CN101421081B - Robot arm and method for controlling the robot arm - Google Patents

Robot arm and method for controlling the robot arm Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101421081B
CN101421081B CN2007800132032A CN200780013203A CN101421081B CN 101421081 B CN101421081 B CN 101421081B CN 2007800132032 A CN2007800132032 A CN 2007800132032A CN 200780013203 A CN200780013203 A CN 200780013203A CN 101421081 B CN101421081 B CN 101421081B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
swing
artificial muscle
pneumatic artificial
arm
mechanical arm
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Application number
CN2007800132032A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101421081A (en
Inventor
P·费拉拉
Original Assignee
菲尔罗伯蒂克斯顺从式机器人技术有限公司
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Priority to ATA316/2006 priority Critical
Priority to AT3162006A priority patent/AT503728B1/en
Priority to ATA1607/2006 priority
Priority to AT16072006A priority patent/AT504269B1/en
Application filed by 菲尔罗伯蒂克斯顺从式机器人技术有限公司 filed Critical 菲尔罗伯蒂克斯顺从式机器人技术有限公司
Priority to PCT/AT2007/000097 priority patent/WO2007095662A1/en
Publication of CN101421081A publication Critical patent/CN101421081A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN101421081B publication Critical patent/CN101421081B/en

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Abstract

The invention relates to a robot arm formed from one or more successively interlinked active pivoted levers (1, 2, 3), wherein a base (1.1, 2.1, 3.1) is rigidly connected to the one end of a support (1.2, 2.2, 3.2), a pivoting piece (1.4, 2.4, 3.4) is pivotably mounted on the second end of the support with pneumatic muscles running form the base to the pivoting piece, the individual pneumatic muscles engaging on opposing sides of the pivot axis of the pivoting piece and the base of a pivoting lever is rigidly connected to the pivoting piece of the adjacent pivoting lever interconnected thereto. The controller measures the position of the individual pivoting levers and the pressure in the individual pneumatic muscles, calculates the externally acting forces from the pressure-distance diagrams for the individual pneumatic muscles and the geometric lever mechanical ratios for all pivoting levers and limits said forces. The invention also provides a method for controlling the robot arm.

Description

The method of mechanical arm and control mechanical arm
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of mechanical arm of flexibility, it drives by a plurality of Pneumatic artificial muscles.
Background technology
DE 3630822C2 (Bridgestone) disclose a kind of be used for industrial robot can be accurately around the arm of a swing.This arm is fixed on the belt wheel of a rotatable supporting, and it is held by a rope, wherein on the two ends of belt wheel are left in extension a so-called Pneumatic artificial muscle is set respectively.One Pneumatic artificial muscle comprises middleware and two tabular terminal member of a hose-like, and wherein at least one is provided with an air duct.If make the middleware inflation of hose-like, then it shortens on its length in expansion on the circumference.Can when overcoming an external pull, realize this contraction in length.If Pneumatic artificial muscle tension then makes arm swing along a direction of rotation in the application scenario of pressing DE 3630822; If this Pneumatic artificial muscle loosens, and the tension of second Pneumatic artificial muscle, then make arm along opposite direction swing.Arm in following meaning be " but sense of touch ( ) ", promptly arm when applying an external force self with soft characteristic elastic yield/distortion, thus by means of position sensor and consider that the pressure exist can infer the size of external force in Pneumatic artificial muscle.The arm that is used for industrial robot of this suggestion is not achieved success.Owing to elastic yield takes place uncontrollably here, people are the drive principle of rigidity preferably, for example by means of motor or hydraulic cylinder, and realizes one " soft grasps " by independent grasping piece if needed.
US 4984568 discloses a kind of mechanical arm that is used for back massage by means of a plurality of Driven by Hydraulic Cylinder that can swing each other.This mechanical arm is fixed on the frame part of side of a bedstead, stretches out above the face for sleeping in of bed, and is pressed onto an abdomen and crouches on people's in bed the back.Can control mechanical arm by means of control device by a people who lies on a bed.The massage robot of this pattern has a plurality of shortcomings.Hydraulic means be expensive, heavy, usually distribute the smell of hydraulic oil and bring danger because of the pollution of the hydraulic oil that flows out.Therefore it also is dangerous as massage robot, because may very quick on the people of treatment, the big power of danger close ground effect when breaking down in hydraulic means.
DE 19524666C1 discloses a kind of massage robot, and it is installed in bed in the side equally.The tool holder that can move on three space coordinates via linear drive apparatus can keep different massage apparatus, and affacts thus on the person to be massaged.In order to control, there is different programs to choose from.Effect to the people is stressed adjusting.In order to drive pneumatic linear actuator or motor are set.In order when regulating fault, to get rid of the people's who treats massage harm, predetermined fracture location is set in device, described predetermined fracture location ruptures when surpassing the power that allows.
US 5083552 and US 2001/0014781A1 also disclose the massage robot of very similar version.This massage robot can be massaged fully well under the situation of corresponding good control.But it all is very expensive aspect purchasing, and needs many spaces, and work is dangerous.And this robot wherein for example may occur these power with massage when combining in the action of being undertaken by the people because the linear guide of mutual tandem setting is easy to damage for some power.
