CN101471709A - Transmission diversity method and apparatus for intelligent antenna - Google Patents

Transmission diversity method and apparatus for intelligent antenna Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101471709A
CN101471709A CNA2008101699639A CN200810169963A CN101471709A CN 101471709 A CN101471709 A CN 101471709A CN A2008101699639 A CNA2008101699639 A CN A2008101699639A CN 200810169963 A CN200810169963 A CN 200810169963A CN 101471709 A CN101471709 A CN 101471709A
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data
module
transmit diversity
wave beam
signal
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CNA2008101699639A
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CN101471709B (en
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丁杰伟
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中兴通讯股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses an intelligent antenna transmit diversity method and a device thereof. The method comprises the following steps: judging whether the higher level of the base station sends a command for transmit diversity; selecting weight vectors corresponding to higher data signal energy as the transmitted beam weight, and performing the transmit diversity treatment and the spread-spectrum scrambling treatment of the symbol-level data of downlink emission to form two routes of complex data; and performing weighted integration and transmitting. The intelligent antenna transmit diversity method and the intelligent antenna transmit diversity device are superior to the prior reception/transmission method.

Description

Smart antenna emission diversity method and device

The application is that application number is dividing an application of 02145375.6 patent application, and the applying date of this patent application is on November 25th, 2002, and denomination of invention is smart antenna transmit-receive diversity technique and device.

Technical field

The present invention relates to code division multiple address communication system, more specifically refer to a kind of smart antenna emission diversity method and device, the inventive method and device can be applied to adopt the code division multiple address communication system of any array way and any duplex mode.

Background technology

Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a kind of multiple access method, and it is based on spread spectrum and become another multi-address method that is applied to cellular wireless system except that existing frequency division multiple access (FDMA:Frequency-Divisoin Multiple-Access) and time division multiple access (TDMA:Time-Division Multiple-Access) method recently.Compare with existing method, code division multiple access has many advantages, and for example availability of frequency spectrum height, planning are simple etc.Just because of this, code division multiple access system becomes main flow in the 3G (Third Generation) Moblie.

Adopt the system of code division multiple access method to mainly contain now: narrowband CDMA (IS-95:InterimStandard 95) system, wideband CDMA (WCDMA:Wideband CDMA) system, the Cdma2000 system, TD-SCDMA (Time Division Synchronous Code Division MultipleAccess) system, TD-CDMA (Time Division-Code Division Multiple Access) system etc.

In general mobile communication environment, the signal between base station and the travelling carriage is propagated along the some paths between the Receiver And Transmitter.This multipath transmisstion phenomenon mainly is to be caused by the reflection of signal at transmitter and receiver body surface on every side.Because the difference of propagation path, the different multipath compositions that arrive the same signal of receivers along different paths arrive the propagation delay of receivers and arrive angle also different, thereby cause multipath interference and signal fadeout.

The receiver that uses in cdma system is a kind of receiver of multiple-branching construction, and wherein each branch is with synchronous along the multipath group of a certain independent propagated.Each branch is an independent receiver element, and its function is a demodulation expectation received signal component.In traditional cdma system, adopt relevant or incoherent method to merge the different receivers element signal, can improve received signal quality.This receiver also is Rake (Rake) receiver, can be superimposed the multipath energy of same user's different delay by certain rule, thereby improve receiver performance.Rake receiver can be regarded as desired signal is carried out the time diversity merging.

In cdma system, can also adopt space diversity reception and diversity transmitting formula opposing multipath fading at the receiving course of signal.This technology is generally utilized the long placement of several working electromagnet wave-waves of two antenna spacings in the base station, because the influence of each user's multipath produces Rayleigh fading, the two paths of signals correlation that receives on two antennas is very little, then two paths of signals is carried out high specific merging or equal gain combining or selects merging, thereby the implementation space diversity improves communication system performance.Travelling carriage (particularly mobile phone) is in the restriction of aspects such as price, volume and battery capacity, make and realize that at travelling carriage antenna diversity reception is generally infeasible, another thinking of improving the down channel performance is to realize the antenna transmit diversity at the place, base station, but it is directly perceived not as antenna diversity reception, deals with also relative complex.Quite active to antenna transmit diversity Study on Technology in recent years, also obtain the achievement that some attract people's attention.G.Jfoschini, Jr.And M.J.Gans " On limits of wireless comm.In afading environment when using multiple antennas; Wireless PersonalComm.Vol.6 No.3 p.311-335, Mar.1998 " channel capacity of many antenna transmission systems in fading channel of letting it pass of falling into a trap.V.Tarokh, N.Seshadri, and A.R.Calderbank propose with coding, modulation and antenna transmit diversity organically combine empty the time convolution code and block code.The WCDMA protocol definition two kinds of open loop transmit diversity patterns and two kinds of closed loop transmit diversity patterns, be respectively switch Open-Loop Transmit Diversity (TSTD:Time Switched Transmit Diversity) time, based on Space Time Coding Open-Loop Transmit Diversity (STTD:Space Time Transmit Diversity), Closed-Loop Transmit Diversity (closed loop mode transmit diversity) pattern 1, closed loop transmit diversity modes 2.In these transmit diversities, also use two antennas.Two antennas provide two transmission channels, the data that need are generated two paths of signals according to certain method deliver to respectively in two transmission channels.

