.S. Provisional Patent Application 60/867 of above quoting, in 399, and all including in herein the PCT patented claim that is entitled as " CombinedDistortion Estimation and Error Correction Coding for MemoryDevices " that is filed on May 10th, 2007 to quote mode, described in more detail.

In typical write operation, receive the data of waiting to want write storage device 24 from main frame, and with described data buffer storage in I/O impact damper 56.The described data of encoder/decoder 64 coding, and coded data communication device is crossed data buffer 72 and is sent to memory device 24.Data are being sent to memory device for before programming, MSP 52 can these data of pre-service.In equipment 24, data are stored in the impact damper 36 temporarily.Read/write cell 40 becomes analog voltage with data-switching, and data is write in the suitable storage unit 32 of array 28.

In typical read operation, read/write cell 40 is read analog voltage and is soft numeral sample with described voltage transitions from suitable storage unit 32.Described sample is buffered in the impact damper 36, and is sent to the impact damper 72 of MSP 52.In some embodiments, the signal processing unit 60 of MSP 52 is converted to data bit with voltage sample.As mentioned above, the scope of possible threshold voltage is divided into two or more zones, wherein a certain combination of the one or more data bit of each region representation.When reading cells, signal processing unit 60 is typically compared the amplitude of the voltage sample that reads with one group of decision threshold, so that the zone that the voltage of determining to read falls into, thereby and determines to be stored in data bit in the storage unit.Data block is sent to signal processing unit 60 from impact damper 72, and encoder/decoder 64 is decoded to the ECC of these pieces.Decoded data communication device is crossed I/O impact damper 56 and is sent to main frame.In some embodiments, the ECC demoder comprises soft demoder, and signal processing unit 60 with voltage sample convert to for the decoding ECC soft decoding metrics.

In addition, signal processing unit 60 uses method described below to estimate the distortion that exists in the sample that reads.In some embodiments, with its scramble, and the unrest that will be inverted from the data that storage unit reads is in order to improve the performance of distortion estimation before data are written into storage unit for MSP 52.

Memory array structure and distortion mechanism

Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram that schematically shows according to the memory cell array 28 of one embodiment of the invention.Although Fig. 2 relates to the flash cell that is connected in the particular array configuration, principle of the present invention also can be applicable to storage unit and other array configurations of other types.In the list of references of in the part of background technology above, quoting, some exemplary Storage Unit Type and array configurations have been described.

The storage unit 32 of array 28 is disposed in the grid with a plurality of row and a plurality of row.Each storage unit 32 comprises floating grid metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) (MOS) transistor.By applying suitable voltage level to transistorized grid, source electrode and drain electrode, the electric charge (electronics or hole) of some can be stored in the specific storage unit.The value that is stored in the described storage unit can read by the threshold voltage of measuring described storage unit, and described threshold voltage is defined as making described transistor turns and the minimum voltage that need to apply to described transistorized grid.The threshold voltage that reads is proportional with the electric charge that is stored in the described storage unit.

In the exemplary configuration of Fig. 2, the transistorized grid in every delegation is connected by word line 80.Transistorized source electrode in each row is connected by bit line 84.In some embodiments, for example in some NOR units, source electrode is directly connected to bit line.In an alternative embodiment, for example in some NAND units, bit line is connected to many string floating grids unit.

Usually, read/write cell 40, the grid that is applied to specific storage unit 32 by the voltage level that will change (also is, be applied to the word line that described storage unit is connected to), and whether the drain current that checks described storage unit has surpassed a certain thresholding, the whether conducting of described transistor), read the threshold voltage of this specific storage unit 32.The word line that read/write cell 40 is connected to described storage unit usually applies a series of different magnitude of voltage, and is defined as making drain current to surpass the minimum gate voltage values of described thresholding.Usually, read/write cell 40 reads the storage unit of a full line simultaneously, and the storage unit of this full line is also referred to as page or leaf.

In some embodiments, read/write cell 40 is pre-charged to a certain voltage level by the bit line with described storage unit and measures drain current.In case grid voltage is set to expectation value, drain current just so that bit-line voltage discharge through storage unit.After applying grid voltage several milliseconds, read/write cell 40 is measured bit-line voltages, and bit-line voltage and thresholding are compared.In some embodiments, each bit line 84 is connected to corresponding sensor amplifier, and this sensor amplifier is voltage with the bit line current amplification and with this current conversion.The usage comparison device compares voltage and the thresholding that is exaggerated.

Voltage reading access method as described above is a kind of illustrative methods.As an alternative, read/write cell 40 can come threshold voltage for reading cells 32 with any other method that is fit to.For example, read/write cell 40 can comprise one or more analog to digital converters (ADC), and this analog to digital converter converts bit-line voltage to numeral sample.

Memory cell array is divided into a plurality of pages or leaves usually, also, and the many groups of storage unit of programming simultaneously and reading.In some embodiments, each page comprises a full line of array.In substituting embodiment, each row can be divided into two or more pages or leaves.Wiping usually in comprising a plurality of pages piece of storage unit carried out.Typical memory device can comprise thousands of erase blocks.Although also can use other piece size, typical erase block is 128 pages the order of magnitude, and each erase block comprises thousands of storage unit.

The voltage that is stored in the charge level in the storage unit and reads from storage unit may comprise polytype distortion, and these distortions are to be caused by the different distortion mechanism in the array 28.Some distortion mechanism have affected the actual electric charge that is stored in the storage unit, and other mechanism are so that the voltage distortion of reading.For example, the electric cross-couplings between the consecutive storage unit in the array can be revised the threshold voltage in the particular memory location.This effect is called as the cross-couplings distortion.Again for example, As time goes on electric charge can leak from storage unit.The result of this aging effect is that As time goes on the threshold voltage of described storage unit incites somebody to action and the value drift from writing at first.

The distortion of another kind is commonly called turbulent noise, is to be caused by the memory access operations on some storage unit in the array (for example, reading and writing or erase operation), and this has caused the unexpected electric charge in other storage unit is changed.As another example, can be by the electric charge in the consecutive storage unit (for example other storage unit in same NAND memory cell string), by a kind of effect that is called background patterns correlativity (BPD), affect the source electrode-drain current of particular memory location.

