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构建位置信标数据库的方法和位置信标服务器

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CN101438270B
CN101438270B CN 200580042183 CN200580042183A CN101438270B CN 101438270 B CN101438270 B CN 101438270B CN 200580042183 CN200580042183 CN 200580042183 CN 200580042183 A CN200580042183 A CN 200580042183A CN 101438270 B CN101438270 B CN 101438270B
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wi
fi
access
device
points
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CN101438270A (zh )
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法施德·阿里扎德-沙伯迪兹
爱德华·詹姆斯·摩根
迈克尔·乔治·谢恩
鲁塞尔·吉普·琼斯
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探空气球无线公司
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    • H04W64/003Locating users or terminals or network equipment for network management purposes, e.g. mobility management locating network equipment
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S19/00Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
    • G01S19/01Satellite radio beacon positioning systems transmitting time-stamped messages, e.g. GPS [Global Positioning System], GLONASS [Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System] or GALILEO
    • G01S19/13Receivers
    • GPHYSICS
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    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S19/00Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
    • G01S19/38Determining a navigation solution using signals transmitted by a satellite radio beacon positioning system
    • G01S19/39Determining a navigation solution using signals transmitted by a satellite radio beacon positioning system the satellite radio beacon positioning system transmitting time-stamped messages, e.g. GPS [Global Positioning System], GLONASS [Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System] or GALILEO
    • G01S19/42Determining position
    • G01S19/45Determining position by combining measurements of signals from the satellite radio beacon positioning system with a supplementary measurement
    • G01S19/46Determining position by combining measurements of signals from the satellite radio beacon positioning system with a supplementary measurement the supplementary measurement being of a radio-wave signal type
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
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    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/02Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves
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    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
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    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
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    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/02Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves
    • G01S5/0252Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves by comparing measured values with pre-stored measured or simulated values
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/02Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves
    • G01S5/0284Relative positioning
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q10/00Administration; Management
    • G06Q10/08Logistics, e.g. warehousing, loading, distribution or shipping; Inventory or stock management, e.g. order filling, procurement or balancing against orders
    • G06Q10/087Inventory or stock management, e.g. order filling, procurement, balancing against orders
    • G06Q10/0875Itemization of parts, supplies, or services, e.g. bill of materials
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W24/00Supervisory, monitoring or testing arrangements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W4/00Mobile application services or facilities specially adapted for wireless communication networks
    • H04W4/02Mobile application Services making use of the location of users or terminals, e.g. OMA SUPL, OMA MLP or 3GPP LCS
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W48/00Access restriction; Network selection; Access point selection
    • H04W48/16Discovering, processing access restriction or access information
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
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    • H04W64/00Locating users or terminals or network equipment for network management purposes, e.g. mobility management
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S19/00Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
    • G01S19/01Satellite radio beacon positioning systems transmitting time-stamped messages, e.g. GPS [Global Positioning System], GLONASS [Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System] or GALILEO
    • G01S19/13Receivers
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08GTRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
    • G08G1/00Traffic control systems for road vehicles
    • G08G1/20Monitoring the location of vehicles belonging to a group, e.g. fleet of vehicles, countable or determined number of vehicles
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    • H04W88/02Terminal devices
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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Abstract

位置信标数据库和服务器、构建位置信标数据库的方法以及使用它们的基于位置的服务。定位在目标地理区域内的Wi-Fi接入点,以构建Wi-Fi接入点的位置的参考数据库。部署至少一辆汽车,它包括至少一个具有GPS设备和Wi-Fi无线设备的扫描设备,还包括Wi-Fi天线系统。按计划的路线遍历目标区域,以避免主干线偏向。计划路线基本上包括在目标地理区域中的所有可行驶的街道,并解决由所述可行驶的街道表示的图形的欧拉回路问题。在遍历目标区域时周期地接收GPS设备的GPS坐标。在遍历目标区域时检测来自Wi-Fi设备的范围内的Wi-Fi接入点的Wi-Fi信号,并记录所检测的Wi-Fi接入点的识别信息连同当检测到Wi-Fi接入点时汽车的GPS位置信息。位置信息被用来逆三角测量所检测的Wi-Fi接入点的位置;所检测的接入点的位置被记录到参考数据库中。可以定位具有Wi-Fi无线电部分的用户设备。提供在目标区域中Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置的参考数据库。响应于确定具有Wi-Fi无线电的用户设备的位置的用户应用请求,触发Wi-Fi设备发送请求到Wi-Fi设备的范围内的所有Wi-Fi接入点。从Wi-Fi设备的范围内的Wi-Fi接入点接收消息,每个消息标识发送消息的Wi-Fi接入点。计算由Wi-Fi接入点接收的消息的信号强度。访问参考数据库,以得到所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置。根据经由接收的消息识别的Wi-Fi接入点的数目,从多个位置确定算法中选择相应的位置确定算法,所述选择的算法适合于所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的数目。使用所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置和所述接收的消息的信号强度以及所选择的位置确定算法来确定用户设备的位置。数据库可被修改,新加入位置信息,以便改进以前确定的位置的质量,并避免易于出错的信息。

Description

构建位置信标数据库的方法和位置信标服务器

[0001] 相关专利申请的交叉引用

[0002] 本专利申请主张在2004年10月29日提交的、题目为“WirelessData Scanning Network for Building Location Beacon Database" W^ffll^W^^J^it^ No. 60/623,108的、在35U. S. C. § 119(e)下的权益,该专利申请整体地在此引用以供参考。

[0003] 本专利申请涉及在与本申请相同的日期提交的、题目为如下的美国专利申请 (Nos.TBA):

[0004] Location Beacon Database ;

[0005] Sever for Updating Location Beacon Database ;

[0006] Location-Based Service that Choose Location Algorithm Basedon Number of Detected Access Points Within Range of User Device ;and

[0007] Method and System for Building a Location Beacon Database。

[0008] 技术领域

[0009] 本发明总地涉及基于位置的服务,更具体地,涉及确定Wi-Fi接入点的位置和使 用这样的信息来定位支持Wi-Fi的设备的方法和系统。

[0010] 背景技术

[0011] 近年来,移动计算设备的数目大量地增加,导致需要更先进的移动和无线服务。移 动电子邮件、walkie talkie(双向对讲机)服务、多人参加的游戏和呼叫跟随是在移动设 备上正在出现的新应用的例子。另外,用户正开始要求/寻求不单利用它们的当前的位置 而且还与其他人共享该位置信息的应用。父母亲希望跟踪他们的小孩,主管人员需要跟踪 公司的送货车的位置,以及商务旅行者要寻找最近的药房来配处方药。所有的这样的例子 需要个人知道他们自己当前的位置或其他人的位置。至今为止,我们都依靠问路,打电话给 某个人询问他们的行踪或让工人随时报告他们的位置。