In cdma system, many users use identical frequency band to communicate.Owing to can not design mutual fully incoherent spreading code set, so still there is the phase mutual interference between the different user.In general, the number of users in a frequency band is many more, and interference level is just high more, and the communication quality of link is just poor more.Therefore, cdma system is an interference-limited wireless communication system, the number of channel that the frequency band of its each Rack can hold is limited, so aforesaid various technological means can only be brought up to capability of communication system to a certain degree, wanting to surpass this limit then must increase other resource.Space diversity is to increase power system capacity and the latest technology of improving systematic function, the analysis showed that in theory as long as correctly use one group of antenna, forms the new degree of freedom and space, just can increase power system capacity significantly.In addition, adopt space diversity can also reduce power consumption, increase anti-fading and antijamming capability, more effectively switch and better fail safe and system robustness.

For the different spaces characteristic of further utilizing unlike signal improves systematic function, a lot of people have studied intelligent antenna technology, the array antenna technology of also challenging an opponent to a fight when two armies meet.Smart antenna adopts plural single antenna array element to form antenna array, and the signal that receives of each array element carries out being weighted summation with proper weight through after the radio frequency processing, just can reach the effect of directional reception.The essence of weighting is a kind of space filtering, and smart antenna also can be thought a kind of space division multiple access (SDMA:Space Division MultipleAccess) technology.In SDMA, pass through the aerial array received signal, and carry out digital beam forming (DBF:Digital Beam Former), make the signal to noise ratio maximum of desired signal by Digital Signal Processing.This is by the phase place of adjusting the signal that aerial array received desired signal to be strengthened by the addition summation, and other interference signal obtains weakening realization by the addition summation.The system's smart antenna that adopts the CDMA multi-access mode had many advantages.In TD-SCDMA system clearly the part of intelligent antenna technology as standard.

Smart antenna can divide three kinds substantially.

A kind of is the switched-beam smart antenna.This scheme is to preestablish the wave beam weight that some point to different directions, reasonable those wave beam weight weighted results of selective reception signal are carried out subsequent treatment in communication process, as Chinese patent 98800049 (adaptive array antenna), also has the GSM Spotlight smart antenna of U.S. metawave company.The shortcoming of this method is to need better more weights in advance of design, does not also make full use of the signal space distribution character in the concrete moment, can not well improve the signal to noise ratio of received signal.But the realization thinking of this method is easy to expect.

Second kind is the part adaptive smart antenna.This implementation is extraction desired user direction of arrival of signal angle information from the array signal that receives usually, forms then and points to the wave beam that arrives deflection, and the arrival direction angle changes then and then variation of weights.The criterion of this scheme is to make the desired user signal energy maximum that receives, the interference of simultaneously limited other direction of compacting.Phase array just belongs to such technology, and all amplitudes of phase array are the same, can not change, and has only the adaptive change of phase potential energy.The performance of part adaptive smart antenna is better than switched-beam smart antenna, but does not utilize signal space information fully, and adaptive range is also limited, and extracts the process more complicated that reaches deflection, can real-time implementation still be a problem.The patent that many this respects are also arranged, as Chinese patent 97104039 (time division SCDMA wireless communication system) with smart antenna, Chinese patent 97202038 (directional control circuit that is used for adaptive antenna), Chinese patent 99105647 (adaptive array antenna of optimizing shape beam in advance that is used for code division multiple access system).

Another kind is the fully adaptive smart antenna.The weights of this antenna do not need to set in advance, but bring in constant renewal in weights by certain criterion according to the variation of signal space distribution character, the amplitude of weights and phase place can be upgraded freely, the spatial character that this smart antenna can make full use of desired user signal and interference signal makes the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio of the signal that receives reach maximum, and the part adaptive smart antenna does not generally consider to disturb arrival direction.This is very yearning result, can be described as the tidemark of smart antenna, and also the someone has applied for the patent of this respect, as Chinese patent 99104709 (adaptive antenna).

Just can more effective antagonism Rayleigh multipath fading intelligent antenna technology and diversity technique combination.Yet, the adjacent array element distance of intelligent antenna array is generally about half operation wavelength, make two array element signals correlations bigger, and two antennas that diversity technique adopts several wavelength (such as ten wavelength) of need being separated by, make the signal correlation of two antennas very little, smart antenna and diversity antenna have certain incompatibility.Combine both, it is to adopt two to come diversity at a distance of bigger aerial array in a sub-district that a kind of method is arranged.But this method does not still have the fine two kinds of technical compatibilities that make, because if in order to guarantee the smart antenna effect, the array number of two arrays can not be very little, like this two arrays need many bays and corresponding radio frequency processing module, implementation complexity is bigger, if in order to reduce complexity, reduce the array number of each array, then the sky of smart antenna divides effect to be difficult to again embody.

In sum, Rake receiver is to utilize time diversity to improve received signal quality, space diversity reception and space diversity emission then improve received signal quality and the anti fading performance that transmits, and smart antenna then utilizes array antenna to improve the quality of reception greatly and sends signal performance.Transmit diversity techniques and intelligent antenna technology are the new technologies that two kinds of antagonism multipath fadings of utilizing space resources improve communication system performance, have all used this two kinds of technology in the 3G (Third Generation) Moblie standard.Rake receives and double-antenna receiving diversity then is the technology of comparative maturity.But how adopting these kinds technology efficiently in communication system simultaneously still is a problem that does not have fine solution.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is is worth compatible and is difficult to compatible problem in order to solve smart antenna and transmit diversity, proposes a kind of smart antenna emission diversity method and device.