Distortion estimation and removing method

Distortion reduction in the storage unit 32 performance of memory device, for example the probability of error during reconstruct data, accessible memory capacity and accessible data keep the phase.Performance is reduced in the MLC equipment especially serious because in MLC equipment the expression data different voltage levels between poor less.In many cases, As time goes on degree of distortion changes, and also different between a storage unit and another storage unit.Thereby, with adaptive mode distortion estimator and to take action based on estimated distortion be very beneficial.

MSP 52 can adopt various method to come distortion in the assessment of memory cell 32, and eliminates or compensating distortion with estimated degree of distortion.Replenishing or substituting as what distortion was compensated, MSP can carry out based on estimated distortion the action of other kinds.

For example, MSP can come executing data to refresh judgement with estimated distortion.In a kind of typical realization, MSP estimates the degree of distortion of each different cell group (for example memory page).When the distortion in a specific page surpassed a certain tolerable thresholding, MSP refreshed (also namely, reprogramming) to data.

Again for example, MSP can be evaluated at estimated distortion the accessible memory capacity in a certain storage unit or certain the group storage unit.Based on accessible capacity, MSP can revise for the quantity and/or the ECC that store the voltage level of data in corresponding storage unit.Thereby MSP can revise the density of storage data in the storage unit adaptively, to mate their memory capacity, because As time goes on their memory capacity change.Some aspects of using distortion estimation to be used for the storage density of adaptive memory device are described in the PCT patented claim that is entitled as " Memory Device with Adaptive Capacity " that is filed on May 10th, 2007, and the document is all included this paper in to quote mode.

Again for example, MSP can revise decision threshold based on estimated distortion, and the scope that also is about to the possible voltage of storage unit is divided into the thresholding of decision region.MSP can adjust judging threshold with the minimal distortion degree, to minimize the decoding probability of error or to satisfy the performance condition that any other is fit to.MSP also can revise the ECC decoding metrics, log-likelihood ratio (LLR) for example, and this decoding metrics is used the ECC that decodes by the ECC demoder.Such method is for example described in the PCT application " Combined Distortion Estimation and ErrorCorrection Coding for Memory Devices " of above quoting.

Fig. 3 to 8 is the process flow diagrams of method that be used for to estimate and eliminate the distortion of memory cell array 28 that schematically show according to embodiment of the present invention.In the explanation hereinafter, suppose MSP page by page reading cells and distortion estimator degree.Yet in substituting embodiment, MSP can read and process arbitrarily other cell group.For example, MSP can process whole erase block or even independent storage unit.

Fig. 3 is a kind of process flow diagram for estimating and eliminate the method for cross-couplings distortion that schematically shows according to one embodiment of the invention.In some cases, for example in flash memory, the cross-couplings distortion is that the electromagnetic coupled by the electric field of the charge generation that is stored in adjoining memory cell causes.In other cases, for example in the NROM storage unit, the cross-couplings distortion can be caused by other reasons, for example because the rising of the source voltage of the storage unit that shared ground wire causes.

The voltage that reads from a certain storage unit i that affected by cross-couplings generally can be written as:

v i=g(c i)+f(c i,C i)

G (c wherein i) voltage that when all potential interference storage unit all are wiped free of, reads from described storage unit of expression, c iBe illustrated in the charge level among the storage unit i, f (c i, C i) represent that working as the storage unit electric charge is c iThe time coupling effect, and C iThe set of the charge level of expression consecutive storage unit, j ≠ i.

Under some actual conditions, cross-couplings can be come modeling with linear function, so that

v i = g ( c i ) + Σ j ≠ i k ji ( c i ) · c j

K wherein JiThe expression cross-coupling coefficient, also, the cross-couplings amplitude from storage unit j to storage unit i.Coefficient value can depend on the charge level of storage unit sometimes.

In other cases, the cross-couplings that is caused by a certain interference storage unit had both depended on the charge level that disturbs storage unit, also depended on the charge level of disturbed storage unit.In these cases, formula [2] can be written as

v i=k 0·c i+f({c i,c j},j≠i)

The cross-coupling coefficient value can change to another unit from a unit usually, also can change along with the variation of temperature, supply voltage and other conditions.

In read step 90, the method for Fig. 3 starts from MSP 52 and reads voltage from a storage unit page or leaf.It is represented by soft sample that each reads voltage, also namely has the digital value of two or more resolution.Described MSP generates hard decision from the magnitude of voltage that reads.In other words, described MSP one by one storage unit determine most possibly to be written to nominal voltage level in the storage unit.MSP can read each voltage and make comparisons with the different nominal voltage values of the different bit combinations of expression, and determines close to the nominal voltage level that reads voltage.This operation is commonly referred to firmly to be cut apart.

In coefficient estimating step 94, MSP estimates cross-coupling coefficient based on the voltage sample that reads and based on the hard decision of correspondence.Under most of actual conditions, most of hard decisions have reflected the correct bit combination of write storage unit, and it is wrong only having hard decision seldom.Although the error probability of hard decision is not enough to for reconstruct data reliably, it is enough to be used in reliably estimation coefficient usually.

MSP can use any suitable method of estimation to be used for estimating the value of cross-coupling coefficient.Under many actual conditions, coupled systemes numerical value is substantially constant in the whole cell group of having processed.In these cases, MSP can use various estimation technique well known in the art, and these piece estimation techniques are estimated cross-coupling coefficient with whole set and the corresponding hard decision of soft voltage sample.

Alternatively, described MSP can use various in proper order method of estimation well known in the art, its sequentially (for example one by one sample ground) process voltage sample and hard decision, and converge the expectation value of cross-coupling coefficient.Method of estimation can comprise in proper order, for example lowest mean square (LMS) process, recurrence least square (RLS) process, Kalman filter process or any other process that is fit to.

Under some embodiments, estimation procedure attempts to reduce the distance metric (for example Euclidean distance) between the hard decision that reads voltage and correspondence.

