CN101434430A - Micro-current electrolysis sterilization algae removing apparatus - Google Patents

Micro-current electrolysis sterilization algae removing apparatus Download PDF

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CN101434430A
CN101434430A CN 200810084187 CN200810084187A CN101434430A CN 101434430 A CN101434430 A CN 101434430A CN 200810084187 CN200810084187 CN 200810084187 CN 200810084187 A CN200810084187 A CN 200810084187A CN 101434430 A CN101434430 A CN 101434430A
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electrode
water
anode
ultrasonic
cathode
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CN101434430B (en )
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刘炳言
孙盛羽
曹学磊
曹学良
杜清华
王凤娟
王家君
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曹学磊
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Abstract

The invention discloses a micro-current electrolytic sterilization and algae removal device, which comprises a detector that is arranged on the intake pipe of a box body and is used for sensing solution electrical conductivity, wherein, at least more than one group of electrodes are arranged in the box body according to the order of an anode, an auxiliary electrode and a cathode, and a controller is used for judging the degree of the electrical conductivity and controlling the polarity of the electrodes in the box body and circuit connection; and the controller comprises a judging unit which is used for judging the degree of the electrical conductivity and triggering a corresponding seawater electrolytic mode unit, a fresh water electrolytic mode unit and a reversal-electrode electrolytic mode unit to operate according to judging results. The device can be simultaneously applied to sterilization and algae removal in seawater or fresh water, has good sterilization and algae removal effect, can realize automatic desludging and can be applied widely; moreover, an ultrasonicator is added, which effectively destroys various bacteria and algal cells by ultrasonic waves; and the device has simple structure and wide application range.

Description

一种微电流电解灭菌除藻装置 A micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device

技术领域 FIELD

,本发明涉及灭菌除藻设备,特别是指一种微电流电解灭菌除藻装置。 The present invention relates to a sterilization algaecide device, and particularly to a micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device.

背景技术 Background technique

蓝纟田菌(cyanobacteria )亦一尔蓝卩莱或蓝纟录〉莱(blue-green algae)。 Blue Si Tian bacteria (cyanobacteria) Seoul also a blue or blue-Si Jie Lai record> Levin (blue-green algae). 它们的细胞核结构中无核膜、核仁,属原核生物,不进行有丝分裂,细胞壁也与细菌相似,由肽聚糖组成,革兰氏染色阴性,故它们归属于原核微生物中。 Their structure is no nucleus nuclear membrane, nucleolus, is a prokaryote, do not undergo mitosis, the cell wall is also similar to the bacteria, peptidoglycan composition, Gram-negative, so they belong to the prokaryotic microorganisms.

蓝细菌为单细胞生物,个体比细菌大, 一般直径或宽度为3-15pm。 Cyanobacteria unicellular organisms, bacteria larger than an individual, the general diameter or width of 3-15pm. 但是,蓝细菌很少以单一个体生活,通常是在分裂后仍聚集在一起,形成丝状或单细胞的群体。 However, cyanobacteria rarely a single individual life, usually remain together after division to form a single filament or group of cells. 当许多个体聚集在一起,可形成很大的群体,肉眼可见。 When many individuals gathered together, they may form a large population, visible. 蓝细菌主要生长在水体表层,即水面下0.5m 之间,多数蓝细菌为蓝色或蓝绿色,所以,人们习惯上仍然称它为蓝藻或蓝绿藻。 Cyanobacteria grows in the surface water, ie between underwater 0.5m, the majority of cyanobacteria or blue-green to blue, so called cyanobacteria or blue-green algae are still people used.

蓝细菌分布广泛,从南极到北极,从海洋到高山均可见其踪迹。 Cyanobacteria are widely distributed, from pole to pole, from the ocean to the mountains can be reflected in its trail. 它们常生长在岩石、树皮或在池塘、湖泊中生长,繁殖旺盛,使水体的颜色随蓝细菌本身的颜色而变化。 They often grow rocks, bark or in ponds, lakes grow, reproduce strong, so that the color of a body of water with cyanobacteria itself varies in color. 有的种类能发生草腥味或霉臭味。 Grassy smell or musty odor and some species can occur.

蓝细菌含有色素系统(主要含有藻蓝素,此外还含有叶绿素a、 胡萝卜素或藻红素)。 Cyanobacteria containing a dye system (mainly containing phycocyanin, also contains chlorophyll a, carotene or phycoerythrin). 由于每种蓝细菌细胞内所含有各种色素的比例不一,所以,可能呈蓝、绿、红等颜色。 Since the ratio of the Cyanobacteria cells each containing various pigments are variable, it may form blue, green, red, and other colors. 蓝细菌的营养简单,不需要维生素,以硝酸盐或氨作为氮源,能固氮的种很多。 Nutrition cyanobacteria simple, no vitamins, nitrate or ammonia as a nitrogen source, a lot of nitrogen-fixing species. 某些种具有圓形的异形胞(hererocyst), —般延着丝状体或在一端单个地分布,是蓝细菌进行固氮作用的场所。 Certain species have round shaped cells (hererocyst), - the filament-like extension at one end or distributed individually, is a place to fix nitrogen cyanobacteria. 蓝细菌进行放氧性的光合作用,为专性光能无机营养微生物,其反应如下 Cyanobacteria photosynthesis oxygen-discharge, microorganisms are obligate inorganic light, the following reaction

C02 + H20 = [CH20]细胞物质+02(g) C02 + H20 = [CH20] cell mass +02 (g)

这些特点与一般藻类相似。 These features are generally similar to algae. 其繁殖以裂殖为主,少数种类有孢子;丝状蓝细菌还可通过断裂形成断殖体进行繁殖,没有有性繁殖。 In reproductive fission, but a few species have spores; off propagated explants filamentous cyanobacteria may also be formed by breaking, no sexual reproduction.

当水体中排入大量含氮和磷的物质,导致水体富营养化,则使蓝 When the water into a large number of substances containing nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to eutrophication, so that the blue

细菌过度繁殖,将水面覆盖并使水体形成各种不同色彩的现象,在淡 Bacterial overgrowth, covering the surface of the water and the water to form the various phenomena of different colors, in light

水域称为"水华"(water bloom ),在海水域称为赤潮。 Waters called "bloom" (water bloom), known as red tides in the sea waters. 能形成"水华" 的蓝细菌包括孩i嚢藻属(Microcystis )、鱼腥藻属(Anabaena)、颤藻属(Oscillatoria )等属中的一些种。 Can form "water bloom" include children cyanobacteria Nang sp i (Microcystis), Anabaena (Anabaena), some of the species Oscillatoria sp (Oscillatoria) and the like in the genus. 由蓝细菌形成的"水华,,往往有剧毒,^口4同色樣i囊'莱(Microcystis aerugeosa )禾口7Jc华鱼月星'菜(Anabaena flos-aguae)等,家禽或家畜饮用这种水后不到一,J、时甚至几分钟内就可中毒死亡,而且也能引起水生生物(如鱼类)中毒死亡。由于大量蓝细菌将水面覆盖从而阻碍了水体复氧,同时大量蓝细菌因死亡而腐败,致使水体因而缺氧而发臭,形成恶性循环。(任南琪等,污染控制微生物学,p38 - 39,哈尔滨工业大学出版社,2002年出版)。 Formed by cyanobacteria "bloom ,, often highly toxic, port 4 ^ i like the same color bag 'Levin (Microcystis aerugeosa) 7Jc of Hekou, China on Star fish' dish (Anabaena flos-aguae), etc., poultry or livestock drinking it after less than one kind of water, J, even poisoning within a few minutes, but can also cause aquatic organisms (such as fish) poisoning due to the large amount of cyanobacteria to cover the water surface thus preventing water reoxygenation, while a large blue bacteria cause death and corruption, thus resulting in hypoxia and smelly water, creating a vicious cycle (phase Anaerobic other pollution control microbiology, p38 - 39, Harbin Institute of Technology Press, published in 2002).

天然水体中,除了水体富营养化产生的大量蓝藻以外,尚有许多 Natural water, in addition to a large amount of cyanobacteria eutrophication produced, there are many

有害细菌和病毒等,如大肠杆菌(Coliform)、肠道球菌(Enterococcus group )、霍乱菌(Vibrio cholerae )等等,这些菌体在船舶航行所采集的压载水中,有可能被带往其它水域,引发生态灾难。 Harmful bacteria and viruses, such as E. coli (Coliform), enterococci (Enterococcus group), cholera (Vibrio cholerae) and the like, these cells in the ballast water of ships sailing collected, other bodies of water are likely to be taken , causing ecological disaster. 通常为减小船舶过大的弯曲力矩和剪切力,减轻船体震动,几乎所有的船舶都设有压载水系统。 Generally reduce bending moments vessels and excessive shear forces, reduce hull vibration, almost all ships have ballast water system. 实验证明,长期积存在压载水舱中的压载水中存在大量的细菌、病原体和其他的一些非本地的微生物。 Experiments show that the long-term accumulation of a large number of bacteria present in the ballast water ballast tank, and a number of other pathogens and non-native organisms. 在富含铁元素的压载 In the iron-rich ballast

些外来的或新的微生物排出时,会造成当地的生态环境平衡失调。 When some alien or new microbial discharge will cause local ecological balance. 一般而言,这些微生物对人体有害, 一旦发生压载水的泄漏,会污染环境、船舶,威胁人员的健康,也可能造成货物的损坏。 In general, these microbes are harmful, once the ballast water leak occurs, it will pollute the environment, ship, threatening the health of people, can also cause damage to the goods. 随着人们环境保护观念的增强,这个问题显得越来越突出。 As people's environmental attitudes, this problem becomes more and more prominent. IMO ( International Maritime Organization,国际海事组织)调查结果发现,4种甲藻等有毒藻类是通过船舶压载水传播到中国的,并造成大面积的赤潮灾害(刘富斌,船舶,2006年8月.第4期)。 IMO (International Maritime Organization, the International Maritime Organization) survey found that four kinds of dinoflagellates and other toxic algae through ship ballast water spread to China and cause red tide large areas (Liu Fubin ship, in August 2006. The first 4). 2004年国家环保总局公布,我国由于生物入侵造成的直接经济损失高达574亿元,其中海洋生物入侵是主要成因之一。 In 2004 the State Environmental Protection Administration announced that China Due to biological invasion caused direct economic losses of up to 57.4 billion yuan, of which marine biological invasion is one of the main causes. ,针对这类情况,人们很早就进行多方面的努力,以期避免有害生物和病原体通过压载水污染其它水域或造成生态突难。 For such cases, people have long carried out various efforts in order to avoid pests and pathogens through ballast water or other water pollution caused by sudden ecological difficult. 早在1982年, As early as 1982,

IMO出台的《1982年4关合国海洋法/>约》(UNCLOS, United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea)第196(1)条规定,"各国应采取一切必要措施以防止、减少和控制由于在其管辖或控制下使用技术而造成的海洋环境污染,或由于故意或偶然在海洋环境某一特定区域引入外来的或新的物种致使海洋环境可能发生重大和有害的变化";2002 年世界可持续发展峰会实施计划的34(b)条,意识到船舶无控制地排放压载水和沉积物已经造成有害水生物和病原体的转移,对环境、 人类健康、财产和资源造成伤害或损坏,号召各方行动起来加快制定解决压载水引入外来生物问题的措施;目前一些国家已经采取单边行动以防止、最大限度地减少并最终消除通过船舶进入其港口引入有害水生物和病原体的风险,且这一问题上引起了全世界的广泛关注,急需要制定一个全球适用的规则以及导则 IMO introduced the "April 1982 closing Nations Law of the Sea /> about" (UNCLOS, United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea) the provisions of section 196 (1) article, "States shall take all necessary measures to prevent, reduce and control in use of technology caused by pollution of the marine environment under its jurisdiction or control, or the intentional or accidental introduction of alien or new species of the marine environment may cause significant and harmful changes "occur in a particular area of ​​the marine environment; the 2002 World sustainable development Summit implementation plan 34 (b) of Article realized that the ship uncontrolled discharge of ballast water and sediments has resulted in the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens, causing damage to the environment, human health, property and resources or damage, called on party action to accelerate the development of measures to address the introduction of alien species ballast water issues; present, some countries have taken unilateral action to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the risk of introducing harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through ships entering their ports, and this attracted worldwide attention on a problem, an urgent need to develop a globally applicable rules and guidelines ,使其有效实施并统一解释, 继续推进更安全、有效的压载水管理方法的发展,从而继续防止、最大限度地减少并最终消除有害水生物和病原体的转移;在此基础上, IMO制定《国际船舶压载水和沉积物控制与管理公约》,通过控制和管理船舶压载水和沉积物以防止、最大限度地减少并最终消除有害水生物和病原体的转移造成的环境、人类健康、财产及资源风险,并避免此种控制造成的不必要的消极影响,并且鼓励、促进相关知识和技术的发展;这个公约虽然美国和我国目前尚未签字,多数发达国家已经签字,全球范围内按此条约实现压载水的管理,只是一个时间问题。 So that the effective implementation and uniform interpretation, continue to promote safer and effective development of ballast water management methods, in order to continue to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens; on this basis, IMO developed "international ships 'ballast water and sediments Convention on the control and management", through the control and management of ships' ballast water and sediments in order to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate environmentally harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens caused by the transfer of human health, property and resources, risks and controls to avoid such unnecessary negative impact of, and encourage and promote the development of knowledge and technology; this convention, although the United States and China has yet to sign, most developed countries have signed, Click worldwide Treaty to achieve the management of ballast water, just a matter of time. 针对大面积水体的蓝藻治理和防止外来有害水生物、病原体入侵的技术及相应的装备和设施,必须具备以下特征: Blue-green algae control for a large area of ​​water bodies and prevent external harmful aquatic organisms, pathogens invading technologies and corresponding equipment and facilities, must have the following characteristics:

(1)、杀灭微生物和病原体速度必须很快:否则,在大面积水体中,当处理后的水再次进入本体水中,如果加入的是杀生剂,就会很快被稀释而减弱杀菌能力,加上大量未杀灭的微生物,很快会大规模繁殖,治理效果4艮差;如果应用于压艙水处理中,压抢水抽入和排放通过装置只有很短的时间,如果杀灭微生物和病原体速度不够快,其处理后的水体就不能达标; (1), kill microorganisms and pathogens to be fast: otherwise, in a large area of ​​water, treated water when the water enters the body again, if the biocide is added, it will soon be diluted and weakened bactericidal capacity, plus a large number did not kill microorganisms, will soon be a large-scale breeding, poor treatment effect Gen 4; if used in ballast water, the rush of water pumped into the pressure discharge device and only a very short time through, if the killing of microorganisms pathogens and fast enough that the treated water can not be achieved;

(2) 、杀灭效率高:《2004年国际船舶压载水和沉积物控制与管理公约》的规则D-2条规定的排放压载水性能标准必须满足: (2) high killing efficiency: D-2 emissions regulations of rules, "2004 International Ships 'Ballast Water and Sediments Control and Management Convention' ballast water performance criteria must be met:

(a) .每立方米中最小尺寸大于或等于50微米的可生存生物少于IO个;且 . (A) per cubic meter greater than or equal to the minimum size of 50 microns may be less than IO a living creatures; and

(b) .每毫升中最小尺寸小于50微米但大于或等于IO微米的可生存生物少于10个;且 . (B) per ml in the minimum dimension less than 50 microns but greater than or equal to the IO microns less than 10 viable organisms; and

(c) .作为一种人体健康标准,指标微生物应小于下述浓度: . (C) as a human health standard, microbial indicators should be less than the following concentrations:

(i) .有毒霍乱弧菌少于每100毫升1个菌落形成单位(cfu)或小于每一克(湿重)浮游动物样品1个cfu; . (I) toxic vibrio cholerae less than 100 ml per 1 colony forming units (cfu) or less per gram (wet weight) zooplankton samples 1 CFU;

(ii) .大肠杆菌:少于每100毫升250 cfu;及 . (Ii) Escherichia coli: less than 250 cfu per 100 milliliters; and

(iii) .肠道球菌:少于每100毫升100 cfu; . (Iii) enterococci: less than 100 ml per 100 cfu;

(3) 、对生态环境不能产生二次危害; (3), the ecological environment can not produce secondary hazards;

(4) 、处理能力大:大面积水体如湖泊的富营养化问题,杀菌灭藻的处理能力是关键因素之一;对于船舶压舱水处理,船舶不可能长时间停留, 一般要求单机处理能力在300M3/hr以上。 (4), large capacity: a large area, such as the problem of eutrophication of lakes, sterilization processing capacity is a key factor; for ship ballast water, ships can not stay long, general requirements for stand-alone processing power in 300M3 / hr or more.

