CN101434444B - Membrane bioreactor and use thereof in wastewater treatment - Google Patents

Membrane bioreactor and use thereof in wastewater treatment Download PDF

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CN101434444B
CN101434444B CN2007101773882A CN200710177388A CN101434444B CN 101434444 B CN101434444 B CN 101434444B CN 2007101773882 A CN2007101773882 A CN 2007101773882A CN 200710177388 A CN200710177388 A CN 200710177388A CN 101434444 B CN101434444 B CN 101434444B
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membrane
water
pulse
filter unit
membrane filter
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CN2007101773882A
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CN101434444A (en
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李宏伟
李怀印
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中国石油化工股份有限公司
中国石油化工股份有限公司石油勘探开发研究院
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Abstract

The invention discloses a membrane bioreactor and an application method thereof in wastewater treatment. The membrane bioreactor comprises a biochemical reaction unit which adopts a particle biofilm medium, a pulse type air supply unit and a membrane filtering unit, wherein, a pulse airflow transforms wastewater entering the membrane filtering unit into pulse aerated flow, the particle biofilm medium in the wastewater is fluidized and rubbed and scraped with a membrane component, and fouling sedimentary on the membrane surface is removed. The membrane bioreactor and the application method have the advantages that the biochemical treatment of the particle biofilm medium has good effect, and the effect of rubbing and cleaning the membrane component is good; combined with the disturbing strengthening cleaning effect of the pulse aerated flow, synergistic effect is played, thus improving the membrane pollution preventing effect of an MBR unit, reducing the running cost of the unit, and being applicable to various wastewater treatment occasions.

Description

A kind of membrane bioreactor and the application in wastewater treatment thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of membrane bioreactor, relate in particular to and a kind ofly adopt granular biological film medium and pulse to give unitary membrane bioreactor of gas and the application in wastewater treatment thereof.By the continuous high-efficient self-stip to membrane module, the present invention has realized the continuous production of membrane bioreactor.
Background technology
Along with rapid development of economy and quickening of urbanization process, fresh water consumption and various sewage emissions amount increase year by year, and this protection and efficient utilization to water resources has proposed more and more higher requirement.At present, the shortage of water resources problem of northern China and some big and medium-sized cities is very outstanding, the important effect of play more and more in the economic sound development of sewage disposal and resource utilization.
Membrane bioreactor (Membrane Bioreactor, MBR) being the biochemical reaction unit that the biological degradation with efficient membrane separation technique such as ultrafiltration or micro-filtration and bio-reactor is integrated in one, is a kind of novel water technology that develops rapidly from the nineties in 20th century.
Membrane bioreactor generally is divided three classes: separatory membrane bio-reactor (holding back and separate solid); Aeration membrane bioreactor (bubble-free aeration is used for the wastewater treatment of high oxygen requirement); Spe membrane bio-reactor (being used for the processing of trade effluent priority pollutant), wherein the separatory membrane bio-reactor is most widely used.
In recent years, MBR has entered the practical stage in China.Its process object expands to high concentrated organic wastewater and indegradable industrial effluent from sanitary sewage, as pharmacy waste water, wastewater from chemical industry, food wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, tobacco wastewater, soybean wastewater etc.From development trend, in following for some time, the processing of reusing sewage and organic wastewater with difficult degradation thereby is the important directions that MBR applies in China.
MBR both had been different from traditional bioremediation, was different from simple membrane separating method again, was the combination of the two.It uses membrane module to replace the settling tank in the traditional activated sludge process to carry out mud-water separation, not only can keep the biomass of high density in biological reaction tank, improves volumetric loading, reduces sludge loading, saves floor space, reduces the investment of treatment unit for waste water; And utilize the efficient crown_interception of membrane module, and can obtain long mud mud in age, the growth that this helps poky nitrifier makes treatment unit for waste water realize denitrogenation when removing COD, BOD; And, eliminated the sludge bulking problem of conventional activated sludge process because thoroughly separating of hydraulic detention time and sludge retention time can reduce sludge yield.
Because good, the water conditioning of water quality of water outlet, and wherein contain organic solid particulate hardly, can satisfy the reusing sewage requirement of multiple occasion, thus membrane Bio-reactor Technology to the anxiety of alleviating water resources, improve water resources utilization ratio very favourable.