For example, when using the LMS process, MSP can estimate following expression formula iteratively

k ji ( t + 1 ) = k ji ( t ) + μ · v j ( t ) · e i ( t )

Wherein t represents the extender index (for example, sample index) that increases progressively according to the sample processed and hard decision.k Ji (t)Be illustrated in the cross-coupling coefficient k of the t time iteration JiEstimated value.μ represents predefined iteration step length, v j (t)Be illustrated in the t time iteration and read voltage sample from storage unit j.e i (t)Be defined as e i ( t ) = v i ( t ) - v ^ i ( t ) , Also namely, the hard decision (nominal voltage) that reads voltage and correspondence of the t time iteration Poor.Note, the charge level that is different from the middle cross-coupling coefficient of above-mentioned formula [2] and storage unit multiplies each other, and cross-coupling coefficient and memory cell voltages multiply each other in the formula [4].

In some embodiments, during to the storage unit programming, can be by measuring by storage unit j is programmed at memory cell voltages v iIn the variation that causes, estimate k JiValue.

In cross coupling compensation step 98, MSP compensates the cross-couplings distortion of reading in the voltage based on estimated cross-coupling coefficient.MSP produces the voltage of correction usually, and wherein the cross-couplings degree of distortion is lowered.For example, MSP can be with the summation of estimated cross-couplings distortion component, and from memory cell voltages, deduct should with, described cross-couplings distortion component is derived from different interference storage unit and affects a certain voltage that reads.This operation is sometimes referred to as linear equalization.

As known in the art, MSP can alternatively eliminate the cross-couplings distortion by applying decision feedback equalization (DFE).In substituting embodiment, described MSP can use and reduce state maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) process, for example uses well-known Viterbi algorithm, eliminates the cross-couplings distortion.In addition as an alternative, described MSP can use maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation procedure or any other method that is fit to compensate the cross-couplings distortion based on estimated cross-coupling coefficient.

Described MSP comes the data of storing in the reconstruct storage unit with the voltage of proofreading and correct.In some embodiments, described MSP processes the voltage that reads (also namely, twice sweep read magnitude of voltage) in two steps.In the first step, MSP estimates cross-coupling coefficient.At second step, MSP proofreaies and correct with estimated coefficient and reads voltage and reconstruct data.It can be favourable that two steps processed, and for example, for example owing to writing storage unit under different temperatures, supply voltage or other conditions, and the different piece of storage unit or page or leaf are when having different cross-coupling coefficient values.In substituting embodiment, MSP can carry out coefficient estimation, distortion compensation and data reconstruction within a step.

In a substituting embodiment, originally MSP carries out coefficient and estimates and data reconstruction within a step.Then MSP estimates the quality (for example by detecting the mistake of not proofreaied and correct by ECC) of the data of reconstruct, and if the data reconstruction quality cross the low second step of then carrying out.This technology can not change average processing delay or processing power significantly, is favourable in the situation that As time goes on coefficient changes.

As mentioned above, in some embodiments, MSP with data disorder, reduced the estimation degree of accuracy in order to prevent nonrandom data before data are write storage unit.

In some distortion mechanism, the degree of distortion in the particular memory location is relevant with the degree of distortion of other storage unit of locating along same bit line.For example, in some nand flash memories, being connected with each other along the storage unit of every bit lines consists of 16 or 32 groups that storage unit form, and is called string.Read the voltage that usually depends on other storage unit in the string from the voltage of particular memory location.This effect is commonly referred to background patterns correlativity (BPD).Again for example, the parameter variation that is caused by sensor amplifier also can be associated in the different storage unit of a bit lines with other distortions.

In other cases, the degree of distortion in the concrete storage unit can be associated with the degree of distortion of other storage unit of locating along same word line.For example, consider and compare a certain storage unit that needs obviously longer programming time with other storage unit in one page.When related page or leaf is being programmed, at the P﹠amp of certain number of times; After the V iteration, most of storage unit reach their expection charge level, but the charge level in " slowly " storage unit does not still far reach the expectation level.Therefore and lower therefore, the source electrode-drain current in slow storage unit is with regard to.Use other P﹠amp; The V iterative process continues this slow storage unit is programmed, and its electric current increases.The electric current that increases has increased the source electrode-drain voltage of other storage unit in the voltage that drops on the ground wire and the page or leaf.As a result of, the threshold voltage of other storage unit in the page or leaf descends.

Although hereinafter the explanation of Fig. 4 is related to related distortion along bit line, yet the method for Fig. 4 also can be used for prediction and compensation along the related distortion of word line.In addition as an alternative, described method can be used to predict and proofread and correct the distortion mechanism that the degree of distortion of any other storage unit in a certain group is relative to each other, such storage unit for example is the storage unit that very approaches each other in array, and the storage unit with same power supplies voltage (Vcc) line, ground wire or power supply circuit.

When relevant along the degree of distortion of the storage unit of a certain bit line, sometimes degree of distortion can be modeled as

e ( n , m ) = &Sigma; i > n f i ( c ( i , m ) ) + &Sigma; i < n g i ( c ( i , m ) )

Wherein e (n, m) is illustrated in the degree of distortion of the storage unit at row (bit line) m and row (page or leaf) n place.The voltage that c (i, m) expression is read from the storage unit of the m bit line of i page or leaf.f iAnd g iExpression is defined in the function of voltage and the dependence of storage unit in the follow-up page or leaf of formerly page or leaf neutralization of same bit line of a storage unit of i page or leaf respectively.Formula [5] supposes that page or leaf is processed in proper order.

Fig. 4 is the process flow diagram that schematically shows according to a kind of alternative manner that is used for prediction and elimination bit line related distortion of one embodiment of the invention.At distortion recording step 102, described method starts from the degree of distortion that MSP records the storage unit that had before read.May be after the ECC decoding, MSP can with any suitable method calculated distortion degree, for example compare with the nominal voltage of expectation by reading voltage.

In target read step 106, MSP reads the voltage of particular memory location, and this storage unit is called as Destination Storage Unit.Then in prediction steps 110, MSP is based on the degree of distortion value along other storage unit of same bit line of record, and based on the voltage that reads from these storage unit, the degree of distortion of prediction among Destination Storage Unit.For example, MSP can use above-mentioned formula [5] predicted distortion degree.

At aligning step 114, MSP proofreaies and correct the voltage that reads from Destination Storage Unit with estimated degree of distortion. and then in decoding step 118, MSP is based on the voltage of proofreading and correct, to being stored in the decoding data in the Destination Storage Unit.When the ECC demoder comprised soft demoder, MSP can alternatively based on estimated degree of distortion, proofread and correct the soft ECC tolerance of the bit that is stored in the storage unit (for example, LLR).This type of correction way is for example described in above-mentioned PCT application " CombinedDistortion Estimation and Error Correction Coding for MemoryDevices ".