现有的水体富营养化和蓝藻的治理技术体系,以及压舱水处理技术体系,主要有:(1)杀生药剂,(2)滤网捞集和膜处理技术,(3) 超声技术,(4)高压灭藻,(5)生物治理,(6)生态治理,(7)紫外灭菌技术,(8)电解产生活性物质灭菌技术。 Existing water eutrophication and blue algae treatment technology system as well as ballast water treatment technology system, are: (1) killing agent, (2) current fishing and filter membrane technology, (3) ultrasonic technology ( 4) high-pressure algae removal, (5) biological treatment, (6) ecological treatment, (7) ultraviolet sterilization techniques, (8) an active material produced by electrolysis sterilization techniques.

杀生药剂 Killing agent

中国专利申请号02100332 />开一种应用于工业水领域以及公共场所、污水回用领域的氧化型含溴复合杀生剂-溴氯威;中国专利申请号200510025284推出一种由戊二醛,季胺盐构成的醛类复合高效杀生剂;中国专利申请号200510025395公开了一种含有异蓬唑啉酮、氯化十二烷基二曱基节基铵、用于污水处理的杀生剂;WIPO(世界知识产权组织)公开的国际专利WO03002406采用铜阳极电解产生铜离子杀菌。 Chinese Patent Application No. 02100332 /> On one kind of water used in industrial fields as well as in public places, oxidized wastewater reuse art composite containing bromine biocide - bromo-chloro-K; Chinese Patent Application No. 200510025284 to launch a glutaraldehyde, quaternary efficient aldehyde compound constituting the amine salt biocide; Chinese Patent application No. 200510025395 discloses a bottle containing a heterologous pyrazolone, Yue dichloride, dodecyl ammonium base section, a biocide for wastewater treatment; the WIPO ( WIPO) international Patent WO03002406 disclosed copper electrolysis anode copper ion sterilization. 这类杀生剂的生物毒性较大,残留时间长,在国内尚可以应用于循环式污水或冷却水系统中的杀菌处理,不适合于湖泊等大面积富 Greater toxicity of such biocide, remaining for a long time, can still be applied in the domestic sewage or cooling water circulating in the sterilizing treatment system is not suitable for large-rich lakes

7营养化水体和需要排放的压舱水处理。 7 Water Eutrophication and discharge ballast water treatment needs.

美国专利US2005016933采用添加(3102作为杀生剂,国际专利WO2005061388、美国专利US2004099608和US2003029811 、日本专利JP2007144391、 JP2006239556、 JP2006263563,分别/>开了采用过滤和添加臭氧作为杀生剂的水处理技术和相应的装置,这类装置和技术,没有二次污染,在小流量水体或饮用水杀菌处理中有一定优势, 但对于压舱水等大流量水体或大流域水体的灭菌除藻处理,运行成本很高。 U.S. Patent No. US2005016933 using added (biocide as 3102, international patent WO2005061388, US2004099608, and U.S. Patent No. US2003029811, Japanese Patent JP2007144391, JP2006239556, JP2006263563, respectively /> opened by filtration and adding ozone as biocide water treatment technology and corresponding apparatus such devices and techniques, there is no secondary pollution, has certain advantages in small flow of water or drinking water in the sterilizing treatment but sterilization algaecide for treating ballast water flow of water or other large body of water large basin, high operating costs .

通常,加入杀生药剂,对局域小水体效果很好,但难以维持较长时间,在夏季1-2周后, 一般又需加药。 In general, the addition of killing agents, local small water bodies to good effect, but it is difficult to maintain for a long time, in the summer after 1-2 weeks, and generally require dosing. 对于治理大面积,富营养化水体存在运行成本高、杀生剂对水体存在二次污染等问题;如果应用于压舱水处理,其残留物尚需通过生物毒性和毒理评价。 For the treatment area, the presence of eutrophic water running cost is high, biocides secondary pollution problems of water; if the ballast water is applied, it will take the residue by toxicity and toxicological evaluation.

滤网撈集和膜处理技术 Fishing set filter membrane technology and

滤网捞集、以及过滤这类机械方法清除蓝藻,如目前昆明澳池在蓝藻大规模爆发的夏季,对于大面积水体的治理,不过杯水车薪,难见成效;这种技术和相应的装置,不可能有效除去有害细菌(有毒霍乱弧菌、大肠杆菌、肠道球菌等)和病毒,无法满足压舱水处理的要求,不适于压舱水处理。 Filter fishing set, and mechanical filtration methods such clear blue-green algae, such as the current pool in Kunming Australian cyanobacteria outbreaks of summer, for a large area of ​​water management, but the drop in the bucket, hard to bear fruit; this technology and the corresponding device, do not may effectively remove harmful bacteria (toxic Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, enterococci, etc.) and viruses, can not meet the requirements of ballast water treatment, ballast water is not suitable. 这种技术方案,多作为水处理中过滤大颗粒悬浮物或泥沙的辅助手段。 This solution, multiple water treatment filter aid large particles of suspended matter or sediment as.

目前,发达国家多采用膜处理技术和相应的装置,过滤微生物、 浮游生物和细菌,如日本专利JP2005342626 , JP20060099157 , JP2006223997, JP2005342626,国际专利WO2007114198,均采用膜技术将抽入作为压舱水的海水或淡水中的细菌和微生物过滤,这类技术和装置需要较高的压力,耗能大,并且膜很容易被污染和堵塞;对于大面积水体的蓝藻治理和快速流动的大流量水体,运行成本较高, 处理能力不可能满足相应的要求。 Currently, multi-use membrane technology developed and corresponding apparatus, microbial filtration, plankton and bacteria, as described in Japanese Patent JP2005342626, JP20060099157, JP2006223997, JP2005342626, international patent WO2007114198, are used seawater will be drawn into the membrane technology as ballast water or freshwater filtering bacteria and microorganisms, such techniques and apparatus require higher pressure, energy consumption, and the film is easily contaminated and clogged; blue-green algae treatment for large and rapid flow of water large flow of water, the running cost high, the processing capacity is impossible to satisfy the corresponding requirements.

超声波技术超声波不但有强烈的振动,而且还具有空化作用并产生大量的微射流,可以使液体对容器壁产生强烈的沖击作用,这样的功能被应用于超声清洗,也被应用于增强反应效果,如中国专利申请号 Ultrasonic Ultrasonic technology not only strong vibration, but also cavitation and having a large number of microjets, the liquid can have a strong impact acts on the container wall, such a function is applied to ultrasonic cleaning, also be applied to enhance the reaction effects, such as Chinese patent application no.

200510117457所公布的一种基于超声作用的内电解废水处理方法和装置,和中国申请号99120675所公布的一种超声波水处理的方法及其装置,应用于增强絮凝效果;如中国专利申请号200610085548所公布的偶氮染料废水处理方法,和德国专利DE19919824所公开的氧化有机锡技术,采用超声波促进化学反应的进行。 One kind published 200510117457 electrolysis wastewater treatment method and the apparatus based on the ultrasound, and an ultrasonic treatment of Chinese Application No. 99120675 published method and apparatus, applied to enhance the flocculation effect; Chinese Patent Application No. 200610085548 azo dyes wastewater treatment method published German patent DE19919824 disclosed organotin oxide technology, ultrasonic facilitate a chemical reaction. 超声空化作用产生的微区高压,可以用于细胞的破碎,但这样的效果多是将超声能量汇聚在较小的区域内才能实现,因此,目前的超声技术和相应的水处理装置, 对于小体积水体,并可以采用循环流动的水体,实施可操作性比较大, 如中国专利申请号200610023241所公布的声光杀菌饮用水处理装置。 Micro ultrasonic cavitation generated by the high voltage, can be used for cell disruption, but the effect mostly converge ultrasonic energy can be achieved in a small area, therefore, the current ultrasonic technology and corresponding water treatment device, for small volume of water, and water may be employed in circulation, larger operability embodiment, acoustic Chinese Patent application No. 200610023241 published DWTU sterilizing light.

日本专利JP2006007184将超声换能器(28 ~ 200KHz )加于管道外壁,通过超声波将通过管道的压舱水进行杀菌灭藻处理; JP2005021814则提供相应的压舱水管式超声灭菌除藻装置,装置中将超声换能器安装于箱体两侧,水路从箱体中通过,超声波将经过的水体中微生物杀灭;这两份专利均没有考虑到超声波的对于安装于对面管壁或箱体的超声换能器压电陶瓷的损伤,而且垂直于超声换能器的反射回波对压电陶瓷的损伤同样不能忽略,否则直接影响超声换能器的寿命,从而降低装置的运行稳定性和可靠性。 Japanese Patent JP2006007184 ultrasonic transducer (28 ~ 200KHz) is applied to the pipe wall, the sterilization process for ballast water through the pipe by ultrasonic; JP2005021814 provides a respective ultrasonic ballast water sterilization algaecide device, means in an ultrasound transducer mounted on both sides of the housing, from the housing through the water, the ultrasonic waves through the water to kill microorganisms; both of these patents do not consider the ultrasonic wave or the wall opposite the mounting housing ultrasonic transducer piezoelectric ceramic damage, and the reflected echo to the ultrasonic transducer is perpendicular to damage the piezoelectric ceramic is also not be ignored, otherwise it directly affects the life of the ultrasonic transducers, thereby reducing the operational stability and reliability of the apparatus sex. 专利申请号98236857 所公布的超声波水处理机,和国际专利W O03 09 5 3 7 0所推出的一种环形、连续的超声处理压舱水装置,其超声换能器面临同样的问题。 Ultrasonic treatment Patent Application No. 98236857 published machine, and an endless International Patent W O03 09 5 3 7 0 launched, successive ultrasonic ballast water treatment device, which ultrasonic transducer facing the same problem.

但对于大面积水体的蓝藻治理和快速流动的大流量水体,现有的超声处理装置,除了上述问题之外,如果单独采用超声技术处理,尚存在能耗高,运行成本高,杀灭效果难以保证等不利因素,不具备可操作性。 However, for large flow of water treatment and cyanobacteria fast-flowing water in a large area, conventional sonication apparatus, in addition to the above-mentioned problems, if a single treatment using ultrasonic technology, there are still high energy consumption, high operating costs, it is difficult to effect killing assurance, and other unfavorable factors, does not have the maneuverability.

高压灭藻 High-pressure algae

高压杀菌和灭藻,是采用将水体加压到一定程度,使细菌和藻类的细月包石皮裂,i口曰本专利JP2007021287、JP2005270754、JP2005254138、 Pressure sterilization and algae, is the use of the pressurized water to an extent that bacteria and algae fine stone skin cracking month package, said port I of the present patent JP2007021287, JP2005270754, JP2005254138,

但对于大面积水体的蓝藻治理,高压灭藻同样存在能耗高,运行成本高等不利因素,不具备可操作性;针对压舱水处理,也存在处理能力和运行成本的问题。 But for blue-green algae Administration, Large bodies of water, high-pressure algae there are also high energy consumption, high operation cost disadvantage, does not have the maneuverability; for ballast water treatment, there are also processing power and operating costs.

生物治理 Biological Control

对于淡水富营养化水体,人们寄希望于生物治理,但生物治理有可能因引入外来生物对本地物种造成生物突难。 For freshwater eutrophication of water bodies, people hope bioremediation, bioremediation but may be due to the introduction of exotic biological organisms that cause sudden difficult for native species. 而且,蓝藻实际是蓝细菌,产生的毒素在ppm级就可以使鱼类、家禽在数分钟内死亡; Satoshi Nakai在2001发表的工作报告中(ALGAL GROWTH INHIBITION EFFECTS AND INDUCEMENT MODES BY PLANT-PRODUCING PHENOLS SATOSHI NAKAI*, YUTAKA INOUE and MASAAKI HOSOMI, Water Research, Vol.35, Issue 7, May 2001, Pages 1855-1859 )指出,草和其他水生植物可以在一定程度上减少水质的富营养化程度,但较少有植物能释放可以抑制蓝细菌的生长的酚类物质。 Moreover, the blue-green algae is actually cyanobacteria toxins produced in the ppm level can make fish, poultry died within a few minutes; Satoshi Nakai in 2001 published work report (ALGAL GROWTH INHIBITION EFFECTS AND INDUCEMENT MODES BY PLANT-PRODUCING PHENOLS SATOSHI NAKAI *, YUTAKA INOUE and MASAAKI HOSOMI, water Research, Vol.35, Issue 7, may 2001, Pages 1855-1859) pointed out that grass and other aquatic plants can reduce the level of eutrophication of water quality to some extent, but less there can inhibit the release of plant phenolics cyanobacteria growth. 对于海水体系的赤潮,生物治理是不现实的。 For the red tide sea water systems, bioremediation is unrealistic. 目前生物法对藻类的治理尚处于探索阶段,国际上尚无对大规模富营养化水体采用生物防治蓝藻的成功先例,而且由于蓝藻所包含的蓝细菌种属较多, 难以用一种或有限的几种微生物、噬菌体对蓝藻实现总体抑制。 Currently biological treatment of algae is still in the exploratory stage, there is no large-scale international eutrophic water body with the successful precedent of biological control of blue-green algae, cyanobacteria species of cyanobacteria and because included in the genus are more difficult to use one or a limited several microorganisms, cyanobacteria phage achieve total inhibition. 另外, 从处理速度和效率考虑,生物治理技术不适合压艙水的处理。 Further, the processing speed and efficiency, a treatment technique not suitable for ballast water treatment.

生态治理 Ecological Management

在外源污染得到控制的情况下,恢复水生高等植物以提高水体的自净能力,是湖泊富营养化治理和生态恢复的关键。 A case where the external pollution under control, to improve the recovery of aquatic higher plants to self-purification capacity of water bodies, the key eutrophication control and ecological restoration. 但这种方法见效时间较长,难以在短期内实现富营养化水体的蓝藻控制。 However, this method is effective for a long time, is difficult to control cyanobacteria eutrophic water in the short term. 而富营养化水体的蓝藻爆发,会将水面覆盖,阻碍水体复氧,同时大量蓝细菌因死亡而腐败,消耗水体的溶解氧而使水体发臭,导致鱼类死亡和其他水生动物死亡,形成恶性循环。 The algae bloom in eutrophic water, the water will be covered, impede water reoxygenation, while a large number of deaths due to cyanobacteria and corruption, consume dissolved oxygen in the water smelly water bodies, leading to the death of fish and other aquatic animals die, forming a vicious cycle. 同样,生态治理技术不适合压舱水的处理。 Similarly, ecological management technique is not suitable for ballast water treatment.

