CN101487703A - Fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus - Google Patents

Fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus Download PDF

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CN101487703A
CN101487703A CNA2009100958556A CN200910095855A CN101487703A CN 101487703 A CN101487703 A CN 101487703A CN A2009100958556 A CNA2009100958556 A CN A2009100958556A CN 200910095855 A CN200910095855 A CN 200910095855A CN 101487703 A CN101487703 A CN 101487703A
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vision sensor
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CN101487703B (en
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汤一平
朱艺华
陈强
梁雁
郭世东
陈龙艳
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浙江工业大学
汤一平
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B15/00Special procedures for taking photographs; Apparatus therefor
    • G03B15/02Illuminating scene
    • G03B15/03Combinations of cameras with lighting apparatus; Flash units
    • G03B15/05Combinations of cameras with electronic flash apparatus; Electronic flash units
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B37/00Panoramic or wide-screen photography; Photographing extended surfaces, e.g. for surveying; Photographing internal surfaces, e.g. of pipe
    • G03B37/06Panoramic or wide-screen photography; Photographing extended surfaces, e.g. for surveying; Photographing internal surfaces, e.g. of pipe involving anamorphosis
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B2215/00Special procedures for taking photographs; Apparatus therefor
    • G03B2215/05Combinations of cameras with electronic flash units
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B2215/00Special procedures for taking photographs; Apparatus therefor
    • G03B2215/05Combinations of cameras with electronic flash units
    • G03B2215/0589Diffusors, filters or refraction means
    • G03B2215/0592Diffusors, filters or refraction means installed in front of light emitter

Abstract

A fast panoramic stereoscopic photography measurement device comprises an omnibearing vision sensor, a panoramic colour modulation optical generator and a microprocessor for the 3D stereoscopic photography measurement of omnibearing images, wherein the omnibearing vision sensor and the panoramic colour modulation optical generator are arranged on a same axis, the omnibearing vision sensor is connected with the microprocessor and comprises an image unit and a first hyperbolic catadioptric unit; the panoramic colour modulation optical generator comprises a round wavelength-variable filter, an optical source fixing frame, a white light luminescent unit and a second hyperbolic catadioptric unit having the same image parameters as the first hyperbolic catadioptric unit; and the microprocessor comprises a video image reading module, a space information calculating module and a 3D image reconstructing module. The device is capable of reducing the resource consumption of computers and finishing the measurement rapidly with good real-time property and strong practicability.

Description

Fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus

Technical field

The present invention relates to optical technology, the application of computer vision technique aspect the stereoscopic vision measurement, especially a kind of full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus.

Background technology

Binocular stereo vision three-dimensional measurement and stereo reconstruction technology based on computer vision, be emerging, as to have a development potentiality and practical value application technology, can be widely used in many applications such as industrial detection, geographical exploration, medical science lift face, Osteological, the reproduction of the cultural relics, Well grab, security personnel's identification, robot vision, mould rapid shaping, gift, virtual reality, animated film, recreation.

The ultimate principle of stereoscopic vision is to observe same scenery from two viewpoints, to obtain the perceptual image under different visual angles, by the position deviation between principle of triangulation computed image pixel, be parallax, obtain the three-dimensional information of scenery, the three-dimensional perception of this process and human vision is similar.

To realize that at present a complete stereo visual system needs Image Acquisition, gamma camera demarcation, feature extraction, three-dimensional coupling, the degree of depth to determine to reach 6 most contents supports such as interpolation usually.Utilize the low layer image processing techniques that the binocular image is analyzed, the target signature well of selection image pair is found the solution the corresponding relation between feature, obtains the target parallax by image matching technology, thereby is converted into the required depth information of main body.Image Acquisition-camera calibration-image segmentation-feature extraction-stereo-picture coupling-distance determines to have become the main line that stereo visual system is handled.

Aspect the Image Acquisition means, because traditional visual environment sensory perceptual system visual field is limited, the phenomenon that often exists tracking target to lose, traditional on the other hand visual environment sensory perceptual system once can only obtain the information of surrounding environment local field of view, and most of visual field information has been abandoned; Aspect the selection of the imaging system model in binocular vision, at present main binocular transverse mode type structure and these two kinds of models of binocular shaft model structure.

In order to obtain the three-dimensional coordinate of testee unique point from two dimensional image, the binocular vision measuring system is obtained two width of cloth images that comprise object feature point from diverse location at least.At present the general structure of this type systematic is observed same testee from different perspectives for intersecting two video cameras putting, is the three-dimensional coordinate of asking for this object point from the image coordinate that diverse location or different angles are obtained same object feature point on the principle.Obtain two width of cloth images from diverse location or different angles and can adopt two video cameras, also can observe same static object at diverse location, also can add that the optical imagery mode realizes by a video camera by a video camera by motion.

Key during stereoscopic vision is measured is to realize the solid coupling of same testee in different angles observation, so-called three-dimensional coupling is meant according to the calculating to selected feature, set up the corresponding relation between the feature, the photosites of same space physics point in different images is mapped.Three-dimensional coupling be most important in the stereoscopic vision also be the most difficult problem.When the space three-dimensional scene is projected as two dimensional image, the image of same scenery under different points of view has a great difference, and all multifactor in the scene, as illumination condition, scene geometry and physical characteristics, noise and distortion and camera properties etc. are all comprehensively become the gray-scale value in the single image.Therefore, carry out unambiguous coupling to the image that has comprised so many unfavorable factors exactly, obviously be very difficult, and this problem also is not well solved so far.The validity of three-dimensional coupling depends on the solution of three problems, selects correct matching characteristic that is:, seeks the essential attribute between feature and set up correctly to mate the stable algorithm of selected feature.

Distance determines it is by Feature Selection, images match, utilizes viewpoint to ask for the distance of impact point for how much.

The stereoscopic vision measurement is the method for imitation human use binocular clue perceived distance, realization is to the perception of three-dimensional information, adopt the method for triangulation in realization, use two video cameras to same object point from the diverse location imaging, and and then from parallax, calculate distance.But the technology of stereoscopic vision also can't reach omnibearing real-time perception at present, also be not well solved aspect camera calibration, feature extraction and the stereo-picture coupling.

At present a limitation of binocular stereo vision measuring system is a fixed focal length and since fixing focal length can only be in certain field depth clear photographic images, thereby limited test zone; Calibration technique does not also have fine solution, stereoscopic vision measuring system running parameter in various motions is inevitable, influence such as the vibrations in the transportation, work impact etc., demarcate in " at the moment " and can not always put several chessboards in the reality, thereby limited many application; The binocular stereo vision measuring system does not also realize miniaturization, microminiaturization, makes that the application in fields such as robot, model plane is restricted; Calculated amount is big, is difficult to handle in real time, thereby has limited application such as real-time target identification; The corresponding point matching difference of binocular vision is big, has caused the error of coupling, has influenced matching precision.

The omnibearing vision sensor ODVS that developed recently gets up (Omni Directional VisionSensors) provide a kind of new solution for the panoramic picture that obtains scene in real time.The characteristics of ODVS are looking away (360 degree), can become piece image to the Information Compression in the hemisphere visual field, and the quantity of information of piece image is bigger; When obtaining a scene image, the riding position of ODVS in scene is free more; ODVS is without run-home during monitoring environment; Algorithm is simpler during moving object in the detection and tracking monitoring range; Can obtain the realtime graphic of scene.Also provide a fundamental simultaneously for the stereoscopic vision measuring system that makes up binocular omnidirectional visual sense sensor.

