CN101475233B - Vacuum distillation apparatus and method for desalting seawater and bitter-salt water by simply using solar energy - Google Patents

Vacuum distillation apparatus and method for desalting seawater and bitter-salt water by simply using solar energy Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101475233B
CN101475233B CN2009100676530A CN200910067653A CN101475233B CN 101475233 B CN101475233 B CN 101475233B CN 2009100676530 A CN2009100676530 A CN 2009100676530A CN 200910067653 A CN200910067653 A CN 200910067653A CN 101475233 B CN101475233 B CN 101475233B
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China
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water
seawater
brackish
tight
fluid
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CN2009100676530A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101475233A (en
Inventor
解利昕
郭丽玮
王世昌
李凭力
周蕾
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天津大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/10Relating to general water supply, e.g. municipal or domestic water supply
    • Y02A20/124Water desalination
    • Y02A20/126Water desalination characterized by the method
    • Y02A20/128Evaporation methods, e.g. distillation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/10Relating to general water supply, e.g. municipal or domestic water supply
    • Y02A20/124Water desalination
    • Y02A20/126Water desalination characterized by the method
    • Y02A20/128Evaporation methods, e.g. distillation
    • Y02A20/129Evaporation methods, e.g. distillation using solar energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/10Relating to general water supply, e.g. municipal or domestic water supply
    • Y02A20/124Water desalination
    • Y02A20/138Water desalination powered by a renewable energy source
    • Y02A20/142Water desalination powered by a renewable energy source the source being solar thermal or photovoltaics
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/10Relating to general water supply, e.g. municipal or domestic water supply
    • Y02A20/208Off-grid powered water treatment
    • Y02A20/212Solar-powered wastewater sewage treatment, e.g. spray evaporation

Abstract

The invention discloses a reduced-pressure distillation device for desalinating seawater or brackish water only by utilizing solar energy, and a method thereof. The device comprises a solar heat collector, an evaporation chamber, a condensing chamber which is connected with an external water tank and is provided with a condensing pipe, as well as a liquid-seal water tank. The method for desalinating seawater or brackish water through the device comprises the following processes: the vacuum degree of the evaporation chamber and the condensing chamber is regulated by regulating the height of the liquid level of the evaporation chamber and the condensing chamber; media in the solar heat collector heat and evaporate the seawater or brackish water in the evaporation chamber through natural circulation so as to cause vaporization and phase transition; and water vapor enters the condensing chamber and is condensed through the condensing pipe, and fresh water is obtained. The invention has the advantages that the desalination device and process are simple and reliable in operation and consume no other energy except the heat supplied by solar energy, and the device is especially applicableto areas which are short of fresh water and electric energy and rich in seawater, brackish water and solar energy.

Description

Single utilization sun power desalinizes seawater or the vacuum distillation apparatus and the method for brackish water

Technical field

The present invention relates to that a kind of single utilization sun power desalinizes seawater or the vacuum distillation apparatus and the method for brackish water, belong to the desalting technology of water treatment.

Background technology

Solar energy sea water or brackish water distillation system for desalination are that the heat energy driving seawater or the brackish water that utilize sun power to produce undergo phase transition, and the water vapor condensation of formation obtains the process of fresh water.Solar energy sea water or brackish water desalination system are mainly the method that traditional type sun power combines with conventional sea water desalinating plant at present.Traditional type solar energy sea water or brackish water desalination system adopt the principle of spontaneous evaporation, and are the heat exchange mode of natural convection in the distiller, have limited the raising of distiller thermal characteristics.The desalination method that solar energy collector combines with traditional seawater or technique of desalinating saline water, system complex.For small-sized desalting equipment, spray equipment easily stops up, and influences the normal operation of equipment.Existing seawater or the brackish water desalination system that utilizes sun power generation heat energy driving seawater or brackish water under certain vacuum tightness, to undergo phase transition, need be equipped with vacuum pump or squirt pump when vacuumizing, need to consume a large amount of electric energy or heat energy, the producing water ratio of device unit consumption of energy is less.Existing sun power desalinizes seawater or the brackish water system, generally all needs to use a large amount of additional electrical energy to drive when desalinating operation, and these have all limited the popularization of solar energy sea water or technique of desalinating saline water.

Summary of the invention

The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of single utilization sun power to desalinize seawater or the vacuum distillation apparatus and the method for brackish water, the apparatus structure of this method is simple, operate reliablely, expense is low, is particularly suitable for the desalination that seawater or brackish water are carried out in sunny area.