At present, in membrane bioreactor is used, exist film pollution and working cost than problems such as height.Statistical information shows, the investment of membrane module accounts for unitary 80%, working cost and accounts for unitary 40%~75% in the MBR unit.If can not resolve membrane pollution problem, will improve and change the film frequency, working cost is increased substantially, therefore applied research in recent years mainly concentrates on aspects such as the control film pollutes, reduction working cost.
In the prior art,, generally adopt following method in order to prevent and treat the treatment effect that film pollutes, improves MBR:
1, bio-aeration is cleaned with air water and is combined.
" external placed type hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor " (CN2755081Y), the gas-liquid distributor, the shell that comprise hollow fiber bundle, band center Link Port, can realize the clean-in-place of feed liquid uniform distribution, membrane module, the unit is easy to management and maintenance, and strainability is stable.
Thisly in the unit oxygen supply, utilizing the air water upwelling that purging method is carried out on the film surface, can not be very big owing to satisfy the aeration rate of biological respinse, the effect that relies on air-flow to rise merely film is washed by rubbing with the hands is limited.
2, in backwash water, add pressurized air.
" the air water back washing cleaning device of membrane bioreactor film " (CN2530940Y) relates to a kind of air water back washing device, is characterized in adopting pressurized air that film is carried out back flushing, improved backwash effect.
This method is utilized a spot of backwashing water, slows down the obstruction of film, prolongs the work-ing life of film, has improved the backwash effect to a certain extent, but this method still rests on the aspect of recoil, and the effect of the pollution of control film is limited.
3, in reactor, increase disturbance device.
" membrane bioreactor " (CN1727289A), comprise at least one pre-filtering layer, at least one microbial film unit, and at least one disturbing flow device, this disturbing flow device is clipped in the middle of pre-filtering layer and the microbial film unit, but disturbance is between pre-filtering layer and microbial film unit intermediary sewage, has membrane bioreactor circulation height, film cleans the advantage convenient, that the membrane operations cycle is long, running cost is low.
This method is by improving the turbulence intensity of liquid stream, strengthen the face cleaning performance, to slow down film surface pollution thing deposition, to improve cleaning efficiency effective, but because disturbance device is a staticizer, kinetic energy by liquid stream cleans face, and cleaning performance is limited under reflux ratio can not too big situation.
Summary of the invention
In order to improve the prevention effect that film pollutes, reduce the unitary working cost of membrane bioreactor, the invention provides a kind of membrane bioreactor and the application method in wastewater treatment thereof.
" membrane bioreactor " of the present invention is achieved in that
A kind of membrane bioreactor comprises biochemical reaction unit, pulsed air feed unit, membrane filter unit, it is characterized in that:
(1) described biochemical reaction unit comprises the biochemical reactor 1 that adopts the granular biological film medium to handle waste water, and its top is that biochemical reaction zone 11, bottom are that granular biological film medium settling region 12, bottom are active sludge enrichment regions 13;
Former water, recirculation water enter biochemical reaction zone 11, and the waste water after the processing is carried under one's arms the granular biological film medium by granular biological film medium settling region 12 discharge biochemical reactors 1, and remaining active sludge is discharged biochemical reactor 1 by the bottom of active sludge enrichment region 13;
(2) described pulsed air feed unit comprises air compressor machine 3 and pulse valve 4; The pressurized air that air compressor machine 3 produces forms air pulse through pulse valve 4, and this air pulse enters in the water inlet pipe 22 of membrane filter unit by admission passage 21, makes the water inlet that enters membrane filter unit become the pulse aerated flow;
(3) described membrane filter unit comprises membrane module 5, produces water tank 6; Product water by membrane module 5 enters and produces water tank 6, and the concentrate recirculation of being held back by membrane module 5 is to biochemical reactor 1.
In the specific implementation, the median size 1~2mm of described granular biological film medium, uniformity ratio 1.1~1.2, intensity ≮ 97%, molasses value>150mg/g; The material of described granular biological film medium is an olive shell activated carbon.
In the specific implementation, described membrane filter unit adopts the cross flow filter mode; Membrane module 5 is tubular fibre formula, tubular type or plate and frame module; Preferred membrane module 5 is the external-compression type hollow-fibre membrane, and its aperture is 0.1~0.3 μ m.