Although the single target storage unit is for clarity sake paid attention in the description of Fig. 4, along with reading page or leaf from storer, prediction and trimming process are carried out in a plurality of storage unit usually concurrently.

In order to improve storage efficiency, MSP can only be each bit line storage individual distortion value, rather than records and store the degree of distortion of each storage unit that had before read.The value of storage is labeled as Be illustrated in the estimated value that reads n page or leaf e (n, m) afterwards.For the first page that reads, Usually be initialized to 0.

When the n page or leaf was decoded, MSP upgraded Value, for example use expression formula

e ^ ( m ) = ( 1 - &delta; n ) &CenterDot; e ^ ( m ) + &delta; n &CenterDot; [ c ( n , m ) - c ~ ( n , m ) ]

δ wherein nExpression is used for the predetermined step-length of n page or leaf.The voltage that c (n, m) expression is read from the storage unit of the m bit line of n page or leaf, and The nominal voltage based on demoder output that represents this storage unit.When reading the n+1 page or leaf, MSP can be by estimation e ^ ( m ) = e ^ ( m ) - f n + 1 &CenterDot; c ( n + 1 , m ) + g n &CenterDot; c ( n , m ) Based on Predicted distortion.Correction voltage (for example, Be used to decoded data.

Said method can be especially effective when the gain of predicting and proofreading and correct the variation of sensor amplifier, deviation or other Varying parameters.This type of parameter can also comprise variable deviation or the broadening to the joint distribution of the distribution of specific voltage level or all voltage levels.

When the method is used for proofreading and correct the BPD distortion of nand flash memory memory cell array, may there be a discrete cell of contributing most of distortion, for example because being crossed, it programmes.In this case, alternative manner can repeat in the NAND storage unit, until this storage unit is identified, at this moment carves Value be reset.Be different from the correction to the BPD distortion of usually carrying out at each NAND memory cell string, normally follow the trail of and carry out the variation of sensor amplifier at every complete bit line.

In some embodiments, MSP 52 keeps form or other data structures of the parameter of following the trail of that keeps every bit lines, word line or other related memory cell groups.

As mentioned above, some storage unit may be affected by turbulent noise, the distortion that turbulent noise is namely caused by the operation of carrying out on other storage unit in the array.In some embodiments, it is in the formation turbulent noise that MSP 52 proofreaies and correct turbulent noise, rather than when reading disturbed storage unit.

Fig. 5 is the process flow diagram that schematically shows according to a kind of method for proofreading and correct turbulent noise of one embodiment of the invention.In disturbance creation operation step 122, described method starts from MSP 52 carry out memory access operations, and this memory access operations can be to some storage unit contribution turbulent noises.Memory access operations can comprise, for example, programmes, reads or erase operation.Reading potentially in the step 126 of disturbance storage unit, MSP reads voltage from the storage unit that may be stored the disturbance of device accessing operation institute.

In disturbance estimating step 130, MSP is evaluated at potential in the level of the turbulent noise in the disturbance storage unit.For this purpose, MSP can use any suitable distortion estimation method.For example, described MSP can use the decision-directed method, wherein will read from the voltage of storage unit with by firmly cutting apart determined corresponding nominal voltage level and compare, perhaps with definite nominal voltage level is made comparisons by ECC decoding being applied to read from the voltage of storage unit.

In some cases, turbulent noise can be increased in some charge levels in the eraseable memory unit in the adjacent page.Under these circumstances, MSP can be by to potential by the eraseable memory unit in the disturbance page or leaf (also being, its voltage is lower than the storage unit of a certain threshold level, this threshold level can be different from be generally used for detecting the threshold level of eraseable memory unit) quantity count, assess the disturbance level.MSP can with before the potential disturbance memory access operations and the quantity of eraseable memory unit afterwards compare, and assess the disturbance level from the difference between these two results.

Check step 134 in high disturbance, MSP checks whether estimated degree of distortion surpasses a predefined thresholding.At disturbance aligning step 138, if the disturbance level is regarded as height, then MSP proofreaies and correct potential by the turbulent noise in the disturbance storage unit.For example, MSP can refresh the data in same storage unit, reprogramming data of (also namely, in another page or leaf) in other storage unit, or existing storage unit of having programmed increased electric charge.MSP also can come coded data with stronger ECC, and new coded data is stored in another page or leaf.Otherwise, also, if the disturbance level is considered to tolerable, then stopping step 142 termination the method.

In some cases, the method for execution graph 5 can increase the processing time significantly after each reading and writing and erase operation.Therefore, in some embodiments, MSP is the method for execution graph 5 during the time period of system's free time only.

Fig. 6 is according to a substituting embodiment of the present invention, schematically shows the process flow diagram for the another kind of method of proofreading and correct turbulent noise.Described method is the fact that is contributed to this Destination Storage Unit by the storage unit of upgrading the near-earth programming than Destination Storage Unit based on turbulent noise.For for purpose of brevity, be called as with object element than the storage unit of the more new near-earth programming of Destination Storage Unit and compare " young ".Storage unit than the more Zao programming of Destination Storage Unit is called as " older " storage unit.

At potential interference storage unit identification step 146, said method starts from MSP 52 identifications cause turbulent noise potentially to Destination Storage Unit storage unit.At younger storage unit identification step 150, MSP identification and which potential interference storage unit of mark are younger than Destination Storage Unit.In some embodiments, MSP stores the time mark that each page is programmed, and it is stored together as a part and the data of page or leaf usually.The mark that described MSP inquiry is stored is in order to determine which storage unit is younger than Destination Storage Unit.

When memory write page or leaf in proper order, it is young that MSP can be considered as the storage unit in the page or leaf of larger numbering to compare object element.Alternatively, when not in proper order during the memory write page or leaf, MSP can be in each page or leaf variable of storage, the relative age that this variable indicates this page to compare with adjacent page.When this page or leaf was programmed, above-mentioned variable was set up and stores.For example, described variable can comprise following count value, its in erase block, be programmed up to now the page or leaf quantity count.Alternatively, above-mentioned variable can comprise a Boolean denotation for each adjacent page, and it is indicated when current page is programmed, and adjacent page is to programme or wipe.In addition as an alternative, MSP can use any other method that is fit to determine comparing younger potential interference storage unit with Destination Storage Unit.