The present invention is realized by following technical proposals.A kind of single utilization sun power desalinizes seawater or the vacuum distillation apparatus of brackish water, this device comprises: solar energy collector, evaporator room, external seawater of evaporator room or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, the solar heat-exchange pipe is set, condensing chamber, the external fresh water fluid-tight of condensing chamber water tank in the evaporator room, prolong is set, cooling water tank in the condensing chamber.It is characterized in that: the heat transferring medium import and export of solar energy collector link to each other with solar heat-exchange pipe two ends and form loop, on the closed tube between evaporator room top and the condensing chamber top, segregaion valve is set, on the closed tube of a side of segregaion valve an arm being set is communicated with evaporator room, seawater or brackish water water intaking valve are set on this arm, one arm is set on the closed tube of the opposite side of segregaion valve to be communicated with condensing chamber, the fresh water water intaking valve is set on this arm, the import and export of prolong link to each other with the upper and lower opening of cooling water tank, and on the following pipe connecting of prolong and cooling water tank, the solar cell driving pump is set, on the connecting leg mutually of evaporator room and seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, seawater or brackish water Liquid sealing valve are set, on the connecting leg mutually of condensing chamber and fresh water fluid-tight water tank, the fresh water Liquid sealing valve are set.

Adopt said apparatus single utilization sun power to desalinize seawater or the vacuum distillation method of brackish water, it is characterized in that comprising following process:

1. close the outlet valve of segregaion valve, seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, the outlet valve of fresh water fluid-tight water tank, open seawater or brackish water water intaking valve, seawater or brackish water fluid-tight pipeline valve, in evaporator room and seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, add seawater or brackish water to full.Close seawater or brackish water water intaking valve, open the outlet valve of seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, and making the water flow of the water flow of seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank less than seawater or brackish water fluid-tight pipeline valve, the liquid level of regulating in the evaporator room makes evaporator room reach corresponding vacuum tightness.Meanwhile, open fresh water water intaking valve, fresh water fluid-tight pipeline valve, in condensing chamber and fresh water fluid-tight water tank, add fresh water to full, close the fresh water water intaking valve, open the outlet valve of fresh water fluid-tight water tank, and the water flow that makes fresh water fluid-tight water tank outlet valve is less than the water flow of fresh water fluid-tight pipeline valve, the liquid level of regulating in the condensing chamber makes condensing chamber reach corresponding vacuum tightness, open segregaion valve again, make evaporator room keep identical vacuum tightness, and the solar heat-exchange pipe is dipped in the seawater or brackish water of evaporator room with condensing chamber.In cooling water tank, add seawater or brackish water.

2. the heat transferring medium after solar energy collector heats up enters the solar heat-exchange pipe in the evaporator room, seawater that heating evaporation is indoor or brackish water, when the seawater in the evaporator room or brackish water temperature are elevated to the vaporization temperature of evaporator room vacuum condition correspondence, seawater or brackish water carburation by evaporation in the evaporator room, after water vapor enters condensing chamber, by with the seawater or brackish water heat exchange of the prolong that places condensing chamber after, water vapor becomes fresh water in the prolong external condensation.

3. behind the certain hour, when the vapour pressure in the evaporator room reached the saturation vapour pressure of corresponding temperature, evaporation was no longer carried out, and opens seawater or brackish water water intaking valve, and the concentrated seawater of evaporator room or dense brackish water enter seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank.Open the fresh water water intaking valve, the fresh water in the condensing chamber enters fresh water fluid-tight water tank, finishes seawater or brackish water desalination process.

4. the process of repeating step 1,2,3 realizes the repeatedly desalination of seawater or brackish water.

The invention has the advantages that: by solar energy heating, utilize the vaporizing chamber that the certain vacuum degree is arranged, realize the utilization of sun power.Owing to be provided with the fluid-tight water tank, can utilize the liquid level of evaporator room and condensing chamber freely to regulate the vacuum tightness of evaporator room and condensing chamber and do not need vacuum pump or squirt pump, do not need electric power.When producing fresh water, can also heat the water in the cooling water tank, have the dual-use function of producing fresh water and solar water heater.This desalting equipment and process are simple, operate reliablely, except that sun power provides heat, do not have other energy expenditures, are specially adapted to fresh water, electric energy lacks and seawater, brackish water, the more rich area of sun power.

Description of drawings:

Fig. 1 is an apparatus structure block diagram of the present invention.