[0012] 基于位置的服务是移动应用的新生领域,它使得新的设备具有计算它们当前的地 理位置以及把它报告给用户或服务的能力。这些服务的某些例子包括本地天气、交通更新、 驾驶导向、儿童跟踪仪、约会伙伴寻找和城市管家服务。这些新的位置敏感的设备依靠各种 各样的技术,但这些技术都使用相同的一般原理。使用来自于已知参考点的射频信号,这些 设备可以在数学上计算用户相对于这些参考点的位置。这些方法中的每一种所具有的长处 和短处都取决于它们所利用的无线电技术和定位算法。

[0013] 由美国政府运行的全球定位系统(GPS)操纵几十个轨道卫星作为参考点。这些卫 星广播无线电信号,由GPS接收机接收。接收机测量该信号到达接收机所花费的时间。在接 收来自三个或多个GPS卫星的信号后,接收机可以三角测量它在地球上的位置。为了使系 统有效地工作,无线电信号必须在接收时没有干扰或只有很少的干扰。天气、建筑物和树叶 可能造成干扰,因为接收机需要到三个或多个卫星的清晰的视线。干扰也可能是由被称为 多径的现象造成的。来自卫星的无线电信号从物理结构反弹,造成来自同一个卫星的多个 信号在不同的时间到达接收机。由于接收机的计算是基于信号到达接收机所花费的时间, 因此多径信号使得接收机发生混乱,造成大的误差。

5[0014] 蜂窝塔三角测量是使用无线和蜂窝载波来确定用户或设备位置的另一种方法。无 线网和手持设备互相通信,以便共享网络可以用来计算设备的位置的信号信息。这个方法 原先被看作为GPS的优秀的模型,因为这些信号不需要到测绘点的直达线路,它可以较好 地穿透建筑物。不幸的是,由于蜂窝塔硬件的异构性加上多径信号的问题以及在安放蜂窝 塔时的非均勻性,这些方法证明不是最佳的。

[0015] 辅助GPS是较新的模型,它结合GPS和蜂窝塔技术,为移动用户产生更精确的和 可靠的位置计算。在这个模型中,无线网试图通过发送有关GPS卫星的时钟偏移和根据所 连接的蜂窝塔的位置的用户的大致位置的信息,帮助GPS改进它的信号接收。这些技术可 以帮助GPS接收机应对在室内收到的较弱信号,并帮助接收机更快地“固着”到最接近的卫 星,提供更快的“第一读数值”。这些系统受慢响应时间和不良精度的困扰一在闹市区域大 于100米。

[0016] 最近开发了某些替换模型,尝试和解决在GPS,A-GPS和蜂窝塔定位方面的已知问 题。其中之一,被称为TV-GPS,利用来自电视广播塔的信号。(例如,参阅Muthukrishnan, Maria Lijding, PaulHavinga, "Towards Smart Surroundings :Enabling Techniques andTechnologies for Localization,,,Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 3479, Jan 2Hazas, M. , Scott, J. , Krumm, J. :"Location-AwareComputing Comes of Age,,, IEEE Computer, 37 (2) :95_97,Feb 2004005, Pa005, pp. 350-362.)这个构思依赖于这样的 事实,大多数城市区域具有3个或多个电视广播塔。专用硬件芯片接收来自这些不同塔的 电视信号并使用这些塔的已知位置作为参考点。面对这个模型的挑战是新的硬件接收机的 花费和使用这样一小组参考点的限制。例如,如果用户在塔的边界以外,则系统具有提供合 理精度的困难时间。经典的例子是沿海岸线的用户。由于在海洋中没有电视塔,因此在参 考点之间无法提供参考对称性,导致计算定位限于内陆用户。

[0017] Micosoft公司和Intel公司(经由被称为PlaceLab的研究小组)开发了 Wi-Fi 定位系统,使用从业余扫描器(被称为“wardrivers”)获取的接入点位置,这些扫描器将它 们的Wi-Fi扫描数据提交给公共社区网站。(例如参阅LaMarCa,A.等,“Place Lab =Device PositioningUsing Radio Beacons in the wild,,。)例子包括 WiGLE, Wi-FiMaps. com, Netstumbler. com和NodeDB。Micosoft和Intel开发了它们自己的客户软件,这些软件利 用这个公共wardriving数据作为参考位置。因为个人自愿提供数据,所以系统遇到许多性 能和可靠性问题。首先,在数据库上的数据不是同时的;某些数据是新的,而其它部分有3 到4年了。接入点位置的年龄是重要的,因为过时的接入点可能移走了或者离线了。第二, 数据是通过使用各种硬件和软件配置获取的。每个802. 11无线电设备和天线具有不同的 信号接收特性,影响着信号强度的表示。每个扫描软件实施方案在不同的时间间隔期间以 不同的方式扫描Wi-Fi信号。第三,用户供给的数据受到主干线偏向的影响。因为数据是由 没有遵循设计扫描路线的个人自己报告的,所以数据往往集中在交通繁忙区域。主干线偏 向造成最终得到的位置偏向主干线,而不管用户当前位于什么地方,造成很大的精度误差。 第四,这些数据库包括被扫描的接入点的计算出的位置,而不是由802. 11硬件得到的原始 的扫描数据。这些数据库中的每个数据库不同地计算接入点位置,并且每个用初步的加权 平均公式。结果是许多接入点被表示为远离它们的实际位置,包括某些接入点被错误地表 示为好像它们是在水中那样。[0018] 已经有许多针对室内使用的商用Wi-Fi定位系统。(例如参阅=Kavitha Muthulcrishnan,Maria Lijding,Paul Havinga, “TowardsSmart Surroundings :Enabling Techniques and Technologies forLocalization", Lecture Notes in Computer Science,Volume 3479,Jan2Hazas, M. , Scott, J. ,Krumm,J. :‘‘Location-Aware Computing Comesof Age", IEEE Computer, 37 (2) :95_97,Feb 2004 005,Pa005,pp. 350-362.)这些系 统被设计成解决在受控环境内,如在公司场所、医院设施或购物广场内寻找跟踪贵重物品 和人。经典的例子是可以监视应急车在医院内的精确位置的系统,这样,当有心脏梗塞患者 时,医务人员不会浪费时间来寻找该设备。对于这些使用情形的精度要求是非常高的,典型 地要求1-3米的精度。这些系统使用各种不同的技术来精细调节它们的精度,包括对场所 的每平方英尺进行详细的地点勘查,以测量无线电信号传播。它们也需要恒定的网络连接, 以使接入点和客户无线电设备可以交换同步信息,类似于AGSP那样工作。虽然这些系统对 于这些室内使用情形变得更可靠,但它们在大范围部署时是无效的。不可能进行这种在整 个城市内需要的这种详细的地点勘查,对在整个市区内通过802. 11接入点的恒定通信信 道的依赖也无法达到这些系统所需要的程度。最重要的是,室外无线电传播大大地不同于 室内无线电传播,使得这些室内定位算法在大范围情景下几乎是无用的。