DE 10139807A1 discloses a kind of mechanical arm that is used for industrial use that is made of the lever of swinging of a plurality of links.Particularly advantageously constitute two hinges between the lever.The drive unit of each lever is to be set directly at electric power, hydraulic pressure on each lever or the elevating lever device of pneumatically handling.Disadvantageously, these drive units be heavier, expend the space with costliness.
BR 9303695A discloses a kind of mechanical arm that is made of a plurality of levers of swinging that interlink, wherein each rocking lever comprises a pillar, one base, one element that can swing and each two Pneumatic artificial muscle, the base of one of them rocking lever is fixed on each relative end of pillar with the element that can swing, the element that can swing is rotatably mounted around a perpendicular axis with respect to pillar, wherein two Pneumatic artificial muscles between base and the element that can swing, extend and in the different side action of axis of oscillation on the element that can swing, and the base of the element of swinging of a lever and second lever is rigidly connected.Though have simple and firm structure, this version is not achieved success so far, is because the control of the Pneumatic artificial muscle of difficulty is an excessive source of inexactness and harm according to conjecture.
WO 2003080297A1 describes a kind of a plurality of elements that can swing mutually copying staff and people's arm by means of link, drive the relative motion each other of described element by a plurality of Pneumatic artificial muscles, described Pneumatic artificial muscle affacts on each element to be moved via the function rope similar to people's tendon.Here the advantage of Pneumatic artificial muscle is, it is compared with other drive unit needs less space.But remain complexity like this according to the make of WO 2003080297A1, thereby make it must cause very high cost and may in the scope that is worth mentioning, use hardly.
US 5417643 and DE 29922651U1 disclose a kind of chair, and it is provided with an arm rest that constitutes the more piece of the passive mobile therapeutic system that is used for the people.Each joint interfixes with being directed versatilely.Between each joint, acting on controllable drive unit.The patient who takes one's seat on the chair one arm is put on the arm rest.Then make arm rest and patient's arm is moved with arm rest according to a control program.Thereby there is not explanation not meet patient's motion possibility and may cause patient's pain or even what can take place when injuring when the motion of in check arm rest according to described DE text.For this situation fast shut-off is set according to the US text.Here disadvantageously, when described cut-out comes into force, may jeopardously act on big power to patient, and TD thus.
According to a kind of utensil that is used for passive therapeutic gymnastics of EP 1609451A1 suggestion, it comprises the element of the shelly of a plurality of rigidity, and described element is similar to the element of an armor (Ritterr ü stung) and is dressed by patient and interconnect via hinge.The a plurality of Pneumatic artificial muscles of effect between each movable mutually housing as the actuator of controlling.There is not the control mode of explanation about actuator.The make that comprises the element of a plurality of shellies causes device to become quite heavy, and the process of installation or removal is quite to require great effort.
A kind of device of the same disclosure of US 2003/0223844A1, it comprises the element of the shelly of a plurality of rigidity, described element is similar to the element of an armor and is dressed by the people and interconnect via hinge.This device is used for controlling a remote robot that for example is arranged on the outer space.The flexible axle of each elasticity pretension is assisted to overcome the gravity effect and is promoted each element and be used to measure each element position to each other.Make the robot motion of a remote setting according to measurement result.In a favourable improvement project, also between each shell parts of device, apply in check power according to the power that affacts in the robot.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to, a kind of mechanical arm is provided, this mechanical arm can be applied in a large amount of private housework, in the industry and in the medical skill.Here owing to the reason on cost, fastness, weight and the space it is contemplated that one comprises a plurality of Pneumatic artificial muscle makes as driving element according to BR 9303695.Relatively mainly improved security therewith, mechanical arm can not cause because of the bump of high power or high speed and damage and the people is caused injury and must operate machine simply arm and the different application that can be used for larger amt thus.Particularly mechanical arm also can be used as passive and activity active that therapeutic appliance is used for people's four limbs.
In order to realize that this purpose advises a kind of mechanical arm, it has following feature:
-mechanical arm is constituted the lever that at least one can be swung.This mechanical arm preferably includes the rocking lever of at least two links;
-each rocking lever has a constant length, and comprises a pillar, and an end of a base and pillar is rigidly connected, and on second end of pillar the element that can swing is set;
The element of swinging of the base of-the second swing arm and first swing arm is rigidly connected.The element of swinging of the base of next swing arm and last swing arm is rigidly connected;
-between the element of swinging of a base and a swing arm, a plurality of Pneumatic artificial muscles are set, can adjust corresponding swing position on one's own initiative by means of described Pneumatic artificial muscle;
-the power that control device detects and the limit mechanical arm outwards applies by mechanical arm.The end of one instrument not only can be set in case of necessity for mechanical arm, and for all carrying out this detection and restriction at the fixing point of arm and the swing arm between the described end;
-on the element of swinging of last swing arm, a tool holder is set, one or two swing arm that different instruments and/or mechanical arm can be set on described tool holder provides a bearing-surface for a people to be treated forearm and upper arm or other limbs, promptly by swing arm can roughly be arranged on the described limbs with described limbs abreast;
-also the power that applies of limit mechanical arm mechanically is preferably by preferably utilizing excess pressure valve upwards to limit gas pressure in the Pneumatic artificial muscle;
The speed that the each several part of-mechanical arm can move also limits by passive buffer element by control device and/or on regulation technology;
The motion process that-mechanical arm should independently be implemented can be imported by lead-through programming;
-the element that can swing in a swing arm at least can be around two axis swings that are not parallel to each other with respect to base.