Disturbing storage unit read step 154, MSP 52 reads the voltage of the storage unit (also namely, than the younger potential interference storage unit of Destination Storage Unit) that is labeled.Described MSP can again read and disturb storage unit and/or use the ECC demoder that the data that are stored in the potential interference storage unit are decoded reliably.In Destination Storage Unit read step 158, described MSP also reads the voltage of Destination Storage Unit.In some embodiments, the voltage of Destination Storage Unit reads with high resolving power, for example uses to have figure place and be higher than the ADC that is stored in the data bits in each storage unit.The voltage of the storage unit that is labeled can read with the resolution that reduces sometimes.

In disturbance contribution estimating step 162, described MSP estimates to be contributed to by younger potential interference storage unit the level of the turbulent noise of Destination Storage Unit.Estimated disturbance level can depend on: the relative age of potential disturbed storage unit, with respect to the position of Destination Storage Unit (for example be stored in magnitude of voltage in the potential interference storage unit and/or data, potential interference storage unit, whether they are positioned at an adjacent page, the second adjacent page, etc.), number of times and/or other information or the criterion of the nearest programming-erase cycles of disturbed storage unit.To a kind of effective estimation of disturbance level, be the mean value of this disturbance level take above-mentioned parameter as condition.

At disturbance removal process 166, described MSP compensates estimated disturbance level.For example, described MSP can deduct estimated disturbance level from reading from the voltage of Destination Storage Unit, to produce the voltage of proofreading and correct.The voltage of proofreading and correct is used to being stored in the data decode in the Destination Storage Unit, perhaps is used for revising the ECC decoder metric.

Although the single target storage unit is for clarity sake paid attention in above-mentioned explanation, the process of Fig. 6 also can be along with reading page or leaf from storer, and carry out for a plurality of Destination Storage Units concurrently.

In some embodiments, use programming and checking (P﹠amp; V) process is programmed to storage unit, and when storage unit was programmed, MSP 52 adopted distortion compensation.In some embodiments, MSP all adopts distortion compensation at programming and during read to storage unit.

P﹠amp; The V process is generally used for storage unit is programmed.At a typical P﹠amp; The V process, to storage unit programming, the voltage level of this series of voltage pulse one by one pulse increases by applying the series of voltage pulse.After each pulse, read the voltage level that (" checking ") programmed, and iteration is proceeded until reach the level of expectation.P﹠amp; The V process, for example, by people such as Jung in November, 1,996 1575 pages of-1583 pages of " A 117mm that deliver at IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits (11:31) 23.3V Only 128Mb MultilevelNAND Flash Memory for Mass Storage Applications " in describe; and by the people such as Lee description in 264 page-266 page " the Effects of Floating Gate Interference onNAND Flash Memory Cell Operations " that deliver of in May, 2002 at IEEE Electron Device Letters (23:5), above-mentioned document is all included this paper in to quote mode herein.

Fig. 7 is the process flow diagram that is used for estimating and eliminating the method for distortion among memory cell array 28 that schematically shows according to another embodiment of the present invention.Read the P﹠amp that reaches expectation value from the voltage of storage unit with some known checkings; The V process is different, and the method for Fig. 7 is so that be stored in the electric charge that electric charge in the storage unit reaches expectation, and this electric charge represents the data of storing.

Checking is stored in the charge level in the storage unit rather than reads voltage, is good, because the degree of distortion when writing when reading may be different.The method can be used for compensating any type of distortion or mechanism.

Described method starts from MSP 52 and is intended in certain page of programming.In potential interference storage unit read step 170, for the given Destination Storage Unit that will programme in the page or leaf, MSP reads the storage unit that causes potentially this Destination Storage Unit distortion.(in some cases, these values that MSP is treated because they just are programmed, there is no need to read these storage unit in this case.) in distortion computation step 174, the distortion to Destination Storage Unit that described MSP estimation is caused by the potential interference storage unit.Described MSP can use any suitable method, and example various estimation procedure described above is used for the distortion estimator degree.

Based on estimated distortion, MSP calculates a magnitude of voltage of proofreading and correct in advance so that the programming Destination Storage Unit.Usually, MSP produces the voltage of correction by deduct estimated degree of distortion in the nominal voltage level of storing from intention described storage unit.

At precorrection programming step 178, described MSP uses P﹠amp; The V process is programmed to Destination Storage Unit with the voltage of precorrection.As a result of, the charge level that is stored in the Destination Storage Unit has reflected the data of writing in the storage unit truly, because it is proofreaied and correct to remove the distortion that exists in advance when writing.

In storage unit read step 182, may after to this storage unit programming, for a long time just occur reading of storage unit, when reading cells, MSP reads Destination Storage Unit and potential interference storage unit.Reappraise step 186 in distortion, MSP reappraises the distortion that by the potential interference storage unit Destination Storage Unit is caused when reading.MSP can use any suitable method, and example various estimation procedure described above is used for reappraising described degree of distortion.

As mentioned above, Destination Storage Unit may be programmed a long time ago, and the operating conditions such as temperature and supply voltage may change.In addition, after Destination Storage Unit was programmed, other potential interference storage unit may be read, be programmed or be wiped.Thereby, may be far from each other with the degree of distortion of calculating in above-mentioned steps 174 in the degree of distortion that step 186 is calculated.

At aligning step 190, MSP proofreaies and correct the voltage that reads from Destination Storage Unit based on the distortion that reappraises.The voltage of the proofreading and correct data from Destination Storage Unit that are used to decode.In order when reading the voltage that disturbs storage unit, to reduce distortion, carry out iteratively decoding to memory cell data in the decision-directed mode.

In the method for Fig. 7, correcting distortion all when writing storage unit and when read memory cell, and the degree of distortion in service of current existence is all used in each correction.Thereby, with respect to known P﹠amp; The V process, this method has more robustness, and more tolerates the change that operating conditions and programming operation are subsequently carried out.