[0019] 有许多连同GPS位置读数一起记录802. 11信号的存在的、可用的802. 11位 置扫描客户端。这些软件应用被人工操作,产生读数的日志文件。这些应用的例子是 Netstumber, Kismet和Wi_FiFoFum。某些业余爱好者使用这些应用来标记它们检测的 802. 11接入点信号的位置并且互相共享这些位置信息。该数据的管理和信息的共享都是人 工完成的。这些应用对于接入点的物理位置不进行计算,它们仅仅标记接入点被检测到的 位置。

[0020] 底层定位系统的性能和可靠性是任何基于位置的服务的成功部署的关键推动力。 性能是指系统对于给定的使用情形达到的精度水平。可靠性是指达到想要的性能水平的时 间的百分数。

[0021]

[0022] 发明内容

[0023] 本发明提供位置信标数据库和服务器、构建位置信标数据库的方法以及使用它们 的基于位置的服务。

[0024] 根据本发明的一个方面,定位在目标地理区域内的Wi-Fi接入点以构建Wi-Fi接 入点的位置的参考数据库。部署至少一辆汽车,它包括至少一个具有GPS设备和Wi-Fi无

7线设备的扫描设备,还包括Wi-Fi天线系统。按计划的路线遍历目标区域,以避免主干线偏 向。计划的路线基本上包括在目标地理区域中的所有可行驶的街道,并解决由所述可行驶 的街道表示的图形的欧拉回路问题。在遍历目标区域时周期地接收GPS设备的GPS坐标。 在遍历目标区域时检测来自Wi-Fi设备的范围中的Wi-Fi接入点的Wi-Fi信号,并记录所 检测的Wi-Fi接入点的识别信息连同在检测到Wi-Fi接入点时汽车的GPS位置信息。该位 置信息被用来逆三角测量所检测的Wi-Fi接入点的位置;所检测的接入点的位置被记录到 参考数据库中。

[0025] 根据本发明的另一方面,提供一种定位目标地理区域内的Wi-Fi接入点以构建 Wi-Fi接入点的位置的参考数据库的方法,包括:部署至少一辆汽车,该汽车包括至少一个 具有GPS设备和Wi-Fi无线电设备的扫描设备,还包括Wi-Fi天线系统;按计划的路线遍历 所述目标区域,以避免主干线偏向,所述计划的路线主要包括在目标地理区域中的所有可 行驶街道,并通过解决由所述可行驶街道代表的图形的欧拉回路问题来确定所述计划的路 线;在遍历目标区域时,所述GPS设备周期地接收所述GPS设备的GPS坐标;在遍历目标区 域时,所述Wi-Fi无线电设备检测来自所述Wi-Fi无线电设备的范围内的Wi-Fi接入点的 Wi-Fi信号,并记录检测到的Wi-Fi接入点的识别信息连同在检测到该Wi-Fi接入点时汽车 的GPS位置信息;使用所述位置信息来估计检测到的Wi-Fi接入点的位置;以及把检测到 的接入点的位置记录到参考数据库中。

[0026] 根据本发明的另一方面,提供一种定位具有Wi-Fi无线电部分的用户设备的方 法,包括:提供在目标区域内的Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置的参考数据库;响应于确定具有 Wi-Fi无线电部分的用户设备的位置的用户应用请求,触发Wi-Fi设备发送请求到该Wi-Fi 设备的范围内的所有Wi-Fi接入点;所述用户设备从该Wi-Fi设备的范围内的Wi-Fi接入 点接收消息,每个消息标识发送该消息的Wi-Fi接入点;所述用户设备计算从Wi-Fi接入点 接收的消息的信号强度;访问参考数据库,以得到所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置;根据 经由接收的消息识别的Wi-Fi接入点的数目,从多个位置确定算法中选择相应的位置确定 算法,所述选择的算法适合于所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的数目;使用所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的 计算位置和所述接收的消息的信号强度以及所选择的位置确定算法来确定用户设备的位 置。

[0027] 根据本发明的另一方面,提供一种Wi-Fi位置服务器,包括:数据通信模块,用于 提供接入至具有几十英里量级的半径的至少一个目标区域的Wi-Fi接入点数据库,所述 数据库包括在目标区域中几乎所有的Wi-Fi接入点的数据库记录,每个记录包括对应的 Wi-Fi接入点的识别信息和对应的Wi-Fi接入点的计算出的位置信息,其中所述计算出的 位置信息是按下述方式获得的:记录Wi-Fi接入点的多个读数,以在计算该Wi-Fi接入点的 位置时提供参考对称性,并避免计算出的位置信息出现主干线偏向;逆三角测量模块,对于 新发现的Wi-Fi接入点把记录添加到所述数据库中,所述逆三角测量模块对于以前被存储 在所述数据库中的Wi-Fi接入点重新计算位置信息,以便对于新发现的Wi-Fi接入点利用 该位置信息。

[0028] 根据本发明的另一方面,目标地理区域具有约几十英里的半径。

[0029] 根据本发明的另一方面,计划的路线通过使用中国邮递员路由算法来确定。

[0030] 根据本发明的另一方面,当检测Wi-Fi信号时,对于给定的Wi-Fi接入点获得

8Wi-Fi信号的几个读数,这样,对于给定的Wi-Fi接入点形成一组读数,并且其中当确定所 检测的Wi-Fi接入点的位置时,使用所述一组读数。

[0031] 根据本发明的另一方面,当检测Wi-Fi接入点时,有关来自Wi-Fi接入点的信号强 度信号的信息由扫描设备来计算和记录。

[0032] 根据本发明的另一方面,在给定可行驶的街道的组织结构后,从尽可能多的不同 角度检测给定的Wi-Fi接入点。

[0033] 根据本发明的另一方面,在给定可行驶的街道的组织结构后,从尽可能多的不同 角度检测给定的Wi-Fi接入点,并且其中,确定和记录给定的Wi-Fi接入点的信号强度的功 率分布。

[0034] 根据本发明的另一方面,Wi-Fi天线系统包括定向天线,并且其中扫描设备根据由 Wi-Fi接入点在定向天线上接收的不同信号强度来记录Wi-Fi接入点的原点向量。

[0035] 根据本发明的另一方面,接入点被放置在多个目标区域。

[0036] 根据本发明的另一方面,具有Wi-Fi无线电部分的用户设备可以被定位。提供在 目标区域中Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置的参考数据库。响应于确定具有Wi-Fi无线电部分 的用户设备的位置的用户应用请求,Wi-Fi设备被触发来发送请求到该Wi-Fi设备的范围 内的所有Wi-Fi接入点。从该Wi-Fi设备的范围内的Wi-Fi接入点接收消息,每个消息标 识发送消息的Wi-Fi接入点。计算由Wi-Fi接入点接收的消息的信号强度。访问参考数据 库,以得到所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置。根据经由接收的消息识别的Wi-Fi接入点 的数目,从多个位置确定算法中选择相应的位置确定算法,所述选择的算法适合于所识别 的Wi-Fi接入点的数目。所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置和所述接收的消息的信号强度 以及所选择的位置确定算法被用来确定用户设备的位置。