By mechanical arm of the present invention, constitute and comprise a control device by one or more swing arms that interlink successively, wherein
One swing arm comprises a pillar, a base, the element that can swing and a plurality of Pneumatic artificial muscle;
First end of base and pillar is rigidly connected, and the element that can swing is bearing on second end of pillar swingably around one or two axis that departs from the longitudinal direction orientation of pillar;
Pneumatic artificial muscle extends to the element that can swing from base;
Each Pneumatic artificial muscle is acting on the opposed side of the axis of oscillation of the element that can swing on the described element of swinging;
Under the situation of each swing arm that links, the base of a swing arm is rigidly connected with the next element of swinging with its swing arm that links;
It is characterized in that:
Measure the position of each swing arm and the pressure that in each Pneumatic artificial muscle, exists by control device, and
The lever ratio of the pressure-displacement line chart by considering each Pneumatic artificial muscle and how much, recomputate by all swing arms that is provided with Pneumatic artificial muscle outwards effect power and limit these power.
Preferably, this mechanical arm has the excess pressure valve that is used for upwards limiting the gas pressure in the Pneumatic artificial muscle.
Preferably, this mechanical arm has the passive buffer element that is used for mechanically limiting the relative velocity between each swing arm.
Preferably, the position of the base of a swing arm can be installed in by different orientations on the element of swinging of the swing arm that is positioned at its front.
Preferably, have the hole in the joint pin in the hinge ball that is arranged on the there or that be arranged on the there on the hinge of this mechanical arm between two swing arms, required pipeline is guided through these holes.
Preferably, one hinge that is used for the oscillating motion of a diaxon constitutes the ball-and-socket hinge, wherein a groove extends in the surface of ball, and one puts in this groove with the rigidly connected pin of nest dish, and wherein said groove is positioned at the symmetrical plane that one of ball is parallel to the orientation that acts on the Pneumatic artificial muscle on the nest dish.
Preferably, a bearing-surface that is used for a people to be treated limbs is set on one or two swing arm.
Preferably, automatically
The length of each Pneumatic artificial muscle of-measurement and pressure wherein;
-under the situation of the form of using the description feature that is used for each Pneumatic artificial muscle of storing or curvilinear system, determine the power that on each Pneumatic artificial muscle, exists by data technique ground by these information;
-by the length that records of each Pneumatic artificial muscle and the conversion by how much,, calculate the position of each lever that can swing and bearing-surface perhaps by direct position measurement to the element of mutual relative motion;
-by calculating power on each swing arm and on bearing-surface by how much conversion in the power on each Pneumatic artificial muscle.
Preferably, cross the physical location that programmable control module directly detects bearing-surface.
Preferably, during an operation treatment, repeatedly pass through each motion process in a similar fashion, wherein expect process accordingly, pass through from once passing through to another time, little by little from second form of the different regulation of first formal transformation to of a regulation, that is each expectation process during each time phase that passes through each time with the alternate position spike of the position of second form of regulation each time by in dwindle piecemeal during the identical time phase.
By the method that is used to control mechanical arm of the present invention, this mechanical arm is made of the swing arm that interlinks successively, wherein
One swing arm comprises a pillar, a base, the element that can swing and a plurality of Pneumatic artificial muscle;
First end of base and pillar is rigidly connected, and the element that can swing is bearing on second end of pillar swingably around one or two axis that departs from the longitudinal direction orientation of pillar;
Pneumatic artificial muscle extends to the element that can swing from base;
Each Pneumatic artificial muscle is acting on the opposed side of the axis of oscillation of the element that can swing on the described element of swinging;
Under the situation of each swing arm that links, the base of a swing arm is rigidly connected with the next element of swinging with its swing arm that links;
It is characterized in that: described method comprises the steps:
Measure the position of each swing arm and the pressure that in each Pneumatic artificial muscle, exists by a control device;
The lever ratio of the pressure-displacement line chart by considering each Pneumatic artificial muscle and how much recomputates by the outside power of effect of all swing arms that is provided with Pneumatic artificial muscle; And
These power are limited.
Preferably, described method also comprises: by regulation technology the power that is applied by each swing arm is limited.
Preferably, described method also comprises: directly measure the power that applies by each Pneumatic artificial muscle, wherein, than more directly measuring described power by the pressure that in each Pneumatic artificial muscle, exists.
Preferably, described method also comprises: repeat to implement one relevant with mechanical arm and therefore treat the expectation process of the motion of the element that moves by it with such degree, that is under the situation of the power limit of automatically monitoring by mechanical arm itself of abiding by the regulations, be possible, as it.
Preferably, described method also comprises: each Pneumatic artificial muscle in adjust the counter-force that react on this deviation by control device at the position deviation of element during in desired locations, wherein this counter-force can be edited ground preset with the correlation of the degree that deviates from desired locations.
Preferably, described method also comprises:
-adjust the size of counter-force pro rata with deviation, wherein proportionality coefficient is adjustable, and the upper limit of counter-force is adjustable; And/or
-when surpassing a minimum deflection, be adjusted into a constant counter-force, there is not counter-force otherwise just be adjusted into; And/or
-vision or sound ground show deviation, and be adjusted into and do not have counter-force this moment.