To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:

A kind of smart antenna emission diversity method receives under the prerequisite of a subscriber signal with a plurality of wave beams at receiving terminal, and its concrete steps are:

The first step, judging earlier whether the base station high level indicates will carry out transmit diversity;

Second step, carry out transmit diversity if desired, then carry out following processing simultaneously,

A. from each received beam weighted vector, select two bigger wave beam weight vectors of corresponding data signal energy as the launching beam weights;

B. the sign level data of downlink is carried out common transmit diversity and spectrum-spreading and scrambling process, form the two-way complex data;

The 3rd step went on foot second and to obtain complex data and the launching beam weighted vector multiplies each other, and finished the beam weighting process of emission, and the multichannel data after the weighting was sent to data respectively closes the road module;

The 4th step, the 3rd multichannel data of step after the weighting to be closed the road module in data neutralize the weighted data of other user and common signal channel according to respective antenna stack merging, the data after the merging are sent to each radio-frequency channel, launch from aerial array at last.

In second step,, then carry out following processing simultaneously if do not need to carry out transmit diversity:

A selects the bigger one or more wave beam weight vectors of corresponding data signal energy from each received beam weighted vector, if selected two or more, these wave beam weight vector additions are formed a new weighted vector;

B carries out common spectrum-spreading and scrambling process to the sign level data of downlink and forms one tunnel complex data.

When selecting bigger two the wave beam weight vectors of corresponding data signal energy, if in frequency division duplex system, guaranteeing two wave beam weights selecting to be converted to two launching beam weights of corresponding tranmitting frequency under the constant substantially criterion of transmitting-receiving beam shape; If in tdd systems, directly two wave beam weights that the first step is obtained are as the launching beam weights.

When a plurality of wave beam weight vector additions being formed a new weighted vector, if in frequency division duplex system, guaranteeing the wave beam weight vector of selecting to be converted to two launching beam weighted vectors of corresponding tranmitting frequency under the constant substantially criterion of transmitting-receiving beam shape; If in tdd systems, directly the wave beam weight vector that obtains as the launching beam weighted vector.

A kind of smart antenna transmission diversity apparatus, this diversity apparatus comprise that a plurality of single user's smart antenna transmit diversity modules, common signal channel form part, omni-beam figuration module, data and close road module, a plurality of radio-frequency channel, aerial array,

The input signal of described a plurality of single user's smart antenna transmit diversity modules is high-rise common channel data, and the output of this module all is connected to data and closes the road module;

It is high-rise common channel data that described common signal channel forms the part input signal, common channel data after the output spectrum-spreading and scrambling are to omni-beam figuration module, this part generates processing to the common signal channel towards the emission of full sub-district, comprises adding functions such as expanding spectrum-spreading and scrambling;

Described theaomni-directional transmission wave beam forming module input is the dateout that common signal channel forms part, and the data after the output weighting are sent to data and close the road module, and this module is weighted the common channel data with the omni-beam weights;

It is the dateout of each single user's smart antenna transmit diversity module and the dateout of omni-beam figuration module that described data are closed road module input, data are closed the road module these data respective antenna array element additions, and its output is the multiple signals after the stack;

Functions such as digital-to-analogue conversion to base band data, modulation, power amplification are finished in described a plurality of radio-frequency channel, and baseband signal is converted to radiofrequency signal and is sent to aerial array;

Described aerial array radiate the radiofrequency signal of bringing of radio-frequency channel with the electromagnetic wave form.

Described single user's smart antenna transmit diversity module comprises that further wave beam weight selects comprehensive module, receiving and transmitting right values modular converter, transmit diversity processing module, two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules, two launching beam figuration modules,

It is that each receives the weighted vector data that described wave beam weight is selected comprehensive module input signal, signal energy behind each wave beam receiving branch descrambling and de-spreading, high-rise control information, its output signal is one or two wave beam weight vector that chooses, its output links to each other with the receiving and transmitting right values modular converter, this module is when the high level appointment needs transmit diversity, the bigger wave beam weight vector of two respective signal energy of selection from a plurality of received beam weights, do not specify with in the transmit diversity at high level, the bigger wave beam weight vector of the one or more respective signal energy of selection from a plurality of received beam weights, if selected two or more, these wave beam weight vector additions are formed a new weighted vector;

Described receiving and transmitting right values modular converter input signal is the dateout that wave beam weight is selected comprehensive module, and the output signal of receiving and transmitting right values modular converter is the launching beam weighted vector after the conversion, and is sent to two launching beam figuration modules respectively;

Described transmit diversity processing module input signal is sign level data and the high-rise control information after chnnel coding interweaves, and this processing module has two output ports to link to each other with two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules respectively, and it finishes common transmit diversity processing module;

Described two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules, the complex signal that output comes to the transmit diversity module carries out spectrum-spreading and scrambling, and the chip-level data after the spectrum-spreading and scrambling are delivered to two wave beam forming modules respectively;

Described two launching beam figuration modules, its input signal is respectively the two-way emission data of spectrum-spreading and scrambling module and two launching beam weighted vectors of receiving and transmitting right values modular converter, this figuration module multiplies each other emission data and launching beam weighted vector, obtain multichannel data corresponding to bay, finish launching beam figuration function, two wave beam forming modules are sent to the output of the multichannel data that obtains as single user's smart antenna transmit diversity module data and close the road module.