In some embodiments, only during programming, adopt distortion correction, and namely storage unit is read without the second-order distortion correction.In these embodiments, the step 182 of the method for Fig. 7 is omitted to 190, and MSP should will include consideration in from the interference of not programmed storage unit.

Fig. 8 schematically shows according to the process flow diagram of one embodiment of the invention for another method of the distortion of estimating target storage unit.The method of Fig. 8 is utilized the following fact, namely can be different from after Destination Storage Unit the distortion that the storage unit of programming causes by the distortion that causes in the storage unit of programming before the Destination Storage Unit.

Another kind of hypothesis is that described array uses P﹠amp; The V process programming, as mentioned above.At some known P﹠amp; In the V process, such as in the above-cited document of being shown by people such as Jung, each storage unit in certain one page is programmed to mark with in 0 to M-1 M the voltage level, and wherein level 0 is to have wiped level.Described P﹠amp; The V process divides M stage to described page or leaf programming.At stage i, the series of voltage pulse is applied to program level should be i or higher storage unit.After each pulse, described process reads the voltage of different storage unit, and stops to apply pulse to the storage unit that reaches its expectation level.

In some embodiments, for a given Destination Storage Unit, MSP classifies to the potential interference storage unit according to programming time.(as mentioned above, MSP can store the time mark that is programmed of each page, and the mark of storage is used for assorting process.) subset of storage unit, be labeled as D1, comprise the potential interference storage unit, its when Destination Storage Unit is programmed not by described P﹠amp; The V process is programmed fully.When Destination Storage Unit was programmed, the storage unit among the class D1 is in wiped level or by part programming, but may be programmed from that time.

In some programming schemes, minute several stages programme to storage unit.For example, in some 4 level cell programmed methods, least significant bit (LSB) (LSB) and highest significant position (MSB) are write in two independent steps.A kind of exemplary method is described among 1228 pages-1238 pages " the A Multipage Cell Architecture for High-SpeedProgramming Multilevel NAND Flash Memories " that deliver at IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits (33:8) in August, 1998 by people such as Takeuchi, and the document is included this paper in to quote mode herein.In these class methods, can program the memory cell to intermediate level sometime, and following programming step is programmed into its final programming value with described storage unit.When using this type of programmed method, class D1 is expanded and comprises that following storage unit, this storage unit are in wiped level or the program level that mediates when Destination Storage Unit is programmed, but can be programmed into since then its end value.

Another subset of storage unit 32 is labeled as D2, comprises the potential interference storage unit, and it is programmed when Destination Storage Unit is programmed.Because when Destination Storage Unit is programmed, the interference from these storage unit to this Destination Storage Unit exists, therefore described P﹠amp; The V process compensates this interference at least in part.The 3rd class storage unit is labeled as D3, comprises and the potential interference storage unit of described Destination Storage Unit concurrency programming, for example, is in the storage unit on one page with described Destination Storage Unit.

MSP 52 can according to inhomogeneous potential interference storage unit, estimate the distortion for Destination Storage Unit.If n and m represent separately Destination Storage Unit in the array 28 line number and row number.X then N, mBe illustrated in and use described P﹠amp; The V process is write the afterwards voltage of this Destination Storage Unit of Destination Storage Unit.x I, jThe voltage of the storage unit that is positioned at the capable and j row of i when being illustrated in the Destination Storage Unit voltage of programming last time after the iteration and being verified.y N, mThe memory cell voltages value from Destination Storage Unit is read in expression, because distortion, it is different from x N, m

At y N, mThe total distortion of middle existence can be written as

e n , m = &Sigma; ( i , j ) &Element; D 1 h n , m , i , j ( y i , j - x i , j ) +

&Sigma; ( i , j ) &Element; D 2 h n , m , i , j ( y i , j - x ^ i , j ) +

&Sigma; ( i , j ) &Element; D 3 h n , m , i , j &CenterDot; max { y i , j - y n , m , 0 } + b

H wherein N, m, i, jThe cross-couplings interference coefficient of expression from the interference storage unit that is positioned at the capable j of i row to the Destination Storage Unit that is positioned at the capable m row of n.B represents the constant bias term.Although above-mentioned formula [7] relates to the linear distortion model, also can use nonlinear model.

Storage unit among the class D1 is included in Destination Storage Unit and is programmed the storage unit that is programmed afterwards.Therefore, owing to adding the interference that the electric charge of these storage unit causes to, this programming operation do not exist at that time, and described P﹠amp; The V process also can not be done compensation to this distortion.

When Destination Storage Unit was programmed, the storage unit among the class D2 was programmed, and as described P﹠amp; When the V process was programmed to described Destination Storage Unit, the distortion that these storage unit cause existed.Therefore, when Destination Storage Unit is programmed, described P﹠amp; The V process (at least in part) compensate described distortion.Yet this compensation is correct when Destination Storage Unit is programmed, and does not consider at that constantly and described Destination Storage Unit aging, the charge leakage and other effects that occur between when being read.In second of above formula [7] Be the estimation to voltage, it is present in when Destination Storage Unit is programmed among the interference storage unit.

In some embodiments, Can estimate by the output that described ECC decoding is applied to these storage unit.By recovering to write the sets of bits in the storage unit, described ECC can help to proofread and correct grave error, the mistake that is for example caused by serious leakage.Alternatively, in second of formula [7] Can use y I, jMemoryless function or Memoryless function estimate α y for example I, j(or ), it is y for voltage level I, jStorage unit estimate to leak mistake.

In the above-mentioned formula [7] the 3rd relates to the storage unit among the class D3, supposes and uses P﹠amp; The V process, it compensates the distortion that is caused by the D3 storage unit that is programmed into the level that is less than or equal to Destination Storage Unit inherently.After Destination Storage Unit was programmed fully, when the potential interference storage unit on the page or leaf identical with this Destination Storage Unit was programmed into higher level, this programmed usually at P﹠amp; Carry out in the more late step of V process.Thereby, by have than Destination Storage Unit more the live part of the distortion that causes of the D3 storage unit of high level when Destination Storage Unit is programmed, will not have and P﹠amp; The V process can not compensate this partial distortion.As the P﹠amp that uses in single job all programmings of given storage unit; During V process (such as the process of describing in the document of being shown by people such as Jung), the 3rd of above-mentioned formula [7] is especially effective.As use P﹠amp to the different data bit of storage unit programming in a plurality of stages; During V process (such as the process of describing in the document of being shown by people such as Takeuchi), the 3rd of above-mentioned formula [7] can be omitted.