[0037] 根据本发明的另一方面,所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置被滤波,以确定自从 有关Wi-Fi接入点的信息被包括到参考数据库中以来相应的Wi-Fi接入点是否移动。

[0038] 根据本发明的另一方面,多个位置确定算法包括简单信号强度加权平均模型。

[0039] 根据本发明的另一方面,多个位置确定算法包括最近邻居模型。

[0040] 根据本发明的另一方面,多个位置确定算法包括三角测量技术。

[0041] 根据本发明的另一方面,多个位置确定算法包括基于设备速度的自适应平滑技 术。

[0042] 根据本发明的另一方面,位置确定算法的选择还基于发出位置请求的用户应用。

[0043] 根据本发明的另一方面,用于具有约几十英里量级的半径的至少一个目标区域 的Wi-Fi接入点的数据库被记录在计算机可读介质上。它包括在目标区域中几乎所有 的Wi-Fi接入点的数据库记录,每个记录包括对应的Wi-Fi接入点的识别信息和对应的 Wi-Fi接入点的计算出的位置信息,其中所述计算出的位置信息是按下述方式获得的:记 录Wi-Fi接入点的多个读数,以在计算该Wi-Fi接入点的位置时提供参考对称性,并避免计 算出的位置信息出现主干线偏向。

[0044] 根据本发明的另一方面,Wi-Fi位置服务器包括用于具有约几十英里量级的半径 的至少一个目标区域的Wi-Fi接入点的数据库,所述数据库被记录在计算机可读介质上, 并包括在目标区域中几乎所有的Wi-Fi接入点的数据库记录,每个记录包括对应的Wi-Fi 接入点的识别信息和对应的Wi-Fi接入点的计算出的位置信息,其中所述计算出的位置信息是按下述方式获得的:记录Wi-Fi接入点的多个读数,以在计算该Wi-Fi接入点的位置 时提供参考对称性,并避免计算出的位置信息出现主干线偏向。服务器还包括计算机实施 的逻辑块,对于新发现的Wi-Fi接入点把记录添加到所述数据库中,所述计算机逻辑包括 对于以前被存储在所述数据库中的Wi-Fi接入点重新计算位置信息,以便对于新发现的 Wi-Fi接入点利用该位置信息的逻辑。

[0045] 根据本发明的另一方面,服务器包括计算机实施的集群逻辑,用来根据易于出错 的GPS信息识别位置信息。

[0046] 根据本发明的另一方面,所述集群逻辑包括对于针对一个接入点报告的所有位 置信息确定一个加权质心位置的逻辑以及用来识别偏离所述质心位置超过统计偏差阈值 量的位置信息并从所述数据库中排除这样的偏离位置信息,使这样的偏离位置信息不影响 Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置的逻辑。

附图说明

[0047] 在图上:

[0048] 图1显示Wi-Fi定位系统的某些实施例;

[0049] 图2显示根据本发明某些实施例的包括扫描设备的扫描车;

[0050] 图3显示说明在数据收集时的主干线偏向问题的扫描情形的例子;

[0051] 图4显示根据本发明的某些实施例,使用计划路线用于扫描车的例子;

[0052] 图5显示说明在定位用户设备时缺乏Wi-Fi接入点的参考对称性问题的示例性情 形;

[0053] 图6显示说明在定位用户设备时Wi-Fi接入点的参考对称性的示例性情形;

[0054] 图7显示根据本发明某些实施例的包括扫描设备的扫描车;

[0055] 图8显示根据本发明某些实施例的包括Wi-Fi接入点的中央数据库的中央网络服 务器;

[0056] 图9显示根据本发明某些实施例的定位软件的示例性体系结构;

[0057] 图10显示根据本发明的某些实施例的扫描客户软件的示例性体系结构;以及

[0058] 图11比较和对比随机扫描模型的效果与使用来自中国邮递员路由算法的模型的 效果。

具体实施方式

[0059] 本发明的优选实施例提供用于收集参考位置数据以使商用定位系统能够使用公 共和私有802. 11接入点的系统和方法。优选地,以有计划的方式收集数据,全面探查和覆 盖目标区域的街道。有计划的方式识别尽可能多的Wi-Fi接入点。通过收集有关更多接入 点的位置信息,优选实施例不仅提供更大量的有关接入点的位置信息,而且还可以以更高 的精度计算每个接入点的位置信息。随后,这个更精确数据的更大集合可被定位服务用来 更精确地定位利用本发明的优选实施例的用户设备。某些实施例使用技术在确定Wi-Fi位 置时避免错误数据并使用新发现的位置信息来提高以前收集的确定的位置信息的质量。某 些实施例使用基于在用户请求位置时的用户设备的上下文的位置确定算法。例如,位置确 定算法是基于在发出位置请求时所识别或检测的Wi-Fi接入点的数目,或基于发出请求的应用。

[0060] 图1显示Wi-Fi定位系统(WPS)的优选实施例的一部分。定位系统包括驻留在计 算设备[101]上的定位软件[103]。在特定的覆盖区域内,有固定的无线接入点[102],它 使用控制/公用信道广播信号来广播信息。客户设备监视广播信号或经由探测请求来请求 它的发送。每个接入点包含被称为MAC地址的、唯一的硬件识别号。客户定位软件从范围 内的802. 11接入点接收信号信标,并且使用来自信号信标的特性计算该计算设备的地理 位置。这些特性包括被称为MAC地址的、802. 11接入点的唯一的识别号以及到达客户设备 的信号的强度。客户软件比较所观察的802. 11接入点与在接入点的参考数据库[104]中 的接入点,数据库[104]可以驻留在设备中,也可以不驻留在设备中。参考数据库包含计算 出的地理位置或收集系统已收集的所有接入点的功率分布图。功率分布图是代表来自各个 位置的信号的功率的一系列读数。使用这些已知的位置,客户软件计算用户设备[101]的 相对位置,并以纬度和经度形式确定它的地理位置。这些读数然后被馈送到基于位置的应 用,诸如朋友寻找器、本地搜索网址、车队管理系统和E911服务。