Preferably, described method also comprises:
The record mechanical arm pass through the motion process that grips mechanical arm at an arbitrary position and its motion is caused by external force,
The motion process of record is received as the desired motion process of new pre-programmed.
Preferably, described method also comprises:
Detect the position or the motion of the mark of a vision via a video camera;
Press data technique ground preliminary treatment track to be performed like this;
The desired motion process of this track as the new pre-programmed of mechanical arm received.
Description of drawings
By means of accompanying drawing other the favourable details of frame for movement and the favourable characteristic to be supplied of control device of mechanical arm are described:
Fig. 1 illustrates the side view of the schematic diagram of an exemplary mechanical arm that constitutes according to the present invention, comprises three swing arms and a tool holder.Each details is shown in the cutaway view;
Fig. 2 is illustrated in a possible flow process that makes when the physical location of tool holder to be moved and an expectation position are complementary information processing in the form of implementation by Fig. 1.The intermediate object program that descriptive information is handled in each frame.The line that is provided with arrow is represented the data that received by sensor or computational process;
Fig. 3 illustrates the side view of the schematic diagram of an exemplary mechanical arm that constitutes according to the present invention, comprises three swing arms and a bearing-surface that for example is used for people's arm;
Fig. 4 illustrates a possible information process and a control flow of the device of Fig. 3 with a block diagram form.
The specific embodiment
Form of implementation about the mechanical arm of a motion that is used for an instrument of the present invention below at first at length is discussed, shown in sketch map among Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.Following then just going through about the form of implementation of a mechanical arm of the present invention as passive and therapeutic appliance activity initiatively that is used for four limbs.
The whole mechanical arm of base 1.1 supportings of first swing arm 1.Described base can directly or be erected at via fixable roller on the ground in a space.But described base also can be fixed on an arm, a machinery or the support that installs on the object.It also can be arranged on the platform, and this platform controllably moves in the space or can mechanically rotate around a vertical axis with respect to another base that fixedly installs in the space.Protrude upward the ball 1.2.1 that ends at a ball-and-socket hinge with the rigidly connected pillar 1.2 of base and this pillar by base 1.1.The ball-and-socket of this ball-and-socket hinge constitutes the element of swinging 1.4 of first swing arm 1.Between base 1.1 and the element 1.4 that can swing, three Pneumatic artificial muscles 1.3 that are parallel to pillar 1.2 orientations are set.The fixing point of described Pneumatic artificial muscle on the element 1.4 that can swing forms leg-of-mutton each summit, at this leg-of-mutton center ball 1.2.1 is set.By making the shortening of one or two Pneumatic artificial muscle 1.3, and two Pneumatic artificial muscles by making other or the elongation of the 3rd Pneumatic artificial muscle can make the element 1.4 that can swing extend by the center of ball 1.2.1 and perpendicular to the axis swing of the orientation of each Pneumatic artificial muscle around all around the center of ball 1.2.1.Because each possible thus oscillating motion can be thought by synthetic around the oscillating motion of lucky two axis, that is in the describing method common to mechanical arm, the element 1.4 that can swing can be around two axis swings.For around one the 3rd axis that is around the rotational motion of the axis that is parallel to Pneumatic artificial muscle, the element 1.4 that can swing stops by a backstop.This backstop is made of a pin 1.4.1 who is connected with the element 1.4 that can swing rigidly, and this pin puts in the lip-deep groove of ball 1.2.1 and forms.This groove is positioned at such symmetrical plane of ball on the surface of ball 1.2.1, this symmetrical plane is parallel to Pneumatic artificial muscle 1.3 orientations.Because each Pneumatic artificial muscle 1.3 of orientation parallel to each other can not be controlled the rotational motion around the 3rd axis fully well, and therefore avoid this rotational motion fully by described backstop.Ball has a hole as cable and hose passages along the longitudinal axis of swing arm 1.
Replace described ball-and-socket hinge, also can adopt a universal joint, wherein replace a ball to use two pivot pins.First pivot pin is perpendicular to the pillar orientation.Second pivot pin is directed and can swingingly support around its axis perpendicular to first pivot pin.The element that can swing can swingingly support around its axis on second pivot pin.Universal joint also can have a cable passage.
Base 2.1 via middleware 1.4.2 and 2.1.1 second swing arm 2 is connected with the element of swinging 1.4 of first swing arm 1 rigidly, can middleware 1.4.2 and 2.1.1 be installed mutually in a plurality of different positions, the angle position between the base 2.1 of the element of swinging 1.4 of first swing arm 1 and second swing arm 2 can be regulated whereby, thereby and the initial position of the best of two swing arms can be regulated mutually for the application corresponding purpose.
If the element of swinging 2.4 of second swing arm 2 can rotate around an axis with respect to 2.1 needs of base of this swing arm, this element that can swing is bearing on the columniform pivot pin perpendicular to the pillar orientation of this swing arm, rather than is bearing in as mentioned above on the ball.Only use two Pneumatic artificial muscles in this case.
The 3rd swing arm 3 itself with as first swing arm 1 constitute in the same manner.Be that its element that can swing 3.4 can rotate around two axis with respect to its base 3.1.