In the specific implementation, the pulse valve 4 of described pulsed air feed unit is controlled by PLC, pulse valve 4 periodically opens and closes under PLC control, produce periodic pulse band pressure gas stream, the band pressure gas stream enters in the water inlet pipe 22 of membrane filter unit by admission passage 21, makes the water inlet of membrane filter unit become the pulse aerated flow; Preferred admission passage 21 puts in the water inlet pipe 22 of membrane filter unit by groove pipe 23; Groove pipe 23 at water inlet pipe 22 stretches into the place, and the contraction section 24 and the expansion section 25 that produce Venturi effect are set, and described groove pipe 23 inserts the centre of contraction section 24 and diffusion disconnected 25.
The main effect of granular biological film medium is: 1, as carrier, growing in its surface and the internal void has microbial film, makes biochemical reaction unit become one than microbial film unit more efficiently, traditional active sludge unit; 2, at membrane filter unit, under the effect of pulse aerated flow, granular biological film medium fluidisation and with membrane module surface friction, scratch, remove the dirt deposition on membrane module surface, attenuate concentration polarization layer thickness is realized the continuous self-cleaning of membrane module is washed, and keeps the membrane filtration ability in higher level.
The proportion of granular biological film medium generally with water be close to suitable so that suspend and fluidisation.Intensity, frictional coefficient are represented the shock resistance destruction of granular biological film medium, wear-resistant ability; The favorable mechanical performance help dominant bacteria in the long-time running stable growth, form highly active microbial film, and water circulation, particle collision and with the friction of membrane module in be unlikely to break and influence the growth of dominant bacteria.Good void distribution provides suitable habitat for dominant bacteria, is beneficial to adsorb organic compound simultaneously, and by microbiological deterioration.Suitable surface chemical property can provide good living environment for dominant bacteria, is beneficial to form high reactivity, complete microbial film.Because hydraulic shear is to destroy dominant bacteria at dielectric surface fixed first cause, therefore require the particle diameter of medium little, specific surface area is big, uniform particles.
Biochemical reaction unit of the present invention comprises biochemical reaction zone 11, granular biological film medium settling region 12, active sludge enrichment region 13; The function in these 3 districts can realize in different tank bodies, also can utilize gravity settling to carry out function division in a tank body, merges to realize.Be suspended state at biochemical reaction zone 11 granular biological film mediums, through natural subsidence, accumulate in granular biological film medium settling region 12, waste water after the biochemical treatment granular biological film medium of carrying under one's arms is discharged biochemical reactor 1 with pump, superfluous active sludge is regularly discharged biochemical reactor 1 being deposited on active sludge enrichment region 13.
The pulsed air feed unit utilizes air compressor machine 3 to produce pressurized air, pulse valve 4 is housed on the gas circuit, this valve can periodically open and close under PLC control, produce pulse band pressure gas stream, this band pressure gas stream enters the water inlet pipe 22 of membrane filter unit by admission passage 21, making into, water becomes the pulse aerated flow by steadily even stream, and in membrane filter unit with the higher rising of turbulence intensity turbulent flow disturbance membrane module, force to take part betwixt granular biological film medium and membrane module to collide, rub, thereby realize that microbial film upgrades and the cleaning of membrane module.
The mould material of membrane filter unit requires to have enough physical strengths, hydrophilic, the current that require on the configuration to be convenient for carrying the granular biological film medium pass through, form the turbulent fluctuation effect, can select the membrane module of tubular fibre formula, tubular type and plate and frame for use, consider preferred external pressure type hollow fiber membrane component from highly integrated, minimizing occupation of land, reduction unit water treatment amount cost angle.