The Chinese invention patent application number is 200510045648.1 to disclose a kind of omnidirectional stereo vision imaging method and device, in this patent the optical axis of a perspective camera lens and the common axis of symmetry of two mirror surfaces are overlapped placement, in the space a bit respectively after the reflection of two mirror surfaces respectively at the picture planar imaging of described perspective camera in 2 different points, be equivalent to two camera imagings; Device comprises two mirror surfaces, camera, and the common axis of symmetry of the optical axis of described camera lens and two mirror surfaces overlaps.The problem of the existence of this scheme is: 1) because unique point " two width of cloth " omni-directional image that piece image has comprised, the image parallactic of permission has reduced half, so the measurement range of vision system has at least also reduced half; 2) blocking can appear in two mirror surfaces up and down, influences the stereoscopic vision scope; 3) since the unique point of same object on two mirror surfaces up and down through the position difference of the decentering point on piece image of the imaging point after the catadioptric, more than the high twice of imaging resolution of the imaging resolution of upper reflector face than following mirror surface; 4) owing to have an X-rayed the focusing problem that camera lens exists, some mirror surfaces that can only satisfy in two mirror surfaces are pinpointed focus, thereby will inevitably influence image quality; 5) focal length of two mirror surfaces is exactly the baseline distance of this system, thereby causes baseline apart from too short, influences measuring accuracy.

The Chinese invention patent application number is 200810062128.5 to disclose a kind of stereo vision measuring apparatus based on binocular omnidirectional visual sense sensor, two ODVS that form stereo vision measuring apparatus in this patent have adopted the design of average angle resolution, the parameter of two video cameras of images acquired is in full accord, has fabulous symmetry, the coupling that can realize fast and put, thus reach the purpose that stereoscopic vision is measured.But still need bigger computational resource from finishing the point-to-point measurement in space that matches, realize that the measurement in space of real-time online and 3 D stereo reconstruct still exist " morbid state " computational problem.

Summary of the invention

For the deficiency that the computer resource usage that overcomes existing stereo vision measuring apparatus is big, real-time performance is poor, practicality is not strong, the invention provides and a kind ofly can reduce computer resource usage, finish measurement, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus that real-time is good, practical fast.

The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is:

A kind of fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus, comprise omnibearing vision sensor, panorama color modulation optical generator and the microprocessor that is used for omnidirectional images is carried out the 3 D stereo videographic measurment, described omnibearing vision sensor and described panorama color modulation optical generator are configured on the same axis heart line, and described omnibearing vision sensor is connected with described microprocessor; Described omnibearing vision sensor comprises the image unit and the first hyperboloid catadioptric unit; The described first hyperboloid catadioptric unit comprises the first hyperboloid minute surface, first loam cake, first support bar, clear glass face and auxiliary lens frame, the top of the described first hyperboloid minute surface is connected with first loam cake, the bottom center of described first hyperbolic mirror is connected with first post upper, the described first support bar lower end is connected with the clear glass face, described clear glass face is installed in the top of auxiliary lens frame, and described image unit is installed in the bottom of described auxiliary lens frame; Described panorama color modulation optical generator comprises circular variable wavelength filter, the light source fixed frame, the white color light emitting unit and the second hyperboloid catadioptric unit, described white color light emitting unit connects power supply unit, the described second hyperboloid catadioptric unit comprises the second hyperboloid minute surface, second loam cake and second support bar, the top of the described second hyperboloid minute surface is connected with second loam cake, the bottom center of described second hyperbolic mirror is connected with second post upper, the described second support bar lower end is connected with described circular variable wavelength filter, described circular variable wavelength filter is installed in the top of described light source fixed frame, and described white color light emitting unit is installed in the bottom of described light source fixed frame; The described first hyperboloid minute surface has identical imaging parameters with the second hyperbolic mirror mask; Described microprocessor comprises:

The video image read module is used to read the video image of omnibearing vision sensor, and is kept in the memory device of appointment, and its output is connected with the spatial information computing module;

The spatial information computing module is used for object point on the computer memory to the distance and the incident angle of stereo vision measuring apparatus central point, respectively the real focus O of computer memory object point and omnibearing vision sensor mThe real focus O of distance R 1, space object point and panorama colorama coded modulation unit pThe distance R of distance R 2, space object point and median eye and the incident angle Φ of space object point; Its output is connected with the 3-D view reconstructed module;

The 3-D view reconstructed module is used for launching computing with carry out column at the panoramic picture that omnibearing vision sensor obtained, and horizontal ordinate is represented the position angle in the stretch-out view, and ordinate is represented incident angle; Need the image of this core is separated separately when launching omnidirectional images, then omnidirectional images is launched, the calculating step-length of horizontal direction is in the deployment algorithm, Δ β=2 π/l, and 1 is the horizontal development amplitude in the formula; The calculating step-length of vertical direction is Δ m=(α O-maxO-min)/m; In the formula, α O-maxBe the scene angle of incidence of light of the maximum effective radius Rmax of the former figure of panorama correspondence, α O-minScene angle of incidence of light for the minimum effective radius Rmin of the former figure of panorama correspondence;

With with the former picture point A among the former figure of panorama of polar coordinate representation (Φ, β) the A point coordinate in the Dui Ying sphere expansion mode is respectively:

x=β/Δβ,y=(α oo-min)/Δm (15)

In the formula: Δ β is the calculating step-length of horizontal direction, and β is the position angle, and Δ m is the calculating step-length of vertical direction, α oThe scene angle of incidence of light of the former figure effective radius of panorama R correspondence, α O-minScene angle of incidence of light for the minimum effective radius Rmin of the former figure of panorama correspondence.

As preferred a kind of scheme: described white color light emitting unit is positioned at the virtual focus place of hyperbolic mirror, and white light is linear by the radius r of circular variable wavelength filter light wavelength λ and circular variable wavelength filter, represent with formula (6),

λ ( r ) = λ c + ( λ w - λ c ) R r - - - ( 6 )

In the formula: λ w, λ c, R is the parameter of circular variable wavelength filter, λ cBe the wavelength at the center of circular variable wavelength filter, λ wBe the wavelength at circular variable wavelength filter outer circular edge place, R is the maximum radius of circular variable wavelength filter, and r is to certain any measurement radius value from the center of circle of circular variable wavelength filter; Calculate wavelength X by measuring radius value with formula (6) by this point.

Further, the emission angle γ of a certain optical wavelength of panorama colorama coding demodulator pCalculate by formula (7),

tan ( γ p ) = r d - - - ( 7 )

In the formula: r be from the center of circle of circular variable wavelength filter to certain any measurement radius value, d is the distance of circular variable wavelength filter to the white color light emitting unit, promptly circular variable wavelength filter is to the distance of virtual focus;

According to emission angle γ p, utilize formula (8) to calculate the refraction angle α of this wavelength light p,

α p=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ p-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ p (8)

In the formula: c represents the focus of hyperbolic mirror, and a, b are respectively the real axis of hyperbolic mirror and the length of the imaginary axis.

Further again, described hyperboloid minute surface, the optical system that hyperbolic mirror constitutes is represented by following 5 equatioies;

((X 2+ Y 2)/a 2)-((Z-c) 2/ b 2)=-1 is as Z〉0 the time (1)

c = a 2 + b 2 - - - ( 2 )

β=tan -1(Y/X) (3)

α=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ (4)

γ = tan - 1 [ f / ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] - - - ( 5 )

X, Y, Z representation space coordinate in the formula, c represents the focus of hyperbolic mirror, 2c represents two distances between the focus, a, b is respectively the real axis of hyperbolic mirror and the length of the imaginary axis, β represent incident ray on the XY projection plane with the angle of X-axis, it is the position angle, α represent incident ray on the XZ projection plane with the angle of X-axis, here α is called incident angle, α is more than or equal to being called the angle of depression at 0 o'clock, with α less than being called the elevation angle at 0 o'clock, f represents the distance of imaging plane to the virtual focus of hyperbolic mirror, and γ represents the angle of catadioptric light and Z axle; X, y are illustrated in a point on the imaging plane.

Further, adopting back-to-back between described omnibearing vision sensor and the described panorama color modulation optical generator, type is connected, first loam cake of described omnibearing vision sensor is connected with second loam cake of described panorama color modulation optical generator, connecting link passes described first loam cake and is connected with first support bar, and passes second loam cake simultaneously and be connected with second support bar.

Or: adopt between described omnibearing vision sensor and the described panorama color modulation optical generator to be connected face-to-face, the image unit of omnibearing vision sensor is connected with the light source fixed frame of described panorama color modulation optical generator.

