CN101487393B - Full-section pre-reinforcing construction method for tunnel free-machining anchor bar - Google Patents

Full-section pre-reinforcing construction method for tunnel free-machining anchor bar Download PDF

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CN101487393B
CN101487393B CN 200910058385 CN200910058385A CN101487393B CN 101487393 B CN101487393 B CN 101487393B CN 200910058385 CN200910058385 CN 200910058385 CN 200910058385 A CN200910058385 A CN 200910058385A CN 101487393 B CN101487393 B CN 101487393B
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construction
reinforcing
tunnel
full
anchor bar
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CN101487393A (en
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梅志荣
张军伟
杜俊
马士伟
李传富
王遇国
孙亚婷
陈涛
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China Railway Southwest Research Institute Co Ltd
Northwest Research Institute Co Ltd of CREC
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Abstract

The invention discloses a tunnel easy-cutting anchor-rod full-section pre-consolidation construction method, comprising the following steps: firstly, survey design before construction is carried out, pre-consolidation is carried out to a face core body to be excavated by adopting an easy-cutting anchor rod according to the sampling analysis and classification of rock-soil, meanwhile, a measuring instrument is installed to monitor the change thereof, and then full-section excavation is carried out. The construction method takes the problem of how to deal with the 'core body to be excavated' in front of the face as the key for controlling the integral stability of the tunnel, an easy-cutting glass fiber anchor rod which is pre-consolidated along tunnel vertical full-section is used for improving the equivalent stiffness of the 'core body to be excavated' and controlling the deformation of the 'core body to be excavated' so as to cause arching effect around the tunnel to function naturally, thus guaranteeing the full-section, safe and quick excavation and drivage of the tunnel. The construction method is safe and reliable, can realize tunnel full-section mechanized and modernized construction, and has good production efficiency, continuous and stable construction progress, and controllable project cost.

Description

The tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing construction method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing construction method, this job practices is applicable to soil property country rock or macadam weak surrounding rock etc., even the rock country rock." tunnel " makes a general reference any tunnel with regular geometric shapes to be tunneled here.
Background technology
Concerning the engineer of the design of underground engineering, construction, another characteristics of this type of engineering be the suffered load of structure be not the unalterable soil body and structure from heavy load.In each construction stage, the suffered stress of structure often is not the stress of state of finally being completed, and the suffered external loads of structure was stipulated in the design stage.Because the disturbance of caused ground of excavation layer equilibration can not be eliminated fully by final lining cutting, the loading condition of construction stage is quite complicated.In the construction stage, the excavation of cavern has destroyed the initial stress state of rock mass, and the periphery in the cavern is because the existence of " arching " has caused near the stress of excavation profile to increase.
If the stresses re-distribution state that can accomplish accurately to assess cavern excavation just can be got the loading status of construction stage clear.The heavy distribution of stress has determined the stability and the life-span of hair cavern.According to the on-the-spot stress state and intensity, the deformation characteristic of earth formation material, the excavation state in hair hole has following three kinds of situations
First kind of situation is: the rock stratum can be born when excavating the deviator stress that causes around the cavern after excavating, and in this case, corresponding deformation and stress all are that elasticity changes.The situation of replanting is called stability types, can apply the supporting that shields and get final product according to geology and underground water situation.
Second kind of situation is: the deviator stress that excavation causes can not be born in the rock stratum around the cavern behind the excavation, and in this case, rock mass shows as viscoplasticity, plasticity.Distortion be with the plastic zone in the rock mass volume be directly proportional; The rock mass of plastic zone also can enlarge the domain of influence of excavation.The rapid expansion of the excavation domain of influence causes stresses re-distribution from tunnel perimeter, is deep into the rock mass deep then, up to triaxial stress and the consistent zone of country rock body intensity.In this case, " arching " shape that forms and excavation profile have very big difference, and the rock stratum of outline perimeter is by disturbance, and peripheral rock stratum is with the contribution of own residual strength participation to final equilibrium state, and this has just increased the deformation of suitable rock mass.This situation is called the short-term stability type, need reinforcement, supporting measure must guarantee the formation of " arching ", and " arching " should be as much as possible near the excavation outline line.The reinforcing of design, supporting measure are wanted to limit the development of plastic zone.
The third situation is: behind cavern excavation, the rock mass of cavern's periphery can not be born the deviator stress that excavation causes fully, finally causes caving in.This situation is called unstable type, needs reinforcement, supporting measure must guarantee to form artificial " arching ".At this moment, the pre-reinforcing is necessary, waits to dig the stable of geotechnical body to guarantee the place ahead, and prevention time main stress bar σ 3 is reduced to 0.