10紫外灭菌技术 Ultraviolet sterilization techniques 10

由于水体本身对紫外线的强烈吸收作用,使得紫外线灭菌作用的范围和灭菌能力受到制约, 一般紫外线灭菌技术多应用于处理负荷较 As the water itself strong absorption of ultraviolet light, such that the ultraviolet sterilization and sterilization ability restricted range, typically UV sterilization processing load more and more used technique

低的小体积水体和循环流动的水体。 Low water and a small volume of circulating water. 如中国专利申请号20051114所公开的紫外线水处理灭菌系统、200610093390所公开的家庭饮用水处理机。 Chinese Patent Application No. 20,051,114 discloses UV water sterilization systems 200 610 093 390 public drinking water processor family. . .

美国专利US2004134861 和US2005211639 、 国际专利WO2004002895和WO2005110607分别推出采用多组紫外灯产生的紫外线连续处理压舱水装置;另外,紫外线辐照与超声结合,可以加强杀菌效果,如中国专利申请号20060112所公开的声光杀菌饮用水处理装置,和200520087812所公开的应用于养殖海水处理的海水强力紫外线消毒过滤器;美国专利US5738780将紫外线杀菌与直流电解结合在一起,应用于压舱水处理。 U.S. Patent US2004134861 and US2005211639, international patent WO2004002895 and WO2005110607 were introduced using ultraviolet UV lamp generating a plurality of sets of continuous ballast water treatment device; Furthermore, ultraviolet radiation and ultrasonic bonding, can enhance the bactericidal effect, such as China patent application No. 20060112 disclosed the acousto-optic sterilizing drinking water treatment apparatus, and applied to farmed marine sea 200520087812 process disclosed strong UV sterilizing filter; U.S. Patent No. US5738780 ultraviolet germicidal solution combined with direct current, applied to treatment of ballast water. 但这些技术仍然受到紫外线灭菌作用的范围和灭菌能力的制约,对于高负荷、大流量水体和大面积水体的杀菌效果,还是不能令人满意。 However, these techniques are still limited by the scope and ability of ultraviolet sterilization sterilization, for the high-load, high-volume sterilization effect of water and large bodies of water, or unsatisfactory.

电解产生活性物质灭菌技术 Electrolysis sterilization techniques active substance

以添加食盐、然后通过电解产生次氯酸消毒灭菌的技术和装置, 前人有许多工作,包括中国专利申请号200610042972.2公开的"一种双功能电解水生成器"、200510111126.7 7>开的"一种小型消毒水生成器及其使用方法"、200520077629.2公开的"1吏携式水源消毒机"、 200510023766.2公开的"高浓度次氯酸消毒水的制备方法",比直接添加漂白粉、投放二氧化氯、双氧水等方案要便捷、节省成本,但会增大所处理水体的盐度,尤其对于大面积湖泊、水库的富营养化水体的杀菌、灭藻处理,长期运转条件下,所有添加药剂和增大水体盐度的措施,均是不可接受的。 To add salt, and then generates hypochlorous acid by electrolysis sterilization techniques and apparatus, and a number of previous work, including 200610042972.2 disclosed in Chinese Patent Application No. "an electrolytic water generator bifunctional" 200510111126.7 7> open " a small disinfectant generator and method of use ", 200520077629.2 discloses" 1 officials portable water disinfection machine ", 200510023766.2 disclosed in" preparing "a high concentration of hypochlorous acid disinfectant, than adding directly bleaching powder, serving dioxide chlorine, hydrogen peroxide and other programs to be convenient, cost savings, but will increase the salinity of the water treatment, eutrophication of water for sterilizing a large area lakes and reservoirs, algae processing in particular, long-term operating conditions, all add agents and measures increasing the salinity, are unacceptable.

国际专利WO200605826 l公开了一种采用电解产生次氯酸盐的压抢水处理方法和相应的系统、日本专利JP2001000974公开的电解处理压舱水装置、和与此类似的还有中国专利申请号200510046991公开的船舶压载水(压舱水)电解处理系统、中国专利申请号200480027174 公开的处理水贮存器的电解装置,将处理水体中的氯离子、水分子电解为具有高氧化活性的物质(ClO-, 'OH, H202, (O)), 对水体中的细菌和藻类的细胞、RNA、 DNA进行氧化作用,使其失活和死亡, 从而达到灭菌灭藻效果,并使处理过的水体保持持续消毒作用。 International Patent Publication WO200605826 l grab water pressure using a method and a corresponding system hypochlorite electrolysis, the electrolytic treating ballast water in the apparatus disclosed in Japanese Patent No. JP2001000974, and Similarly there are Chinese Patent Application No. 200510046991 disclosed ship ballast water (ballast water) electrolytic treatment system, Chinese Patent application No. electrolytic water treatment apparatus disclosed in the reservoir of 200480027174, the process water of chloride ions, electrolysis of water molecules to a substance having a high oxidation activity (ClO -, 'OH, H202, (O)), the cells of bacteria and algae in water, RNA, DNA oxidation action, inactivate and death, so as to achieve sterilization algaecide effect, and the treated water maintain continuous disinfection. 这种方法和系统存在两种缺陷: There are two drawbacks of this method and system:

(1)、体系的电极间距满足压舱水在海水中的电解设计要求,不能满足淡水体系的要求,因为船舶在航运水域和停靠的港口,有的是靠近江河口,属于淡水区域,二者由于水体电导率差异而引起的电解电压变化太大。 (1), the electrode pitch of the system to meet the ballast water in the seawater electrolysis design requirements, can not meet the requirements of fresh water system, because the vessel in the shipping waters and ports of call, some near the river mouth, belongs to the freshwater region, both due to the water electrolysis a voltage change caused by the difference in conductivity too.

电解体系施加于阳极和阴极之间的电压有三部分构成,参见图1,其中: Voltage of the electrolytic system is applied between the anode and the cathode are three parts, see Figure 1, wherein:

Ul:由阳极氧化反应的电极电位和极化超电势构成,如果电化学反应的极化现象可以忽略,对于特定的反应体系(反应浓度、pH、温度不变),Ul基本不变,不随电流密度改变而变化; Ul: electrode potential and polarization overpotential constituted by the anodic oxidation reaction, if polarization electrochemical reaction can be ignored, for the specific reaction system (reaction concentration, pH, temperature change), Ul substantially constant, with no current density change varies;

U2:溶液的电阻引起的压降,溶液电导率越低,则电阻R越大, 随电流密度的增大而升高; U2: the lower the pressure drop, solution conductivity caused by the solution resistance, the resistance R is larger, with increasing current density is raised;

U3:由阴极还原反应的电极电位和极化超电势构成,如果反应极化现象可以忽略并且不存在阴极被悬浮物和无机物沾污、包覆现象, 对于特定的反应体系(反应浓度、pH、温度不变),U3基本不变,不随电流密度改变而变化。 U3: reduction reaction by the cathode electrode potential and polarization overpotential configuration, if the reaction polarization is negligible and there is no cathode contaminated suspension and inorganic coated phenomenon, for a specific reaction system (reaction concentration, pH , temperature change), U3 substantially constant, the current density does not change with changes.

要保证体系一定的杀菌、灭藻能力,电解电流I基本上要求恒定在一定数值之上,如果电极间距为d (对于目前所有公开采取电解法的体系,均没有在体系运行中考虑改变电极间距的设计),电极面积为 System to ensure a certain sterilization, algae capacity, the electrolysis current in claim I substantially constant above a certain value, and if the electrode spacing is d (disclosed for the present system to take all of the electrolysis, do not consider the change in system operation electrode spacing design), the electrode area

S,水体电导率为n,则存在如下关系:<formula>formula see original document page 13</formula> S, water conductivity is n, the following relationship exists: <formula> formula see original document page 13 </ formula>

对于一定的电解系统,由于I、 d、 S为确定值,但不同类型的水有不同的电导率,海水体系为30000|iS/cm;河口水体,退潮时,水流表现为向海洋的单一流向,虽受海洋潮沙影响,此时交汇区的水化学组成近似于江河水质,电导率可以在50—500(aS/cm之间;平潮时, 既有河流的下泻,也有潮流的上溯,此时交汇区的水质较复杂,而且不稳定;涨潮时,潮沙对河口区影响大,海水可上溯到河口内很深的距离,此时交汇区中水的化学组成则表现出海水特征。因此,当河口水体的在50—500pS/cm之间时,至少与海洋水体相差60倍以上,从(l)式可知,施加于阳极和阴极之间的水体上的电压U2,至少有60 倍以上的差别,4艮难保证电解系统在安全电压范围内可以满足船舶运行于不同水域对压舱水处理的要求。 For certain electrolysis system, since the I, d, S to determine a value, but different types of water have different conductivities, water system for the 30000 | iS / cm; estuarine water, at low tide, the water showed a single flow to the ocean , although influenced by ocean tide sand, water chemistry at this time similar to the composition of the intersection region river water quality, the conductivity may be between 50-500 (aS / cm; when tide levels, both tumble river, but also the trend traced, At this juncture of the water quality is more complex and unstable; high tide, a large impact on the tidal estuary sand, water can be traced to deep within the mouth of the distance, at this time the chemical composition of the water in the intersection region showed a water feature. Thus, when the water in the estuary between 50-500pS / cm, and at least ocean water differ by more than 60 times, it is seen from (l) type, voltage U2 applied to the body of water between the anode and the cathode, at least 60-fold and above differences, 4 Burgundy difficult to guarantee electrolysis system to meet the ships operating within a safe voltage range requirements of different waters in ballast water treatment.

(2)、在淡水体系中阴极存在结垢现象,并致使阴极与水体之间的电阻急剧增大,影响电解效率,如果需要保证电流恒定,则整体的电解电压急剧升高,体系无法正常运行。 (2), in the presence of fresh water system of scaling the cathode, and causes the resistance between the cathode and the water rapidly increases, electrolysis efficiency impact, if necessary to ensure a constant current, the overall electrolysis voltage increased rapidly, the system can not function properly .

在淡水体系中,电解过程在阴极的结垢主要是CaC03,由于阴极表面和阴极区域吸附大量的阳离子以满足电荷平衡,水体中阳离子浓度没有很大的差异,Ca^电荷较高,在阴极表面和阴极区域富集,在该局部区域与水体中的HC03 —发生如下反应: In the fresh water system, the fouling at the cathode during electrolysis mainly CaCO3, since the cathode and the cathode surface area of ​​the cation absorb large to satisfy charge balance, no great difference in water concentration of cations, Ca ^ higher charge, the cathode surface and cathode region enriched in the local area with the body of water HC03 - the following reaction occurs:

Ca2 + HC03 =CaC03(s)+ H+ (2) Ca2 + HC03 = CaC03 (s) + H + (2)

Jeffrey A. Franz在关于电解产氧过程中阴极沉淀/结垢引起的电极表面的污染对好氧生物降解体系影响的研究(Water Research, Vol.36, Issue9, May 2002, Pages 2243-2254 )中指出,阴极表面沉淀主要为CaC03。 Jeffrey A. Franz about the contamination of the electrode surface of the cathode during the electrolytic production of oxygen precipitation / fouling caused by aerobic biodegradation study the influence of the system (Water Research, Vol.36, Issue9, May 2002, Pages 2243-2254) in He noted that the cathode surface is mainly precipitated CaC03. 在先申请专利99253589所公开的水箱自洁消毒器在长期运行过程中,阴极有明显的CaC03沉淀,在硬度较高的地区使用,甚 Prior patent 99253589 disclosed tank self-cleaning sterilizer in the long run, the cathode has obvious CaC03 precipitate in high hardness region, even

13至因为反应(2)产生的CaC03沉淀造成电解管路堵塞;在申请专利号03156596.4"组合式微电流电解水处理技术和装置",虽然超声探头对电极表面进行清洗的过程中,可以使结垢问题得到緩解,但对水生生态体系有可能产生不利的影响,长期运行过程中,阴极表面仍然存在轻微结垢现象;该装置虽然可以实现对大面积富营养化水体的蓝藻有效的治理和抑制,但多组平行的电极,使安装平台(船、浮筒)在移动过程中,造成转向困难;而且,水生动物(鱼类)容易进入电极之间,遭致电击,并形成电极短路;这种装置固定于水槽中将海水养殖的水通过水槽进行电解灭菌、消毒处理,处理海水以1.0~1.5m/s 的流速通过安装电解装置的水槽,长期运行后(至少3个月以上)其槽底出现小量的白色沉淀(槽底离电极边缘2cm ),但阴极表面不被沉淀覆盖。 To 13 because the reaction CaC03 (2) causing the resulting precipitate electrolytic pipe blockage; 03156596.4 in the "combined micro-current electrolytic water treatment technology and device" Patent Application No., although the ultrasound probe during cleaning of electrode surface, the fouling can alleviate the problem, but to aquatic ecosystems likely to adversely affect the long-running process, the cathode surface still slightly scaling phenomenon; although the device can be achieved on a large area of ​​water body eutrophication cyanobacteria effective governance and suppression, However, a plurality of sets of parallel electrodes, the mounting platform (vessels, buoys) during movement, causing the steering difficulties; moreover, aquatic animals (fish) easy to enter between the electrodes, an electric shock and short-circuiting electrode are formed; this means mariculture fixed to the sink and sink water by electrolysis sterilization, disinfection, water treatment tank at a flow rate of 1.0 ~ 1.5m / s through the electrolysis apparatus is mounted, after a long run (at least 3 months or more) at a bottom a small amount of white precipitate appeared (from the bottom edge of the electrode 2cm), but the cathode surface is not covered with the precipitate. 中国专利申请号200520114686.3所推出的"蓝藻治理装置,,, 同样面临类似的CaC03沉积和结垢问题。 Chinese patent application "blue-green algae control device number 200,520,114,686.3 launched ,,, also face similar CaC03 deposition and fouling problems.

CaC03存在三种晶型:方解石(calcite)、文石(aragonite)和球文石(vaterite),方解石(calcite )容易形成比较致密的结构,在电极上不易脱落;文石(aragonite) —^:在才莫板存在下或者高温下(80°C 以上)结晶、生长才能形成,电解过程不具备这样的条件;球文石(vaterite)结构疏松,容易脱落。 There are three CaC03 polymorphs: calcite (CALCITE), aragonite (aragonite) and vaterite (vaterite), calcite (CALCITE) is easy to form a relatively dense structure, easy to fall off the electrode; aragonite (aragonite) - ^: (above 80 ° C) or at elevated temperature at the presence of only Mo plate crystal growth to form, the electrolytic process do not have such conditions; vaterite (vaterite) loose structure, easily. 我们将应用于海水养殖消毒环境的组合式微电流电解水处理装置的白色沉积物、淡水养殖水处理的组合式微电流电解水处理装置的阴极表面的白色结垢、和高楼水箱使用的水箱自洁消毒器的阴极表面的白色结垢刮下,分别进行场发射电子扫描分析(SEM)照片和红外(IR)吸收分析,结果如图2a、 2b、 2c 和图3所示,其中,图3中a曲线是海水吸收分析曲线,b曲线是淡水吸收分析曲线,c曲线是自来水吸收分析。 We will apply to compositions white deposit micro-current electrolysis sterilization treatment means aquaculture environment, a combination of white cathode surface micro-current electrolysis treatment apparatus of freshwater aquaculture fouling treatment, tanks and tanks used in self-cleaning buildings disinfection white fouling scraped cathode surface filter, respectively field emission scanning electron analysis (SEM) photograph and an infrared (IR) absorption analysis, the results shown in FIG 2a, 2b, 2c and 3, wherein a 3 in FIG. seawater absorption analytical curve is the curve, b is the fresh water absorption analytical curve curve, c is a graph of water absorption analysis.