Described single user's smart antenna transmit diversity module comprises that further wave beam weight selects comprehensive module, transmit diversity processing module, two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules, two launching beam figuration modules,

It is that each receives the weighted vector data that described wave beam weight is selected comprehensive module input signal, signal energy behind each wave beam receiving branch descrambling and de-spreading, high-rise control information, its output signal is one or two wave beam weight vector that chooses, its output directly links to each other with two launching beam figuration modules, this module is when the high level appointment needs transmit diversity, the bigger wave beam weight vector of two respective signal energy of selection from a plurality of received beam weights, do not specify with in the transmit diversity at high level, the bigger wave beam weight vector of the one or more respective signal energy of selection from a plurality of received beam weights, if selected two or more, these wave beam weight vector additions are formed a new weighted vector and are sent to two launching beam figuration modules respectively;

Described transmit diversity processing module input signal is sign level data and the high-rise control information after chnnel coding interweaves, and this processing module has two output ports to link to each other with two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules respectively, and it finishes common transmit diversity processing module;

Described two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules, the complex signal that output comes to the transmit diversity module carries out spectrum-spreading and scrambling, and the chip-level data after the spectrum-spreading and scrambling are delivered to two wave beam forming modules respectively;

Described two launching beam figuration modules, its input signal is respectively the two-way emission data of spectrum-spreading and scrambling module and two launching beam weighted vectors of receiving and transmitting right values modular converter, this figuration module multiplies each other emission data and launching beam weighted vector, obtain multichannel data corresponding to bay, finish launching beam figuration function, two wave beam forming modules are sent to the output of the multichannel data that obtains as single user's smart antenna transmit diversity module data and close the road module.

The way of output signal that described data are closed the road module is identical with the bay number;

The quantity of bay is corresponding with radio-frequency channel quantity, and described aerial array comprises two and plural bay at least.

Smart antenna emission diversity method of the present invention and device, compare with existing transmit diversity techniques, having merged the smart antenna spatial domain handles, can on two relevant less wave beams, carry out the diversity emission, can improve directive gain greatly, reduce transmitting power, reduce electromagnetic pollution and transmitting chain and disturb.Compare with the intelligent antenna technology in the current various documents, smart antenna transmit diversity techniques of the present invention can make full use of the spatial domain characteristic of signal and the advantage of diversity emission, has improved systematic function.Smart antenna emission diversity method of the present invention and device are applicable to time division duplex and Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) cdma system.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a rake reception device structure chart general in the prior art.

Fig. 2 is common transmit diversity structure chart.

Fig. 3 is the flow chart of the present invention about the smart antenna Rake receiving method.

Fig. 4 is the flow chart of the present invention about the smart antenna emission diversity method.

Fig. 5 is that the present invention is about smart antenna rake reception device structure chart.

Fig. 6 is that the present invention is about smart antenna transmission diversity apparatus overall construction drawing.

Fig. 7 is that the present invention is about single user's smart antenna transmit diversity modular structure figure in the frequency division duplex system.

Fig. 8 is that the present invention is about single user's smart antenna transmit diversity modular structure figure in the tdd systems.

Fig. 9 is that the present invention is about adopting the CDMA Base-Band Processing structural representation of smart antenna, Rake reception and space transmit-receive diversity.

Figure 10 is the multipath transmisstion schematic diagram.

Figure 11 is the beam pattern that obtains corresponding the strongest path at Figure 10 environment.

Figure 12 is the beam pattern that obtains corresponding strong path at Figure 10 environment.

Figure 13 is the beam pattern at Figure 10 environment transmit diversity.

Figure 14 is at two beam patterns that obtain than the stack of high-amplitude wave beam weight of Figure 10 environment.

Embodiment

Be described in further detail below in conjunction with the enforcement of accompanying drawing to technical scheme, according to these structure charts, the technical staff in same field can be easy to realize the present invention.

Fig. 1 is general rake reception device structure chart, two diversity antennas 101.1,101.2 receive aerial signal, two radio-frequency channels 102.1,102.2 by correspondence are converted into baseband signal, baseband signal is sent into Multipath searching module 103 and is carried out Multipath searching, and Search Results is given multipath distribution module 104.Multipath distribution module 104 chooses the bigger several multipaths of energy and signal allocation is come to each tracking descrambling and de-spreading module 105.n in pairing radio-frequency channel 102.1 or 102.2, n=1, and 2 ..., N.Here suppose that Rake receiver has N branch.Follow the tracks of the descrambling and de-spreading module and carry out multipath tracking and signal descrambling and de-spreading, the signal after the despreading is sent into each channel estimating compensating module 106.n,, n=1,2 ..., N.Each road is carried out signal behind the channel compensation and is sent into multipath and merge module 107 and carry out multipath and merge.Except that antenna 101 and radio-frequency channel 102, other module has constituted so-called Rake receiver.Each branch circuit of this Rake receiver is handled the multipath information of some identical time delays, owing to do not do airspace filter, the signal to noise ratio of each branch circuit output signal is still bigger.

Fig. 2 is common transmit diversity structure chart, sign level data behind the code interleaving is at first passed through transmit diversity processing module 201, form two paths of data, every circuit-switched data obtains signal 21.1 and 21.2 by spectrum-spreading and scrambling module 202.1 and 202.2 spectrum-spreading and scrambling respectively, data 2p.1 (p=1 after the spread spectrum of many users and common channel, 2, P) close road module 203.1 in data and be superimposed, 21.2,22.2 ..., data such as 2P.2 then close in the road module 203.2 in data and are superimposed.Two are closed the data that the road module merges and are sent to two radio-frequency channel modules 102.1 and 102.2 respectively, after antenna 101.1 and 101.2 launch.User profile arrives mobile station receiver by two correlation ratios than small path, can improve systematic function.