Up to now, China applies in the tunnel new worker's method difficult to understand (NATM), develops for three more than ten years, and it has become the important component part of China's construction of tunnel technological progress, and has progressively formed new worker's method difficult to understand.The basic principle of new worker's method difficult to understand be with rock mass and supporting and protection structure be considered as constructing community, utilize sprayed mortar and anchor pole that excavation face rear country rock is formed supporting pressure, and emphasize that system monitoring and feedback information instruct design and construction.For hydrogeological conditions comparatively complicated Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels or earth tunnel, new worker's method difficult to understand is because absorbed excavation face rear country rock stable only, thereby on using, engineering produced some important restrictions, such as under soil condition, how to utilize the formed core soil of front of tunnel heading rock mass (waiting to dig core soil) as stabilization tool, how Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels or earth tunnel realize full section mechanization excavation, adopt which kind of support pattern that front of tunnel heading is waited to dig the core rock mass and reinforce to stablize the tunnel, just wait to dig the core rock stability in face of the excavation and how to monitor, front of tunnel heading waits to dig core rock mass stabilization and reinforcement effect how to evaluate or the like.So, new worker's method difficult to understand in processing under low stress-strength condition the tunnel excavation problem be successful, but in the face of the soft stratum condition, new worker's method difficult to understand shows its limitation.
New worker's method construction difficult to understand is except having above limitation, also have following shortcoming: 1. new worker's method difficult to understand is used drill bursting construction, need carry out the blasting Design of specialty, so just relate to the layout and the degree of depth of borehole, the consumption of explosive if design is unreasonable, will be upset the proterties of tunnel surrounding in the process of blowing out, cause that the excavation face is excessive promptly backbreaks or cause large tracts of land to owe to dig, increase engineering cost; 2. new worker's method construction difficult to understand requires that not only good construction organization and management are arranged, and also requires technician and measurement personnel all very skilled, otherwise will make a mistake, and construction operation quality and everyone careful operation are closely bound up; 3. excavate the geology that exposes and to change its state immediately, therefore require the construction geology personnel to be in the action, so that pinpoint the problems; 4. measure with the construction that can control, often make troubles to construction; 5. problems such as the dust that brings of dry-spray and must strengthen protection owing to be subject to the infringement of chemicals especially to the protection of eyes, though wet shot can be avoided this shortcoming, under similarity condition, still exists engineering cost too high, and early strength is stable inadequately; 6. need a period of time to carry out artificial spray (being preliminary bracing) just after blowing out, slag tap at excavation, cause the operation intercycle time long.
Therefore, how in weakness, breaking surrounding rock or the soil property country rock of geological conditions complexity, self-stable ability difference, realizing tunnel safety, stable, full advance efficiently, is that problem to be solved is bitten on circle, tunnel, various countries.People's full-section pre-reinforcing sandhog method that begins one's study for this reason, the theoretical foundation stone of full-section pre-reinforcing sandhog method is the pressure arch theory of country rock and the basic principle of New Austrian Tunneling Method, the emphasis that this worker's method is paid close attention to is the stable problem of front of tunnel heading " core body to be dug ", emphasize the pre-convergence distortion and the extrusion expansion distortion of control " core body to be dug ", New Austrian Tunneling Method then is indifferent to the deformation behavior of " core body to be dug ", the extrusion expansion distortion on the face and the pre-convergence distortion of " core body to be dug " and cavern's convergence have close getting in touch, and draw: in general construction tunneling process, caving in of the unstability of " core body to be dug " and cavern has contact closely, often all be " core body to be dug " unstability formerly, the cavern caves in immediately following thereafter.Therefore, the rigidity of " core body to be dug " is the stable key of control tunnel excavation, when running into the weak surrounding rock condition, self is relatively poor, can not form pressure arch naturally, perhaps pressure arch is away from the tunnel contour line, " core body to be dug " and rigidity lower, then need to carry out the rigidity that pre-reinforcement measure improves " core body to be dug ", reach the purpose of control " extrusion expansion " and " pre-convergence " by the rigidity of regulation and control " core body to be dug ", thereby guarantee the monolithic stability of tunnel full advance.At present the pre-reinforcement measure of European countries mainly contains: precutting trough, pre-lining cutting, high-pressure rotary-spray reinforce, easily cut grouted anchor bar reinforces core body or the like in advance.Because the free-cutting machinability that glass fiber anchor pole resistance to tension is strong, shear resistance is weak is easily milled the cutting of digging machine or development machine in work progress.Popular technology is that the glass fiber grouted anchor bar is reinforced the core body technology in advance at present.Total length binding type glass fiber anchor pole provides constraint reaction to " core body to be dug ", suppresses the DEFORMATION RESPONSE of " core body to be dug ", and equivalence has simultaneously improved the anti-deformation rigidity of " core body to be dug ".Full-section pre-reinforcing measure discussed herein is meant the pre-reinforcing technique of glass fiber grouted anchor bar.