从图2a可以看出,海水养殖电解处理体的白色沉淀颗粒相对较小,大部分为球形;图2b和图2c分别为淡水养殖的电解处理体系的阴极表面的结垢和高楼水箱使用的水箱自洁消毒器的阴极表面的白色结垢的SEM照片,颗粒较大;与此对应的IR吸收谱图3表明,曲线a为海水养殖电解处理体系的白色沉淀颗粒的红外吸收谱,除了方解石(calcite)的碳酸根面内弯曲振动v4特征吸收峰712 cm"和碳酸根面外弯曲振动v2吸收峰875 cm"之外,还有球文石(vaterite )的特征吸收带745 cm",与淡水养殖的电解处理体系的阴极表面结垢的红外吸收谱b、和高楼水箱使用的水箱自洁消毒器的阴极表面白色结垢的红外吸收谱;c有显著区别,b和c十分相似,属于典型的方解石(calcite)红外吸收语;这与SEM的分析结果相符。 As can be seen in FIG 2a, a white body mariculture electrolysis precipitated particles is relatively small, mostly spherical; fouling and cathode surfaces rise electrolysis tank system 2b and 2c are used in freshwater aquaculture tank from the white surface of the cathode cleaning disinfection of fouling SEM photograph, the larger particles; this corresponds to 3 show IR absorption spectrum, curve a white precipitate particles mariculture system electrolysis infrared absorption spectrum, in addition to calcite ( bending vibration v4 characteristic absorption peak 712 cm "and the outer surface of the bending vibration v2 carbonate absorption peak 875 cm" within CALCITE) carbonate root surface, there are vaterite (vaterite) characteristic absorption band 745 cm ", and freshwater cathode surface farming electrolysis treatment system fouling infrared absorption spectrum B, and the cathode surface of the white water tank self-cleaning sterilizer in high-rise tank using an infrared absorption spectrum of fouling; c differs significantly, b and c are very similar, typical calcite (calcite) infrared absorption language; this is consistent with the results of the analysis of SEM.

针对解决电解过程中阴极结垢问题,中国专利申请号200620032114所公开的一种倒极运行的电化学反应器,借助于倒极使阴极结垢脱落;这种倒极方法又引入一个新问题,频繁倒极除垢,将使电解装置的阳极丧失催化活性,导致电极产生很高的超电势,电流效率下降。 For solving the cathode scaling problem during electrolysis, China patent application No. 200620032114 discloses an electrochemical reactor pole inverter operation by means of scaling down off of the cathode electrode; this method still inverted pole introduces a new problem, pole and frequent cleaning, anodic electrolysis apparatus will cause loss of catalytic activity, resulting in generation of high overpotential electrodes, the current efficiency decreases.

目前,电解产生氧化性物质以进行水处理的体系, 一般均采用具有催化活性的DSA阳极(Dimensionally Stable Anode),是以金属钬或钛合金为基体在其表面涂覆以铂族元素氧化物的一种电极材料,是荷兰人Henri Bernard Beer (1909 - 1994)发明的。 Currently, electrolytically produced oxidizing agent for water treatment system, generally used anode DSA (Dimensionally Stable Anode) with catalytic activity, the metal is holmium or a titanium alloy as a base surface thereof coated with an oxide of a platinum group element An electrode material, Dutch Henri Bernard Beer (1909 - 1994) of the invention. H. Beer 65专利是一种以钛或钛合金为芯材/基材,从铂、铱、铑、把、钉、锇中选择铂族金属或其合金的氧化物,特别是含有一种以上的非铂族金属氧化物(如Ta、Ti ),组成外层电极;意大利DeNora公司和美国Diamond Shamrock 公司于1968年成功地将Beer发明应用于氯i威生产中。 H. Beer 65 patent is a titanium or titanium alloy as a core material / substrate, from platinum, iridium, rhodium, the nail, the platinum group metal oxide selected osmium or an alloy thereof, particularly those containing one or more non-platinum group metal oxide (e.g., Ta, Ti), the composition of the outer electrode; DeNora Italy and the United States in 1968, Diamond Shamrock company successfully Beer invention to K i chlorine production. 其食盐电解用阳极开发了钛基铂族金属氧化物电极,催化活性高,而且能使用15 年以上。 Its salt electrolysis developed titanium-based anode with a platinum group metal oxide electrode, a high catalytic activity, and can be used more than 15 years. DSA自20世纪60年代末问世后,至今已经历时40年整。 DSA since the late 1960s come out so far has lasted the entire 40 years. 张招贤在关于"涂层电极40年"一文中指出(电镀与涂饰,2007年第26巻第l期),钛阳极的诞生极大地推进了食盐电解生产的发展,被誉为氯碱工业一大技术革命。 Zhang Zhaoxian about the "coated electrodes for 40 years," the article pointed out (Plating, 2007, Volume 26 l of), titanium anodes birth has greatly promoted the development of salt electrolysis, known as a major chlor-alkali industry technological revolution. DSA的发明是20世纪电化学工业最重大的发明之一,是对电化学领域划时代的贡献。 DSA of the invention is one of the electrochemical industry's most important inventions of the 20th century, is a landmark contribution to the field of electrochemistry. 但这种电极,如果作为阴极使用,则由于Pt、 Ir、 Ru、 Rh、 Pd和Ti均为强吸氬材料,阴极反应产生的H2被Pt、 Ir、 Ru、 Rh、 Pd和Ti所吸附,致使体积膨胀引起涂层与芯材之间剥离,导致涂层和活性物质脱落,丧失催化活性。 However, such an electrode, if used as the cathode, since Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ti are strongly absorbent material argon, H2 cathodic reaction is Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ti are adsorbed, causing volume expansion between the coating and the core material to cause the release, resulting in the coating and the active material loss, loss of catalytic activity. 「由于大面积富营养化水体和大流量压舱水处理技术所存在上述的缺陷,导致无法同时适用于淡水和海水体系、不能有效杀灭细菌和蓝藻、运行成本高、会造成二次污染。 "Due to the large area above the eutrophication of water bodies and the presence of defects in a large flow of ballast water treatment technology, making it impossible for both fresh water and sea water systems can not effectively kill bacteria and cyanobacteria, high operating costs, it will cause secondary pollution.

发明内容 SUMMARY

有鉴于此,本发明在于提供一种微电流电解灭菌除藻装置,以解决上述水处理技术中,无法同时适用于淡水和海水体系、不能有效杀灭细菌和蓝藻的问题。 Accordingly, the present invention is to provide a micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device for solving the above-described water treatment technology, while not applicable to marine and freshwater systems, problems can not effectively kill bacteria and cyanobacteria.

为解决上述问题,本发明提供一种微电流电解灭菌除藻装置,包 To solve the above problems, the present invention provides a micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device, including

括: include:

安装在箱体的进水管道上感应溶液电导值的检测器,所述箱体内按照组内阳极、辅助电极、阴极的顺序安装至少一组以上的电极组, 控制器判断所述电导值的大小,控制所述箱体内电极的极性、及电路连接; Mounted on the water inlet pipe of the tank sensor detector solution conductance value, set inside the tank inner anode, auxiliary electrode, the cathode, mounting at least one set of the electrode group, the controller determines the size of the conductance value in accordance with controlling the polarity of the electrodes cabinets, and circuit connections;

所述控制器内包括: The inner controller comprising:

判断单元,用于判断所述电导值的大小,并按照判断结果触发相应的海水电解模式单元、淡水电解模式单元、倒极电解模式单元工作; Determination means for determining the size of said conductance value, and trigger the corresponding seawater electrolysis mode element in accordance with the judgment result, fresh water electrolysis unit mode, down mode pole electrolysis unit of work;

所述海水电解模式单元,用于接收触发后,导通所述阳极、阴极的电路连接,断开辅助电极的电路连接; The water electrolysis unit mode, for receiving a trigger, the conduction of the anode, cathode circuit, disconnecting the auxiliary electrode connected to a circuit;

所述淡水电解模式单元,用于接收触发后,将所述阴极的极性改为阳极,将所述辅助电极的极性改为阴极,导通未改变极性的阳极、 改变极性的阳极、阴极的电路连接; The fresh water electrolysis mode means for receiving a trigger, the polarity of the cathode to the anode, the polarity of the auxiliary electrode to the cathode, turned to change the polarity of the anode is not changing the polarity of the anode the cathode of the circuit;

.所述倒极模式单元,用于判断装置的运行次数、运行时间超过设定阈值后,将所述辅助电极的极性改为阳极,导通改变极性的阳极、 未改变极性的阴极的电路连接,断开未改变极性的阳极的电路连接。 After The pole down mode means for determining the number of operation means, the operation time exceeds the set threshold value, the polarity of the auxiliary electrode to the anode, an anode is turned to change the polarity, the polarity of the cathode is not changed the circuit connection, the polarity of the anode-off circuit is connected unaltered.

优选的,所述电极组内的电极形状为片状电极或管状电极。 Preferably, the shape of the inner electrode of the electrode group into a sheet electrode or tubular electrode.

优选的,还包括: Preferably, further comprising:

安装在所述箱体两端的超声发生器、及超声波反射体,所述超声发生器内包括至少一个以上超声换能器,所述电极组的位置在所述超声发生器和超声波反射体之间。 Mounted on both ends of the ultrasonic generator casing, and an ultrasonic reflector, in the ultrasonic generator comprises at least one or more ultrasonic transducers, between the position of the electrode group in the ultrasonic generator and the ultrasonic reflector . 优选的, Preferably,

所述电极形状为片状时,所述超声波反射体的形状为三棱柱形或 The electrode shape is a sheet, the shape of ultrasonic reflector is triangular prism or

者圓弧形,棱柱的棱边或圓弧朝向超声发生器的方向凸出; Are arc-shaped, the edge direction of the prisms or convex arc toward the ultrasonic generator;

所述电极形状为管状时,所述超声波反射体的形状为圆锥形,圓 The shape of the electrode is tubular, the shape of ultrasonic reflector is conical, round

锥的顶尖朝向超声发生器。 Taper towards the top sonicator.

优选的,所述电极形状为管状时,所述各个电极、各个超声换能 Preferably, when the electrode is tubular in shape, the respective electrodes, the respective ultrasonic transducer

器呈同一圓心的圆环状排列。 Is the same as a center of the annular arrangement.

优选的,所述检测器为电导率感应式电导传感器或电导变送器。 Preferably, the detector is an inductive conductivity sensor or a conductivity transducer conductance. 优选的,所述的钛阳极至少是以金属钛或钛合金的一种为基体, Preferably, the titanium anode at least one metal is titanium or a titanium alloy as a base,

在其表面涂覆含有金属Pt、 Ir、 Ru、 Rh、 Pd或Os、及其氧化物中至 In which a metal surface is coated contains Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd or Os, and oxide to

少一种,和含有至少Ta或Ti的氧化物的涂层电才及(DSA )。 At least one, and a coating comprising oxide of at least an electrical Ta or Ti and only (DSA).

优选的,所述辅助电极和阴极至少是以金属钬或钛合金的一种为 Preferably, the auxiliary electrode and the cathode is at least one metal or a titanium alloy is holmium

优选的,所述超声反射体的材料至少包括塑料、金属钛、钛合金、不 Preferably, the material of the ultrasonic reflection body comprising at least plastics, metallic titanium, titanium alloy, is not

锈钢、碳钢或铜合金的一种材料构件。 Stainless steel, carbon steel material, or a copper alloy member. 优选的,还包括: Preferably, further comprising:

安装在所述箱体出水管道上用于检测电解后溶液中氯含量的电 Mounted in said housing outlet tube track for electrically detecting the chlorine content in the electrolytic solution

位计或余氯电极、及余氯变送器; Level meter or the chlorine electrode and residual chlorine transducer;

所述各个电解单元按照所述氯含量值调节电解的电流、电压值。 The respective electrolytic cell according to the chlorine content of the electrolysis current is adjusted, the voltage value. 本发明中的装置,可同时应用到海水或淡水中灭菌除藻,具有良 Apparatus of the present invention, which can be applied to sterilization algaecide in seawater or fresh water, having good

好的杀菌除藻效果,并可实现自动除垢,且应用范围广;并加入超声 Good bactericidal algaecide effect, automatic cleaning can achieve, and the wide range of applications; was added and ultrasound

发生器,通过超声波有效破坏各种细菌和藻类细胞;设备筒单,且应 Generator by ultrasonic effective to destroy a variety of bacteria and algae cells; single-tube apparatus, and should

用范围广泛。 With a wide range.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1是电解体系统的示意图; 1 is a schematic electrical disintegration system;

图2a海水养殖电解处理体的白色沉淀颗粒示意图; FIG. 2a mariculture white electrolysis body schematic precipitated particles;

图2b淡水养殖的电解处理体系的阴极表面的结垢示意图; FIG fouling schematic cathode surface 2b electrolytic treatment freshwater aquaculture systems;

图2c高楼水箱使用的水箱自洁消毒器的阴极表面的白色结垢示意图; FIG. 2c rise tank using the tank self-cleaning sterilizer white surface of the cathode schematic fouling;

图3是不同水质IR吸收谱图的曲线示意图; FIG 3 is a schematic graph IR absorption spectrum of different quality;

图4是微电流电解灭菌除藻装置的示意图; FIG 4 is a schematic view of micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device;

图5 a是微电流电解器的电极组的板状钛阳极结构示意图; FIG 5 a plate-shaped titanium anode is a schematic diagram of the structure of the electrode group of micro-current electrolyzer;

图5b是微电流电解器的电极组的板状钛阴极结构示意图; FIG 5b is a schematic view of a plate-shaped titanium cathode structure of the electrode group of micro-current electrolyzer;

图5 c是微电流电解器的电极组的平板式辅助电极结构示意图; FIG. 5 c is a structural schematic view of an electrode plate electrode group of micro-current electrolyzer auxiliary;

图6是微电流电解器中板状电极组排列示意图; FIG 6 is a plate-like micro-current electrolyzer schematic arrangement of the electrode group;

图7A是塑料电极固定支架结构示意图; 7A is a schematic view of fixed support of plastic electrode structure;

图7B是图7A中部分放大的示意图; 7B is a schematic view of an enlarged portion of FIG. 7A;

图7C是图7B中BB的剖视图; FIG 7C is a sectional view BB of FIG. 7B;

图8是该装置中控制器的结构图; FIG 8 is a configuration diagram of a controller in the apparatus;

图9A是超声换能器发射的超声波传输方向示意图; 9A is a schematic view of the ultrasound transmission direction of emitted ultrasound transducer;

图9B是超声反射体所反射的超声波传输方向示意图; 9B is a schematic view of the ultrasound transmission direction of ultrasonic waves reflected by the reflector;

图IO是箱式微电流电解灭菌除藻装置示意图; FIG IO is a schematic view of micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide tank means;

图11是图9中AA向的示意图; FIG 11 is a schematic view taken along line AA of Figure 9;