Again or: adopt between described omnibearing vision sensor and the described panorama color modulation optical generator in the face of back of the body connected mode, the light source fixed frame of panorama color modulation optical generator be connected with first loam cake of described omnibearing vision sensor.

Or be: adopt between described omnibearing vision sensor and the described panorama color modulation optical generator back to the face connected mode, the image unit of omnibearing vision sensor is connected with second loam cake of described panorama color modulation optical generator.

As preferred another scheme: described spatial information calculation unit comprises refraction angle α p computing unit, incident angle α o computing unit and metrics calculation unit;

Refraction angle α p computing unit is used to utilize the refraction angle α p of panorama colorama coded modulation unit to become the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (8) with emission angle γ p,

α p=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγp-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ p (8)

Emission angle γ pBecome the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (7) with the radius r of circular variable wavelength filter,

tan ( γ p ) = r d - - - ( 7 )

The radius r of circular variable wavelength filter becomes the linear relationship shown in the formula (6) with circular variable wavelength filter light wavelength λ,

λ ( r ) = λ c + ( λ w - λ c ) R r - - - ( 6 )

Therefore can obtain the refraction angle α of circular variable wavelength filter light wavelength λ and panorama colorama coded modulation unit pBetween funtcional relationship;

Incident angle α oComputing module is used to utilize the incident angle α of omnibearing vision sensor oWith catadioptric firing angle γ oBetween exist the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (9),

α o=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ o-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ o (9)

Catadioptric firing angle γ oWith a point on the imaging plane (x y) exists the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (5),

γ = tan - 1 [ f / ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] - - - ( 5 )

Obtain on the imaging plane a point (x, y) with incident angle α oBetween funtcional relationship;

Metrics calculation unit is used to utilize formula (10)~(14) to distinguish the real focus O of computer memory object point and omnibearing vision sensor mThe real focus O of distance R 1, space object point and panorama colorama coded modulation unit pThe distance R of distance R 2, space object point and median eye and the incident angle Φ of space object point,

R 1 = O m A ‾ = cos ( α o ) sin ( α o + α p ) B - - - ( 10 )

R 2 = O p A ‾ = cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) B - - - ( 11 )

R = OA ‾ = R 2 2 + ( B / 2 ) 2 - 2 R 2 ( B / 2 ) cos ( α p + 90 )

(13)

= B [ cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) ] 2 + 0.25 + cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) sin ( α p )

φ = arcsin [ B 2 R cos ( α o ) ] - - - ( 14 )

In the formula: B is the baseline distance, α oBe incident angle, α pBe the refraction angle, R1 is the real focus O of object point A and omnibearing vision sensor mDistance, R2 is the real focus O of object point A and panorama color modulation optical generator pDistance, R is the distance of object point A and median eye, Φ is the incident angle of space object point with respect to median eye.

Further again, in described spatial information computing module, a light coding schedule is set realizes a certain light wavelength lambda and a certain refraction angle α pBetween the mapping relations that exist, incident angle reckoner realizes that the coordinate data of some points and this put pairing incident angle α oBetween the mapping relations that exist, refraction angle α p, incident angle α oCalculate and adopt lookup table mode to realize; At first read the wavelength X value of some points in proper order, obtain this with point coordinate value retrieval incident angle reckoner and put pairing incident angle α by the point coordinate of the imaging plane of omnibearing vision sensor o, then the light wavelength lambda value retrieval light coding schedule with this point obtains the pairing refraction angle α of this light wavelength lambda pUtilize formula (10) or formula (11) or formula (13) to calculate on the space certain any range information at last.

The principle of work of omnibearing vision sensor is: enter the light at the center of hyperbolic mirror, reflect towards its virtual focus according to bi-curved minute surface characteristic.Material picture reflexes to imaging in the collector lens through hyperbolic mirror, a some P on this imaging plane (x, y) corresponding the coordinate A of a point spatially in kind (X, Y, Z);

2-hyperbolic curve face mirror among Figure 13,12-incident ray, the real focus Om (0 of 13-hyperbolic mirror, 0, c), the virtual focus of 14-hyperbolic mirror, be image unit 6 center O c (0,0 ,-c), 15-reflection ray, 16-imaging plane, the volume coordinate A (X of 17-material picture, Y, Z), 18-incide the volume coordinate of the image on the hyperboloid minute surface, 19-be reflected in some P on the imaging plane (x, y).

The optical system that hyperbolic mirror shown in Figure 13 constitutes can be represented by following 5 equatioies;

((X 2+ Y 2)/a 2)-((Z-c) 2/ b 2)=-1 is as Z〉0 the time (1)

c = a 2 + b 2 - - - ( 2 )

β=tan -1(Y/X) (3)

α=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ (4)

γ = tan - 1 [ f / ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] - - - ( 5 )

X, Y, Z representation space coordinate in the formula, c represents the focus of hyperbolic mirror, 2c represents two distances between the focus, a, b is respectively the real axis of hyperbolic mirror and the length of the imaginary axis, β represent incident ray on the XY projection plane with the angle of X-axis, it is the position angle, α represent incident ray on the XZ projection plane with the angle of X-axis, here α is called incident angle, α is more than or equal to being called the angle of depression at 0 o'clock, with α less than being called the elevation angle at 0 o'clock, f represents the distance of imaging plane to the virtual focus of hyperbolic mirror, and γ represents the angle of catadioptric light and Z axle; X, y are illustrated in a point on the imaging plane;

In order to obtain bigger stereoscopic vision scope, when designing, need strengthen described hyperboloid minute surface 2 elevation angle of hyperboloid minute surface as far as possible, employing reduces the elevation angle of recently strengthening the hyperboloid minute surface of the real axis a and the imaginary axis b of hyperbolic mirror, need during design to select the ratio of a suitable real axis a and imaginary axis b according to the scope of stereoscopic vision, the diameter of hyperbolic mirror, the maximum elevation limit is the angle of hyp asymptote and X-axis;

The principle of work of panorama color modulation optical generator is: the white color light emitting unit 9 from the virtual focus that is placed in hyperbolic mirror by inciding behind the circular variable wavelength filter 7 on the hyperboloid minute surface 2, outwards reflects by hyperboloid minute surface 2; Because the peak wavelength of circular variable wavelength filter 7 is linear change along the different angles position of circular-base, forms a panorama colorama coded modulation unit; On hyperboloid minute surface 2, form the light that a circle circle is the peak wavelength of linear change, after hyperboloid minute surface 2 catadioptrics in the horizontal direction 360 ° formed the panorama color modulation light that a circle circle is the peak wavelength of hyperbolic function relationship change, this process just in time is the inverse process of omnibearing vision sensor imaging, so formula (1)~(5) also are applicable to the modeling to panorama color modulation optical generator; As shown in figure 14;

2-hyperbolic curve face mirror among Figure 14,18-throw light, the real focus Op of 13-hyperbolic mirror (0,0, c), the virtual focus Op of 14-hyperbolic mirror (0,0 ,-c), and the 9-white light source, 19-reflection ray, the volume coordinate A of 17-material picture (X, Y, Z).