The base 3.1 of the 3rd swing arm directly is connected with the element of swinging 2.4 of second swing arm.
The element of swinging 3.4 outfits one of the 3rd swing arm are used for the tool ends end 4 of different instruments in by the example of Fig. 1, and it is preferably the form of a lockable plug assembly.Instrument can be different grasping devices can be automatically controlled or pneumatic control in this meaning or also can be the object of rigidity such as plug assembly, hook, lever bucket, chisel, spanner etc.The handheld tool of again can the setting tool for example different massage apparatus of grasping device, cleaning wiping cloth, standard, receiver, tableware etc.
With the coupling of torque load of expection in, swing arm 1 should be designed to than swing arm the last 2 (slightly), and swing arm 2 is than swing arm the last 3 (slightly).Swing arm 1 also is the heaviest thus, and swing arm 3 is the lightest.This also brings such advantage with respect to another distribution of weight, and promptly when wishing, the higher acceleration of tool ends end 4 is possible and the loading (Wucht) of the collision that may occur of tool ends end on a barrier can not cause fault very doughtily.
Described order " lever-biaxial hinge of the lever of biaxial hinge-constant length-single shaft hinge-constant length " is almost just in time corresponding to the order " shoulder joint-upper arm-elbow joint-forearm-wrist " of people's arm.Therefore the motion possibility of the mechanical arm that constitutes is so very understood well and is not therefore needed long practice periods just can use well in quicklook ground by the people who utilizes it.Linking of making thus that unmodifiable each swing arm of length own and the hinge of twin shaft between it or single shaft describe becomes on the one hand fabulous compromise between the diversity of the motion possibility of tool ends end and less on the other hand expense.
Pneumatic artificial muscle has shortcoming with respect to cylinder or the motor of adjusting the promotion of element such as fluid, be Pneumatic artificial muscle only applying the power that can on purpose control to a direction, and under roughly the same expense, reach an obvious relatively poor positioning accuracy thus only.The robot application of understanding mainly due to second in described shortcoming advantage that is used for to(for) Pneumatic artificial muscle is obviously very few, and therefore it is used hardly.
Be especially in use in the application of people's demands of individuals and the mechanical arm that should be engaged in simple working, the adjustment precision of utilizing Pneumatic artificial muscle to reach is fully enough uncomplicatedly.Here the work that can imagine for example is: the guiding massage apparatus, keep receiver, guiding one dust catcher, wiping window, grinding, japanning, maintenance object for example with tool storage at a preposition etc.The relatively poor positioning accuracy of Pneumatic artificial muscle is not a shortcoming in the application of this class.Fully opposite, with activity that the surface contacts in biggest advantage be deformability because important here be not position but pressure.
Pneumatic artificial muscle provides a series of important advantages as the application of the adjustment element of mechanical arm:
-soft impact;
-owing to the motion that causes mechanical arm by the medium air of volume elasticity, force-displacement behavior is gentle flexible, and the effect on the object of an outside can not be that impact type changes to a big power from a little power;
-high fastness (passive safety, self-shield)
Compare with the widely used industrial robot of the transmission device of motor and rigidity that comprises, gentle flexible Pneumatic artificial muscle itself can bear and cushion the impact to robot.Therefore though arm is lightweight construction but is extremely firmly (robust) for peak load and vibration.It is very firm equally that Pneumatic artificial muscle itself is compared with piston-cylinder adjustment element, because the face that it does not have each several part to slide mutually and seal thereon, and because Pneumatic artificial muscle since its flexibility as flexible pipe in fact can not be damaged because of the object of collision;
The motion (active safety, outer protection) that-Li is controlled
By the position of measuring each swing arm and the pressure that in each Pneumatic artificial muscle, exists, can under the situation of pressure-displacement line chart of considering each Pneumatic artificial muscle and existing each lever ratio, recomputate (r ü ckrechnen) much external force and act on the tool ends end 4 by a control device.That is can determine the power that outwards applies, and do not need extra power sensor for this reason.Can regulation overcome the resistance of an outside with great maximum, force by control device, this resistance may react on motion process ground pressurization to be performed.Therefore can more reliably and well regulate this maximum, force, because the deformation characteristic of mechanical arm is " soft flexible ", and the less motion artifacts of forcing from the outside can not cause the unexpected change of the power in the mechanical arm.Also possible well thus, when an object moves in certain boundary, make mechanical arm on an object, follow this object with exerting pressure.Because the each several part of mechanical arm is lighter, it needs only the not too fast danger that constitutes hardly when bumping against with the people.
By measuring, the human body power that is applied for example by means of the resistance strain gage in line of force, can realize that another precision improves;
-security (passive safety during fault)
Even predetermined fracture location is not set in mechanical arm also can be guaranteed, by means of the pressure in the excess pressure valve restriction Pneumatic artificial muscle or by means of passive buffer element maximum speed limit, mechanical arm can not be applied to the big power of danger yet and be positioned on its regional person when the control device fault is arranged by for example.Passive straining element like this can for example constitute like this, promptly gas flow into Pneumatic artificial muscle or the zone of the pipeline that flows out from Pneumatic artificial muscle in narrow positions is set so that the restriction air-flow.Can between each swing arm of mutually relative motion, additional buffer element be set equally, piston cylinder apparatus for example, in this piston cylinder apparatus when motion pumping fluid by a narrow zone.Can imagine equally between the relative oscillating motion of two swing arms and use brake apparatus, described brake apparatus works by the principle of centrifugal force braking, promptly between the part of two mutual relative motions, produce friction in view of the above, because they are pressed mutually owing to centrifugal force;
-low cost
Because simple structure Pneumatic artificial muscle is than hydraulic cylinder or pneumatic linear actuator, or similar available electric driver is more economical;
-in light weight
Pneumatic artificial muscle has remarkable less weight than the make of commonly used other using similar adjustment drive unit.