Fig. 3 is a smart antenna Rake receiving method flow chart, and square frame 301 is used the aerial array received signal corresponding to the previously described first step, handles by the radio-frequency channel of each array element, converts baseband digital signal to.Square frame 302.1 and square frame 302.2 corresponding two parallel tasks were equivalent to for second step.The baseband digital signal of being come in the radio-frequency channel carries out Multipath searching on the one hand.Then the bigger multidiameter delay of energy is sent into each respectively and follow the tracks of the descrambling and de-spreading module.On the other hand, the baseband digital signal of being come in the radio-frequency channel carries out the spatial weighting summation with each current wave beam weight, and the data-signal that weighted sum obtains is sent into each tracking descrambling and de-spreading module respectively.The 3rd step of square frame 303 corresponding method, carry out multipath tracking and descrambling and de-spreading, obtain the symbol level information data.Two parallel processing tasks that square frame 304.1 and 304.2 correspondences are the 4th one.On the one hand the data behind the descrambling and de-spreading are carried out the channel estimating compensation, utilize in the system information in the information and descrambling and de-spreading module to carry out the wave beam weight adaptive updates on the other hand and calculate, the weights that obtain are as current wave beam weight.Square frame 305 is equivalent to the 5th step of method, the information data after each compensation is carried out multipath merge, and the data that obtain are delivered to the subsequent treatment module.This method is before descrambling and de-spreading, advanced row space weighting, be equivalent to airspace filter, spatial weighting can gain useful signal with superimposed raising, anti-phase or the compacting interference signal that as far as possible inversely adds to most of interference signal, thereby improved Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio greatly, improved systematic function, this is the strong point that has adopted smart antenna.This method merges the collection of energy of each multipath simultaneously, and this is the strong point that has adopted Rake.

Fig. 4 is a smart antenna emission diversity method flow chart, the diamond 401 corresponding method first steps, and judging whether the base station high level indicates will carry out transmit diversity.If carry out transmit diversity, then enter 402.1 and square frame 402.2,402.1 can be divided into two steps again, form with two square frame 402.1.1 and 402.1.2, these serve as to identify second step that the module that starts is equivalent to method noted earlier with 402, on the one hand, sign level data to downlink is carried out common transmit diversity and spectrum-spreading and scrambling process, form the two-way complex data, on the other hand, from each received beam weighted vector, select two bigger wave beam weight vectors of corresponding data signal energy, in frequency division duplex system, two wave beam weight vectors are converted to two launching beam weighted vectors of corresponding tranmitting frequency.In tdd systems, directly two wave beam weight vectors that obtain above as the launching beam weighted vector.In the 3rd step of square frame 403 corresponding method,, finish the beam weighting process of emission, and the multichannel data after the weighting is sent to data respectively closes the road module obtaining the two-way complex data and two launching beam weighted vectors multiply each other.The 6th step of square frame 406 corresponding method, close in the module of road in data, data respective antenna stack after the weighting of the multichannel data after the weighting and other user and common signal channel is merged, and the data after the merging are sent to each radio-frequency channel, launch from aerial array at last.If first step indication on the middle and senior level is without transmit diversity, then enter square frame 404.1 and 404.2, this is corresponding to the 4th step of method, the sign level data of downlink is carried out common spectrum-spreading and scrambling process forms one tunnel complex data on the one hand, on the other hand, from each received beam weighted vector, select the bigger one or more wave beam weight vectors of corresponding data signal energy.If selected two or more, these wave beam weight vector additions are formed a new weighted vector.In frequency division duplex system, the wave beam weight vector of selecting is converted to the launching beam weighted vector of corresponding tranmitting frequency.In tdd systems, directly the wave beam weight vector that obtains as the launching beam weighted vector.When selecting a plurality of wave beams to superpose emission here, though not adopting common transmit diversity handles, also be equivalent to carry out the diversity emission,, in the Rake receiver of travelling carriage, can merge the energy of a plurality of beam transmission according to the transmitting-receiving reciprocity of multidiameter delay.The a plurality of beam transmission processing methods of this usefulness are compared with a beam transmission with common smart antenna, can better improve the stability of a system, reduce the communication cutting off rate.Square frame 405 was equivalent to for the 5th step, and the 4th step was obtained complex data and the launching beam weighted vector multiplies each other, and finished the beam weighting process of emission, and the multichannel data after the weighting was sent to data closes the road module.Carried out for the 6th step 406 then, data respective antenna stack after the weighting of the multichannel data after the weighting and other user and common signal channel is merged, the data after the merging are sent to each radio-frequency channel, launch from aerial array at last.This method utilizes the array antenna different beams to realize transmit diversity, with the double-antenna transmit diversity part that plays the same tune on different musical instruments, but, method of the present invention is launched with form of beams, compare with double-antenna transmit diversity, the saving transmitting power is arranged, reduce greatly, can improve systematic function greatly actively effects such as other direction user disturb.