[0061] 下面参照图9更详细地描述定位软件,图上显示定位软件[103]的示例性组件。典 型地,有利用位置读数来把某个值(例如,驾驶方向)提供给最终用户的应用或服务[901]。 该位置应用在该特定时刻对于设备的位置发出定位软件的请求。该请求启动扫描器[902], 它向设备上的802. 11无线电部分[903]发出“扫描请求”。802. 11无线电部分发出探测请 求到该范围内的所有802. 11接入点[904]。按照802. 11协议,这些接入点在接收到探测请 求后发送包含有关接入点的信息的广播信标。该信标包括设备的MAC地址、网络名称、它支 持的协议的精确版本和它的安全配置以及有关如何连接到该设备的信息。802. 11无线电部 分收集来自应答的每个接入点 的信息,计算每个接入点的信号强度,并把它发回到扫描器。

[0062] 扫描器将这一列接入点传递到定位器[906],它向接入点参考数据库[905]检查 每个被观察的接入点的MAC地址。这个数据库可以位于设备上,或者可以通过网络连接设 在远端。接入点参考数据库返回系统已知的每个被观察的接入点的位置数据。定位器将 这一系列位置信息连同从每个接入点返回的信号特性一起传递到坏数据过滤器[907]。这 个过滤器对每个接入点施加多个比较测试,以确定自从它们被加到接入点数据库以来是否 有接入点移动。在去除坏的数据记录后,该过滤器把剩余的接入点发送到位置计算部件 [908]。使用来自接入点数据库的参考数据和来自扫描器的信号强度读数,位置计算部件计 算在该时刻的设备的位置。在该位置数据被发回到定位器之前,它被平滑引擎[909]处理, 平滑引擎求平均过去的一系列位置读数,以便从前面的计算中去除任何错误的读数。然后 把调节的位置数据发回到定位器。

[0063] 由定位器产生的计算出的位置读数通过包括应用编程接口(API)的应用接口 [910]或经由虚拟GPS能力[911]被传送到这些基于位置的应用[901]。GPS接收机使用 专用消息或使用诸如由National MarineElectronic Association(国家海军电子协会) (NMEA)开发的那样的位置标准传送它们的位置读数。使用诸如在机器上的COM端口那样 的标准接口连接到设备可取回消息。本发明的某些实施例包括虚拟GPS能力,它允许任何 GPS可兼容的应用与这个新的定位系统通信,而不一定必须改变通信模型或消息。

[0064] 使用一系列旨在将有噪数据流转换成可靠稳定的位置读数的定位算法,而产生位 置计算结果。客户软件比较所观察的接入点的列表以及它们的计算出的信号强度,加权用户的位置,以确定设备用户的精确的位置。采用各种各样的技术,包括简单信号强度加权平 均模型、与三角测量技术相结合的最近邻居模型、以及基于设备速度的自适应平滑。不同的 算法在不同的情形下效果更好,并且在混合部署中往往一起被用来产生最精确的最后读数 值。本发明的优选实施例可以使用多种定位算法。利用观察到的接入点的数目和使用它的 用户应用来决定使用哪种算法。过滤模型不同于传统的定位系统,因为传统的系统依赖于 从不移动的已知参考点。在优选实施例的模型中,不能作出接入点位置固定的假设;接入 点不是由定位系统拥有的,所以它们可能移动或呈离线状态。过滤技术假设某些接入点可 能不再位于同一个位置,以及会造成坏的位置计算。所以,过滤算法试图隔离自从这个位置 被记录以来移动的接入点。过滤器是动态的,并根据在该时刻观察到的接入点的数目改变。 平滑算法包括简单的位置平均以及含有Kalman滤波器的高级贝叶斯逻辑。速度算法通过 从每个接入点的信号强度观察值估计多卜勒效应而计算设备速度。

[0065]

[0066] 图2显示被用来收集各个接入点的位置信息的组件。大的车队[201]被部署来构 建用于定位系统的参考数据库(图1的104)。这些汽车[201]沿着穿过目标扫描区域的 计划路线前进,以最佳的方式收集数据,产生最高质量的数据。目标扫描区域典型地代表大 城市区域,包括以15-20英里半径的每个单向行驶街道。这些汽车配备有扫描设备[202], 被设计来在遍历覆盖区域时记录802. 11信号的特性和位置。扫描设备使用来自GPS卫星 [204]的信号跟踪扫描车每一秒的位置。扫描设备还跟踪在范围内802. 11接入点的存在, 并记录接入点信号的无线电特征以及扫描车的GPS位置。所收集的数据的质量受扫描车所 采用的扫描方法很大的影响。每个模型具有它本身的优点和局限性。被称为随机模型的 一个方法把扫描设备放置在汽车中,随同它们一起进行日常的商务或个人用途活动。这些 汽车可以是送货车、出租车、旅行销售商或仅仅是业余爱好者。原理是,随着时间这些汽车 以随机方式覆盖足够的街道,以便构建可靠的参考数据库。该模型实际上提供了简单的收 集数据的方式,同时最终得到的数据的质量由于“主干线偏向”问题而受到负面影响。图3 描述了随机模型的挑战。当扫描车遍历被设计为解决除收集数据以外的其它问题(例如, 传递包裹、接送人们上下班)的路线时,它们往往沿着目的地路线而行。目的地路线是当司 机需要从A到B并寻求到达那里的最快路线时的路线。所以,司机寻找到达最近的主干线 的最短路线,不管它是高速公路还是主要的大道。结果,随着时间,随机驾驶覆盖越来越多 的路面,累积的覆盖显示偏向主要道路或干线,以较小的和周围的道路为代价。在图3上, 干线[304]和[305]被扫描车多次驶过,导致对于这些街道有大量健全的扫描数据。但街 道[306]和[307]很少被覆盖,因为在这些街道上不经常有目的地,主干线是更佳的行进路 线。结果是接入点[308]和[309]完全没有被扫描车扫描,这样,定位系统将很难识别在街 道[306]和[307]上行进的用户。结果是当系统试图从扫描数据计算接入点的位置时,它 受限于发生偏向的输入数据。图11显示最终得到的数据质量的差别。当扫描车行驶到靠 近接入点[1101]时,它连续记录读数值和它的位置。定位系统然后必须通过使用整个集合 的观察数据[1103]来计算接入点[1102]的位置。在随机扫描模型中,数据集合限于途经 接入点的一条主要道路。这迫使系统计算接入点在该道路附近的位置,而不是紧邻接入点 本身。