Each Pneumatic artificial muscle under normal circumstances directly is fixed on the base of swing arm, or passes through the pulling force component of tension rigidity, is fixed on the most direct adapter path as a cable wire, a chain, a band or a pull bar.The element that can swing accordingly for relevant swing arm, each Pneumatic artificial muscle only should for example realized on the direct route of rope by pulling force component, described pulling force component is fixed on the Pneumatic artificial muscle on one side, and another side is fixed on the element that maybe can swing on the base of a swing arm.Every other possible transmission mechanism not only means additional acquisition expenses as the lever of swing, gear, directive wheel etc., and can also be sensitive for damages owing to incorrect operation or less maintenance in most cases.Each element of this especially pattern also is dangerous for the people that may come in contact with it and protecting cover that need safety, and this means that again expense and itself may damage.
By each Pneumatic artificial muscle with for example also reach fastness and security like this by the combination of the described order of three swing arms, promptly by rotating in accordance with regulations in each hinge and by making each Pneumatic artificial muscle elongation, mechanical arm is for making a concession from the strong load of any direction almost.Utilize this make might constitute a kind of mechanical arm undoubtedly, to such an extent as to can grasp it so delicately can catch and pluck single grape cluster from a grapevine on the one hand for it, and can keep a steel object for example to carve cutter on the other hand, utilize a sledgehammer strike it, therefore and can not damage mechanical arm.
Because the length of each swing arm of mechanical arm is immutable, can and be used for the element that the possible electric lead that remains on the electric tool on the tool ends end is fixed on base well and can swings with compressed air supply and the needed pipeline of sensor signal.When a small length storage level is arranged between each hinge, make their only swings a little when manipulator motion, but do not have rectilinear motion in addition.In the special scheme cleverly that pipeline is arranged, make described pipeline in hinge by the hole in hinge ball or the joint pin.
The possibility of particularly importantly in each mechanical arm, controlling for the actual utilization of mechanical arm.For by non-professional user's practical application important and to the suggestion make also the make of complete attainable hope for example be:
-pre-prepd displacement-time-Z-TEK is levied (curve);
-teaching; That is by to the disposable manual control of arm motion to one further/program by the motion process of mechanical arm enforcement in follow-up (work) sequence, and write down this motion process simultaneously;
-teaching; But that is, a motion process of being implemented by mechanical arm in further order is programmed, and write down this motion process simultaneously by the disposable regulation that the mark that utilizes a visual identity moves to arm.It is static that mechanical arm can keep in recording process, because can be kept and movement indicia by the people.With other the programming method and other teaching method to compare this precision of method less.But the application of motion of controllably following the tracks of a pre-programmed with power is combined, and precision is enough without a doubt certainly;
-teaching, by in corresponding pattern in position arbitrarily by a programming personnel grip mechanical arm and manually on request later treat the process mobile mechanical arm implemented automatically;
The motion process of-programming input is in how much variations, velocity variations, with respect to the editability in the variation of power to be used;
The adjustable of for example maximum speed of-restriction relevant, maximum acceleration and maximum power with security;
-be in the adjustable of period of contact large-scale position of related features when pressure remains unchanged at arm and target object.That is, even object itself is movable within certain limit, arm also power controllably " is followed " object;
-regulate like this, that is, if mechanical arm owing to the effect of an outside for example a impact on the part of its activity leave one mix up the position time, then automatically move on to this position of mechanical arm again.
Because each Pneumatic artificial muscle cushions the vibration that applies from the outside consumingly, mechanical arm also can be advantageously used in the device that itself vibrates or on it.For example one also can be applied in the automobile according to mechanical arm of the present invention.
Mainly be for wherein by the teaching of hand guiding mechanical arm with for controlling at the power that contact, the make of the mechanical arm of being advised is very favourable because mechanical arm be very light, almost not friction does not react on motion and soft flexible kinetic characteristic has been simplified the profile tracking greatly.
The strong set that the combination of the suggestion of each feature by a mechanical arm draws each advantage that does not reach so far: the flexibility on low cost, fastness, the application possibility, do not have dangerous, security and to the understanding intuitively of motion possibility.Can be implemented in the mechanical arm that lid is arranged in the practicality first thus, it is for less common industrial and commercial enterprises and along with increasing sales volume can both reasonably be purchased economically for private home.