" application of membrane bioreactor in wastewater treatment " of the present invention is achieved in that
A kind of method of using Membrane Bioreactor for Wastewater Treatment waste water of the present invention, this method in turn includes the following steps:
(1) described waste water enters biochemical reaction zone 11, carries under one's arms the granular biological film medium by granular biological film medium settling region 12 discharge biochemical reactors 1 through the waste water of biochemical treatment, and this waste water enters membrane filter unit then; Residual active sludge is discharged biochemical reactor 1 by the bottom of active sludge enrichment region 13;
(2) air pulse that is produced by air compressor machine 3 and pulse valve 4 enters in the water inlet pipe 22 of membrane filter unit by admission passage 21, makes the water inlet that enters membrane filter unit become the pulse aerated flow;
(3) at membrane filter unit, the product water that sees through membrane module 5 enters and produces water tank 6, and the concentrate recirculation of being held back by membrane module 5 is to biochemical reaction zone 11, the active sludge that this dense water is carried under one's arms the granular biological film medium and come off.
Treatment process of the present invention is applicable to the processing of various wastewater.For different waste water and different treatment requirement, exist different optimal treatment conditions; When handling waste water, by regulating the reflux ratio of membrane filter unit, the hydraulic detention time that the control wastewater biochemical is handled is by regulating the sludge volume of biochemical reaction unit, the control sludge retention time makes the hydraulics of biochemical treatment and biological respinse condition maintain optimum regime; By pulse width, recurrent interval and the gas flow of regulating impulse air-flow, the fluidized state of control granular biological film medium makes the film cleaning performance reach optimum regime.The operating parameters of select optimizing can make membrane module cleaning, biofilm development and demoulding, excess sludge sedimentation and mud age etc. maintain optimum regime, makes gas, liquid, solid three-phase Rational flow, reduces working cost under the prerequisite of assurance effluent quality.
The present invention has introduced the granular biological film medium in bio-reactor, utilize characteristics such as its biochemical reaction specific surface area is big, sludge concentration is high, sludge settling speed fast, the excess sludge productive rate is low, has improved the load and the water treatment effect of membrane bioreactor; Pass through air pulse, make the granular biological film medium fluidisation in the film separation unit, the granular biological film medium of fluidized state is washed by rubbing with the hands, is scratched membrane module, add vibration, the shake of film itself, make the settling on film surface be able to timely removing, effectively slow down the formation of concentration polarization layer, solved the pollution problem on film surface; Be aided with regular backwash, in time remove the film internal contamination, can further improve the work-ing life of membrane module, reduce unitary process cost and cost for wastewater treatment.
The present invention combines the advantage that gas-liquid flow is mixed in granular biological film medium and pulse, the biochemical treatment of granular biological film medium is effective, to the good characteristics of membrane module friction cleaning performance, the disturbance reinforcement cleanup action of mixing gas-liquid flow with pulse combines, the performance synergy, improve the effect that control MBR unit membrane pollutes, reduced unitary working cost.And in the water inlet of film separation unit, mix pressurized air,, realized that a gas uses more for the whole biochemical reaction unit provides oxygen and for aging biofilm detachment provides power.
Film of the present invention clean with biochemical reaction synchronously, the suspension fluidisation is synchronous with the unit oxygen supply, reached that the film surface cleaning is more thorough, biochemical reaction efficient is higher, water treatment effect better, energy expenditure is lower, the unit moves more stable purpose; Can be applied in various sewage disposal occasions, especially be useful in the reuse is in the sewage disposal of purpose and in the processing of difficult trade effluent, for example: the processing of various sanitary sewages and reuse unit, and wastewater treatment and reuse unit such as wine brewing, food, petrochemical industry, wool spinning, hospital etc.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the modular construction synoptic diagram of membrane reactor
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of biochemical reaction unit
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of air pulse admission passage and membrane filter unit water inlet pipe junction
Embodiment
Be described in further detail technical scheme of the present invention below in conjunction with embodiment, protection scope of the present invention is not limited to following embodiment.
Embodiment 1
1, membrane bioreactor
Membrane bioreactor comprises: biochemical reactor 1, mashing pump 2, air compressor 3, pulse valve 4, membrane module 5, product water tank 6, backwash working shaft 7, product water pump 8.
The granular biological film medium is housed in the biochemical reactor 1, this granular biological film medium is made by olive shell activated carbon, its particle median size 1.5mm, uniformity ratio 1.1~1.2, molasses value>150mg/g, intensity ≮ 97%, tap density 500~520g/L, filler dosage are 30~60% (in the volume ratios of granular biological film medium and waste water in the biochemical reactor 1).