图12A是800mmx500mm钛阳极(S = 2.0mm )结构图; 图12B是800mmx500mm钛阴极(5 = 2.0mm )结构图; 图12C是800mmx500mm钛网辅助电极(S=1.3mm)结构图; 图13是微电流电解灭菌除藻装置的控制原理图; '图14是箱式微电流电解灭菌除藻装置的电极排列结构示意图; 图15是图9中B向的示意图; 12A is 800mmx500mm titanium anode (S = 2.0mm) configuration diagram; FIG. 12B is a titanium cathode 800mmx500mm (5 = 2.0mm) configuration diagram; FIG. 12C is a titanium mesh 800mmx500mm auxiliary electrode (S = 1.3mm) configuration; Figure 13 is micro-current electrolysis control schematic of sterilization algaecide device; 'FIG 14 is a schematic view of a current tank micro electrode arrangement electrolysis sterilization algaecide device; FIG. 15 is a schematic diagram of the FIG. 9 B;

图16是箱式微电流电解灭菌除藻装置密封电极组橡胶垫的电极接线端出口排列结构示意图; 16 is a schematic box micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device electrode group rubber gasket seal electrode arrangement structure of the outlet terminal;

图17是箱式微电流电解灭菌除藻装置电极密封盖板电极接线示意图; FIG 17 is a schematic view of electrode wiring electrode tank cap plate sealing micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device;

图18 A是接线端子的主视图; 图18B是接线端子的左视图; 图19是三菱柱排列结构示意图; FIG 18 A is a front view of the terminal; FIG. 18B is a left side view of the terminal; FIG. 19 is a schematic view of Mitsubishi column arrangement;

图20是箱式微电流电解灭菌除藻装置超声发生器排列示意图;图21是超声发生器与箱体、超声发生器盖板连接的密封橡胶垫结 FIG 20 is a box-micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device of a schematic arrangement of an ultrasonic generator; FIG. 21 is a sealing rubber pad junction box with an ultrasonic generator, the ultrasonic generator is connected to the cover plate

构示意图; Schematic structure;

图22是图9中C向的示意图; FIG 22 is a schematic diagram of FIG. 9 to C;

图23A是管式微电流电解灭菌除藻装置的超声强化微电流电解系统结构示意图; FIG 23A is a tube micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device ultrasound schematic structural reinforcement micro-current electrolysis system;

图23B是图23A中的局部放大示意图; FIG. 23A FIG. 23B is a partially enlarged schematic view;

图24是固定棒状钛阳极、包含电极引线的塑料法兰结构示意图; 图25是固定棒状钛阳极、不包含电极引线的塑料法兰结构示意 FIG rod-shaped titanium anode 24 is fixed, a schematic view of plastic flange structure comprising electrode lead; FIG. 25 is a rod-shaped titanium anode is fixed, plastic flange configuration does not include a schematic of the electrode lead

图; Figure;

图2 6是为固定多孔管状辅助电极、包含电极引线的塑料法兰结构示意图; FIG 26 is a schematic view of plastic flange structure comprising electrode lead fixed porous tubular auxiliary electrode,;

图27是为固定多孔管状辅助电极、不包含电极引线的塑料法兰结 FIG 27 is a fixed porous tubular auxiliary electrode, not comprising electrode lead plastic flange junction

构示意图。 Configuration of FIG.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

为清楚说明本发明的装置,下面结合附图并给出优选实施例详细说明。 Apparatus of the present invention is clear, for example, detailed description of preferred embodiments given in conjunction with the drawings below.

本发明实施例的原理图可参见图4,包括:检测器检测进水管路中的电导,控制器判断检测器所检测到的电导,不同的电导下控制超声强化微电流电解器在相应的模式下工作。 Schematic embodiments of the present invention can be found in FIG. 4, comprising: a detector for detecting the inlet pipe conductance detected by the detector controller determines the conductance, the control device under ultrasound micro-current electrolysis at different conductance corresponding mode at work.

其中,检测器可采用电导率传感器或电导仪。 Wherein, the detector may employ a conductivity sensor or a conductivity meter. 电导率传感器采用感应式电导率传感器,由于这种传感器的工作原理是在溶液中的封闭回路中,产生一个感应电流,通过测量电流的大小得到溶液的电导率, 其抗污染性很强,可以保证系统在复杂的水质环境中运行稳定。 An induction conductivity sensor conductivity sensor, since the principle of such a sensor is a closed circuit in solution, resulting in an induced current, the conductivity of a solution obtained by measuring the magnitude of the current which strong contamination, can be to ensure the system is stable in the complexity of water environment. 电导仪、电位计分别可以采用电导变送器、余氯变送器,便于工控。 Conductivity meter, a potentiometer, respectively, the transmitter may employ conductivity, residual chlorine transducer for easy industrial control.

超声强化微电流电解器中包括:直流电解电源、电解电极组、箱体、和电极引线连接端子、超声发生器、超声反射体组成。 Ultrasonic assisted micro-current electrolyzer comprising: a DC electrolysis power supply, the electrolysis electrode group, a casing, and an electrode lead wire connection terminal, an ultrasound generator, the ultrasound reflector body composition.

其中直流电源采用线性直流电源,4妻入端为110V或220V交流电, 输出为直流电,可以根据需要调节电解电流,输出电压控制在36V的安全范围内;电极组由金属钛和钛合金为芯材的涂层电极等距离排列 Wherein the DC power supply DC linear power supply terminal 4 into the wife of 110V or 220V alternating current, direct current output, the electrolysis current can be adjusted, the output voltage control in a safe range 36V as required; an electrode group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys as a core material the coated electrodes arranged equidistantly

组成;箱体包括外壳、密封件、固定件和连接法兰,外壳、法兰采用塑料构件;超声发生器包括壳体、换能器、电源超声发生器。 Composition; box comprising a housing, a sealing member, the fixing member and the connecting flange, housing flange plastic member; ultrasonic generator comprises a housing, a transducer, an ultrasonic generator power.

微电流电解器中电解电极组可实现灭菌灭藻的作用,并可根据实际情况添加超声发生器,实现对细菌和藻类细胞的破碎。 Micro-current electrolyzer electrolysis electrode group can realize sterilization and algae effect, the ultrasonic generator can be added according to actual conditions, to achieve fragmentation of the bacteria and algae cells.

超声强化微电流电解器的电极组内主要包括: Ultrasonic Enhanced electrode group of micro-current electrolyzer including:

(1) 、钛阳极:采用金属钛或钛合金为基体在其表面涂覆至少含有一种金属Pt、 Ir、 Ru、 Rh、 Pd、 Os或及其氧化物、和含有至少一 (1), titanium anode: titanium or titanium alloy metal matrix containing at least one metal on the surface thereof is coated Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, or their oxides, and comprising at least one

种Ta、或Ti的氧化物的电极作为阳极-钛阳极(DSA阳极),Pt、 Species Ta, Ti or an oxide of the electrode as an anode - titanium anode (DSA anode), Pt,

Ir、 Ru、 Rh、 Pd、 Os、 Ta、 Ti均能提供d、 f空轨道的催化活性中心的有利于实现电子转移,避免极化现象,并有利于高活性氧化性物质的生成;为了避免电极与引线之间接点所通过的电流过大而容易在工作中产生烧断现象,板状阳极至少有2个接线端,在阳极上均匀分布, 参见图5a的钛阳极结构示意图,在接线端上开有通孔,可以与电线连接采用螺钉紧固;管状阳极可以通过环状接触以解决接触点局部电流过大问题。 Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ta, Ti can provide d, f vacant orbital catalytic active center is conducive to electron transfer, to avoid polarization and facilitate the generation of highly active oxidative substances; in order to avoid current through the contact between the electrode and the lead passes easily produce large blow phenomena at work, the plate-shaped anode has at least two terminals, a uniform distribution on the anode, a titanium anode structure schematic Referring to FIG. 5a, the terminal the through hole opening, may be attached using screws and wires; tubular anode can solve the problem of a large current through the contact points by local annular contact.

(2) 、阴极:采用金属钛或钛合金为基体在其表面涂覆至少一种Ta、 Ti的氧化物的电极构件;可以保证在电导率较低的淡水体系中转化电极性质作为阳极时具有一定的催化活性,同时Ta、 Ti的氧化物吸氢能力低,不会在作为阴极使用时脱落;同样,为了避免电极与引线之间通过的电流过大而容易在工作中产生烧断现象,板状阴极至少有2个接线端,在阴极上均匀分布,参见图5b的阴极结构示意图,在接线端上开有通孔,可以与电线连接采用螺钉紧固;管状阴极可以通过环状接触以解决接触点局部电流过大问题。 (2), cathode:; electrode having a conversion properties can be guaranteed as the anode in freshwater systems lower conductivity metal is titanium or titanium alloy coated on its surface at least one of Ta, Ti oxide electrode base member body some catalytic activity while Ta, Ti oxide low hydrogen-absorbing capacity, will not fall off when used as cathode; Similarly, in order to avoid through current between the electrode and the lead is too large, prone to blow phenomena at work, at least two plate-shaped cathode terminals, uniformly distributed in the cathode, the cathode 5b is a schematic structure Referring to FIG, on the terminal has a through-hole, the wire may be connected with screw fastening; a tubular cathode by contacting cyclic a local point of contact to resolve the current problem is too large.

(3) 、辅助电极:采用平均孔径不小于3mm的金属钛或钛合金网、」其表面涂覆至少一种Ta、 Ti的氧化物作为外层的电极构件,保证在倒极除垢作为阳极使用时,电极材料不会被腐蚀;同样,为了避免电极与引线之间通过的电流过大而容易在工作中产生烧断现象,板状辅助电极至少有2个接线端,在辅助电极上均匀分布,参见图5c的辅助电极结构示意图,在接线端上开有通孔,可以与电线连接采用螺钉紧固;管状辅助电极可以通过环状接触以解决点接触局部电流过大问 (3), the auxiliary electrode: an average pore diameter of not less than 3mm metal mesh titanium or titanium alloy, "at least one surface thereof coated with Ta, Ti oxide as the outer layer of the electrode member, to ensure the reverse cleaning as an anode electrode in use, the electrode material is not corroded; Similarly, in order to avoid through current between the electrode and the lead is too large, prone to blow phenomenon in operation, the auxiliary electrode is plate-like with at least two terminals, even on the auxiliary electrode distribution, a schematic view of the auxiliary electrode structure Referring to Figure 5c, the terminal opened on the through hole, the wire may be connected using screws; tubular auxiliary electrode may solve the point contact by locally excessive current Q annular contact

题; question;

对于板状钬阳极、阴极和辅助电极,在电极长度不大于1200mm 的条件下,接线端子以2到3个为上,接线端子太多对系统的密封和外形美观均有影响。 For holmium-shaped anode, cathode and auxiliary electrode, under the condition of the electrode is not greater than the length of 1200mm, to the terminal 2-3, for many connection terminals of the system are affected aesthetic appearance and sealing.

的循序等距离排列,组成微电流电解系统的电极组;板状电极构成的电极组排列参见图6,所有电极均采用双面涂覆的电极,由于阳极造价相对较高,可以使最后一组的排列中,标记A处为阳极,标记C为阴极,标记B为辅助电极,以阴极C为最外侧,以保证装置的空间利用率和降低成本。 Sequential equidistantly arranged to form the electrode group of micro-current electrolysis system; plate electrodes constituting an electrode group are arranged Referring to Figure 6, all of the electrodes are made of a double coated electrode, the relatively high cost since the anode, the final group can in the arrangement, the flag a is an anode, mark C is cathode, an auxiliary electrode is labeled B, C to the outermost cathode, means to ensure that the space utilization and reduce cost.

采用塑料定位支架,参见图7A、 7B、 7C,图7B是图7A中的放大示意图,图7C是图7B中BB的剖视图。 Positioning bracket plastic, see FIGS. 7A, 7B, 7C, FIG 7B is an enlarged view of FIG. 7A, 7C is a sectional view BB of FIG. 7B. 通过塑料定位支架将电极固定。 An electrode positioning bracket is fixed by a plastic.

由于海水与淡水的电导不同,因此,通过不同的电导由控制器选择不同的电解模式控制超声强化微电流电解器中不同的电极工作,控制器的示意图可参见图8,包括判断单元和电解模式单元,电解模式单元分为海水电解模式单元、淡水电解模式单元、倒极电解模式单元。 Due to the different conductivity of seawater and fresh water, and therefore, by selecting a different conductance by the controller that the electrolysis under ultrasound micro current mode control electrolyser different working electrodes, a schematic view of the controller can be seen in FIG. 8, includes a mode determination unit and the electrolytic unit, the electrolytic water into the electrolytic cell mode mode unit, fresh water electrolysis unit mode, down mode pole electrolysis cell.

当判断单元判断出检测器检测的电导率大于1500(aS/cm的海水水体,触发海水电解模式单元工作,海水电解模式单元控制辅助电极B 不工作,通过阳极A和阴极C之间的电解作用,将处理水体中的氯离子、水分子电解为具有高氧化活性的物质(CIO-,OH, H202, (O)),对水体中的细菌和藻类的细胞的RNA、 DNA进行氧化作用,使其失活和死亡,从而达到灭菌灭藻效果,并使处理过的水体的保持持续消毒作用;由于辅助电极B的大量的通孔和超声波的共同作用,使电解产生的活性物质的扩散和氧化杀菌效果不会因为辅助电极B存在而受影响; When the judging unit judges that the conductivity detected by the detector is greater than 1500 (aS / cm of sea water, sea water electrolysis mode trigger unit operates, electrolysis of seawater auxiliary electrode B mode control unit does not work, through electrolysis between anode A and the cathode C the chloride process water, electrolysis of water molecules to a substance having a high oxidation activity (CIO-, OH, H202, (O)), RNA of bacteria and algae in water by cells, the DNA oxidation action, so that inactivation and death, so as to achieve the effect of sterilization and algae, and maintaining the treated water continuously disinfection; interaction because a large number of through holes of the auxiliary electrode B and the ultrasonic wave, the diffusion of the active material produced by electrolysis and oxide sterilization effect because the auxiliary electrode is not affected by the presence of B;

当判断单元判断出检测器检测的电导率小于1500jiS/cm的淡水水 When the judging unit judges that fresh water detector conductivity of less than 1500jiS / cm of

21体中,触发淡水电解模式单元工作,淡水电解模式单元控制辅助电极B作为阴极,原来的阴极C均作为阳极,原阳极A的性质不变,相应的电极间距为原来的二分之一,根据(l)式可知,对于低电导率的淡水水体的电解处理可以大大降^^的工作电压; Body 21, the fresh water electrolysis mode trigger element work, fresh water electrolysis unit control mode B the auxiliary electrode as a cathode and the original cathode C are used as the anode, the nature of the original anode A remains unchanged, the corresponding electrode spacing is one-half the original, the (l) equation, for the electrolytic treatment of fresh water of low conductivity can be greatly reduced ^^ operating voltage;

在硬度较高的水体中,如果辅助电极B工作较长时间,表面沉积碳酸钙,倒极电解模式单元可根据运行次数、运行时间到达一定阈值时,通过改变原来阴极C (淡水体系工作时为阳极之一)与辅助电极 At higher water hardness, if the auxiliary electrode B and a long time, the surface of precipitated calcium carbonate, electrodialysis reversal electrolysis unit according to the number of operating modes, operating time reaches a certain threshold value, by changing the original cathode C (fresh water system is working one anode) and the auxiliary electrode

B的极性——进行倒极电解,倒极电解模式单元将辅助电极B改为阳极,作为阳极之一的原阴极c(淡水体系工作时为阳极)再次改为阴极,电解除垢,在倒极除垢过程中,原阳极A不工作,可以有效地保护阳极A的催化活性,从而保证装置运行的长期稳定性和可靠性。 B polarity - inverted pole for electrolysis, electrodialysis reversal mode electrolysis unit B to the auxiliary electrode an anode, a cathode c original one anode (anode when fresh water system is working) to a cathode, the electrolytic descaling again, inverted pole during descaling, original anode a is not working, can effectively protect the catalytic activity of anode a, in order to ensure long-term stability and reliability of the operation of the device.