Among the figure, 1 is solar energy collector, 2 is the solar heat-exchange pipe, 3 is evaporator room, and 4 is seawater or brackish water water intaking valve, and 5 is segregaion valve, 6 is the fresh water water intaking valve, 7 is cooling water tank, and 8 is the cooling water tank outlet valve, and 9 are solar cell driving water pump, 10 is prolong, 11 is condensing chamber, and 12 is fresh water fluid-tight pipeline valve, and 13 is fresh water fluid-tight water tank, 14 is fresh water fluid-tight water tank outlet valve, 15 is seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank outlet valve, and 16 is seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, and 17 is seawater or brackish water fluid-tight pipeline valve.

Concrete embodiment:

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the specific embodiment of the invention is described in further detail: Fig. 1 is that single utilization sun power of the present invention desalinizes seawater or the apparatus structure block diagram of the vacuum distillation apparatus of brackish water.Solar energy collector 1 is plate, and model is PGT/L2.0-J, and collector area is 1m 2, heating medium is seawater or brackish water.The physical dimension of evaporator room and condensing chamber is: 2500mm * 600mm * 9000mm.The heat interchanging area of solar heat-exchange pipe is 1884cm 2, the heat interchanging area of prolong is 3768cm 2

The process of carrying out sea water desaltination with said apparatus is as follows: close segregaion valve 5, seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank outlet valve 15, fresh water fluid-tight water tank outlet valve 14.Open seawater or brackish water water intaking valve 4, seawater or brackish water fluid-tight pipeline valve 17, in evaporator room 3 and seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank 16, add seawater or brackish water to full.Close seawater or brackish water water intaking valve 4, open seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank outlet valve 15, regulate this water valve and make its water flow be less than the water flow of seawater or brackish water fluid-tight pipeline valve 17.Seawater or the brackish water liquid level regulated in the evaporator room make evaporator room 3 form vacuum, make the vacuum tightness of evaporator room 3 reach 0.085MPa.Simultaneously, open fresh water water intaking valve 6 and fresh water fluid-tight pipeline valve 12, add fresh water to condensing chamber 11 and fresh water fluid-tight water tank 13, to full, close fresh water water intaking valve 6, open fresh water fluid-tight water tank outlet valve 14, regulate this water valve and make the water flow of its water flow less than fresh water fluid-tight pipeline valve 12, the fresh water liquid level of regulating in the condensing chamber makes condensing chamber 11 also form vacuum, and the vacuum tightness of condensing chamber 11 reaches 0.075MPa.Open segregaion valve 5, make the vacuum tightness of evaporator room and condensing chamber reach consistent 0.08MPa.Close cooling water tank outlet valve 8, in cooling water tank 7, add seawater or brackish water, and open solar cell driving water pump 9.

Heat transferring medium seawater or brackish water absorption sun power when solar energy collector 1, temperature improves, by placing the solar heat-exchange pipe 2 in the evaporator room 3 to promote evaporator room 3 maritime interior waters or brackish water temperature, when making temperature reach in the vaporizer 3 the pairing saturated-steam temperature of vacuum tightness (60 ℃), seawater is the part vaporization in evaporator room 3, the steam of producing with in condensing chamber 11, carry out the round-robin seawater by solar cell driving water pump prolong 10 in or brackish water carries out heat exchange, prolong 10 surface condensations in condensing chamber in 11, the fresh water that condensation forms is accumulated in the condensing chamber 11.When the vapour pressure in the evaporator room reached with evaporator room maritime interior waters or the corresponding saturation vapour pressure of brackish water temperature, the evaporation of seawater or brackish water stopped.Enter concentrated seawater or dense brackish water in the evaporator room 3 in seawater or the brackish water sealing radiator 16 this moment.Fresh water in the condensing chamber 11 is collected in the fresh water fluid-tight water tank 13.So just finished the desalination process of seawater or brackish water.Utilize collector area to be 1m 2The solar heat-collection plate thermal-arrest also provides heat, can produce fresh water 4kg at every turn.At least can carry out the desalination process of four seawater or brackish water every day, can produce fresh water and reach 16kg.

Claims (2)