In voltage read step 194, the method for Fig. 8 starts from MSP 52 and reads voltage from the storage unit 32 of array 28.Described voltage had both comprised the voltage of Destination Storage Unit, also comprised the voltage that causes potentially the storage unit of Destination Storage Unit interference.In current example, the page or leaf of array 28 is read in proper order, i.e., reads line by line, although also can use other to read configuration.

In programming time estimating step 196, when Destination Storage Unit is programmed, the value of MSP estimating target storage unit and potential interference storage unit (for example, charge level).Described estimation can be included some factors in consideration, for example read the quantity of programmed order from voltage, Destination Storage Unit and the potential interference storage unit of Destination Storage Unit and potential interference storage unit, elapsed time, storage unit have experienced since previous programming and erase cycles erase cycles, the environmental parameter such as supply voltage and temperature, etc.

Writing-read error estimating step 198 poor between the estimated degree of distortion that then MSP estimates when Destination Storage Unit is programmed and Destination Storage Unit produces when being read.MSP can use above-mentioned formula [7] to estimate that this is poor.At aligning step 200, MSP comes compensating distortion (for example, deduct described difference or adjust ECC tolerance from the voltage that reads from Destination Storage Unit) with estimated difference.

At some P﹠amp; In the V process, sequentially page or leaf is write the storer to the page or leaf of larger numbering from the page or leaf of less numbering.Thereby, as storage unit x N, mWhen being programmed, the storage unit in the page or leaf of i≤n is programmed, and can suppose P﹠amp; The V process has compensated the distortion by these storage unit contributions.

In some embodiments, MSP 52 is to read these pages or leaves with the order of the reversed in order of writing these pages (also namely, the page or leaf from the page or leaf of higher number to low numbering).When reading the n page or leaf, MSP is each column of memory cells m calculated distortion tolerance M m(n):

M m ( n ) = f n ( X N , m , X N - 1 , m , . . . , X n + 1 , m ) n < N 0 n = N

Wherein N represents the quantity of the row (word line) in the erase block, and X I, jThe voltage that expression is read from the storage unit of capable at i of j row.Suppose that distortion only affects the storage unit in the related erase block.Described MSP is by calculating x ^ n , m = y n , m - M m ( n ) , Remove distortion metrics from reading from the voltage of current page.The exemplary functions that can be used as function f can comprise Perhaps

In substituting embodiment, the storage unit of MSP concurrent processing one monoblock.The data that use is to be programmed and cross-coupling coefficient h N, m, i, j, the error between MSP calculation and programming value and the read value, and compensate this error.

Although the illustrative methods of Fig. 8 relates to some P﹠amp; V processes realization, but described method is after the modification of necessity, can with any other P﹠amp that are fit to; The V process is used together.It will be understood by those skilled in the art that and can carry out adaptability revision to this method based on disclosed embodiment, with the P﹠amp of other kinds; The V process is used together.

Refresh Data based on distortion estimation

In some embodiments, MSP 52 refreshes (also namely, reprogramming) and is stored in the data in the memory cell array 28 based on estimated degree of distortion.

Fig. 9 is the process flow diagram that schematically shows the method for the data in the refresh of memory cells array according to embodiment of the present invention.In page or leaf read step 210, the method starts from MSP 52 from array 28 read memory pages or leaves.In page or leaf distortion estimation step 214, the degree of distortion in the page or leaf that MSP estimates to read.For this purpose, MSP can use any suitable distortion estimation method, for example method as described above.

Check step 218 in degree of distortion, MSP checks whether tolerable of degree of distortion.For example, MSP can make comparisons estimated degree of distortion and the predetermined thresholding of the degree of distortion of indication largest tolerable.The degree of distortion of largest tolerable usually be selected as so that when reaching thresholding decoded data still there is a strong possibility is faultless.This situation has guaranteed that the data that refresh might be faultless.

If degree of distortion is tolerable, described method is circulated back to above-mentioned page or leaf read step 210, and MSP continues to read and check storage page.

On the other hand, be higher than tolerable degree of distortion if MSP determines the degree of distortion in the memory page that reads, then in reprogramming step 222, described MSP is to the data reprogramming of page or leaf.Then the method is circulated back to above-mentioned page or leaf read step 210.

Be different from the known memory updating method that some periodically carry out reprogramming, no matter degree of distortion how, the method for Fig. 9 is reprogramming data just where necessary only.Thereby, compare with these known methods, the frequency of programming operation reduces again.Usually, the method for Fig. 9 combines the routine operation of system 20.Also namely, MSP uses conventional page or leaf to read and/or the distortion estimation operation, and whether need refresh, and do not carry out special read operation if assessing.

Take out data although embodiment described herein mainly focuses on from multilevel-cell (MLC), principle of the present invention also can be used for single layer cell (SLC).Take out data although embodiment described herein mainly focuses on from solid storage device, principle of the present invention also can be used in hard disk drive (HDD) and other data storage mediums and equipment storage and take out data.

Therefore should be appreciated that, embodiment described herein is only quoted with way of example, and the invention is not restricted to the content that above specifically illustrated and described.In contrast, the present invention cover combination and the sub-portfolio of above-mentioned each feature, and wherein not in the prior art disclosed variation and the modification that after reading above stated specification, can make of those skilled in the art.