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to: the stable of a kind of retentive control front of tunnel heading core soil is provided, by square rock mass in face of the excavation being formed the monitoring of core soil stabilization, realize that feedback information instructs the tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing construction method of design and construction simultaneously.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
A kind of tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing construction method comprises following content:
A, the preceding survey and design of constructing, content comprises geological drilling, mapping, geotechnical body classify and grading, stability analysis, the pre-reinforcing scope of front of tunnel heading are determined, supporting parameter is selected, deformation measurement method is planned and construction organization designs or the like; Wherein classify according to stability types A, short-term stability type B, unstable Type C, three kinds of different stable states in the cavern, for the unstable type of C class, self is poor, can not form " pressure arch effect " naturally, need to adopt pre-reinforcing construction method, look concrete condition and can select conventional pipe canopy, ductule leading pre-supporting or free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing scheme;
B, constructure scheme is proposed for the supporting or the pre-reinforcement measure in tunnel according to the conclusion of last stage, specifically be at different tunnel stable states and geotechnical body grade, determine leading pre-reinforcing scope (rock-bolt length), face unit area anchor pole quantity and laying mode, construction measures monitoring and consolidation effect evaluation method etc.From improving excavation disturbance district stress state, leading pre-reinforcing scope (rock-bolt length) is more preferably greater than the perturbing area radius of influence R.Face unit area anchor pole quantity, it generally can calculate by the following method, the indicatrix method: consider a kind of simplification situation, provide corresponding indicatrix, can set up the relation of supporting restraint forces P and surrouding rock deformation U, with the anchor pole quantity of it is estimated that pre-reinforcing unit area needs.Indoor three or centrifugal test method: crimp U and the pre-relation curve of reinforcing supporting restraint forces P are tried to achieve in test, by determining to stablize the needed least commitment pressure P 1 of face, calculate required anchor pole number.The analogies of experience method: according to the geotechnical body classification grade, select engineering analogy and empirical method, determine the pre-anchor pole quantity that unit area needs of reinforcing, usually the 0.1-1.0 root/square metre between.
C, according to constructure scheme, carry out the construction of tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing, because the more and hole depth of boring on the face, to having relatively high expectations of drilling equipment, should guarantee hole quality in the construction, prevent to hole excessive or the hole of collapsing, after inserting free-machining anchor bar, boring slip casting is carried out after the face sprayed mortar is finished, injecting paste material adopts quick setting early strength cement grout or chemical grouting material, grout coordinate ratio is determined by field trial, should control grouting pressure in the slip casting process, generally should not surpass 0.5MPa, note grouting quality, guarantee that free-machining anchor bar and country rock have good anchoring effect and reach the purpose of filling space reinforcing country rock, utilize pneumatic pick to cooperate excavator to carry out full face excavation in the digging process.
In D, the tunnel full-section pre-reinforcing work progress, the emphasis that measures monitoring should be the deformation characteristic of geotechnical body.Purpose is in order to monitor the surrouding rock deformation response of tunnel piercing under expection reinforcing condition.In complete construction circulation, except conventional measurement such as convergence, pressure, the system measurements of the pre-convergence in excavation face extrusion deformation and the place ahead is the emphasis monitoring project, and comes Feedback Design, construction according to monitor data.Can with surface strain meter and displacement meter anchor stress in the digging process and crown displacement be monitored in real time with the horizontal movement of rod-type displacement meter observation face, measure the ground surface displacement with level gauge;
E, treat that cocycle finishes,, adjust pre-parameter, the excavation that carries out next circulation reinforced by assessment.