Utilize mechanical arm of the present invention to be used for patient's passive and application therapeutic gymnastics initiatively, one bearing-surface that is used for patient's a body part to be moved wherein is installed on its lever that can swing at least one, and can one with control device that the element that can swing is connected in to the motion process pre-programmed of bearing-surface, can be achieved as follows improvement with respect to other the device that is used for this purpose:
-mechanical arm can cause owing to patient's reaction to the departing from of desired trajectory, promptly the departing from of displacement-time course of hope made soft reaction, thereby will never injure patient;
-since the patient reaction cause to departing from of desired trajectory can be by mechanical arm storage and record.Whereby can be better with the file record, judge result of treatment and partner treatment better correspondingly.
A kind of utensil of typical application suggestion that is being used for an arm of a people who is seated is treated, this utensil comprises a plurality of levers that can controllably swing toward each other that interlink, and can be arranged on the side of a chair, people to be treated is sitting on this chair.One or two swing arm of this utensil provides a bearing-surface for people's to be treated underarm and forearm, leg or other limbs, promptly by this bearing-surface is roughly be arranged in parallel with described limbs below these limbs.Between each lever of utensil,, always need the length and the intramuscular pressure of artificial pneumatic of Pneumatic artificial muscle are detected in order to control Pneumatic artificial muscle as in the Pneumatic artificial muscle of controllable guiding mechanism.Such detection also is used to detect the track of the actual process of advancing.One utensil can be realized by corresponding adjustment the to the controlled original needed adjusting of operation of Pneumatic artificial muscle the adjustment of deviation very soft reaction in elastic range of desired trajectory.
In the simplest form of implementation, the mechanical arm that can be used for this purpose only has a unique swing arm.It can for example be used to make a shoulder joint to move.
Because Pneumatic artificial muscle does not have static friction,, also can power controllably move up to minimum power equally even when little motion slowly, also can avoid shake.Because the pressure of the medium air by volume elasticity causes the length variations of Pneumatic artificial muscle, force-displacement behavior itself has been soft flexible.Therefore can Billy obviously more easily realize at the soft flexible performance that departs from by means of Pneumatic artificial muscle desired trajectory with other common guiding mechanism such as hydraulic cylinder or motor.With different in pneumatic linear actuator, in Pneumatic artificial muscle, after stopping, there is not starting power; That is non-jitter, even when minimum active force, also have a flexible yielding.Added security improves and to draw like this, promptly because physical cause can not impact type ground raising Pneumatic artificial muscle affacts the power on the object of an outside.
Except that the bearing-surface 5 of base O and the limbs to be moved that are used for people to be treated that are provided with flexible part 5.1, be used for the passive exemplary mechanical arm of the present invention of therapeutic gymnastics among Fig. 3 shown in the sketch map and also comprise three levers of swinging that interlink 1,2,3 with active.A chair or a side that fixedly keeps first lever that can swing 1 via base O people place to be treated relatively.Each lever that can swing has a constant length, and comprises that a pillar 1.2,2.2,3.2, one bases 1.1,2.1,3.1 are connected rigidly with first end of pillar, and the element that can swing 1.4,2.4,3.4 is arranged on second end of pillar.The base of the 3rd lever that can swing is connected with the element of swinging of second lever that can swing rigidly.The base of second lever that can swing is connected with the element of swinging of first lever that can swing rigidly.Between the base of the lever that can swing and the element that can swing, a plurality of Pneumatic artificial muscles 1.3,2.3,3.3 are set, can adjust corresponding swing position on one's own initiative by means of them.The bearing-surface 5 that is connected with each lever that can swing extends along the longitudinal direction of each rotating lever.The element of swinging of the lever that each can be swung is for example via a ball-and-socket hinge, a universal joint or on the pillar under only being fixed on via a pin cylindrical hinge.Can or also move around one on demand thus around the axis generation of a plurality of not parallel settings.The Pneumatic artificial muscle of one rocking lever is parallel to the pillar orientation, and is arranged on the different side of corresponding hinge axes.The elongation of the contraction of the Pneumatic artificial muscle by the lever that can swing and other one or more Pneumatic artificial muscles makes the element of swinging of this lever that can swing rotate on one's own initiative around corresponding one or more axis.The swing arm of a unique active is enough in the form of implementation of simplifying.The passive swing arm that can on this rocking lever, connect other.
In the design of each rotating lever and the connection between them, can on length and freedom of motion, simulate each podomere of people's arm approx.But also it is contemplated that a plurality of also short or long links of the lever of swinging of length, and on the configuration of machinery, can realize one thus significantly than large moving range.Utensil can be used for the people of different statures and the bigger option scope of possible motion thus better.Utilize such lever can be sufficient enough when the short link of using each lever that can swing, the element that can swing in described lever rotates around a unique axis only with respect to base.Can reduce expense thus and improve fastness.
In order in operating process, to keep as far as possible little inertia force, with the torque load coupling of expection in, each swing arm by the order away from base O become more and more elongated and more and more a little less than, thereby and to be designed to unit length lighter.
Explanatory note process in the flow chart of Fig. 4 in each frame.Be provided with the line of arrow between the literal or only indicate the order of process, or it is also represented as the result of a process and flows into information in next process.
Process in the zone of braces b relates to the common working method of controlled Pneumatic artificial muscle.By the length of consideration actual measurement and the pressure of actual measurement, form or curvilinear system by means of the storage of data technique ground, make the lead desired value of length of each Pneumatic artificial muscle of each actual length, promptly change pressure in each Pneumatic artificial muscle by the corresponding ground of regulating.