1. a single utilization sun power desalinizes seawater or the vacuum distillation apparatus of brackish water, this device comprises: solar energy collector, evaporator room, external seawater of evaporator room or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, the solar heat-exchange pipe is set in the evaporator room, condensing chamber, the external fresh water fluid-tight of condensing chamber water tank, prolong is set in the condensing chamber, cooling water tank, it is characterized in that: the heat transferring medium import and export of solar energy collector link to each other with solar heat-exchange pipe two ends and form loop, on the closed tube between evaporator room top and the condensing chamber top, segregaion valve is set, on the closed tube of a side of segregaion valve an arm being set is communicated with evaporator room, seawater or brackish water water intaking valve are set on this arm, one arm is set on the closed tube of the opposite side of segregaion valve to be communicated with condensing chamber, the fresh water water intaking valve is set on this arm, the import and export of prolong link to each other with the upper and lower opening of cooling water tank, and on the following pipe connecting of prolong and cooling water tank, the solar cell driving pump is set, on the connecting leg mutually of evaporator room and seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, seawater or brackish water fluid-tight pipeline valve are set, on the connecting leg mutually of condensing chamber and fresh water fluid-tight water tank, fresh water fluid-tight pipeline valve are set.
2. one kind is adopted the described device single utilization of claim 1 sun power to desalinize seawater or the vacuum distillation method of brackish water, it is characterized in that comprising following process:
1). close segregaion valve, the outlet valve of seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, the outlet valve of fresh water fluid-tight water tank, open seawater or brackish water water intaking valve, seawater or brackish water fluid-tight pipeline valve, in evaporator room and seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, add seawater or brackish water to full, close seawater or brackish water water intaking valve, open the outlet valve of seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, and make the water flow of the water flow of seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank less than seawater or brackish water fluid-tight pipeline valve, the liquid level of regulating in the evaporator room makes evaporator room reach corresponding vacuum tightness, meanwhile, open the fresh water water intaking valve, fresh water fluid-tight pipeline valve, in condensing chamber and fresh water fluid-tight water tank, add fresh water to full, close the fresh water water intaking valve, open the outlet valve of fresh water fluid-tight water tank, and the water flow that makes fresh water fluid-tight water tank outlet valve is less than the water flow of fresh water fluid-tight pipeline valve, the liquid level of regulating in the condensing chamber makes condensing chamber reach corresponding vacuum tightness, open segregaion valve again, make evaporator room keep identical vacuum tightness with condensing chamber, and the solar heat-exchange pipe is dipped in the seawater or brackish water of evaporator room, in cooling water tank, add seawater or brackish water;
2). the heat transferring medium after solar energy collector heats up enters the solar heat-exchange pipe in the evaporator room, seawater that heating evaporation is indoor or brackish water, when the seawater in the evaporator room or brackish water temperature are elevated to the vaporization temperature of evaporator room vacuum condition correspondence, seawater or brackish water carburation by evaporation in the evaporator room, after water vapor enters condensing chamber, by with the seawater or brackish water heat exchange of the prolong that places condensing chamber after, water vapor becomes fresh water in the prolong external condensation;
3). behind the certain hour, when the vapour pressure in the evaporator room reaches the saturation vapour pressure of corresponding temperature, evaporation is no longer carried out, open seawater or brackish water water intaking valve, the concentrated seawater of evaporator room or dense brackish water enter seawater or brackish water fluid-tight water tank, open the fresh water water intaking valve, the fresh water in the condensing chamber enters fresh water fluid-tight water tank, finishes seawater or brackish water desalination process;
4). repeating step 1), 2), 3) process realize the repeatedly desalination of seawater or brackish water.
CN2009100676530A 2009-01-12 2009-01-12 Vacuum distillation apparatus and method for desalting seawater and bitter-salt water by simply using solar energy CN101475233B (en)

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CN101475233B true CN101475233B (en) 2010-11-24

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Families Citing this family (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101538071B (en) * 2009-04-08 2011-03-16 倪忠德 Energy-saving seawater distilling device
CN101698518B (en) * 2009-10-30 2011-04-20 冯静 Solar energy water distiller cooling device using evaporation of saline water for cooling
CN102241420B (en) * 2011-05-30 2012-11-21 仇晓丰 Solar seawater desalination device and seawater desalination method thereof
CN102491440B (en) * 2011-11-23 2013-04-03 青岛大学 Solar energy jet-refrigeration seawater desalting plant
CN102491441A (en) * 2011-12-15 2012-06-13 天津安尼诺乐节能科技有限公司 Solar brackish water and seawater desalter and brackish water and seawater desalination method
CN102583607A (en) * 2012-02-29 2012-07-18 哈尔滨工业大学(威海) Comprehensive utilization device of renewable energy sources
CN103449548B (en) * 2013-01-09 2015-06-17 青岛科技大学 Marine heat pipe type seawater desalination device
US10676373B2 (en) 2015-01-05 2020-06-09 Husham Al-Ghizzy Thermal utilization system and methods
CN108675375A (en) * 2018-04-03 2018-10-19 浙江海洋大学 A kind of solar energy sea water desalination apparatus

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Assignee: Tianjin University Urban Planning & Design Research Institute

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Contract record no.: 2011120000137

Denomination of invention: Vacuum distillation apparatus and method for desalting seawater and bitter-salt water by simply using solar energy

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Record date: 20110816