[0067] 另一个方法是进化路由算法,它包括在目标区域中每一条街道,以避免在最终得到的数据集合中主干线偏向,从而为最终用户产生更加可靠的定位系统。图4描述被称为 中国邮递员(Chinese Postman)的最优化路由算法,用来计算用于覆盖目标区域中的每一 条街道的最有效的驾驶路线。中国邮递员路由算法是由邮政机构、公用事业机构和人口调 查机构使用的已知算法,它是欧拉回路问题的变例。欧拉回路是寻求访问每个边缘至少一 次的最短图形路线的问题。(例如,参阅Kwan,M.K./‘Graphic Programming Using Odd or Even Points”,Chinese Math. 1,273-277,1962.)本发明的优选实施例包括用于识别覆盖 目标区域和,然后使用中国邮递员路线算法来规划汽车路线的方法。扫描车[401]沿着根 据算法的最佳路线而行,显示没有偏离任何街道,保证所有可观察的接入点都被系统检测 和绘制。这样,通过例子,接入点[408]和[409]通过使用中国邮递员模型被加到接入点 数据库,而通过使用随机模型它们会被丢失。回到图11,通过中国邮递员扫描模型,汽车驶 过每一条道路,对于接入点[1104]得到一组完整的扫描记录[1106]。系统然后以较小的 误差计算接入点的位置[1105],因为它对于接入点1104比接入点1102具有更加均勻的分 布。所以,中国邮递员扫描模型不仅均勻地收集目标区域上更多的接入点,而且最终得到的 数据产生接入点位置的更精确的计算。

[0068] 更高质量AP位置

[0069] 一旦收集(或部分收集)后,扫描数据就被上载回中央接入点数据库(在本申请 中在后面描述),在该数据库中进行处理。每个接入点的原始观察点被用来逆三角测量接入 点的实际物理地址或创建代表该接入点的无线电传播的功率分布图。为了产生对于具体接 入点的最精确的计算位置或创建最精确的功率分布图,扫描车必须从尽可能多的不同的角 度观察接入点。在随机模型中(图3),从仅仅一条街道观察许多接入点,迫使系统计算它 们就在街道[303]上的位置。这些位置呈现方向偏移,大大不同于这些接入点[302]的实 际位置。当它的参考点位置不正确时,误差被引入到定位系统。所以,在这个定位系统中, 接入点位置的精度在最终用户定位精度中起到很大的作用。通过使用中国邮递员模型(图 4),扫描车从放置接入点的建筑物的尽可能多的侧面检测特定的接入点。这个额外的数据 大大改进了被用来计算接入点[403]的位置的逆三角测量公式的结果。关于接入点位置质 量的更多的细节结合图11进行描述。

[0070] 从这个系统收集的扫描数据表示对于每个接入点在它的特定环境下信号传播分 布的可靠代表。每个无线电设备和相关的周围环境产生独特的信号覆盖区(footprint), 表明信号到达多远以及在信号覆盖区内的不同位置处信号有多强。这个覆盖区数据结合计 算出的接入点位置一起被用来推进定位系统的高精度。这个覆盖区也被称为“功率分布”, 因为在每点的信号强度被测量为以瓦计的信号功率。定位系统可以解译覆盖区数据,表示 802. 11接入点无线电部分的特定信号强度与离该接入点的特定距离有关。信号覆盖区技术 在室内Wi-Fi定位中被使用,但已证明,因为收集覆盖区数据有关困难,所以很难在更大范 围的室外环境下同样使用该技术。当多个接入点的覆盖区或功率分布重叠时,定位系统可 以仅仅通过寻找观察的信号强度匹配于合并的覆盖区的一个位置而确定设备位置。本发明 的优选实施例提供用于在具有几百万接入点的大规模覆盖区域内的该覆盖区数据的可靠 系统,以便利用基于覆盖区的定位算法。

[0071] 参考对称性

[0072] 定位系统典型地通过跟踪在设备周围的三个或多个参考点而工作。这些定位系统以各种方式使用来自这些参考点的无线电信号,以便计算设备的当前位置。当参考点的数 目不够时或当参考点缺乏围绕用户的平衡或对称性时,出现很大的误差。如图5所示,因随 机模型产生的干线偏向引发了很多以下情景:最终用户[501]移动到其中只有一侧记录有 接入点位置[502]的物理区域内。最终用户周围的参考点的分布缺乏对称性使得定位算法 以很大误差计算设备位置[503]。通过扫描接入点的中国邮递员模型,用户一般遇到其中 在设备的802. 11无线电的范围[604]内在用户[601]的所有侧面上都有多个接入点位置 [602]的物理位置[图6]。最终得到的位置计算值[603]具有减小的位置偏差,结果变得 更加精确。图11是显示质量位置计算的影响的另一个例子。

[0073] 扫描设备

[0074] 图7显示被用来检测和识别各种Wi-Fi接入点的扫描设备[702]的优选实施例的 细节。扫描车[701]包含扫描设备[702],扫描设备连续对空扫描来自GPS卫星[708]和 802. 11接入点[707]的无线电信号。扫描设备运行控制整个过程的扫描客户软件[704]。 扫描客户软件启动GPS接收机[705]和802. 11无线电设备[706]。GPS接收机被设置为连 续接收模式,计算设备在每秒的地理位置。该计算值通过扫描客户软件读出,并被存储在本 地数据存储装置[703]中。扫描客户软件启动802. 11无线电设备,并开始使用定向天线 [709]发出802. 11探测请求。在该探测请求的范围内的任何802. 11接入点[707]用按照 802. 11协议的信号信标应答。应答信号信标包含接入点的网络名称(被称为SSID)、接入 点设备的MAC地址以及有关接入点的其它元信息。应答信号到达每个定向天线,信号的不 同强度取决于原点的向量和接入点的接近度。该向量连同特定天线的识别号与关于接入点 的元信息一起被记录。这个探测-接收-记录过程每隔十分之一秒不断地发生。部署的扫 描设备是iPAQ 4155便携式PC和具有Xtrac v. 2. 0固件的集成式SiRF II型GPS接收机 的加强型GPS PDA安装机架的组合。

[0075] 某些实施例的扫描客户软件[704]结合图10进行描述。客户软件包含三个主要 部件:数据管理器[1001]、系统管理器[1002]和上载管理器[1003]。数据管理器[1001] 控制GPS无线电部分[1006]和802. 11无线电部分[1007]。数据管理器控制这些无线电何 时和以怎样的频率扫描信号和处理这些信号。GPS无线电部分一旦被启动,就接收来自卫 星[1004]的信号和计算它的地理位置。GPS记录器[1008]每秒记录所有的这些读数值,并 把它们发送到文件管理器[1010]。Wi-Fi记录器[1009]每十分之一秒启动802. 11无线电 部分进行扫描,并把这些802. 11读数值与来自GPS无线电部分的GPS读数值关联起来,把 最终得到的数据发送到文件管理器。文件管理器接收来自GPS记录器和Wi-Fi记录器的数 据,并创建设备上的存储文件。这个处理过程在设备运行和两个无线电部分工作的整个时 间上持续进行。