Claims (24)

1. method that is used for operational store comprises:
Data are stored in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level, and described the first voltage level is selected from the set of possible values;
After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level;
Process described second voltage level to obtain corresponding hard decision, each hard decision is all corresponding to the analog value in the possible values of described the first voltage level;
Estimate cross-coupling coefficient based on described second voltage level and corresponding hard decision, the cross-couplings that this cross-coupling coefficient quantizes between the described analog memory cell is disturbed; And
Use estimated cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the second voltage level reconstruct of reading.
2. method according to claim 1 is estimated wherein that cross-coupling coefficient comprises to use the piece estimation procedure to process described second voltage level and corresponding hard decision.
3. method according to claim 1 estimates that wherein cross-coupling coefficient comprises that use converges to the sequence estimation process of described cross-coupling coefficient with the described second voltage level of P-SCAN and corresponding hard decision.
4. method according to claim 1 estimates that wherein cross-coupling coefficient comprises that minimizing of employing is at the estimation procedure of the described second voltage level that reads and the distance metric between the corresponding hard decision.
5. method according to claim 1, comprise also that not only based on reading from the second voltage level of the first analog memory cell but also based on the second voltage level that reads from the second analog memory cell, estimation is disturbed by the cross-couplings for described the second analog memory cell that described the first analog memory cell causes in described storer.
6. method according to claim 1, wherein reconstruct data comprises that using one of following process that described cross-couplings is disturbed removes from described second voltage level, and described process is: linear equalization process, decision feedback equalization (DFE) process, maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation procedure and maximum-likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) process.
7. method according to claim 1, estimate described cross-coupling coefficient in the processing stage of estimating wherein that cross-coupling coefficient and reconstruct data are included in first, and follow-up in described first the processing stage second the processing stage in eliminate estimated cross-couplings and disturb.
8. method according to claim 7, estimate that wherein cross-coupling coefficient and reconstruct data comprise the follow-up situation the processing stage that estimated cross-coupling coefficient being used for described second, and and if only if just repeat described first when failing the described data of reconstruct the processing stage.
9. method according to claim 1, wherein store data and comprise and use error correcting code (ECC) the described data of encoding, wherein reconstruct data comprises based on estimated cross-coupling coefficient computing error correction tolerance and uses the described ECC of described error correction tolerance decoding.
10. method that is used for operational store comprises:
Be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level;
After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level;
Estimate cross-coupling coefficient, it disturbs quantification by processing described second voltage level with the cross-couplings between the described analog memory cell; And
Use estimated cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the second voltage level reconstruct of reading.
11. method according to claim 10, comprise also that not only based on reading from the second voltage level of the first analog memory cell but also based on the second voltage level that reads from the second analog memory cell, estimation is disturbed by the cross-couplings for described the second analog memory cell that described the first analog memory cell causes in described storer.
12. a data storage device comprises:
Interface, its functionally with the memory communication that comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And
Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described interface and is arranged to: corresponding first voltage level of data as the set that is selected from possible values is stored in one group of analog memory cell; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level; Process described second voltage level to obtain corresponding hard decision, each hard decision is all corresponding to the analog value in the possible values of described the first voltage level; Estimate cross-coupling coefficient based on described second voltage level and corresponding hard decision, the cross-couplings that this cross-coupling coefficient quantizes between the described analog memory cell is disturbed; And use estimated cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the reconstruct of described second voltage level.
13. device according to claim 12, wherein said MSP is arranged to: estimate cross-coupling coefficient, comprise and use the piece estimation procedure to process described second voltage level and corresponding hard decision.
14. device according to claim 12, wherein said MSP is arranged to: estimate cross-coupling coefficient, comprise using converging to the sequence estimation process of described cross-coupling coefficient with the described second voltage level of P-SCAN and corresponding hard decision.
15. device according to claim 12, wherein said MSP is arranged to: adopt the estimation procedure that reduces the distance metric between the second voltage level that reads and corresponding hard decision.
16. device according to claim 12, wherein said MSP is arranged to: both based on the second voltage level that reads from the first analog memory cell, based on the second voltage level that reads from the second analog memory cell, estimation is disturbed by the cross-couplings for described the second analog memory cell that described the first analog memory cell causes in described storer again.
17. device according to claim 12, wherein said MSP is arranged to: use one of following process that described cross-couplings is disturbed and remove from described second voltage level, described process is: linear equalization process, decision feedback equalization (DFE) process, maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation procedure and maximum-likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) process.
18. device according to claim 12, wherein said MSP is arranged to: estimate described cross-coupling coefficient in first the processing stage, and follow-up in described first the processing stage second the processing stage in eliminate estimated cross-couplings and disturb.
19. device according to claim 18, wherein said MSP is arranged to: the follow-up situation the processing stage that estimated cross-coupling coefficient being used for described second, and and if only if just repeat described first when failing the described data of reconstruct the processing stage.
20. device according to claim 12, wherein said MSP is arranged to: use error correcting code (ECC) the described data of encoding before the described data in storage, based on estimated cross-coupling coefficient computing error correction tolerance, and by using the described ECC of described error correction tolerance decoding with the described data of reconstruct.
21. a data storage device comprises:
Interface, its functionally with the memory communication that comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And
Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described interface and is arranged to: be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level; Estimate cross-coupling coefficient, it disturbs quantification by processing described second voltage level with the cross-couplings between the described analog memory cell; And use estimated cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the second voltage level reconstruct of reading.
22. device according to claim 21, wherein said MSP is arranged to: not only based on reading from the second voltage level of the first analog memory cell but also based on the second voltage level that reads from the second analog memory cell, estimation is disturbed by the cross-couplings for described the second analog memory cell that described the first analog memory cell causes in described storer.
23. a data storage device comprises:
Storer, it comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And
Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described storer and is arranged to: corresponding first voltage level of data as the set that is selected from possible values is stored in one group of analog memory cell; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level; Process described second voltage level to obtain corresponding hard decision, each hard decision is corresponding to the analog value in the possible values of described the first voltage level; Estimate cross-coupling coefficient, it is based on described second voltage level and corresponding hard decision, and interference quantizes to the cross-couplings between the described analog memory cell; And use described cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the reconstruct of described second voltage level.
24. a data storage device comprises:
Storer, it comprises a plurality of analog memory cells; And
Memory signals processor (MSP), it is coupled to described storer and is arranged to: be stored in data in one group of analog memory cell of described storer as corresponding the first voltage level; After the described data of storage, read corresponding second voltage level from described analog memory cell, this second voltage level is subject to the impact that cross-couplings is disturbed, and this cross-couplings is disturbed and caused described second voltage level to be different from corresponding the first voltage level; Estimate cross-coupling coefficient, it disturbs quantification by processing described second voltage level with the cross-couplings between the described analog memory cell; And use estimated cross-coupling coefficient, be stored in data this group analog memory cell from the second voltage level reconstruct of reading.
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