Fig. 5 is a smart antenna rake reception device structure chart, aerial array 901 by M bay 901.1,901.2 ..., 901.M forms, to should have M radio-frequency channel module 902.1,902.2 ..., 902.M.In baseband system, the identical single user's smart antenna Rake receiver module 5p of a plurality of structures is arranged, p=1,2 ..., P.The received signal of each radio-frequency channel resume module is sent to these modules.In single user's smart antenna Rake receiver module Multipath searching module 501 is arranged, multipath distribution module 502, the receiver 503.n of branch when a plurality of (such as N) are empty (n=1,2 ..., N), and a multipath merges module 504.When the received signal that handle the radio-frequency channel is delivered to Multipath searching module 501 and each sky among the receiver 503.n of branch.The Search Results of Multipath searching module 501 is given multipath distribution module 502.The receiver 503.n of branch when the multipath distribution module is distributed to a plurality of sky to many stronger multipath information respectively.Wave beam forming module 5031 is arranged in branch's receiver when each is empty, follow the tracks of descrambling and de-spreading module 5032, channel estimating compensating module 5033, right value update module 5034.The multiple signals of coming in 5031 pairs of radio-frequency channels 902 of wave beam forming module carry out the spatial weighting summation, give tracking descrambling and de-spreading module 5032 obtaining signal then, follow the tracks of descrambling and de-spreading module 5032 and according to the multipath information of multipath distribution module 502 appointments the input data are carried out multipath tracking and descrambling and de-spreading, the data that obtain are given channel estimating compensating module 5033.The channel estimating compensating module to despreading after data carry out channel estimating and compensation, the output result delivers to multipath and merges module 504.Signal and the new wave beam weight vector of the data computation in the descrambling and de-spreading module that right value update module 5034 is come according to the radio-frequency channel, and result of calculation is sent to wave beam forming module 5031.The dateout of branch's receiver merges the stack of module 504 same-phases at multipath during each sky.Superimposed data is sent to subsequent treatment module (knitting decoding etc. such as making friends with).Fig. 6 is a smart antenna transmission diversity apparatus overall construction drawing, generally, a plurality of single user's smart antenna transmit diversity module 601.p (p=1 are arranged, 2,, P), what import these modules is to have carried out the symbol level user data that chnnel coding interweaves and received each wave beam weight vector and the corresponding signal energy data thereof that obtain in the link, also have some high-rise control informations, all these are represented with a broad arrow in Fig. 6 with input.Functions such as transmit diversity processing, spectrum-spreading and scrambling, launching beam weighting are all finished in these modules.Each single user's smart antenna transmit diversity processing module can be exported the data of two wave beams, if the array number of array antenna 901 is M, then has the complex data output of 2 * M road.The common channel data of handling common signal channel in addition forms part 602, according to the common channel data after the high layer information formation spectrum-spreading and scrambling.Theaomni-directional transmission wave beam forming module 603 forms M road complex data again common channel data omni-directional beam weighting.The dateout of all single user's smart antenna transmitter module 601.p and theaomni-directional transmission wave beam forming module 603 is closed in the road module 604 bay stack by correspondence in data, form M road complex data and send into corresponding radio-frequency channel module 902.m (m=1,2 ..., M).Functions such as the analog-to-digital conversion that transmits, rf modulations, linear power amplification are finished in radio-frequency channel 902, at last signal are delivered to aerial array 901.

Fig. 7 is single user's smart antenna transmit diversity modular structure figure in the frequency division duplex system.The a plurality of weighted vectors that obtain of reception link and corresponding received signal energy and high-rise control information incoming wave beam weight are selected comprehensive module 701.

Carry out transmit diversity if desired, 701 select two bigger weighted vectors of corresponding received energy to give receiving and transmitting right values modular converter 702,702 reception weighted vectors are converted to the emission value vector that beam shape is tried one's best identical, give two launching beam figuration modules 705.1 and 705.2.On the other hand, carry out transmit diversity with the data through carrying out chnnel coding in transmit diversity processing module 703 and handle, the divided ring transmit diversity will carry out corresponding empty time-code coding, to Closed-Loop Transmit Diversity, carry out the complex weighted of two paths of signals, also will add different dedicated pilot symbols sometimes.The two paths of signals of 703 outputs is given spectrum-spreading and scrambling module 704.1 and 704.2 respectively, and signal is sent to two launching beam figuration modules 705.1 and 705.2 respectively after the spectrum-spreading and scrambling.The subscriber signal of launching beam figuration module 705.1 and 705.2 inputs and weighted vector multiply each other and export the data 706.1 and 706.2 of two wave beams.

If high-rise the appointment without transmit diversity, the module 704.2 and 705.2 free time of the dashed rectangle representative among this Fig. 7, the link of dotted arrow representative is also idle.Transmit diversity processing module 703 directly outputs to input signal carries out spectrum-spreading and scrambling in the spectrum-spreading and scrambling module 704.1.Wave beam weight is selected one of 701 selection of comprehensive module and a plurality of weighted vectors to be merged into a weighted vector and is given receiving and transmitting right values modular converter 702.Launching beam figuration module 705.1 obtains a beam signal 706.1 to the output multiplication of the output of spectrum-spreading and scrambling module 704.1 and receiving and transmitting right values modular converter 702, is sent to data and closes the road module.

Fig. 8 is single user's smart antenna transmit diversity modular structure figure in the tdd systems, compare with the smart antenna transmit diversity of using Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) among Fig. 7, launching beam figuration module 805 and wave beam weight are selected to have lacked the wave beam weight modular converter between the comprehensive module 801, two output of 801 and two launching beam figuration modules 805.1 directly link to each other with 805.2, and other is handled with recited above the same.

Fig. 9 is the CDMA Base-Band Processing structural representation that adopts smart antenna, Rake reception and space transmit-receive diversity.Receive and emission with same aerial array 901 and radio-frequency channel 902.Receive link and adopt similar smart antenna rake reception device shown in Figure 5, be summarised as smart antenna rake reception device 903.Transmitting chain adopts the smart antenna transmit diversity module of similar Fig. 6, is summarised as smart antenna transmission diversity apparatus 904.Each corresponding wave beam weight that the output of each right value update module 5034 and channel estimating compensating module 5033 will be given respectively in the emitter 904 among Fig. 5 is selected comprehensive module (as 701 among Fig. 7,801 among Fig. 8).

Effect below in conjunction with concrete example application explanation the inventive method.

Figure 10 is the multipath transmisstion schematic diagram, and the signal of travelling carriage 1001 emissions arrives base-station antenna array 1002 through 3 paths.Through the signal energy maximum that reaches base-station antenna array in direct projection path 1011, the signal energy in the path 1012 of 1003 reflections that break the barriers is taken second place, the signal energy minimum in the path 1013 of 1004 reflections that break the barriers.The signal of travelling carriage 1001 is following desired signals to be processed.Also have two travelling carriages 1005 and 1006 in addition among the figure, concerning the process of base station receiving mobile 1001 signals, the signal of these two travelling carriage emissions is interference signals.Wherein the signal of travelling carriage 1005 arrives base-station antenna array through path 1051 and 1052, and the signal of travelling carriage 1006 arrives base-station antenna array through path 1061.