Described circular variable wavelength filter adopts the circular gradual filter of super-high density, and optical density scope OD0--OD10 (0--100dB) is suitable for wave band 400nm--2000nm;

Described luminescence unit, can select metal halogen bulb, UHE bulb, UHP bulb and led light source, the principle of selecting for use is to produce big light quantity, and will suppress the generation of the situation of glimmering effectively, and the luminescent device that profile is small and exquisite, brightness decay is little, the life-span is long;

The principle of work of fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus is: send white light from the white color light emitting unit 9 of the virtual focus of the hyperbolic mirror that is placed in panorama color modulation optical generator by luminous power 10 power supplies, project by circular variable wavelength filter 7 on the hyperboloid minute surface 2 of panorama color modulation optical generator, outwards refraction all around of hyperboloid minute surface 2 by panorama color modulation optical generator, 360 ° of catadioptric light that formed the peak wavelength of a circle circle that is the hyperbolic function relationship change in the horizontal direction, a point A (X on the space, Y, Z) receive the light of certain wavelength, this luminous point continues hyperbolic mirror 2 reflections to omnibearing vision sensor, light is towards the real focus of the hyperbolic mirror 2 of omnibearing vision sensor, according to virtual focus 14 catadioptrics of bi-curved minute surface characteristic towards omnibearing vision sensor, the luminous point that respectively has certain wavelength of reflection material picture reflexes to imaging in the collector lens through the hyperbolic mirror 2 of omnibearing vision sensor, a point P (x on this imaging plane, y) corresponding the coordinate A (X of a point spatially in kind, Y, Z), index path is shown in the heavy line among Fig. 3; In fact the acting in conjunction by two same hyperboloid minute surfaces and circular variable wavelength filter makes Feature Selection, images match step in original stereo camera shooting is measured simplify, determined a some A (X on the space by the hyperboloid minute surface of two same parameters and the acting in conjunction of circular variable wavelength filter, Y, Z) on imaging plane, put P (x, y) incident angle and position angle, promptly be called some A (X, Y, constraint condition Z) determined on the space; This is because because the hyperbolic mirror that panorama color modulation optical generator and omnibearing vision sensor have two identical parameters, and the hyperbolic mirror of two identical parameters is on same axial line, therefore determine some A (X, Y, Z) position angle is very easy, can determine by the determined wavelength of light of circular variable wavelength filter about emission angle, can be about incident angle by putting P (x on the imaging plane, y) determine, so just determined some A (X, Y is Z) with the spatial relation of observation point;

Adopt " median eye " visual manner to describe the information (R of a certain object point A on the space among the present invention, Φ, β, t), so-called median eye is the mid point of stereoscopic vision baseline distance, be to obtain by the line central point between the viewpoint of omnibearing vision sensor and panorama colorama coded modulation unit, here with the coordinate of median eye as Gaussian sphere origin O, as shown in Figure 3.

Beneficial effect of the present invention mainly shows:

1), obtains real-time full-view stereo video image, the monitoring object of following the tracks of can not go out active, adopt the full-view stereo video designs of the hyperbolic mirror of big-elevation, the real-time follow-up that has solved the Fast Moving Object object in the large space provides complete theoretical system and model;

2), provide a kind of brand-new stereoscopic vision acquisition methods, panorama colorama coded modulation by initiatively, based on the technology of the colored light emission of hyperbolic mirror with based on the catadioptric omnibearing imaging technology of hyperbolic mirror, realized that full-view stereo photography is measured fast;

3), no longer need steps such as loaded down with trivial details camera calibration work, feature extraction, stereo-picture coupling, for the fast full-view stereo photography measurement provides a kind of new means;

4), the panoramic stereo image itself that is generated by panorama colorama code modulation mode has stereoscopic sensation and distance perspective;

5), by changing the stereo camera shooting measurement that different circular variable wavelength filters can satisfy different occasions;

6), adopt same utmost point spherical co-ordinate to handle means, can utilize the computing method of digital geometry can realize easily that 3-D view reconstruct and three-dimensional body measure.Can be widely used in many applications such as various industrial detection, geographical exploration, medical science lift face, Osteological, the reproduction of the cultural relics, Well grab, security personnel's identification, robot vision, mould rapid shaping, gift, virtual reality, anthropological measuring, animated film, recreation.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a kind of structural drawing of omnibearing vision sensor;

Fig. 2 is the structural drawing of a kind of panorama colorama coded modulation unit;

Fig. 3 is a kind of schematic diagram of fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus of type back-to-back;

Fig. 4 is the connecting link in the fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus of type back-to-back;

Fig. 5 is the connected mode synoptic diagram in the fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus of type back-to-back;

Fig. 6 is the Processing Structure block diagram of the fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus of type back-to-back;

Fig. 7 is the structural drawing of the fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus of face-to-face type;

Fig. 8 is the structural drawing in the face of the fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus of back of the body type;

Fig. 9 is the structural drawing back to the fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus of face type;

Figure 10 is the linear explanation synoptic diagram of the radius r of circular variable wavelength filter and wavelength X and circular variable wavelength filter;

Figure 11 is the synoptic diagram that concerns between Gaussian sphere coordinate and the three-dimensional rectangular coordinate;

Figure 12 is the concept map of the median eye in the binocular vision;

Figure 13 is the imaging schematic diagram of omnibearing vision sensor;

Figure 14 is the schematic diagram that panorama colorama coded modulation unit produces panorama color modulation light.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is further described.

Embodiment 1

With reference to Fig. 1~Fig. 6, Figure 10 one Figure 14, a kind of fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus, comprise omnibearing vision sensor, panorama color modulation optical generator and the microprocessor that is used for omnidirectional images is carried out the 3 D stereo videographic measurment, described omnibearing vision sensor and described panorama color modulation optical generator are configured on the same axis heart line, and described omnibearing vision sensor is connected with described microprocessor; Described omnibearing vision sensor comprises the image unit 6 and the first hyperboloid catadioptric unit; The described first hyperboloid catadioptric unit comprises the first hyperboloid minute surface 2, first loam cake 1, first support bar 3, clear glass face 4 and auxiliary lens frame 5, the top of the described first hyperboloid minute surface 2 is connected with first loam cake 1, the bottom center of described first hyperbolic mirror 2 is connected with first support bar, 3 upper ends, described first support bar 3 lower ends are connected with clear glass face 4, described clear glass face 4 is installed in the top of auxiliary lens frame 5, and described image unit 6 is installed in the bottom of described auxiliary lens frame 5; Described panorama color modulation optical generator comprises circular variable wavelength filter 7, light source fixed frame 8, the white color light emitting unit 9 and the second hyperboloid catadioptric unit, described white color light emitting unit 9 connects power supply unit 10, the described second hyperboloid catadioptric unit comprises the second hyperboloid minute surface 22, second loam cake 21 and second support bar 23, the top of the described second hyperboloid minute surface 22 is connected with second loam cake 21, the bottom center of described second hyperbolic mirror 22 is connected with second support bar, 23 upper ends, described second support bar 23 lower ends are connected with described circular variable wavelength filter 7, described circular variable wavelength filter 7 is installed in the top of described light source fixed frame 8, and described white color light emitting unit 9 is installed in the bottom of described light source fixed frame 8; The described first hyperboloid minute surface has identical imaging parameters with the second hyperbolic mirror mask;

The omnibearing vision sensor of present embodiment is made of an image unit 6 and a hyperboloid catadioptric unit, as shown in Figure 1; The described first hyperboloid catadioptric unit comprises the first hyperboloid minute surface 2, first loam cake 1, first support bar 3, clear glass face 4, auxiliary lens frame 5; Described panorama color modulation optical generator is made of a color modulation light coding transmitter unit and the second hyperboloid catadioptric unit, as shown in Figure 2; Described color modulation light coding transmitter unit comprises circular variable wavelength filter 7, light source fixed frame 8, white color light emitting unit 9, the power supply unit 10 of luminescence unit; The described second hyperboloid catadioptric unit comprises the second hyperboloid minute surface 22, second loam cake 21, second support bar 23;

For the light at the center that enters hyperbolic mirror, reflect towards its virtual focus according to bi-curved minute surface characteristic.Material picture reflexes to imaging in the collector lens through hyperbolic mirror, a some P on this imaging plane (x, y) corresponding the coordinate A of a point spatially in kind (X, Y, Z);

White color light emitting unit 9 from the virtual focus that is placed in hyperbolic mirror by inciding behind the circular variable wavelength filter 7 on the hyperboloid minute surface 2, outwards reflects by hyperboloid minute surface 2; Because the peak wavelength of circular variable wavelength filter 7 is linear change along the different angles position of circular-base, forms a panorama colorama coded modulation unit; On hyperboloid minute surface 2, form the light that a circle circle is the peak wavelength of linear change, after hyperboloid minute surface 2 catadioptrics in the horizontal direction 360 ° formed the panorama color modulation light that a circle circle is the peak wavelength of hyperbolic function relationship change, this process just in time is the inverse process of omnibearing vision sensor imaging;