根据水箱长期运行的规律,在相同的淡水水体中运行,采用恒电 According to the law of the long-running water tank, in the same freshwaters run, using constant electricity

流电解,如果在电流不变的条件下,电解电位升高20%,则表明电解过程中阴极肯定结垢,以采用在相同电解电流、在相同的淡水水体中电解运行时电解电位(Ul + U2 + U3)升高20%时,采用倒极电解模式除垢,倒极电解的电流密度不大于20mA/cm2,倒极电解时间不需大于l小时即可;而在海水体系中运行,无需采用倒极电解除垢。 Flow electrolysis current if at the same conditions, the electrolysis potential rises by 20%, it indicates that the cathode during the electrolysis fouling affirmative, to employ the same electrolysis current, at the same time fresh water electrolysis potential electrolysis operation (Ul + when U2 + U3) rises by 20% using reverse electrolysis electrode cleaning mode, electrodialysis reversal current density of electrolysis is not greater than 20mA / cm2, electrolysis time without electrodialysis reversal is greater than l hour; operate in seawater system without using reverse electrolysis descaling pole.

当电极组采用管状电极时,可以按照同样的顺序:将辅助电极安在阴极、阳极之间,各电极等距离沿径向同轴排列构成,采用带有均布的支撑筋不多于6根的塑料法兰固定,以减少水阻。 When the electrode group adopts tubular electrodes, in the same sequence: An auxiliary electrode between cathode and anode, the electrodes are arranged equidistantly radially concentric configuration, with the use of support ribs uniformly distributed more than 6 the plastic flange is fixed to reduce the water resistance.

装置中还可包括用于破坏细菌和藻类细胞的超声发生器及超声反射体。 Apparatus may further comprise an ultrasonic generator and an ultrasonic reflector for destroying the bacteria and algae cells. 超声发生器包括壳体、换能器、电源组成,采用多个超声换能器阵列,在壳体中均匀布置,并与板状电极组排列方向均布平行排列, 以增大超声波的强度,保证处理装置的水体中超声场分布均匀;在管状电极组的微电流电解体系中,宜采用环形均布排列。 The ultrasonic generator comprises a housing, a transducer, power components, the use of ultrasound transducer arrays plurality of uniformly arranged in the housing, and are arranged in parallel to the plate electrode groups are arranged cloth, to increase the strength of ultrasonic waves, to ensure a uniform distribution of ultrasonic field water treatment apparatus; micro-current electrolysis system of tubular electrode group, should adopt uniform ring arrangement.

在超声发生器产生的超声波传输过程中,参见图9A、图9B,虽然有发散作用,但如果遇到与前进方向垂直的平面,将有相当一部分能量沿原路反射回去,超声反射体构成的反射平面或曲面与超声波行进的方向成一定角度,从而改变超声波的反射方向,强化对电极的清洗作用,减轻结垢现象;另一方面,增加了超声波在处理装置的水体 An ultrasonic generator in the ultrasonic transmission process, referring to FIGS. 9A, 9B, the diverging effect although, if there is a plane perpendicular to the advancing direction, there will be a considerable part of the energy is reflected back along the same route, consisting of an ultrasonic reflector flat or curved reflecting the ultrasonic angle to the direction of travel, to change the direction of the reflected ultrasonic wave, to strengthen the cleaning action of the electrode, reduce fouling; on the other hand, increased ultrasonic treatment apparatus in the water

中的传播路程,从而增大超声作用使细菌和微生物的细胞破碎的机会; Propagation distance, thereby increasing the ultrasound bacterial microbial cell disruption and opportunities;

再者避免超声波直接沿原路反射,以免造成对超声换能器压电振子的损伤,延长使用寿命。 Further along the same route to avoid direct ultrasonic waves reflected, so as to avoid damage to the ultrasound transducer of the piezoelectric vibrator and prolong life.

所述的超声波反射体,可以为塑料、金属钛、钛合金、不锈钢、 碳钢或铜合金等材料,为防止系统运行时材料的腐蚀,以金属钛、钛合金、塑料为构件最佳。 The ultrasonic reflector, may be a plastic material, metallic titanium, titanium alloy, stainless steel, carbon steel or copper alloy, in order to prevent corrosion of the material system is running, metal titanium, titanium alloys, plastic is the best member.

超声波反射体的可以是三棱柱或半圓柱体,三棱柱的一个柱面与箱体衔接,并且与电极平行,三棱柱的一条棱与超声发生器发射的超 Ultrasonic wave reflector may be a semi-cylinder or a triangular prism, triangular prism and a cylindrical adapter housing, and parallel to the electrodes, over an edge of a triangular prism and emitted from the ultrasonic generator

声波传输方向垂直;半圓柱体则将柱平面与箱体^f舒接,并且与电解电极平行,曲面与超声发生器发射的超声波传输方向垂直;这样可以保证有效的改变超声波的反射方向,强化对电极的清洗作用,减轻结垢现象,同时,增大超声破碎细菌和微生物细胞壁的能力;其中,优选采用三棱柱结构,以提高超声场分布均勻性。 A direction perpendicular to the acoustic wave transmission; semi-cylindrical casing will post a plane contact Shu ^ f, and the vertical direction of the ultrasonic wave transmission electrolysis electrodes parallel surfaces and emitted from the ultrasonic generator; This ensures efficient direction of the ultrasonic reflecting changes strengthen cleaning effect of the electrode, reduce fouling, while increasing the ability to ultrasonication cell walls of bacteria and microorganisms; wherein, preferably three-prism structures to improve the uniformity of distribution of ultrasonic field. 对于管状电极体系,超声反射体采用圓锥型的结构为佳。 The tubular electrode system, using ultrasound reflectors preferably conical configuration.

该装置中采用板状电极的结构图可参见图10,箱式超声强化微电流电解灭菌除藻装置连接进水法兰1,在进水管道中设置有感应式电导传感器2,该装置的箱式壳体5中具有板式电极组4,板式电极组4 中设置有固定板式电极的塑料电极固定支架3;箱式壳体5上连接出水法兰6,并在出水管路上设置有余氯电极7及余氯变送器;装置内安装有超声反射体9,板式电极组4外安装有电极组密封橡胶垫10, 通过盖板15固定在箱式壳体5上,并通过紧固件11固定,钛阳极12、 阴极13、钛网辅助电极14安装在塑料电极固定支架3上,装置的一端安装有超声发生器壳体16,壳体16内安装有超声换能器17,超声发生器壳体16与箱体之间连接有密封橡胶垫18,并通过超声发生器盖板19固定。 The apparatus employed a configuration diagram of a plate-shaped electrode can be seen in FIG. 10, box ultrasonic micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide strengthening means connecting the inlet flange 1, are provided in the water inlet pipe with an induction conductivity sensor 2, the apparatus box housing 5 having an electrode plate group 4, the electrode plate group 4 is provided in a fixed plate electrode plastic electrode fixing bracket 3; outlet flange 6 connected to the box-type housing 5, and is provided with chlorine electrode outlet line 7 and a residual chlorine transducer; means within an ultrasonic reflector 9 is mounted, the electrode plate group 4 is attached to the outer electrode group rubber gasket seal 10, the cover plate 15 is fixed to the box-type housing 5, and 11 by fasteners fixed, titanium anode 12, cathode 13, the auxiliary titanium mesh electrode 14 is mounted on the plastic electrode support 3 fixed to one end of the device is attached to the ultrasonic generator housing 16, is attached to the ultrasonic transducer 17 within the housing 16, ultrasonic generator is connected between the housing 16 and the housing sealing rubber pad 18, and the cover plate 19 is fixed by an ultrasonic generator.

采用PEEK (聚醚醚酮)制成的InPro7250HT感应式电导传感器2和梅特勒-托利多变送器构成进水水体的电导检测和信号传输部分, 将信号输出端与控制器连接;采用SZ283余氯电极7和意大利B&C(CL3630余氯变送器)构成余氯检测和信号传输部分,将信号输出 Using PEEK (polyether ether ketone) made InPro7250HT inductive conductivity sensor 2 and Mettler - Toledo conductivity detector and a transmitter configured into water bodies of the signal transmission section, the signal output terminal connected to the controller; using SZ283 chlorine electrode 7 and Italian B & C (CL3630 residual chlorine transducer) composed of chlorine detection and signal transmission section, the signal output

端与控制器连接。 End connected to the controller.

装置采用厚度优选为15mm的U-PVC (聚氯乙烯)板制成。 It means preferably with a thickness of 15mm U-PVC (polyvinyl chloride) sheet. 内部优选净尺寸为1580mmx 600mmx515mm的箱式壳体5,进水连接法兰2和出水连接法兰6的外径优选为350mm、内径为200mm、 8个为孔径为22mm的螺栓孔均布在直径为295mm的圓环上,采用M20紧固螺栓分别与进水管道、出水管道连接,如图11所示,图11为图9中A向的示意图。 Preferably, the interior trim of 1580mmx 600mmx515mm box-type housing 5, the inlet connection flange 2 and outlet connection flange 6 is preferably an outer diameter of 350mm, an inner diameter of 200mm, 8 th hole diameter of the bolt holes of 22mm in diameter evenly distributed 295mm of the ring, using the fastening bolts M20 are connected to the water inlet pipe, outlet pipe, as shown in FIG. 11, FIG. 11 to the schematic of FIG. 9 a.

板式电极组4优选采用长800mm、宽500、厚度52.5mm表面涂覆Ir、 Rh氧化物和Ti02的钬阳极12;优选长800mm、宽500、厚度52.5mm、芯材为金属钛表面涂覆Ta、 Ti的氧化物的电极作为阴极13; 优选长800mm、宽500mm、厚度51.3mm、芯材为金属钬、网孔(中心距)为4.5mmxl2.5mm、表面涂覆Ta、 Ti的氧化物的钬网电极作为辅助电极14;所有电极均有两个接线端,分别参见图12A至图12C。 Plate electrode group 4 is preferably used length 800mm, width 500, thickness of the surface coating 52.5mm Ir, Rh and Ti02 holmium oxide anode 12; preferably length 800mm, width 500, thickness of 52.5mm, the core material is a surface coating of titanium Ta , Ti oxide electrode as the cathode 13; preferably length 800mm, width 500mm, thickness of 51.3mm, the core material is a metal holmium, mesh (center distance) is 4.5mmxl2.5mm, the coated surface Ta, Ti oxide holmium mesh electrode as the auxiliary electrode 14; all of the electrodes has two terminals, respectively, see FIGS. 12A to 12C.

采用6块阳极、7块阴极、12块网状辅助电极按照阴极、辅助电极、阳极的循序中心距相间25mm等距离排列插在塑料固定支架3上, 固定支架的固定槽离箱底有15mm,保证运行期间水体中沉积的少量沉积物不会导致电极之间短路,参见图7和图14,由于箱体净高为500mm,佳j反状电极有15mm的高度完全留在箱体的板内(构成箱体的板厚度为15mm),从而保证电极可以准确定位,并且在流水作用下, 不会发生错动和移位;电极从箱体的安装槽口插入箱内,另一侧的两端嵌入塑料固定支架3,安装槽口长803mm、宽3mm,便于安装定位, 参见图15;安装槽口与电极密封盖板15之间,加厚度为5mm的密封橡胶垫10,用M8螺栓经OlOmm的通孔25紧固;在密封橡胶垫对应于电极接线端处划口,作为密封电极组橡胶垫的电极接线端出口26, 使电极接线端通过,同时保证密封效果,参见图16、图17;每 6 using the anode, cathode 7, the auxiliary electrode 12 in accordance with the mesh cathode, an auxiliary electrode, an anode spaced from the center 25mm sequentially arranged equidistantly on the plastic plug fixing bracket 3, the fixing groove has a bottom mounting bracket from 15mm, to ensure a small amount of water sediments deposited during the operation does not cause a short circuit between the electrodes, see FIG. 7 and FIG. 14, since the clear height of the tank is 500mm, Jia j counter-electrode has a height of 15mm left completely in the housing plate ( the plate thickness of the casing is configured 15mm), so as to ensure the electrode can be accurately positioned, and in the action of water, the shift does not occur and dislocation; an electrode is inserted into the mounting slot inside the box, the other side ends embedded in the plastic fixing bracket 3, to install the slot length 803mm, width 3mm, easy to install positioned, see Figure 15; and a notch between the mounting electrode seal plate 15, having a thickness of 5mm plus a sealing rubber pad 10, a bolt through M8 OlOmm fastened through hole 25; a sealing rubber pad of the electrode terminals corresponding to the designated port, an outlet electrode terminal as the sealing rubber pad electrode assembly 26, via the electrode terminals, while ensuring the sealing effect, see FIG. 16, FIG. 17; every 电极接线端用厚4mm、外径为25mm、中心开有17mmx3mm通孔的不锈钢压片30和中心孔径为18mm、高50mm的M30螺栓31紧固密封, 将电线用螺丝经电极接线端的螺孔与电极连接,电极接线端、金属压片30、中空紧固螺栓31构成接线端子,如图18A、图18B所示。 An electrode terminal with a thickness 4mm, outer diameter of 25mm, the center of the through hole is opened 17mmx3mm steel sheeting 30 and the central aperture of 18mm, M30 bolt 31 of the holding seal 50mm high, the wire electrode terminals by screws with the screw holes electrode, an electrode terminal, the metal sheeting 30, the hollow fastening bolt 31 constituting the terminal, FIG. 18A, FIG. 18B.

板式电极组4内的电极与线性恒流直流电源连接,如图13所示, 线性恒流电源输出端i、 iii、 v为正极输出端,ii、 iv为负极输出端; 阴极13通过接线端子28分别与线性恒流直流电源的输出端ii、 iii连接,辅助电极14通过接线端子29分别与线性恒流直流电源的输出端iv、 v连4妄,线性恒流直流电源的输出端i、 iii、 v为正才及输出端,ii、 iv为负极输出端。 Linear constant current DC power supply and the electrodes in the electrode group connected to the plate 4, as shown in FIG. 13, a linear constant-current power output i, iii, v is a positive output terminal, ii, iv is a negative output terminal; cathode 13 via terminals 28 are linear constant current output terminal of the DC power supply ii, III connector, the auxiliary electrode 14 through the terminal 29 and the output terminal are respectively linear constant current DC power supply iv, v i 4 jump even the output terminal, the linear constant-current DC power supply, iii, v and only positive output terminal, ii, iv negative electrode output terminal.