Figure 11 is in smart antenna Rake receiving method and device, the beam pattern of weighted vector correspondence in branch's receiver when obtaining the strongest corresponding path 1011 empty at Figure 10 environment, here suppose that aerial array is the uniform straight line array row of 8 array elements, be applied in the sector covering of one 120 degree, we only are concerned about that 30 spend to the Sector Range of 150 degree, and the physical meaning of polar coordinates radius is the amplitude gain of signal on specific direction among the figure.From figure wave beam 111 as can be seen, 105 the degree about, signal gain is very big, and on other direction the gain very little, so just can the useful signal by path 1011 among Figure 10 well be received, and the signal of other direction all be used as the interference suppressed.

Figure 12 is the beam pattern that obtains corresponding strong path 1012 at Figure 10 environment, the beam pattern of weighted vector correspondence in branch's receiver when promptly another one is empty.Similar with the wave beam 111 among Figure 11, wave beam 121 among Figure 12 has very big gain about 50 degree, and other directive gain is very little, so just can well receive the useful signal by path 1012 among Figure 10, has suppressed and the signal of other direction all is used as interference.Multipath by Rake merges at last, just can combine each multipath signal energy.

Figure 13 is the beam pattern at Figure 10 environment transmit diversity.The two paths of signals of transmit diversity, the wave beam 131 of leading up to is launched, and the wave beam 132 of leading up to is launched.Wave beam 111 among wave beam 131 corresponding Figure 11 will be by the path among Figure 10 1011 from base-station antenna array arrival travelling carriage 1001 with the signal of this beam transmission.Wave beam 121 among wave beam 132 corresponding Figure 12 will be by the path among Figure 10 1012 from base-station antenna array arrival travelling carriage 1001 with the signal of this beam transmission.Because these two wave beams have good directivity, disturb very little to the travelling carriage on other direction (such as the travelling carriage among Figure 10 1005 and 1006) when this method realizes common transmit diversity, this raising to system communication quality and capacity has contribution greatly, can also reduce system power dissipation simultaneously.

Figure 14 is at two beam patterns that obtain than the stack of high-amplitude wave beam weight of Figure 10 environment.If not specifying, high level do not use transmit diversity.Wave beam weight selects comprehensive module the stack of the weighted vector of 121 correspondences of the wave beam among the wave beam among Figure 11 111 and Figure 12, obtains the beam pattern of new weighted vector correspondence.Two bigger lobes 141,142 are arranged in this beam pattern, point to 105 degree and 50 degree directions respectively.User data is gone out from this beam transmission, can arrive travelling carriage 1001 from base-station antenna array by the path 1011 among Figure 10 and 1012, and disturb very little to other travelling carriage 1005 and 1006.At travelling carriage 1001, can use the signal that these two lobes are come the Rake receiver of travelling carriage to receive and merge.This smart antenna launching technique is the another kind of transmit diversity mode that the present invention proposes, this method can obtain similar common transmit diversity equally (as Open-Loop Transmit Diversity, Closed-Loop Transmit Diversity) effect, and the travelling carriage reception is handled simpler, very little to other user's interference, required power is lower.Simultaneously, and compare with the antenna system of a direction wave beam usually, this launching technique can effectively be resisted the multipath of travelling carriage in moving and change, and has improved the stability and the robustness of antenna system.

Claims (8)