Biochemical reactor 1 is a tank body, and its top is biochemical reaction zone 11, and the bottom is granular biological film medium settling region 12, and the bottom is an active sludge enrichment region 13.Biochemical reaction zone 11 is provided with water-in and recirculation water import, and granular biological film medium settling region 12 is provided with water outlet, and active sludge enrichment region 13 is provided with mud discharging mouth.
The water outlet of biochemical reactor 1 enters the film processing unit through mashing pump 2, the pressurized air that air compressor 3 produces, produce air pulse through pulse valve 4, enter by admission passage 21 in the water inlet pipe 22 of membrane filter unit, make the water inlet of membrane filter unit become the pulse aerated flow by PLC control.Wherein, admission passage 21 puts in the water inlet pipe 22 of membrane filter unit by groove pipe 23; Groove pipe 23 at water inlet pipe 22 stretches into the place, and the contraction section 24 and the expansion section 25 that produce Venturi effect are set, and groove pipe 23 inserts the centre of contraction section 24 and diffusion disconnected 25.
Membrane filtration adopts the cross flow filter mode.Membrane module 5 adopts the PVDF hollow-fibre membrane, and its membrane pore size is that 0.1~0.2 μ m, membrane flux are 15L/m 2H, this membrane material possess hydrophilic property, and have higher physical strength and fenestra uniformity coefficient.
The product water of membrane module 5 enters and produces water tank 6, and part is produced water and sent outside via producing water pump 8, and part is produced water and delivered to membrane module 5 as the regular backwash of backwash water by backwashing pump 7.Dense water by membrane module 5 is retained down returns biochemical reactor 1 by the recirculation water import.
2, method of wastewater treatment
Pending former water enters biochemical reactor 1, mix with the recirculation water that comes from film separation unit, the aging microbial film of carrying under one's arms the granular biological film medium in this recirculation water and coming off, medium is process friction, collision in film separation unit, the aged microbial film comes off, dielectric surface is that the highly active microorganism of water reuse is degraded through the microbial film that upgrades.
Enter the granular biological film medium and the aging microbial film natural subsidence of biochemical reactor 1, aging microbial film concentrates the back discharging at active sludge enrichment region 13, fully moistening granular biological film medium proportion is a bit larger tham water, natural layering in settling process, and 12 depositions of the granular biological film medium settling region on active sludge enrichment region 13.
Mashing pump 2 is extracted out by the waste water and the sedimentary granular biological film medium of water outlet after with biochemical treatment, through mixing with the air pulse of pulse valve 4, and the carry under one's arms pulse aerated flow of granular biological film medium of formation, (solid, liquid, gas three-phase fluid).At membrane filter unit, the pulse aerated flow has certain pulse kinetic energy, and the solid, liquid, gas three-phase fluid flows through the surface of membrane module 5 with turbulence form; The percolation water of membrane module 5 is purified waste water for process organic matter degradation and physical filtering, and percolation water enters and produces water tank 6.
Under the air pulse effect, the rolling, collide of the granular biological film medium of carrying under one's arms in the waste water (comprise self collision and with membrane module surface collision), friction, scratch to the membrane module surface, removed the dirt deposition on film surface, attenuate the concentration polarization layer thickness, keep the membrane filtration ability in higher level; Simultaneously, realized the renewal of granular biological film medium surface biological film.
Air pulse can also impel film silk self-oscillation, shake, washes by rubbing with the hands, further improves the prevention effect that film pollutes for when the biochemical reaction oxygen supply, granular biological film medium fluidisation power being provided, and realizes the many usefulness of a gas, reduces the comprehensive energy consumption index.
Membrane bioreactor of the present invention, characteristics in conjunction with processing waste water, by reasonable adjustment reflux ratio, pulse aerating parameter and sludge volume, can make biofilm development and demoulding, excess sludge sedimentation, mud control in age and film cleaning etc. maintain optimum regime, at the prerequisite decline low operating cost that guarantees effluent quality.Compare with existing MBR technology, have that the controlling diaphragm pollution effects is good, the backwash cycle is long, the backwash water consumption is few, can realize the quantity-produced characteristics substantially.
3, water treatment effect
Above-mentioned membrane bioreactor can be used for the treating processes of various wastewater.