Send white light from the white color light emitting unit 9 of the virtual focus of the hyperbolic mirror that is placed in panorama color modulation optical generator by luminous power 10 power supplies, project by circular variable wavelength filter 7 on the hyperboloid minute surface 2 of panorama color modulation optical generator, outwards refraction all around of hyperboloid minute surface 2 by panorama color modulation optical generator, 360 ° of catadioptric light that formed the peak wavelength of a circle circle that is the hyperbolic function relationship change in the horizontal direction, a point A (X on the space, Y, Z) receive the light of certain wavelength, this luminous point continues hyperbolic mirror 2 reflections to omnibearing vision sensor, light is towards the real focus of the hyperbolic mirror 2 of omnibearing vision sensor, according to virtual focus 14 catadioptrics of bi-curved minute surface characteristic towards omnibearing vision sensor, the luminous point that respectively has certain wavelength of reflection material picture reflexes to imaging in the collector lens through the hyperbolic mirror 2 of omnibearing vision sensor, a point P (x on this imaging plane, y) corresponding the coordinate A (X of a point spatially in kind, Y, Z), index path is shown in the heavy line among Fig. 3; In fact the acting in conjunction by two same hyperboloid minute surfaces and circular variable wavelength filter makes Feature Selection, images match step in original stereo camera shooting is measured obtain simplifying, determined a some A (X on the space by the hyperboloid minute surface of two same parameters and the acting in conjunction of circular variable wavelength filter, Y, Z) on imaging plane, put P (x, y) emission angle and incident angle, promptly be called some A (X, Y, constraint condition Z) determined on the space; This is because because the hyperbolic mirror that panorama color modulation optical generator and omnibearing vision sensor have two identical parameters, and the hyperbolic mirror of two identical parameters is on same axial line, therefore determine some A (X, Y, Z) position angle is very easy, can determine by the determined wavelength of light of circular variable wavelength filter about emission angle, can be about incident angle by putting P (x on the imaging plane, y) determine, so just determined some A (X, Y is Z) with the spatial relation of observation point;

Have an aperture in the middle of the clear glass face 4 of described omnibearing vision sensor, the diameter in hole is identical with the internal thread aperture of first support bar 3, during connection first support bar, 3 thin ends is coupled together first support bar 3 perpendicular to the aperture that clear glass face 4 usefulness screws pass on the clear glass face 4 with clear glass face 4; Have below the described auxiliary lens frame 5 one with image unit 6 camera lenses before the identical external thread of bore, mode by screwing screw thread is with 5 firm being fixed on the image unit 6 of auxiliary lens frame, and described clear glass face 4 is embedded in the described auxiliary lens frame 5;

Described color modulation light coding transmitter unit mainly is made of white color light emitting unit 9 and circular variable wavelength filter 7, have an aperture in the middle of the described circular variable wavelength filter 7, the diameter in hole is identical with the internal thread aperture of second support bar 23, and the aperture that during connection second support bar, 23 thin ends is passed circular variable wavelength filter 7 perpendicular to circular variable wavelength filter 7 usefulness screws is with second support bar 23 and circular variable wavelength filter 7; Have below the described light source fixed frame 8 one with the identical external thread of white color light emitting unit 9 bores, mode by screwing screw thread is with 8 firm being fixed on the white color light emitting unit 9 of light source fixed frame, and described circular variable wavelength filter 7 is embedded in the described light source fixed frame 8;

The profile of described first support bar 3 is upper coarse and lower fine round platform, and as shown in Figure 3, first support bar, 3 thick ends are external thread, and first support bar, 3 thin ends are internal thread; Have an aperture in the middle of the described first hyperboloid minute surface 2, the diameter in hole is identical with the external thread diameter of first support bar 3, and the Kong Zhongyong nut that during connection the external thread of first support bar 3 is penetrated the first hyperboloid minute surface 2 couples together the first hyperboloid minute surface 2 and first support bar 3;

Described omnibearing vision sensor and described panorama color modulation optical generator are configured on the same axial line, and it is a kind of that shown in Figure 3 is is back-to-back connection; Described back-to-back connection, the connecting link 10 that at first adopts two ends to have internal thread couples together two hyperboloid minute surfaces 2 with identical imaging parameters, as shown in Figure 5; The externally threaded size of the size of internal thread and support bar 3 is complementary, and can guarantee that by such connection omnibearing vision sensor and panorama color modulation optical generator are on same axial line;

The principle of work of omnibearing vision sensor is described, the 2-hyperbolic curve face mirror among Figure 13,12-incident ray, the real focus Om of 13-hyperbolic mirror (0,0, c), the virtual focus of 14-hyperbolic mirror, i.e. the center O c (0,0 of image unit 6,-c), 15-reflection ray, 16-imaging plane, the volume coordinate A of 17-material picture (X, Y, Z), 18-incide the volume coordinate of the image on the hyperboloid minute surface, 19-be reflected in some P on the imaging plane (x, y).

The optical system that hyperbolic mirror shown in Figure 13 constitutes can be represented by following 5 equatioies;

((X 2+ Y 2)/a 2)-((Z-c) 2/ b 2)=-1 is as Z〉0 the time (1)

c = a 2 + b 2 - - - ( 2 )

β=tan -1(Y/X) (3)

α=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ (4)

γ = tan - 1 [ f / ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] - - - ( 5 )

X, Y, Z representation space coordinate in the formula, c represents the focus of hyperbolic mirror, 2c represents two distances between the focus, a, b is respectively the real axis of hyperbolic mirror and the length of the imaginary axis, β represent incident ray on the XY projection plane with the angle of X-axis, it is the position angle, α represent incident ray on the XZ projection plane with the angle of X-axis, here α is called incident angle, α is more than or equal to being called the angle of depression at 0 o'clock, with α less than being called the elevation angle at 0 o'clock, f represents the distance of imaging plane to the virtual focus of hyperbolic mirror, and γ represents the angle of catadioptric light and Z axle; X, y are illustrated in a point on the imaging plane;

In order to obtain bigger stereoscopic vision scope, when designing, need strengthen described hyperboloid minute surface 2 elevation angle of hyperboloid minute surface as far as possible, employing reduces the elevation angle of recently strengthening the hyperboloid minute surface of the real axis a and the imaginary axis b of hyperbolic mirror, need during design to select the ratio of a suitable real axis a and imaginary axis b according to the scope of stereoscopic vision, the diameter of hyperbolic mirror, the maximum elevation limit is the angle of hyp asymptote and X-axis;

The principle of work of panorama color modulation optical generator is described, as shown in figure 14, white color light emitting unit 9 from the virtual focus that is placed in hyperbolic mirror by inciding behind the circular variable wavelength filter 7 on the second hyperboloid minute surface 22, outwards reflects by the second hyperboloid minute surface 22; Because the peak wavelength of circular variable wavelength filter 7 is linear change along the different angles position of circular-base, forms a panorama colorama coded modulation unit; On the second hyperboloid minute surface 22, form the light that a circle circle is the peak wavelength of linear change, after the second hyperboloid minute surface, 22 catadioptrics in the horizontal direction 360 ° formed the panorama color modulation light that a circle circle is the peak wavelength of hyperbolic function relationship change, this process just in time is the inverse process of omnibearing vision sensor imaging, so formula (1)~(5) also are applicable to the modeling to panorama color modulation optical generator;

2-hyperbolic curve face mirror among Figure 14,18-throw light, the real focus Op of 13-hyperbolic mirror (0,0, c), the virtual focus Op of 14-hyperbolic mirror (0,0 ,-c), and the 9-white light source, 19-reflection ray, the volume coordinate A of 17-material picture (X, Y, Z);

Described circular variable wavelength filter adopts the super-high density circular variable filter, and optical density scope OD0--OD10 (0--100dB) is suitable for wave band 400nm--2000nm;

Described luminescence unit, can select metal halogen bulb, UHE bulb, UHP bulb and led light source, the principle of selecting for use is to produce big light quantity, and will suppress the generation of the situation of glimmering effectively, and the luminescent device that profile is small and exquisite, brightness decay is little, the life-span is long;