在海水体系电解运行时(电导率大于1500|iS/cm),控制器接通线性恒流直流电源的i、 ii输出端子;在淡水体系电解运行时(电导率小于1500pS/cm),控制器接通线性恒流直流电源的i、 iii、 iv输出端子; 倒极除垢运行时,控制器接通线性恒流直流电源的ii、 v输出端子; 可以使装置在淡水、海水水体中稳定、可靠地运行。 In water electrolysis system runtime (conductivity greater than 1500 | iS / cm) i, the linear constant-current DC power supply controller turns basis, ii output terminals; in fresh water electrolysis system runtime (conductivity of less than 1500pS / cm), the controller linear constant-current DC power supply is turned on i, iii, iv output terminals; electrode when pouring descaling operation, the controller turns ii linear constant current DC power supply, v output terminal; means allows fresh water, sea water stable, reliable operation.

超声反射体9采用PVC制成底面为50mm、高15mm等腰三角形、 长为515mm的三菱柱,12个相同的三菱柱按照与电极平行的方向排列,焊接在箱式壳体5上,参见图9、图19;将10个TYH-50-25型功率50W、工作频率25KHz的超声换能器17,用AB胶粘结在厚度为2mm的Crl8Ni9Ti不锈钢超声发生器壳体16上,均匀分布,参见图9、图20,在箱式壳体5、超声发生器壳体16、和超声发生器面板19之间,各加一个厚度为3.5mm的密封橡胶垫密封垫18,参见图21, 用M20x60螺栓经(D22mm的通孔32将它们紧固在一起,保证密封效果,超声换能器17的电线经超声发生器面板19的中心孔导出,参见图22,与超声发生器的电源21连接。 An ultrasonic reflector 9 adopts PVC with the bottom surface of 50mm, 15mm high isosceles triangle, Mitsubishi column length 515mm, 12 are arranged in the same column of Mitsubishi direction parallel to the electrodes, welded to the box-type housing 5, see Fig. 9, FIG. 19; and 10 TYH-50-25 power 50W, the working frequency of 25KHz ultrasonic transducer 17, with the adhesive junction AB at a thickness of 2mm on the Crl8Ni9Ti stainless steel ultrasonic generator housing 16, a uniform distribution, Referring to FIG. 9, FIG. 20, between the tank-type housing 5, 16, ultrasonic generator, and an ultrasonic generator housing 19 panels, each having a thickness of 3.5mm plus a rubber gasket sealing gasket 18, see FIG. 21, with M20x60 through bolt (D22mm through hole 32 of fastening them together, to ensure the sealing effect, the wire 17 is derived by the ultrasonic transducer center hole of the ultrasonic generator faceplate 19, see FIG. 22, the power supply is connected to the ultrasonic generator 21 .

电导变送器的输出端与控制器的输入端连接,控制器的输出端与超声发生器的电源21、线性直流恒流电源连接,线性恒流直流电源采用型号规格为0-30V/800A线性电源;通过控制器的指令对进水水质的电导率、排水水质中余氯进行检测,控制器中各个电解单元根据所测的电导率决定电解模式,根据余氯大小调节电解电流、电压;线性恒流直流电源的电压、电流信号传输给控制器,控制器中倒极电解模式单元决定是否需要进行倒极;控制器还可以根据预定的功率选择相 An input terminal and output terminal of the conductivity transducer is connected to the controller, the controller of the power output of the ultrasonic generator 21, connected linear DC constant current power supply, a constant current DC power supply using a linear model specifications for 0-30V / 800A linear power; on the conductivity of the water quality, residual chlorine in effluent quality by detecting a control instruction, the controller determines the respective electrolytic cell electrolysis mode according to the measured conductivity, residual chlorine according to the size of the adjustment electrolysis current, voltage; linear constant voltage DC power supply, a current signal to the controller, the controller in reverse electrolysis mode electrode unit determine the need for down electrode; controller may also be selected according to a predetermined power phase

25应组数的超声换能器17工作,以对超声发生器的功率进行控制。 25 to be the number of groups of ultrasonic transducers 17 work, the power of the ultrasonic generator to be controlled.

上面的详细描述了板式电极组的装置,下面详细描述管式电极组 The above detailed description of the apparatus plate electrode group, the following detailed description of tubular electrode group

的微电流电解灭菌除藻装置。 The micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device.

如图23A所示,管式微电流电解灭菌除藻装置,主体包括连接进 23A, the micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide tube apparatus, comprising a main body ligated into

水法兰l、感应式电导传感器2、出水法兰6、余氯电极7、余氯变送器、超声反射体、电导变送器、超声发生器电源、线性恒流直流电源、 控制器、超声发生器33,带法兰的三通34,固定棒状钛阳极塑料法兰35-1、 35-2,固定多孔管状辅助电极塑料法兰36- 1、 36-2,表面包覆Ti02的多孔管状辅助电极37,同时作为水路管体的表面包覆Ti02 的管状阴极38,含有金属Pt、 Ir氧化物的棒状钬阳极39,密封垫40, 圓锥形不锈钢超声反射体41,带有金属垫片的引线端子42组成。 L water flange, inductive conductivity sensor 2, a flange 6 the water, chlorine electrode 7, a residual chlorine transducer, an ultrasonic reflector, a conductivity transducer, an ultrasonic generator power supply, a linear constant-current DC power supply, a controller, ultrasonic generator 33, a tee 34 with flange, the rod-shaped titanium anode fixing plastic flange 35-1, 35-2, porous tubular auxiliary electrode fixed plastic flange 36-1, 36-2, a porous surface coating Ti02 the tubular auxiliary electrode 37, while the surface coated with Ti02 as the water pipe of the tubular cathode 38, metal containing Pt, Ir rod-shaped anode holmium oxide 39, the gasket 40, conical stainless steel ultrasonic reflector 41, with metal pads sheet 42 composed of lead terminals. 超声发生器33和超声反射体41通过塑料三通34、中间添加密封橡胶垫40与电极组用螺栓紧固在一起,密封橡胶垫40的安装可参见图23B。 33 ultrasonic generator and an ultrasonic reflector 4134, add the intermediate sealing rubber pad 40 fastened together with the electrode group through the plastic tee bolt, the sealing rubber pad 40 is mounted can be seen in FIG. 23B. 超声波反射体41的形状为圓锥形,圓锥的顶尖朝向超声发生器。 Shape of the ultrasonic reflector 41 is conical, tapered toward the top sonicator. 管状电极可以按圓环状排列,此时,各个超声换能器也按圓环状排列,且与管状电极的圆心为同心。 The tubular electrodes can be arranged in an annular shape by, at this time, the respective ultrasonic transducer is also arranged in an annular shape by, and the tubular electrode and the center are concentric.

进水连接法兰1和出水连接法兰6可以用紧固螺栓分别与进水管道、出水管道连接。 The inlet connection flange 1 and the outlet connection flange 6 can be connected to the water inlet pipe fastening bolt, outlet pipe, respectively. 法兰35-l、 35-2用于固定棒状钛阳极39,参见图23A、图23B、图24、图25,为减少水阻,固定电^?L的塑料法兰采用不多于六根的均布的支撑筋,法兰35- 1、 35-2的厚度一般为不小于12mm,带有电极引线50的法兰35- 1,沿其一根支撑筋的中心位置钻有03.5 ~ O5.0mm直达电极固定圓槽的通孔,固定圆槽的深度为5~6mm,布设电极引线与棒状钛阳极39和线性恒流直流电源的输出端子i连接,将电极与塑料法兰35- 1圆槽之间的间隙用防水绝缘胶粘结密封,其另一端与不带电极引线的塑料法兰35-2的固定圆槽嵌合,不必粘结,便于拆卸;法兰36-1、 36-2用于固定多孔管状辅助电极37,参见图23A、图23B、图26、图27,为减少水阻,同样固定电极的塑料法兰采用不多于六根的均布的支撑筋,法兰厚度不小于12mm,支撑电极的圆环的直径在多孔管状辅助电极的内直径0-2mm ~外直径①+ 2mm之间,按多孔 Flange 35-l, 35-2 for fixing the rod-shaped titanium anode 39, referring to FIGS. 23A, 23B, and 24, FIG. 25, in order to reduce water resistance, fixing the electrical ^? L plastic flange in more than six of uniform support ribs, thickness of the flange 35-1, 35-2 is generally not less than 12mm, the flange 50 having the electrode leads 35-1, the center position thereof along a strut drilled 03.5 ~ O5. direct 0mm electrode fixing through hole of the circular groove, the circular fixing groove depth is 5 ~ 6mm, the output terminal i laid electrode lead rod-shaped titanium anode 39 and linear constant-current DC power supply is connected to the electrode with circular plastic flange 35-1 waterproof a gap between the insulating adhesive seal groove junction, a plastic flange to the other end thereof without fixing the electrode lead 35-2 of the circular groove fitting, adhesive need not, for easy removal; flange 36-1, 36- 237, see FIG porous tubular auxiliary electrode for fixing. 23A, 23B, 26, 27, to reduce the water resistance, the plastic flange same fixed electrode using no more than six equispaced support rib, flange thickness not less than 12mm, the diameter of the support ring electrode porous tubular auxiliary electrode on the inner diameter of the outer diameter of 0-2mm ~ ① + between 2mm, a porous press 管状辅助电4及的直径和厚度开设深度为6~8mm的环行凹槽用于固定阳极,带有电极引线的法兰36 - 1,沿其一根支撑筋的中心位置钻有直径03.5 ~①5.0mm直达固定电极的环行凹槽通孔,布设电极引线与多孔管状辅助电极37连接,其电极引线与直流恒流电源的输出端子iv、 v连接,然后将电极与塑料法兰36-1环行凹槽之间的间隙用防水绝缘胶粘结密封,辅助电极37 的另一端与不带电极引线的塑料法兰36-2的环行凹槽嵌合,不必粘结,便于拆卸;在各法兰之间,加密封垫40,用螺栓将整个装置紧固在一起,作为水路管体的管状阴极38通过带铜垫片的引线端子42与直流恒流电源的输出端子ii、 iii连接,多孔管状阴极37及管状阴极38与棒状钛阳极39同轴。 The tubular auxiliary electrode 4 and the diameter and thickness of the annular recess defines a depth of 6 ~ 8mm for fixing the anode electrode lead 36 with a flange - 1, drilled with a diameter of 03.5 ~ ①5 in which a center position of the strut direct .0mm annular recess of the fixed electrode through-hole layout porous tubular auxiliary electrode lead electrode 37 is connected to an output terminal iv electrode lead of the DC constant current power supply, v is connected and the electrode ring and the plastic flange 36-1 a gap junction waterproof insulating adhesive seal between the grooves, the other end of the auxiliary electrode 37 and the plastic flange with no electrode lead 36-2 annular recess fitting, adhesive need not, for easy removal; in the flanges between, plus the gasket 40, are fastened together with bolts to the entire apparatus, a tubular cathode body waterway tube 38 via a lead terminal with a copper washer 42 and the output terminal of the constant current power supply DC ii, III connector, porous tubular the cathode 37 and tubular cathode 38 39 coaxially with the rod-shaped titanium anode.

线性恒流直流电源的输出端i、 iii、 v为正4及输出端,ii、 iv为负极输出端;在海水体系电解运行时(电导率大于1500pS/cm),控制器接通线性恒流直流电源的i、 ii输出端子;在淡水体系电解运行时(电导率小于1500|iS/cm),控制器接通线性恒流直流电源的i、 iii、 iv输出端子;倒极除垢运行时,控制器接通线性恒流直流电源的ii、 v输出端子;可以使装置在淡水、海水水体中稳定、可靠地运行。 An output terminal i of the linear constant-current DC power supply, iii, v and an output terminal 4 is positive, ii, iv is a negative output terminal; seawater electrolysis runtime system (conductivity greater than 1500pS / cm), the controller turns constant linear DC power i, ii output terminals; in fresh water electrolysis system runtime (conductivity of less than 1500 | iS / cm) i, the controller turns the linear constant-current DC power supply, iii, iv output terminals; inverted pole cleaning runtime , II controller turns the linear constant-current DC power supply, v output terminal; means allows fresh water, sea water stable, reliable operation.

控制器与检测器、超声发生器的电源、线性恒流直流电源之间的连接方式、控制模式与实施例l相同,此处不再赘述。 The controller and detector connection between the power supply ultrasonic generator, a linear constant current DC power supply, the control mode is the same as in Example L, is not repeated here.

:该装置中的线性恒流直流电源采用型号规格为0-30V/800A线性电源;将厚度为1.5mm、网孑L (中心距)为3.0mm x 6.0mm的钬网用宽10mm、厚1.5mm的钬条,焊接成接近(O=60mm,长1030mm) 的多孔钛管,经空气中12(TC加热3小时并按照1〜2。C/min降温速率降至室温的处理,使其表面均匀包覆Ti02,作为多孔管状辅助电极37;将钛管(C> = 108mm, ^6.5mm,长1000mm),用同样的方法处理后,作为阴极38 ,用表面涂覆Pt、 Ir氧化物的棒状钛阳极39( O =20mm , 长1060mm),功率40W的超声发生器作为主体配置,可以实现处理流量为30M3/hr的水体灭菌除藻。 : The apparatus uses a linear constant-current DC power supply is a model specification 0-30V / 800A linear power supply; and a thickness of 1.5mm, mesh larvae L (center distance) of 3.0mm x 6.0mm with a mesh width of holmium 10mm, a thickness of 1.5 holmium mm strips, welded to close (O = 60mm, 1030mm length) of porous titanium tube, the air 12 (TC heated for 3 h and cooled to room temperature treated according 1~2.C / min cooling rate, so that the surface Titania and uniformly coated, as the porous tubular auxiliary electrode 37; titanium pipes (C> = 108mm, ^ 6.5mm, length 1000mm), post-treated in the same way as the cathode 38, the surface is coated with Pt, Ir oxide rod-shaped titanium anode 39 (O = 20mm, length 1060mm), an ultrasonic generator power of 40W as a main configuration, the processing flow may be implemented 30M3 / hr water sterilization algaecide.

对使用本发明中装置进行淡水、海水中灭菌除藻分析结果如下:试验与使用条件: Apparatus of the present invention is used for fresh water, sea water sterilization algaecide analysis results were as follows: Test conditions of use:

(1)、 50M3不锈钢水箱,试验水体为自来水,水质指标参见表1; 实验用自来水水质: (1), 50M3 stainless steel water tank, the water is tap water test, water quality indicators in Table 1; test with tap water:

Cl-(ppm) 硬度CaC03 (ppm ) 碱度CaC03 (ppm ) 电导率^S/cm Cl- (ppm) hardness CaC03 (ppm) Alkalinity CaC03 (ppm) Conductivity ^ S / cm

30 ~ 48 320 ~ 380 350 ~ 370 8.0 ~ 8.5 750 ~ 800 30 ~ 48 320 ~ 380 350 ~ 370 750 ~ 800 8.0 ~ 8.5

<table>table see original document page 28</column></row> <table> <Table> table see original document page 28 </ column> </ row> <table>

<table>table see original document page 28</column></row> <table>结果计算: <Table> table see original document page 28 </ column> </ row> <table> Calculation Results:

结果的测定方法,参照GB15979,采用经过微电流电解灭菌除藻装置处理前后的水样各l.OOml,用经过灭菌的琼脂培养基,置于35士2。 The results of the measurement method, referring to GB15979, through the use of water samples before and after each l.OOml micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device for processing, after a sterilized agar medium, at 35 ± 2. C培养48小时,计数细菌菌落数目,以(18)式计算杀菌效率ri, 测试耳又3组平行样,求耳又平均值。 C for 48 hours, counting the number of bacterial colonies, in (18) to calculate the sterilization efficiency ri, and 3 sets of parallel ear test sample, and the average seek ear.