Supplementary technology scheme of the present invention is as follows:
The pre-reinforcing of " core body to be dug " is realized by free-machining anchor bar that usually free-machining anchor bar can adopt different materials and form of structure in above-mentioned steps.Preferably, because the glass fiber anchor pole vertically has stronger tensile strength along the body of rod, makes it can be used as the material of putting more energy into, the horizontal less shear strength of the body of rod makes it have the driving excavation that free-cutting machinability helps adding in advance solid simultaneously, and it is cheap, and easy to operate.Glass fiber anchor structure form is more, specifically decides on requirement of engineering;
Preferably, before C step excavation, also country rock is carried out the rotary churning pile advance support, wherein rotary churning pile with respect to the horizontal plane is tilted to.
Preferably, the boring on face is with respect to the horizontal plane tilted in the C step.
Preferably, the equipment that measures the deformation characteristic of monitoring geotechnical body in the D step comprises: the rod-type displacement meter of observation face horizontal movement, the surface strain meter and the displacement meter of anchor stress in the monitoring digging process and crown displacement are right in real time, detect the level gauge of ground surface displacement.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1) by the glass fiber grouted anchor bar " core body to be dug " of front of tunnel heading reinforced in advance, can obviously improve the deformation behavior of country rock, this job practices is safe and reliable;
2) also can realize tunnel full section mechanization modernization rapid construction at soil property country rock and soft stratum, has good production efficiency, progress continues, stablizes (this is highly beneficial to field control, and can reduce benching tunnelling method and excavate the needed construction stage);
3) engineering cost can be controlled (engineering is finished man-hour, and more used than new worker's method difficult to understand usually expense is low);
4) free-machining anchor bar is drawn materials extensively, can reclaim, and environmental protection is not polluted, even at the face place, the job site also can keep clean;
5) construction has high degree of flexibility and reliability;
The specific embodiment
The present invention is further described below in conjunction with embodiment.
Tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing construction method of the present invention, this job practices is applicable to soil property country rock and weak surrounding rock, this method comprises following content:
A kind of tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing construction method may further comprise the steps:
A, the preceding survey and design of constructing, content comprises geological drilling, mapping, geotechnical body classify and grading, stability analysis, the pre-reinforcing scope of front of tunnel heading are determined, supporting parameter is selected, deformation measurement method is planned and construction organization designs or the like; Wherein classify according to A, B, three kinds of different stable states of C in the cavern, for C class labile state, self is poor, can not form " pressure arch effect " naturally, need to adopt pre-the reinforcing, look concrete condition and can select conventional pipe canopy, ductule leading pre-supporting or free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing scheme;
B, constructure scheme is proposed for the supporting or the pre-reinforcement measure in tunnel according to the conclusion of last stage, specifically be at different tunnel stable states and geotechnical body grade, determine leading pre-reinforcing scope (rock-bolt length), face unit area anchor pole quantity and laying mode, construction measures monitoring and consolidation effect evaluation method etc.From improving excavation disturbance district stress state, leading pre-reinforcing scope (rock-bolt length) is more preferably greater than the perturbing area radius of influence R.Face unit area anchor pole quantity, it generally can calculate by the following method, the indicatrix method: consider a kind of simplification situation, provide corresponding indicatrix, can set up the relation of supporting restraint forces P and surrouding rock deformation U, with the anchor pole quantity of it is estimated that pre-reinforcing unit area needs.Indoor three or centrifugal test method: crimp U and the pre-relation curve of reinforcing supporting restraint forces P are tried to achieve in test, by determining to stablize the needed least commitment pressure P 1 of face, calculate required anchor pole number.Analogies of experience method: according to the geotechnical body classification grade, select engineering analogy and empirical method, determine the pre-anchor pole quantity that unit area needs of reinforcing.Usually the 0.1-1.0 root/square metre between.
C, according to constructure scheme, carry out the construction of tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing, because the more and hole depth of boring on the face, to having relatively high expectations of drilling equipment, should guarantee hole quality in the construction, prevent to hole excessive or the hole of collapsing, after inserting free-machining anchor bar, boring slip casting is carried out after the face sprayed mortar is finished, injecting paste material adopts quick setting early strength cement grout or chemical grouting material, grout coordinate ratio is determined by field trial, should control grouting pressure in the slip casting process, generally should not surpass 0.5MPa, note grouting quality, guarantee that free-machining anchor bar and country rock have good anchoring effect and reach the purpose of filling space reinforcing country rock, utilize pneumatic pick to cooperate excavator to carry out full face excavation in the digging process.