White light is linear by the radius r of circular variable wavelength filter light wavelength λ and circular variable wavelength filter, represents with formula (6),

λ ( r ) = λ c + ( λ w - λ c ) R r - - - ( 6 )

In the formula: λ w, λ c, R is the parameter of circular variable wavelength filter, λ cWavelength for the center of circular variable wavelength filter can be designed as minimum visible wavelength, such as being designed to 400nm, λ wWavelength for circular variable wavelength filter outer circular edge place, can be designed as high visible wavelength, such as being designed to 700nm, R is the maximum radius of circular variable wavelength filter, and r is to certain any measurement radius value from the center of circle of circular variable wavelength filter; Calculate the wavelength X that can obtain with formula (6) by this measurement radius value by this point; Conversely, infer the r value from a certain light wavelength that obtains by formula (6);

In order to obtain the emission angle size of a certain optical wavelength in panorama colorama coded modulation unit, as the γ among Figure 14 pShown in, we can calculate by formula (7) and obtain,

tan ( γ p ) = r d - - - ( 7 )

In the formula: r be from the center of circle of circular variable wavelength filter to certain any measurement radius value, d is the distance of circular variable wavelength filter to white color light emitting unit 9, promptly circular variable wavelength filter is to the distance of virtual focus; As shown in figure 14;

Emission angle γ has been arranged p, we can utilize formula (8) to calculate the refraction angle α of this wavelength light p, as shown in figure 14,

α p=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ p-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ p (8)

In the formula: c represents the focus of hyperbolic mirror, and a, b are respectively the real axis of hyperbolic mirror and the length of the imaginary axis;

This has naming a person for a particular job of a certain specific wavelength corresponding point is arranged on the imaging plane of omnibearing vision sensor, and promptly (x y), can calculate the catadioptric light of this point and the angle γ of Z axle by formula (5) to P oCatadioptric firing angle γ has been arranged o, we can this has the incident angle α of the point of a certain specific wavelength by formula (9) o, as shown in figure 13,

α o=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ o-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ o (9)

In the formula: c represents the focus of hyperbolic mirror, and a, b are respectively the real axis of hyperbolic mirror and the length of the imaginary axis;

Further, by refraction angle α pWith incident angle α oCome the distance of computer memory object point A, as shown in Figure 3, O mAnd O pBetween distance expression baseline apart from B, the real focus O of object point A and omnibearing vision sensor mDistance R 1 can calculate by formula (10),

R 1 = O m A ‾ = cos ( α o ) sin ( α o + α p ) B - - - ( 10 )

In the formula: B is the baseline distance, α pBe the refraction angle, α oBe incident angle, R1 is the real focus O of object point A and omnibearing vision sensor mDistance;

The real focus O of object point A and panorama color modulation optical generator pDistance R 2 can calculate by formula (11),

R 2 = O p A ‾ = cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) B - - - ( 11 )

In the formula: B is the baseline distance, α pBe the refraction angle, α oBe incident angle, R2 is the real focus O of object point A and panorama color modulation optical generator pDistance;

Adopt " median eye " visual manner to describe the information (R of a certain object point A on the space among the present invention, Φ, β, t), so-called median eye is the mid point of stereoscopic vision baseline distance, be to obtain by the line central point between the viewpoint of omnibearing vision sensor and panorama colorama coded modulation unit, here with the coordinate of median eye as Gaussian sphere origin O, as shown in Figure 3.The implication of each physical parameter as shown in figure 12; Relation between Gaussian sphere coordinate and the three-dimensional coordinate as shown in figure 11;

We adopt 4 parameters to come the information of a certain object point on the expression of space, and R is the distance between spherical co-ordinate initial point O and the object point A; Φ is line and the folded angle of Z axle forward between spherical co-ordinate initial point O and the object point A; β just corresponding the position angle; T express time information; Any one object point on the space all can adopt formula (12) to express,

(12)

a=A(R,φ,β,t)

Adopt " median eye " visual manner to describe object point A on the space, we are with O mAnd O pBetween mid point as median eye, i.e. the point of O among Fig. 3, the distance R of object point A and median eye can be calculated by formula (13) so,

R = OA ‾ = R 2 2 + ( B / 2 ) 2 - 2 R 2 ( B / 2 ) cos ( α p + 90 )

= B [ cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) ] 2 + 0.25 + cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) sin ( α p ) - - - ( 13 )

In the formula: B is the baseline distance, α pBe the refraction angle, α oBe incident angle, R is the distance of object point A and median eye; Describe the incident angle that " median eye " observes object point A with the Φ angle, can calculate with formula (14),

φ = arcsin [ B 2 R cos ( α o ) ] - - - ( 14 )

In the formula: B is the baseline distance, α oBe incident angle, Φ is the incident angle of space object point with respect to median eye;

Described microprocessor comprises: the video image read module is used to read the video image of omnibearing vision sensor, and is kept in the memory device of appointment; Spatial information calculation unit is used for object point on the computer memory to the distance and the incident angle of stereo vision measuring apparatus central point, and computing formula is shown in (10)~(14); The 3-D view reconfiguration unit is used for each object point in space is described by different colors the distance perspective information of its object point;

Described spatial information computing module comprises refraction angle α p, incident angle α oAnd metrics calculation unit; Described refraction angle α pComputing unit utilizes the refraction angle α of panorama colorama coded modulation unit pWith emission angle γ pBecome the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (8),

α p=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ p-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ p (8)

Emission angle γ pBecome the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (7) with the radius r of circular variable wavelength filter,

tan ( γ p ) = r d - - - ( 7 )

The radius r of circular variable wavelength filter becomes the linear relationship shown in the formula (6) with circular variable wavelength filter light wavelength λ,

λ ( r ) = λ c + ( λ w - λ c ) R r - - - ( 6 )

Therefore can obtain the refraction angle α of circular variable wavelength filter light wavelength λ and panorama colorama coded modulation unit pBetween funtcional relationship;

Described incident angle α oComputing unit utilizes the incident angle α of omnibearing vision sensor oWith catadioptric firing angle γ oBetween exist the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (9),

α o=tan- 1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ o-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ o (9)

Catadioptric firing angle γ oWith a point on the imaging plane (x y) exists the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (5),

γ = tan - 1 [ f / ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] - - - ( 5 )

Obtain on the imaging plane a point (x, y) with incident angle α oBetween funtcional relationship;

Described metrics calculation unit utilizes formula (10)~(14) to distinguish the real focus O of computer memory object point and omnibearing vision sensor mThe real focus O of distance R 1, space object point and panorama colorama coded modulation unit pThe distance R of distance R 2, space object point and median eye and the incident angle Φ of space object point,

R 1 = O m A ‾ = cos ( α o ) sin ( α o + α p ) B - - - ( 10 )

R 2 = O p A ‾ = cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) B - - - ( 11 )

R = OA ‾ = R 2 2 + ( B / 2 ) 2 - 2 R 2 ( B / 2 ) cos ( α p + 90 ) - - - ( 13 )

= B [ cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) ] 2 + 0.25 + cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) sin ( α p )

φ = arcsin [ B 2 R cos ( α o ) ] - - - ( 14 )

In the formula: B is the baseline distance, α oBe incident angle, α pBe the refraction angle, R1 is the real focus O of object point A and omnibearing vision sensor mDistance, R2 is the real focus O of object point A and panorama color modulation optical generator pDistance, R is the distance of object point A and median eye, Φ is the incident angle of space object point with respect to median eye.