[0076] 在上载管理器[1003]中,有热点探测器[1017],它监视802. 11扫描结果,查找设 备被准许接入的公共热点[1024](例如,T-mobile)的配置网络。一旦它检测到有效的热 点,它就把热点的存在通知用户。用户可以通过启动创建连接部件[1018]而选择连接到热 点。这个部件与热点的接入点相联系,并创建802. 11连接。然后,热点认证模块1019提供 有效的认证信息给设备。热点验证帐户,然后提供网络接入给设备。上载管理器然后发起 上载服务器认证过程[1020],以连接到中央网络服务器[1025]和提供有效的认证信息。一 旦被认证,就启动上载与数据验证模块[1021]。这个模块从扫描数据存储装置[1011]取回扫描数据,并使用FTP把该数据上载到中央网络服务器。中央网络服务器发起一个过程,把 所有的数据存储在中央接入点数据库中。在上载完成后,上载过程把扫描数据从扫描数据 存储装置[1011]移动到设备的备份数据存储装置[1012]。一旦上载完成和被验证,新版本 模块[1022]就检验中央网络服务器,确定对于设备是否有新版本的客户软件可用。如果有 新的版本,则软件被下载,新版本安装[1023]过程开始更新客户软件。一旦安装过程完成, 就结束与中央网络服务器的连接,结束与热点的连接,并且设备返回到正常扫描操作。

[0077] 被包括在扫描客户软件[704]中的是一组公用软件,它帮助管理设备和减小系统 错误。无线电管理器[1013]监视GPS无线电部分和Wi-Fi无线电部分的运行,确信它们正 常地工作。如果无线电管理器遇到无线电部分之一有问题,则它将重新启动无线电部分。用 户接口控制器[1014]把工具和更新提交给用户,这样,他们可以有效地操作设备。错误处 理和记录[1015]把所有的系统问题记录到设备,并提醒用户解决这些问题。当问题不能解 决时,就调用系统重启模块[1016]。这个模块关断设备,并且重新启动硬件、操作系统和扫 描客户软件,以保证正确的运行。

[0078] 1/10秒的802. 11扫描间隔被选择,因为它使用现货供应的硬件在这些条件下提 供了 802. 11的最佳扫描时间间隔。802. llb/g/n使用未许可的频谱的14个信道工作。单 个接入点在任何给定的时间在这些信道的一个信道上广播它的信号信标。扫描设备需要探 查每个信道,以便观察尽可能多的接入点。扫描间隔与扫描车的平均速度相关联,以使得扫 描客户如何覆盖特定区域的频率资源最佳化。

[0079] 中央网络服务器

[0080] 参照图8,车队在沿它们预先设计的路线行进的同时执行它们的扫描程序。每辆汽 车[801]周期地连接到可找到的802. 11接入点并向中央网络服务器的数据通信模块[807] 进行认证。典型地,被用来与中央网络服务器通信的接入点是公共热点,就像由保证可靠的 和计量的接入的T-Mobile操作的那些接入点。这种连接的供应可以经由任何可用的公共 接入点完成。扫描车停在附近热点位置并开始连接到接入点的过程。一旦被认证,扫描客 户软件[704]就识别所有的最近从本地存储装置收集的扫描数据,并且把这些数据上载到 中央网络数据库[802]。

[0081] 一旦数据被上载到数据库,就开始分析和过滤处理过程[803]。分析和过滤处理过 程读取所有的上载扫描数据,把它们装载到数据库的适当的表中。在这个过程中,在质量方 面对数据进行评估。在某些情形下,GPS接收机可以在某个时间段内记录会负面影响最后 的接入点位置计算的错误的或有误差的记录。分析和过滤处理过程识别这些坏的记录,并 且校正它们或者从系统中去除。过滤处理过程使用集群技术消除易于出错的GPS读数值。 例如,如果90%的读数值是在互相相隔200米的范围内,但其余10%的读数值是离开5公 里的,则那些异常值被过滤器去除,并且被存储在数据库的出错表中,用于进一步分析。具 体地,系统首先使用所有的报告的数据计算每个接入点的加权质心。然后它根据所报告的 位置的分布确定标准偏差。系统使用基于这个分布的和值的、可定义的阈值来滤除存在错 误的接入点。一旦这些错误记录被标记,就用剩余的位置记录通过使用下面描述的逆三角 测量方法重新计算质心,以确定最后的质心。

[0082] 应当指出,错误的记录可能是已移动的接入点的结果。在本例中,接入点的质心将 快速“移”到基于记录的优势部分的新位置。算法的额外增强包括基于记录的年龄的加权

15因子,以使得新的记录对于给定的接入点代表当前位置的更有意义的表示。

[0083] 一旦分析过程完成,中央网络系统就发起逆三角测量模型[804],开始处理新的数 据。在这个处理过程期间,1)把新的接入点加到数据库,并计算它们的物理位置,以及2)根 据由扫描器记录的任何新的数据重新定位现有的接入点。逆三角测量算法的主要因素在于 记录的数目和它们的相关信号强度,通过准加权平均模型对较强的信号读数给予比较弱的 信号更大的加权。

[0084] 在数据收集期间,WPS用户配备有Wi-Fi接收设备,它从所有可得到的Wi-Fi接入 点测量接收信号强度(RSS),然后提取相应的接入点的位置信息。接入点的RSS数值被表示 为如下:

[0085] {RSS” RSS2, . . . RSSJ

[0086] 如果接入点i的相应的被记录的GPS位置被表示为{La、,LongJ,并且计算出的 接入点位置被表示为{Lat” LongJ,则三角测量的位置可以通过应用如下的算法找出:

[0089] 选择功率的四次方根,以使得易于算法的实施,因为开四次方等价于取两次平方 根。

[0090] 第二点涉及到调节系数的动态范围。如果关心系数的动态范围,则算法的系数可 被除以一个常数,例如:

[0093] 参数C可以是任何数,因为在理论上,它不影响结果。因为加权平均值是基于系数 的比值,在理论上不是基于绝对值,因此把所有的系数除以一个常数C不影响结果,但它改 变系数值的动态范围。[0094] 这个最后的{LatpLongJ然后被用作该接入点的位置的最后质心值。纬度和经度 将被存储在数据库中,包括表示三角测量的新鲜度的时间戳。

[0095] 在中央网络数据库被更新和重新定位每个接入点后,数据包构建器[805]根据国 家或世界的区域创建数据库的子集。数据包构建器有利于各种使用情形下的数据库的分 布,其中仅仅某些地理区域是感兴趣的。数据包构建器被配置成代表国家、时区和城市区域 的区域坐标。通过利用这个技术,用户可以仅仅下载美国的西海岸的位置数据。数据包构 建器将数据记录分段,然后压缩它们。

[0096] 车队管理模块[806]帮助管理人员管理扫描车并确保它们遵循路线行程。该模块 处理所有的扫描数据并在系统中构建每辆汽车的位置轨迹。运行管理器可以使用地图构建 器[808]创建汽车轨迹的地图,以便可视地检查特定区域的覆盖范围。来自每个设备的GPS 跟踪数据用路线绘图软件查看,以验证覆盖范围的完整性以及识别丢失的区域。这种检查 和验证均勻覆盖范围的能力保证系统有可能得到最好的数据。该模块也计算汽车的驾驶时 间来确定平均速度并减去任何空闲时间。这些输出被用来监视整个系统的效率和规划将来 的覆盖范围。