The pre-reinforcing of " core body to be dug " is realized by free-machining anchor bar that usually free-machining anchor bar can adopt different materials and form of structure.Because the glass fiber anchor pole vertically has stronger tensile strength along the body of rod, makes it can be used as the material of putting more energy into, the horizontal less shear strength of the body of rod makes it have the driving excavation that free-cutting machinability helps adding in advance solid simultaneously, and it is cheap, and easy to operate.Glass fiber anchor structure form is more, specifically decides on requirement of engineering;
In D, the tunnel full-section pre-reinforcing work progress, the emphasis that measures monitoring should be the deformation characteristic of geotechnical body.Purpose is in order to monitor the surrouding rock deformation response of tunnel piercing under expection reinforcing condition.In complete construction circulation, except conventional measurement such as convergence, pressure, the system measurements of the pre-convergence in excavation face extrusion deformation and the place ahead is the emphasis monitoring project, and comes Feedback Design, construction according to monitor data.Can with surface strain meter and displacement meter anchor stress in the digging process and crown displacement be monitored in real time with the horizontal movement of rod-type displacement meter observation face, measure the ground surface displacement with level gauge;
E, treat that cocycle finishes,, adjust pre-parameter, the excavation that carries out next circulation reinforced by assessment.
For performance characteristic is that face collapses and the cave in country rock of type of cavern, before C step excavation, also needs country rock is carried out the rotary churning pile advance support, and wherein rotary churning pile with respect to the horizontal plane is tilted to.

Claims (4)

1. tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing construction method may further comprise the steps:
A. the survey and design before constructing comprises geological drilling, mapping, and geotechnical body classify and grading, stability analysis, the pre-reinforcing scope of front of tunnel heading are determined, supporting parameter is selected, deformation measurement method is planned and the construction organization design; Classified according to stability types, short-term stability type, three kinds of different stable states of unstable type in cavern wherein; For unstable type, self is poor, can not form " pressure arch effect " naturally, adopts pre-reinforcing construction method;
B. according to the conclusion in a step pre-reinforcing construction method is made concrete constructure scheme, specifically be at different tunnel stable states and geotechnical body grade, determine leading pre-reinforcing scope, face unit area anchor pole quantity and laying mode, construction measures monitoring and consolidation effect evaluation method, wherein, determine that leading pre-reinforcing scope, face unit area anchor pole quantity and laying mode may further comprise the steps: leading pre-reinforcing scope is greater than the perturbing area radius of influence R; Face unit area anchor pole quantity, can the 0.1-1.0 root/square metre between, perhaps calculate by following indicatrix method: adopt indoor three or centrifugal test method: crimp U and the pre-relation curve of reinforcing supporting restraint forces P are tried to achieve in test, set up indicatrix, by determining to stablize the needed least commitment pressure P 1 of face, calculate required anchor pole number again;
C. the concrete constructure scheme that obtains according to the b step, carry out the construction of tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing: at first on face, hole, insert free-machining anchor bar and the control measurement device is installed, boring slip casting is carried out after the face sprayed mortar is finished, wherein: injecting paste material adopts quick setting early strength cement grout or chemical grouting material, and the control grouting pressure is no more than 0.5Mpa in the slip casting process; Slip casting is with free-machining anchor bar and country rock anchoring, and filling space reinforcing country rock, and country rock is carried out the rotary churning pile advance support, and wherein rotary churning pile with respect to the horizontal plane is tilted to, and utilizes pneumatic pick to cooperate excavator to carry out full face excavation in the digging process;
D. in the tunnel full-section pre-reinforcing work progress, measure the deformation characteristic of monitoring geotechnical body, in complete construction circulation, except convergence, the conventional measurement of pressure, also excavate the monitoring of the system measurements of the pre-convergence in face extrusion deformation and the place ahead, and in will monitor the design that obtains data and feed back to above-mentioned steps, constructing;
E. treat that above-mentioned steps finishes, return a step, adjust the pre-parameter of reinforcing, carry out the construction of next circulation.
2. tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing construction method according to claim 1 is characterized in that the boring in the c step on face is with respect to the horizontal plane tilted.
3. tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing construction method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, free-machining anchor bar is the glass fiber anchor pole.
4. tunnel free-machining anchor bar full-section pre-reinforcing construction method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the equipment that measures the deformation characteristic of monitoring geotechnical body in the d step comprises: the rod-type displacement meter of observation face horizontal movement, the surface strain meter and the displacement meter of anchor stress in the monitoring digging process and crown displacement are right in real time, detect the level gauge of ground surface displacement.
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