Because the refraction angle α of panorama colorama coded modulation unit pWith emission angle γ pBecome the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (8), emission angle γ pBecome the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (7) with the radius r of circular variable wavelength filter, the radius r of circular variable wavelength filter becomes the linear relationship shown in the formula (6) with circular variable wavelength filter light wavelength λ, therefore can obtain the refraction angle α of circular variable wavelength filter light wavelength λ and panorama colorama coded modulation unit pBetween funtcional relationship, in other words, a certain light wavelength lambda and a certain refraction angle α pBetween exist funtcional relationship, design a light coding schedule here, find the pairing refraction angle α of this light wavelength lambda as long as obtain the data of a certain light wavelength lambda by the light coding schedule p

Because the incident angle α of omnibearing vision sensor oWith catadioptric firing angle γ oBetween exist the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (9), catadioptric firing angle γ o(x y) exists the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (5), and (x is y) with incident angle α therefore can to obtain a point on the imaging plane with a point on the imaging plane oBetween funtcional relationship, in other words, a point of the imaging plane of omnibearing vision sensor must be corresponding some incident angle α o, design an incident angle reckoner here, find this from the coordinate data of some points by the incident angle reckoner and put pairing incident angle α o

The actual spatial information that carries out is when calculating, and at first reads the wavelength X value of some points in proper order by the point coordinate of the imaging plane of omnibearing vision sensor, obtains this with point coordinate value retrieval incident angle reckoner and puts pairing incident angle α o, then the light wavelength lambda value retrieval light coding schedule with this point obtains the pairing refraction angle α of this light wavelength lambda pUtilize formula (10) or formula (11) or formula (13) to calculate on the space certain any range information at last;

Described 3-D view reconstructed module, owing in panorama colorama coded modulation unit, adopted panorama colorama code modulation mode, any point on 360 ° of spaces of panorama all will have different colors and represent distance between itself and the observation point, therefore as long as the image on omnibearing vision sensor is launched by panorama column deployment algorithm, just can obtain panoramic stereo image easily;

Described panorama column deployment algorithm is that the panoramic picture that will be obtained in omnibearing vision sensor carries out column expansion computing, and horizontal ordinate is represented the position angle in the stretch-out view, and ordinate is represented incident angle; Need the image of this core is separated separately when launching omnidirectional images, then omnidirectional images is launched, the calculating step-length of horizontal direction is in the deployment algorithm, Δ β=2 π/l, and 1 is the horizontal development amplitude in the formula; The calculating step-length of vertical direction is Δ m=(α O-maxO-min)/m; In the formula, α O-maxBe the scene angle of incidence of light of the maximum effective radius Rmax of the former figure of panorama correspondence, α O-minScene angle of incidence of light for the minimum effective radius Rmin of the former figure of panorama correspondence;

With with the former picture point A among the former figure of panorama of polar coordinate representation (Φ, β) the A point coordinate in the Dui Ying sphere expansion mode is respectively:

x=β/Δβ,y=(α oo-min)/Δm (15)

In the formula: Δ β is the calculating step-length of horizontal direction, and β is the position angle, and Δ m is the calculating step-length of vertical direction, α oThe scene angle of incidence of light of the former figure effective radius of panorama R correspondence, α O-minScene angle of incidence of light for the minimum effective radius Rmin of the former figure of panorama correspondence.

Embodiment 2

With reference to Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 7, Figure 10-Figure 14, present embodiment is on the connected mode of panorama color modulation optical generator and omnibearing vision sensor, and what adopt here is aspectant connection; Described aspectant connection, be that the light source fixed frame on the image unit on the described omnibearing vision sensor 6 and the described panorama color modulation optical generator 8 is connected by web member, this connected mode faces toward convex surface with two convex surfaces with hyperboloid minute surface of same parameter, and the axial line that guarantees two hyperboloid minute surfaces 2,22 overlaps, as shown in Figure 7; As can be known from Fig. 7, the baseline of type fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus is the longest apart from B face-to-face, stereoscopic vision measurement range maximum.

Other structures of present embodiment are identical with embodiment 1 with the course of work.

Embodiment 3

With reference to Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 8, Figure 10-Figure 14, present embodiment is on the connected mode of panorama color modulation optical generator and omnibearing vision sensor, what adopt here is connection in the face of the back of the body, above promptly is to be the connected mode of omnibearing vision sensor below the panorama color modulation optical generator; Described connected mode in the face of the back of the body, be that the loam cake on the light source fixed frame 8 on the described panorama color modulation optical generator and the described omnibearing vision sensor 1 is connected by web member, this connected mode faces toward the convex surface of the second hyperboloid minute surface 22 on the panorama color modulation optical generator concave surface of the first hyperboloid minute surface 2 of omnibearing vision sensor, and the axial line that guarantees two hyperboloid minute surfaces 2,22 overlaps, as shown in Figure 8; This baseline in the face of back of the body type fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus is in the intermediateness of Fig. 3, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus shown in Figure 6 apart from B and measurement in space scope.

Other structures of present embodiment are identical with embodiment 1 with the course of work.

Embodiment 4

With reference to Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 9-Figure 14, present embodiment is on the connected mode of panorama color modulation optical generator and omnibearing vision sensor, what adopt here is connection back to face, above promptly is to be the connected mode of panorama color modulation optical generator below the omnibearing vision sensor; Described connected mode back to face, be that the loam cake on the image unit on the described omnibearing vision sensor 6 and the described panorama color modulation optical generator 1 is connected by web member, this connected mode faces toward the convex surface of the first hyperboloid minute surface 2 of omnibearing vision sensor the concave surface of the second hyperboloid minute surface 22 on the panorama color modulation optical generator, and the axial line that guarantees two hyperboloid minute surfaces 2,22 overlaps, as shown in Figure 9; This baseline back to face type fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus is in the intermediateness of Fig. 3, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus shown in Figure 6 apart from B and measurement in space scope.

Other structures of present embodiment are identical with embodiment 1 with the course of work.

Embodiment 5

With reference to Fig. 1~Fig. 6, Figure 10-Figure 14, the selection aspect of the optical wavelength range of the circular variable wavelength filter of present embodiment, at some special occasions, as what need that panorama color modulation optical generator sends is infrared spectrum, and therefore the scope with the optical wavelength of variable filter is chosen in 700nm~2000nm.

Other structures of present embodiment are identical with embodiment 1 with the course of work.

Claims (10)