1, a kind of smart antenna emission diversity method is characterized in that, receives under the prerequisite of a subscriber signal with a plurality of wave beams at receiving terminal, and its concrete steps are:
The first step, judging earlier whether the base station high level indicates will carry out transmit diversity;
Second step, carry out transmit diversity if desired, then carry out following processing simultaneously,
A. from each received beam weighted vector, select two bigger wave beam weight vectors of corresponding data signal energy as the launching beam weights;
B. the sign level data of downlink is carried out common transmit diversity and spectrum-spreading and scrambling process, form the two-way complex data;
The 3rd step went on foot second and to obtain complex data and the launching beam weighted vector multiplies each other, and finished the beam weighting process of emission, and the multichannel data after the weighting was sent to data respectively closes the road module;
The 4th step, the 3rd multichannel data of step after the weighting to be closed the road module in data neutralize the weighted data of other user and common signal channel according to respective antenna stack merging, the data after the merging are sent to each radio-frequency channel, launch from aerial array at last.
2, smart antenna emission diversity method as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, in second step, if do not need to carry out transmit diversity, then carries out following processing simultaneously:
A selects the bigger one or more wave beam weight vectors of corresponding data signal energy from each received beam weighted vector, if selected two or more, these wave beam weight vector additions are formed a new weighted vector;
B carries out common spectrum-spreading and scrambling process to the sign level data of downlink and forms one tunnel complex data.
3, smart antenna emission diversity method as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that;
When selecting bigger two the wave beam weight vectors of corresponding data signal energy, if in frequency division duplex system, guaranteeing two wave beam weights selecting to be converted to two launching beam weights of corresponding tranmitting frequency under the constant substantially criterion of transmitting-receiving beam shape; If in tdd systems, directly two wave beam weights that the first step is obtained are as the launching beam weights.
4, smart antenna emission diversity method as claimed in claim 2 is characterized in that;
When a plurality of wave beam weight vector additions being formed a new weighted vector, if in frequency division duplex system, guaranteeing the wave beam weight vector of selecting to be converted to two launching beam weighted vectors of corresponding tranmitting frequency under the constant substantially criterion of transmitting-receiving beam shape; If in tdd systems, directly the wave beam weight vector that obtains as the launching beam weighted vector.
5, a kind of smart antenna transmission diversity apparatus is characterized in that: this diversity apparatus comprises that a plurality of single user's smart antenna transmit diversity modules, common signal channel form part, omni-beam figuration module, data and close road module, a plurality of radio-frequency channel, aerial array,
The input signal of described a plurality of single user's smart antenna transmit diversity modules is high-rise common channel data, and the output of this module all is connected to data and closes the road module;
It is high-rise common channel data that described common signal channel forms the part input signal, common channel data after the output spectrum-spreading and scrambling are to omni-beam figuration module, this part generates processing to the common signal channel towards the emission of full sub-district, comprises adding functions such as expanding spectrum-spreading and scrambling;
Described theaomni-directional transmission wave beam forming module input is the dateout that common signal channel forms part, and the data after the output weighting are sent to data and close the road module, and this module is weighted the common channel data with the omni-beam weights;
It is the dateout of each single user's smart antenna transmit diversity module and the dateout of omni-beam figuration module that described data are closed road module input, data are closed the road module these data respective antenna array element additions, and its output is the multiple signals after the stack;
Functions such as digital-to-analogue conversion to base band data, modulation, power amplification are finished in described a plurality of radio-frequency channel, and baseband signal is converted to radiofrequency signal and is sent to aerial array;
Described aerial array radiate the radiofrequency signal of bringing of radio-frequency channel with the electromagnetic wave form.
6, smart antenna transmission diversity apparatus as claimed in claim 5, it is characterized in that: described single user's smart antenna transmit diversity module comprises that further wave beam weight selects comprehensive module, receiving and transmitting right values modular converter, transmit diversity processing module, two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules, two launching beam figuration modules
It is that each receives the weighted vector data that described wave beam weight is selected comprehensive module input signal, signal energy behind each wave beam receiving branch descrambling and de-spreading, high-rise control information, its output signal is one or two wave beam weight vector that chooses, its output links to each other with the receiving and transmitting right values modular converter, this module is when the high level appointment needs transmit diversity, the bigger wave beam weight vector of two respective signal energy of selection from a plurality of received beam weights, do not specify with in the transmit diversity at high level, the bigger wave beam weight vector of the one or more respective signal energy of selection from a plurality of received beam weights, if selected two or more, these wave beam weight vector additions are formed a new weighted vector;
Described receiving and transmitting right values modular converter input signal is the dateout that wave beam weight is selected comprehensive module, and the output signal of receiving and transmitting right values modular converter is the launching beam weighted vector after the conversion, and is sent to two launching beam figuration modules respectively;
Described transmit diversity processing module input signal is sign level data and the high-rise control information after chnnel coding interweaves, and this processing module has two output ports to link to each other with two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules respectively, and it finishes common transmit diversity processing module;
Described two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules, the complex signal that output comes to the transmit diversity module carries out spectrum-spreading and scrambling, and the chip-level data after the spectrum-spreading and scrambling are delivered to two wave beam forming modules respectively;
Described two launching beam figuration modules, its input signal is respectively the two-way emission data of spectrum-spreading and scrambling module and two launching beam weighted vectors of receiving and transmitting right values modular converter, this figuration module multiplies each other emission data and launching beam weighted vector, obtain multichannel data corresponding to bay, finish launching beam figuration function, two wave beam forming modules are sent to the output of the multichannel data that obtains as single user's smart antenna transmit diversity module data and close the road module.
7, smart antenna transmission diversity apparatus as claimed in claim 5, it is characterized in that: described single user's smart antenna transmit diversity module comprises that further wave beam weight selects comprehensive module, transmit diversity processing module, two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules, two launching beam figuration modules
It is that each receives the weighted vector data that described wave beam weight is selected comprehensive module input signal, signal energy behind each wave beam receiving branch descrambling and de-spreading, high-rise control information, its output signal is one or two wave beam weight vector that chooses, its output directly links to each other with two launching beam figuration modules, this module is when the high level appointment needs transmit diversity, the bigger wave beam weight vector of two respective signal energy of selection from a plurality of received beam weights, do not specify with in the transmit diversity at high level, the bigger wave beam weight vector of the one or more respective signal energy of selection from a plurality of received beam weights, if selected two or more, these wave beam weight vector additions are formed a new weighted vector and are sent to two launching beam figuration modules respectively;
Described transmit diversity processing module input signal is sign level data and the high-rise control information after chnnel coding interweaves, and this processing module has two output ports to link to each other with two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules respectively, and it finishes common transmit diversity processing module;
Described two spectrum-spreading and scrambling modules, the complex signal that output comes to the transmit diversity module carries out spectrum-spreading and scrambling, and the chip-level data after the spectrum-spreading and scrambling are delivered to two wave beam forming modules respectively;
Described two launching beam figuration modules, its input signal is respectively the two-way emission data of spectrum-spreading and scrambling module and two launching beam weighted vectors of receiving and transmitting right values modular converter, this figuration module multiplies each other emission data and launching beam weighted vector, obtain multichannel data corresponding to bay, finish launching beam figuration function, two wave beam forming modules are sent to the output of the multichannel data that obtains as single user's smart antenna transmit diversity module data and close the road module.
8, smart antenna transmission diversity apparatus as claimed in claim 5 is characterized in that:
The way of output signal that described data are closed the road module is identical with the bay number;
The quantity of bay is corresponding with radio-frequency channel quantity, and described aerial array comprises two and plural bay at least.
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