[0097] 将会看到,本发明不限于上述的实施例,而是由所附权利要求限定,这些权利要求 包括对于所描述的内容的修改和改进。

Claims (26)

  1. 一种定位目标地理区域内的Wi-Fi接入点以构建Wi-Fi接入点的位置的参考数据库的方法,包括:部署至少一辆汽车,该汽车包括至少一个具有GPS设备和Wi-Fi无线电设备的扫描设备,还包括Wi-Fi天线系统;按计划的路线遍历所述目标区域,以避免主干线偏向,所述计划的路线主要包括在目标地理区域中的所有可行驶街道,并通过解决由所述可行驶街道代表的图形的欧拉回路问题来确定所述计划的路线;在遍历目标区域时,所述GPS设备周期地接收所述GPS设备的GPS坐标;在遍历目标区域时,所述Wi-Fi无线电设备检测来自所述Wi-Fi无线电设备的范围内的Wi-Fi接入点的Wi-Fi信号,并记录检测到的Wi-Fi接入点的识别信息连同在检测到该Wi-Fi接入点时汽车的GPS位置信息;使用所述位置信息来估计检测到的Wi-Fi接入点的位置;以及把检测到的接入点的位置记录到参考数据库中。
  2. 2.根据权利要求1的方法,其中,所述目标地理区域具有几十英里量级的半径。
  3. 3.根据权利要求1的方法,其中,通过使用中国邮递员路由算法来确定所述计划的路线。
  4. 4.根据权利要求1的方法,其中,所述参考数据库位于远端,Wi-Fi接入点的位置信息 经由Wi-Fi接入网被载入所述参考数据库中。
  5. 5.根据权利要求1的方法,其中当检测Wi-Fi信号时,对于给定的Wi-Fi接入点进行 Wi-Fi信号的几次读数,从而对于给定的Wi-Fi接入点形成一组读数值,并且当确定检测到 的Wi-Fi接入点的位置时使用所述的一组读数值。
  6. 6.根据权利要求1的方法,其中当检测Wi-Fi接入点时,有关来自该Wi-Fi接入点的信 号的信号强度信息由所述扫描设备来计算和记录。
  7. 7.根据权利要求1的方法,其中,在给定可行驶的街道的组织结构后,从尽可能多的不 同角度检测给定的Wi-Fi接入点。
  8. 8.根据权利要求6的方法,其中,在给定可行驶的街道的组织结构后,从尽可能多的不 同角度检测给定的Wi-Fi接入点,并且其中,确定和记录给定的Wi-Fi接入点的信号强度的 功率分布。
  9. 9.根据权利要求1的方法,其中所述Wi-Fi天线系统包括定向天线,并且其中,所述扫 描设备根据由Wi-Fi接入点在定向天线上接收的不同信号强度记录该Wi-Fi接入点的原点向量。
  10. 10.根据权利要求1的方法,其中,由工作在连续模式下的GPS设备每秒监视所述汽车 的GPS坐标。
  11. 11.根据权利要求1的方法,其中,所述Wi-Fi设备每十分之一秒发送探测请求并记录 GPS位置信息。
  12. 12.根据权利要求1的方法,其中对多个目标区域的接入点进行定位。
  13. 13.根据权利要求12的方法,其中所述参考数据库保留所述多个目标区域内的检测到 的接入点的位置信息,并且所述检测到的接入点的位置信息是根据目标区域来组织的。
  14. 14. 一种定位具有Wi-Fi无线电部分的用户设备的方法,包括:提供在目标区域内的Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置的参考数据库;响应于确定具有Wi-Fi无线电部分的用户设备的位置的用户应用请求,触发Wi-Fi设 备发送请求到该Wi-Fi设备的范围内的所有Wi-Fi接入点;所述用户设备从该Wi-Fi设备的范围内的Wi-Fi接入点接收消息,每个消息标识发送 该消息的Wi-Fi接入点;所述用户设备计算从Wi-Fi接入点接收的消息的信号强度;访问参考数据库,以得到所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置;根据经由接收的消息识别的Wi-Fi接入点的数目,从多个位置确定算法中选择相应的 位置确定算法,所述选择的算法适合于所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的数目;使用所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置和所述接收的消息的信号强度以及所选择的 位置确定算法来确定用户设备的位置。
  15. 15.根据权利要求14的方法,其中所识别的Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置被过滤,以确定自 从有关Wi-Fi接入点的信息被包括到参考数据库中以来,相应的Wi-Fi接入点是否移动。
  16. 16.根据权利要求14的方法,其中所述参考数据库相对于用户设备本地放置。
  17. 17.根据权利要求14的方法,其中所述参考数据库相对于用户设备远程放置。
  18. 18.根据权利要求14的方法,其中所述用户设备的位置配有纬度和经度坐标。
  19. 19.根据权利要求14的方法,其中所述多个位置确定算法包括简单信号强度加权平均 模型。
  20. 20.根据权利要求14的方法,其中所述多个位置确定算法包括最近邻居模型。
  21. 21.根据权利要求14的方法,其中所述多个位置确定算法包括三角测量技术。
  22. 22.根据权利要求14的方法,其中所述多个位置确定算法包括基于设备速度的自适应 平滑技术。
  23. 23.根据权利要求14的方法,其中位置确定算法的选择还基于发出位置请求的用户应用。
  24. 24. —种Wi-Fi位置服务器,包括:数据通信模块,用于提供接入至具有几十英里量级的半径的至少一个目标区域的 Wi-Fi接入点数据库,所述数据库包括在目标区域中几乎所有的Wi-Fi接入点的数据库记 录,每个记录包括对应的Wi-Fi接入点的识别信息和对应的Wi-Fi接入点的计算出的位置 信息,其中所述计算出的位置信息是按下述方式获得的:记录Wi-Fi接入点的多个读数,以 在计算该Wi-Fi接入点的位置时提供参考对称性,并避免计算出的位置信息出现主干线偏 向;逆三角测量模块,对于新发现的Wi-Fi接入点把记录添加到所述数据库中,所述逆三 角测量模块对于以前被存储在所述数据库中的Wi-Fi接入点重新计算位置信息,以便对于 新发现的Wi-Fi接入点利用该位置信息。
  25. 25.根据权利要求24的服务器,还包括分析和过滤模块,用来根据易于出错的GPS信息 识别位置信息。
  26. 26.根据权利要求25的服务器,其中,所述分析和过滤模块对于针对一个接入点报告 的所有位置信息确定一个加权质心位置,以及识别偏离所述质心位置超过统计偏差阈值量 的位置信息并从所述数据库中排除这样的偏离位置信息,使这样的偏离位置信息不影响3Wi-Fi接入点的计算位置。
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