T( = {(MN)/M} xl00% ( 18 ) T (= {(MN) / M} xl00% (18)

其中:N为电解处理后的水样的菌落数, Where: N is the number of colonies of water samples after electrolysis,

M为电解处理前的水样的菌落数。 M is the number of colonies of water samples prior to electrolysis.

灭藻结果的测定方法,采用叶绿素变化进行近似估计,将处理后的水体,与未经处理的水体,自然放置24小时,然后测试两种水体中的叶绿素含量,近似评价对蓝藻的杀灭效果,尽管多数藻类无法确定死活、已经杀死的微生物经过滤进入滤液也对叶绿素的测定有贡献。 Determination results algae, chlorophyll be approximated changes, the water treated with untreated water, naturally for 24 hours, then the chlorophyll content of the two water tests, the approximate evaluation of the effect of killing the blue algae , although most algae can not determine life and death, have been killed microbial filtered into the filtrate determination of chlorophyll also contributes.

试验结果: test results:

(1)、自来水水体试验: A、采用板式电极的处理能力为300M3/hr的箱式微电流电解灭菌除藻装置,用50M3的自来水进行灭菌试验,水体水泵按照250M3/hr 的流量输送进入装置处理,按3种电流密度各运行,钛阳极12和原阴极13均作为电解阳极,以辅助电极14作为阴极,分别参照GB15979 测试原水和处理后的水体中细菌总数,根据(18)式计算杀菌效率ri, 结果列于表4,表明经箱式超声强化微电流电解灭菌除藻装置处理水体,工作电压不大于30V,具有良好是杀菌效果。 (1), tap water test: A, using the electrode plate processing capacity of 300M3 / hr tank micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device for sterilization 50M3 tap water test, the water pump flow rate in accordance with 250M3 / hr is delivered into means for processing, according to three kinds of current density for each run, the titanium anode 12 and original cathode 13 are an electrolytic anode and an auxiliary electrode 14 as a cathode, respectively, with reference GB15979 test raw water and the total number of bacterial flora after the treatment, calculated according to formula (18) sterilization efficiency ri, results are shown in table 4, show a box by ultrasonic assisted micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device for processing the water, the working voltage is less than 30V, with good bactericidal effect.

不同电流密度条件下杀菌效果 Sterilization effect under different current densities

<table>table see original document page 29</column></row> <table>表4 <Table> table see original document page 29 </ column> </ row> <table> Table 4

B、采用处理能力为30M3/hr的管式微电流电解灭菌除藻装置, 用50 M3的自来水进行灭菌试验,同样用水泵按照30M3/hr的流量输送进入装置处理,按3种电流密度各运行(因为阳极直径不同,以电流密度无法准确描述电解工况,以总电流35A、 18A、 7A来描述更确切一些,分别对应管阳极38的近似电流密度为5.0 mA/cm2、 2.5 mA/cm2、 1.0 mA/cm2),原管状阴极38和棒状钬阳极39均作为电解阳极,以辅助电极37作为阴极,分别参照GB15979测试原水和处理后的水体中细菌总数,根据(18)式计算杀菌效率ri,结果列于表5, 表明经箱式超声强化微电流电解灭菌除藻装置处理水体,工作电压不大于30V,具有良好是杀菌效果。 B, in the processing capacity of 30M3 / hr tube micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device, tap water is sterilized test 50 M3, the same pump in accordance with a flow rate of 30M3 / hr is delivered into the processing apparatus, according to the respective three kinds of current density run (since the anode of different diameters, at a current density not accurately describe the electrolysis conditions, to the total current 35A, 18A, 7A will be described more specifically some corresponding tube anode approximate current density of 38 was 5.0 mA / cm2, 2.5 mA / cm2 , 1.0 mA / cm2), the original tubular cathode 38 and the rod holmium anode 39 are used as an electrolytic anode and an auxiliary electrode 37 as a cathode, respectively, with reference GB15979 test raw water and the total number of bacterial flora after the treatment, calculated sterilization efficiency according to (18) ri, results are shown in table 5, show that the box by ultrasonic micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide strengthening means for processing water, the working voltage is less than 30V, with good bactericidal effect.

不同电流密度条件下杀菌效果 Sterilization effect under different current densities

<table>table see original document page 30</column></row> <table> <Table> table see original document page 30 </ column> </ row> <table>

表5 table 5

(2)、海水养殖场的灭菌除藻处理 (2), mariculture algae sterilization process

采用处理能力为300M3/hr的箱式微电流电解灭菌除藻装置,水体水泵按照300M3/hr的流量提升送入装置处理,以钬阳极12和阴极13 工作,辅助电极不工作,采用电流密度为16mA/cm2,运行电压为6.4V, 处理后的水体沿池边约100米长的水渠流回到养殖池,每天运行6小时,运行32天,参照GB15979测试分别第一天和最后一天原水和处理后的水体中需氧菌总( Total aerobic count),和对比原水叶绿素与处理水2 4小时后的水体中的叶绿素推测对藻类的杀灭作用,结果列于表6,装置运行过程中有效地抑制了藻类的生长。 Employing a processing capacity of 300M3 / hr tank micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device, the water pump flow rate in accordance with 300M3 / hr into the lifting device, so as to cathode 12 and anode 13 is operated holmium, the auxiliary electrode does not work, the use of current density of 16mA / cm2, 6.4V operating voltage, the processed water pool along a length of about 100 meters the flow drains back to the pond, run for 6 hours a day, 32 days running, the test reference GB15979 first and last, respectively, and raw water total aerobic water (total aerobic count) after treatment, chlorophyll and Comparative raw water with the chlorophyll process water after 24 hours of water presumed role in the killing of algae, the results shown in table 6, active during operation of the device inhibited the growth of algae.

海水养殖池杀菌灭藻效果(电流密度为16.0mA/cm2)<table>table see original document page 30</column></row> <table><table>table see original document page 31</column></row> <table>表7 Mariculture pond sterilization effect (current density of 16.0mA / cm2) <table> table see original document page 30 </ column> </ row> <table> <table> table see original document page 31 </ column> < / row> <table> table 7

本发明中的装置,通过上述的试验可明显得出本发明装置的杀菌除藻效果,且可同时应用到海水或淡水中灭菌除藻,并可实现自动除 Apparatus of the present invention, by the above test can be clearly derived bactericidal algaecide effect of the device of the present invention, and may be simultaneously applied to sterilization algaecide in seawater or fresh water, and other automatic

垢,且应用范围广;并加入超声发生器,通过超声波有效破坏各种细菌和藻类细胞;设备简单,且应用范围广泛。 Fouling, and wide range of applications; and adding an ultrasonic generator, effectively destroy a variety of bacteria and algae cells by ultrasound; simple equipment, and a wide range of applications. 对于本发明各个实施例中所阐述的装置,凡在本发明的精神和原则之内,所作的任何修改、 等同替换、改进等,均应包含在本发明的保护范围之内。 For the apparatus as set forth various embodiments of the present invention, any modifications within the spirit and principle of the present invention, the, equivalent substitutions, improvements should be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

  1. 1、一种微电流电解灭菌除藻装置,其特征在于,包括:安装在箱体的进水管道上感应溶液电导值的检测器,所述箱体内按照组内阳极、辅助电极、阴极的顺序安装至少一组以上的电极组,控制器判断所述电导值的大小,控制所述箱体内电极的极性、及电路连接;所述控制器内包括:判断单元,用于判断所述电导值的大小,并按照判断结果触发相应的海水电解模式单元、淡水电解模式单元、倒极电解模式单元工作;所述海水电解模式单元,用于接收触发后,导通所述阳极、阴极的电路连接,断开辅助电极的电路连接;所述淡水电解模式单元,用于接收触发后,将所述阴极的极性改为阳极,将所述辅助电极的极性改为阴极,导通未改变极性的阳极、改变极性的阳极、阴极的电路连接;所述倒极模式单元,用于判断装置的运行次数、运行时间超过设定阈 A micro-current electrolysis sterilization algaecide device, wherein, comprising: a sensor mounted in the solution conductance detector housing inlet pipe, inside the tank according to the group anode, auxiliary electrode, a cathode order of the installation at least one set of the electrode group, the controller determines the size of the conductance value, controlling the polarity of the electrodes inside the case, and the circuit is connected; said controller comprising: determining means for determining the conductivity size value, and trigger the corresponding seawater electrolysis mode element in accordance with the judgment result, fresh water electrolysis unit mode, down mode pole electrolysis unit of work; the water electrolysis unit mode, for receiving a trigger, the conduction of the anode, cathode circuit connected, disconnected circuit connecting the auxiliary electrode; mode after the fresh water electrolysis means for receiving a trigger, the polarity of the cathode to the anode, the polarity of the auxiliary electrode to the cathode, turned unchanged the anode polarity changing the polarity of the anode, cathode circuit; the inverted mode electrode unit for determining the number of operation means, the operation time exceeds the threshold 值后,将所述辅助电极的极性改为阳极,导通改变极性的阳极、未改变极性的阴极的电路连接,断开未改变极性的阳极的电路连接。 After the value of the polarity of the auxiliary electrode to the anode, the anode of changing the polarity of the conduction, not changing the circuit connecting the cathode polarity, the polarity of the anode-off circuit is connected unaltered.
  2. 2、 根据权利要求1所述的装置,其特征在于,所述电极组内的电极形状为片状电极或管状电极。 2. The apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the shape of the electrode inside the electrode group is a tubular electrode or a sheet electrode.
  3. 3、 根据权利要求2所述的装置,其特征在于,还包括: 安装在所述箱体两端的超声发生器、及超声波反射体,所述超声发生器内包括至少一个以上超声换能器,所述电极组的位置在所述超声发生器和超声波反射体之间。 3. The apparatus according to claim 2, characterized in that, further comprising: a housing mounted on the ends of the ultrasonic generator and an ultrasonic reflector, in the ultrasonic generator comprises at least one or more ultrasound transducer, the electrode group in a position between the ultrasonic generator and the ultrasonic reflector.
  4. 4、 根据权利要求3所述的装置,其特征在于,所述电极形状为片状时,所述超声波反射体的形状为三棱柱形或者圓弧形,棱柱的棱边或圆弧朝向超声发生器的方向凸出;所述电极形状为管状时,所述超声波反射体的形状为圓锥形,圓锥的顶尖朝向超声发生器。 4. The apparatus of claim 3, characterized in that the electrode shape is a sheet, the shape of ultrasonic reflector is triangular prism or circular arc-shaped, prismatic or arcuate edges facing the ultrasonic wave generator direction is convex; when the electrode is tubular in shape, the shape of ultrasonic reflector is conical, tapered toward the top sonicator.
  5. 5、 根据权利要求4所述的装置,其特征在于,所述电极形状为管状时,所述各个电极、各个超声换能器呈同一圓心的圓环状排列。 5. The apparatus as claimed in claim 4, wherein the electrode is a tubular shape, the respective electrodes, the respective ultrasonic transducers of the same shape arranged in the center of the annular shape.
  6. 6、 根据权利要求1所述的装置,其特征在于,所述检测器为电导率感应式电导传感器或电导变送器。 6. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the detector is an inductive conductivity sensor or a conductivity transducer conductance.
  7. 7、 根据权利要求1所述的装置,其特征在于,所述的钛阳极至少是以金属钛或钛合金的一种为基体,在其表面涂覆含有金属Pt、 Ir、 Ru、 Rh、 Pd或Os、及其氧化物中至少一种,和含有至少Ta或Ti的氧化物的涂层电极(DSA)。 7. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said titanium anode at least one metal is titanium or titanium alloy as a base, in which a metal surface is coated contains Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd or Os, and at least one oxide, and a coating electrode (DSA) comprising at least Ta or Ti oxide is.
  8. 8、 根据权利要求1所述的装置,其特征在于,所述辅助电极和阴极至少是以金属钛或钛合金的一种为基体,在其表面涂覆至少一种Ta或Ti的氧化物的电^f及构件。 8. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the auxiliary electrode and the cathode is at least one metal of titanium or a titanium alloy as a base, is coated on its surface at least one oxide of Ti or Ta ^ f and the electrical member.
  9. 9、 根据权利要求1所述的装置,其特征在于,所述超声反射体的材料至少包括塑料、金属钛、钛合金、不锈钢、碳钢或铜合金的一种材料构件。 9. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the material of the ultrasonic reflection body member comprises at least one plastic material, metallic titanium, titanium alloy, stainless steel, carbon steel or copper alloy.
  10. 10、 根据权利要求1所述的装置,其特征在于,还包括: 安装在所述箱体出水管道上用于检测电解后溶液中氯含量的电位计或余氯电极、及余氯变送器;所述各个电解单元按照所述氯含量值调节电解的电流、电压值。 10. The apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that, further comprising: a housing mounted on said outlet pipe or track potentiometer for detecting the chlorine electrode of chlorine in the electrolytic solution, and chlorine transmitter ; the respective electrolytic cell according to the chlorine content of the electrolysis current is adjusted, the voltage value.
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CN101786752A (en) * 2010-03-11 2010-07-28 韩柏平;吴永华;张毅强;秦晓 Micro-electrolysis device capable producing active oxygen
CN102167426A (en) * 2011-03-11 2011-08-31 刘滨疆 Electric treatment device for culture water body
CN102616894A (en) * 2012-04-25 2012-08-01 哈尔滨工业大学 Pipeline type electrochemical algae removal equipment for removing algae in feed water
CN102689949A (en) * 2011-03-25 2012-09-26 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Method for electrolytic disinfection of recirculated cooling water
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CN101786752A (en) * 2010-03-11 2010-07-28 韩柏平;吴永华;张毅强;秦晓 Micro-electrolysis device capable producing active oxygen
CN102167426A (en) * 2011-03-11 2011-08-31 刘滨疆 Electric treatment device for culture water body
CN102689949B (en) 2011-03-25 2013-09-25 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Method for electrolytic disinfection of recirculated cooling water
CN102689949A (en) * 2011-03-25 2012-09-26 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Method for electrolytic disinfection of recirculated cooling water
CN103172142A (en) * 2011-12-26 2013-06-26 邱金和 Water purification device
CN102616894A (en) * 2012-04-25 2012-08-01 哈尔滨工业大学 Pipeline type electrochemical algae removal equipment for removing algae in feed water
CN102616894B (en) 2012-04-25 2014-03-05 哈尔滨工业大学 Pipeline type electrochemical algae removal equipment for removing algae in feed water
CN103172141A (en) * 2013-03-07 2013-06-26 范瑞峰 Coal chemical industry gasified slag water electrochemical direct-current reaction apparatus
CN104030501A (en) * 2014-06-09 2014-09-10 北京永孚高科环保科技有限公司 Circulating water full-automatic scale removal/sterilization/algae removal/filtration integrated device
CN104192958A (en) * 2014-09-15 2014-12-10 陈兆红 Sewage treatment equipment
CN104261600A (en) * 2014-10-11 2015-01-07 中山庆琏环保科技有限公司 Corresponding adjustment type water purification system
CN104261600B (en) * 2014-10-11 2016-12-07 中山庆琏环保科技有限公司 Adjust the water purification system corresponding to the formula
CN104649383A (en) * 2015-01-21 2015-05-27 西安建筑科技大学 Device for inactivating visible invertebrates in raw water through pulse electricity
CN104649383B (en) * 2015-01-21 2016-06-22 西安建筑科技大学 A pulse electric apparatus inactivate the raw water visible invertebrates

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