When handling city domestic sewage, the operating parameter of control biochemical reaction unit is: about hydraulic detention time (HRT) 5 hours, sludge age (SRT) 25d, volumetric loading<2kg/m 3D; The water quality of membrane bioreactor water outlet can reach national miscellaneous water standard, i.e. TDS<1mg/l, BOD 5<10mg/l, and stable, the existing MBR of film cleaning interval of membrane module prolong.

Claims (8)

1. a membrane bioreactor comprises biochemical reaction unit, pulsed air feed unit, membrane filter unit, it is characterized in that:
(1) described biochemical reaction unit comprises the biochemical reactor [1] that adopts the granular biological film medium to handle waste water, and its top is that biochemical reaction zone [11], bottom are that granular biological film medium settling region [12], bottom are active sludge enrichment region [13]; Median size 1~the 2mm of described granular biological film medium, uniformity ratio 1.1~1.2, intensity ≮ 97%, molasses value>150mg/g;
Former water, recirculation water enter biochemical reaction zone [11], waste water after the processing is carried under one's arms the granular biological film medium by granular biological film medium settling region [12] discharge biochemical reactor [1], and remaining active sludge is discharged biochemical reactor [1] by the bottom of active sludge enrichment region [13];
(2) described pulsed air feed unit comprises air compressor machine [3] and pulse valve [4]; The pressurized air that air compressor machine [3] produces forms air pulse through pulse valve [4], and this air pulse enters in the water inlet pipe [22] of membrane filter unit by admission passage [21], makes the water inlet that enters membrane filter unit become the pulse aerated flow;
(3) described membrane filter unit comprises membrane module [5], produces water tank [6]; Product water by membrane module [5] enters and produces water tank [6], and the concentrate recirculation of being held back by membrane module [5] is to biochemical reactor [1].
2. membrane bioreactor according to claim 1 is characterized in that:
The material of described granular biological film medium is an olive shell activated carbon.
3. membrane bioreactor according to claim 1 is characterized in that:
The membrane module of described membrane filter unit [5] is tubular fibre formula, tubular type or plate and frame module.
4. membrane bioreactor according to claim 3 is characterized in that:
The membrane module of described membrane filter unit [5] uses the external-compression type hollow-fibre membrane, and its aperture is 0.1~0.3 μ m.
5. membrane bioreactor according to claim 1 is characterized in that:
Described membrane filter unit adopts the cross flow filter mode.
6. membrane bioreactor according to claim 1 is characterized in that:
The pulse valve of described pulsed air feed unit [4] is controlled by PLC, pulse valve [4] periodically opens and closes under PLC control, produce periodic pulse band pressure gas stream, the band pressure gas stream enters in the water inlet pipe [22] of membrane filter unit by admission passage [21], makes the water inlet of membrane filter unit become the pulse aerated flow.
7. membrane bioreactor according to claim 6 is characterized in that:
Described admission passage [21] puts in the water inlet pipe [22] of membrane filter unit by groove pipe [23];
Groove pipe [23] at water inlet pipe [22] stretches into the place, and the contraction section [24] and the expansion section [25] that produce Venturi effect are set, and described groove pipe [23] inserts the centre of contraction section [24] and expansion section [25].
8. method of wastewater treatment that uses the described membrane bioreactor of one of claim 1~7, this method in turn includes the following steps:
(1) described waste water enters biochemical reaction zone [11], carries under one's arms the granular biological film medium by granular biological film medium settling region [12] discharge biochemical reactor [1] through the waste water of biochemical treatment, and this waste water enters membrane filter unit then; Residual active sludge is discharged biochemical reactor [1] by the bottom of active sludge enrichment region [13];
(2) air pulse that is produced by air compressor machine [3] and pulse valve [4] enters in the water inlet pipe [22] of membrane filter unit by admission passage [21], makes the water inlet that enters membrane filter unit become the pulse aerated flow;
(3) at membrane filter unit, the product water that sees through membrane module [5] enters and produces water tank [6], and the concentrate recirculation of being held back by membrane module [5] is to biochemical reaction zone [11], the active sludge that this dense water is carried under one's arms the granular biological film medium and come off.
CN2007101773882A 2007-11-16 2007-11-16 Membrane bioreactor and use thereof in wastewater treatment CN101434444B (en)

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