1, a kind of fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus, it is characterized in that: described fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus comprises omnibearing vision sensor, panorama color modulation optical generator and the microprocessor that is used for omnidirectional images is carried out the 3 D stereo videographic measurment, described omnibearing vision sensor and described panorama color modulation optical generator are configured on the same axis heart line, and described omnibearing vision sensor is connected with described microprocessor;
Described omnibearing vision sensor comprises the image unit and the first hyperboloid catadioptric unit; The described first hyperboloid catadioptric unit comprises the first hyperboloid minute surface, first loam cake, first support bar, clear glass face and auxiliary lens frame, the top of the described first hyperboloid minute surface is connected with first loam cake, the bottom center of described first hyperbolic mirror is connected with first post upper, the described first support bar lower end is connected with the clear glass face, described clear glass face is installed in the top of auxiliary lens frame, and described image unit is installed in the bottom of described auxiliary lens frame;
Described panorama color modulation optical generator comprises circular variable wavelength filter, the light source fixed frame, the white color light emitting unit and the second hyperboloid catadioptric unit, described white color light emitting unit connects power supply unit, the described second hyperboloid catadioptric unit comprises the second hyperboloid minute surface, second loam cake and second support bar, the top of the described second hyperboloid minute surface is connected with second loam cake, the bottom center of described second hyperbolic mirror is connected with second post upper, the described second support bar lower end is connected with described circular variable wavelength filter, described circular variable wavelength filter is installed in the top of described light source fixed frame, and described white color light emitting unit is installed in the bottom of described light source fixed frame;
The described first hyperboloid minute surface has identical imaging parameters with the second hyperbolic mirror mask;
Described microprocessor comprises:
The video image read module is used to read the video image of omnibearing vision sensor, and is kept in the memory device of appointment, and its output is connected with the spatial information computing module;
The spatial information computing module is used for object point on the computer memory to the distance and the incident angle of stereo vision measuring apparatus central point, respectively the real focus O of computer memory object point and omnibearing vision sensor mThe real focus O of distance R 1, space object point and panorama colorama coded modulation unit pThe distance R of distance R 2, space object point and median eye and the incident angle Φ of space object point; Its output is connected with the 3-D view reconstructed module;
The 3-D view reconstructed module is used for launching computing with carry out column at the panoramic picture that omnibearing vision sensor obtained, and horizontal ordinate is represented the position angle in the stretch-out view, and ordinate is represented incident angle; Need the image of this core is separated separately when launching omnidirectional images, then omnidirectional images is launched, the calculating step-length of horizontal direction is in the deployment algorithm, Δ β=2 π/l, and 1 is the horizontal development amplitude in the formula; The calculating step-length of vertical direction is Δ m=(α O-maxO-min)/m; In the formula, α O-maxBe the scene angle of incidence of light of the maximum effective radius Rmax of the former figure of panorama correspondence, α O-minScene angle of incidence of light for the minimum effective radius Rmin of the former figure of panorama correspondence;
With with the former picture point A among the former figure of panorama of polar coordinate representation (Φ, β) the A point coordinate in the Dui Ying sphere expansion mode is respectively:
x=β/Δβ,y=(α oo-min)/Δm     (15)
In the formula: Δ β is the calculating step-length of horizontal direction, and β is the position angle, and Δ m is the calculating step-length of vertical direction, α oThe scene angle of incidence of light of the former figure effective radius of panorama R correspondence, α O-minScene angle of incidence of light for the minimum effective radius Rmin of the former figure of panorama correspondence.
2, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described white color light emitting unit is positioned at the virtual focus place of hyperbolic mirror, white light is linear by the radius r of circular variable wavelength filter light wavelength λ and circular variable wavelength filter, represent with formula (6)
λ ( r ) = λ c + ( λ w - λ c ) R r - - - ( 6 )
In the formula: λ w, λ c, R is the parameter of circular variable wavelength filter, λ cBe the wavelength at the center of circular variable wavelength filter, λ wBe the wavelength at circular variable wavelength filter outer circular edge place, R is the maximum radius of circular variable wavelength filter, and r is to certain any measurement radius value from the center of circle of circular variable wavelength filter;
Calculate wavelength X by measuring radius value with formula (6) by this point.
3, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or 2 is characterized in that: the emission angle γ of a certain optical wavelength of panorama colorama coding demodulator pCalculate by formula (7),
tan ( γ p ) = r d - - - ( 7 )
In the formula: r be from the center of circle of circular variable wavelength filter to certain any measurement radius value, d is the distance of circular variable wavelength filter to the white color light emitting unit, promptly circular variable wavelength filter is to the distance of virtual focus;
According to emission angle γ p, utilize formula (8) to calculate the refraction angle α of this wavelength light p,
α p=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ p-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ p (8)
In the formula: c represents the focus of hyperbolic mirror, and a, b are respectively the real axis of hyperbolic mirror and the length of the imaginary axis.
4, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or 2 is characterized in that: described hyperboloid minute surface, and the optical system that hyperbolic mirror constitutes is represented by following 5 equatioies;
((X 2+ Y 2)/a 2)-((Z-c) 2/ b 2)=-1 is as Z〉0 the time (1)
c = a 2 + b 2 - - - ( 2 )
β=tan -1(Y/X) (3)
α=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ (4)
γ = tan - 1 [ f / ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] - - - ( 5 )
X, Y, Z representation space coordinate in the formula, c represents the focus of hyperbolic mirror, 2c represents two distances between the focus, a, b is respectively the real axis of hyperbolic mirror and the length of the imaginary axis, β represent incident ray on the XY projection plane with the angle of X-axis, it is the position angle, α represent incident ray on the XZ projection plane with the angle of X-axis, here α is called incident angle, α is more than or equal to being called the angle of depression at 0 o'clock, with α less than being called the elevation angle at 0 o'clock, f represents the distance of imaging plane to the virtual focus of hyperbolic mirror, and γ represents the angle of catadioptric light and Z axle; X, y are illustrated in a point on the imaging plane.
5, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: adopting back-to-back between described omnibearing vision sensor and the described panorama color modulation optical generator, type is connected, first loam cake of described omnibearing vision sensor is connected with second loam cake of described panorama color modulation optical generator, connecting link passes described first loam cake and is connected with first support bar, and passes second loam cake simultaneously and be connected with second support bar.
6, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: adopt between described omnibearing vision sensor and the described panorama color modulation optical generator to be connected face-to-face, the image unit of omnibearing vision sensor is connected with the light source fixed frame of described panorama color modulation optical generator.
7, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: adopt between described omnibearing vision sensor and the described panorama color modulation optical generator in the face of back of the body connected mode, the light source fixed frame of panorama color modulation optical generator is connected with first loam cake of described omnibearing vision sensor.
8, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: adopt between described omnibearing vision sensor and the described panorama color modulation optical generator back to the face connected mode, the image unit of omnibearing vision sensor is connected with second loam cake of described panorama color modulation optical generator.
9, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: described spatial information calculation unit comprises refraction angle α pComputing unit, incident angle α oComputing unit and metrics calculation unit;
Refraction angle α pComputing unit is used to utilize the refraction angle α of panorama colorama coded modulation unit pWith emission angle γ pBecome the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (8),
α p=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ p-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ p (8)
Emission angle γ pBecome the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (7) with the radius r of circular variable wavelength filter,
tan ( γ p ) = r d - - - ( 7 )
The radius r of circular variable wavelength filter becomes the linear relationship shown in the formula (6) with circular variable wavelength filter light wavelength λ,
λ ( r ) = λ c + ( λ w - λ c ) R r - - - ( 6 )
Therefore can obtain the refraction angle α of circular variable wavelength filter light wavelength λ and panorama colorama coded modulation unit pBetween funtcional relationship;
Incident angle α oComputing module is used to utilize the incident angle α of omnibearing vision sensor oWith catadioptric firing angle γ oBetween exist the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (9),
α o=tan -1[(b 2+c 2)sinγ o-2bc]/(b 2+c 2)cosγ o (9)
Catadioptric firing angle γ oWith a point on the imaging plane (x y) exists the funtcional relationship shown in the formula (5),
γ = tan - 1 [ f / ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] - - - ( 5 )
Obtain on the imaging plane a point (x, y) with incident angle α oBetween funtcional relationship;
Metrics calculation unit is used to utilize formula (10)~(14) to distinguish the real focus O of computer memory object point and omnibearing vision sensor mThe real focus O of distance R 1, space object point and panorama colorama coded modulation unit pThe distance R of distance R 2, space object point and median eye and the incident angle Φ of space object point,
R 1 = O m A ‾ = cos ( α o ) sin ( α o + α p ) B - - - ( 10 )
R 2 = O p A ‾ = cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) B - - - ( 11 )
R = OA ‾ = R 2 2 + ( B / 2 ) 2 - 2 R 2 ( B / 2 ) cos ( α p + 90 )
= B [ cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) ] 2 + 0.25 + cos ( α p ) sin ( α o + α p ) sin ( α p ) - - - ( 13 )
φ = arcsin [ B 2 R cos ( α o ) ] - - - ( 14 )
In the formula: B is the baseline distance, α oBe incident angle, α pBe the refraction angle, R1 is the real focus O of object point A and omnibearing vision sensor mDistance, R2 is the real focus O of object point A and panorama color modulation light generating unit pDistance, R is the distance of object point A and median eye, Φ is the incident angle of space object point with respect to median eye.
10, fast full-view stereo photography measuring apparatus as claimed in claim 9 is characterized in that: in described spatial information computing module, a light coding schedule is set realizes a certain light wavelength lambda and a certain refraction angle α pBetween the mapping relations that exist, incident angle reckoner realizes that the coordinate data of some points and this put pairing incident angle α oBetween the mapping relations that exist, refraction angle α p, incident angle α oCalculate and adopt lookup table mode to realize; At first read the wavelength X value of some points in proper order, obtain this with point coordinate value retrieval incident angle reckoner and put pairing incident angle α by the point coordinate of the imaging plane of omnibearing vision sensor o, then the light wavelength lambda value retrieval light coding schedule with this point obtains the pairing refraction angle α of this light wavelength lambda pUtilize formula (10) or formula (11) or formula (13) to calculate on the space certain any range information at last.
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