Process in the zone of braces a relates to data processing step, and described data processing step can be implemented in a simple data processing equipment.This data processing step relates in one aspect to higher level's program, and relates on the other hand between the position data of the length of each Pneumatic artificial muscle 1.3,2.3,3.3 and bearing-surface 5 and in power on each Pneumatic artificial muscle and the two-way conversion between the power on the bearing-surface.
Displacement-the time course that should pass through by higher level's procedure stipulation bearing-surface, and regulation should be reacted the external force on the bearing-surface in which way.This reaction can for example be an elastic performance of more or less adjusting softlyer, that is, be a kind of like this performance, and wherein the counter-force of reset response is with proportional with respect to the deviation of desired locations.Make counter-force and deviation irrespectively have a constant less value but also can for example be adjusted to.Certainly also (such scheme) realization combination thus, for example " flexible performance only reaches (less) maximum, force of determining ", and can realization other adjustment arbitrarily be set by corresponding program, and usually also be rational.
For example also can abandon counter-force when bearing-surface departs from predetermined displacement-time course fully in order to carry out harmony training.Replace and to inform expectation process and the deviation of displacement by vision and/or voice signal about the time.By measuring and for example deviation obtains conclusion about harmony about the integration of time.
Importantly, not only measure each actual displacement-time course simultaneously, and can also write down and analyze itself and the deviation of expecting process especially.Can derive about therapeutic process thus and be used for the important information of other treatment design.
Many restrictions relevant with security certainly are set in higher level's program.For example can automatically avoid, move on to impossible position on the physiology by (son) program.Acceleration limit, speed restriction and the power of can packing into limits.Can be according to analysis and judgement to the deviation of actual displacement-time course, it is more nervous whether patient becomes, and whether he loosens, or whether he is too tired; Correspondingly can be adjusted into other process, or even interrupting or stopping treatment.
Certainly replacing displacement-time course also can be to power-time course pre-programmed under the situation of observing definite speed restriction and position restriction.
In the form of implementation that is used for the mechanical arm of therapeutic gymnastics passive and active of the present invention, just provided important information and control device originally as actuator by using in check Pneumatic artificial muscle.Also only need a better simply programmable data processing unit to get final product again basically for favourable being applied in the data processing area territory as therapeutic appliance.This data processing unit can be for example realizes that with the form of a common simple pocket computer it has a computing capability littler than common station computer.
Certainly like this to data treatment facility programming, promptly can be by means of (on the screen) input mask by keyboard input expectation displacement-time course.Because described data processing equipment just was designed for writing down actual displacement-time course in operation originally, the process that will write down like this this is a less step as new expectation process.That is can be simply by means of a lead-through teaching to described device programming, promptly by with corresponding pattern match bearing-surface and its later process of implementing automatically for the treatment of by hope is moved.In the application of reality, this means, be put into arm on the bearing-surface and the therapist moves bearing-surface by its mode that praises together with this arm carefully by patient, can be with displacement programming input, because mechanical arm further should automatically implemented this displacement in the order.
In corresponding production, patient oneself also can be in such a way to displacement programming input certainly, and promptly by when mechanical arm switches to logging mode, the correspondingly mobile bearing-surface of patient once.
But at regulation one range of movement in the favourable form of therapy of simple realization that becomes thus, bearing-surface should experience this range of movement at last together with patient's arm, but can't experience when beginning.Mechanical arm is made every effort to the displacement implementing to stipulate.Patient for example since in worry pain, the joint can not activity, the human body power of the harmony of shortage or shortage is forced to implement another and requires lower displacement.Do not have for patient and to realize such forcing sorely, because mechanical arm is very flexibly reacted to the deviation that people due to illness causes.Mechanical arm " is discovered " this second displacement and is repeatedly passed through this displacement, thereby patient loosens in this possible motion.Mechanical arm " trial " little by little makes the displacement for the treatment of process again near original expectation displacement.In passing through, each time always be adjusted at the position deviation of respectively expecting in the displacement original expectation displacement minutely at corresponding time phase for this reason.
For a mechanical arm of the present invention as the application that is used for utensil passive and therapeutic gymnastics initiatively, to other important projects of the programming of higher level's the data processing equipment of controlling be:
-pre-prepd displacement-time-Z-TEK is levied (curve);
-in how much variations, velocity variations, with respect to the variation of power to be used on the editability of motion process of programming input;
The adjustable of for example maximum speed of-restriction relevant, maximum acceleration, maximum power with security;
-be in the adjustable of period of contact large-scale position of related features when pressure remains unchanged at arm and target object.That is even object itself is movable within the specific limits, bearing-surface also power controllably " is followed " object;
-regulate like this, if promptly mechanical arm owing to the effect of an outside for example a impact on the part of its activity leave one mix up the position time, then automatically move on to this position of mechanical arm again;
-all these functions can easily realize at the range content of common professional activity by programing work under the situation of using described make; Therefore not for further discussion here.The contribution that can confirm the inventor is, these functions can be of great value for treatment, and these functions can be simply by using make of the present invention, low cost and realization reliably.
By in check Pneumatic artificial muscle can be obtained other advantage with the actuator of the mechanical arm that acts on a passive and therapeutic gymnastics initiatively:
-high fastness
-compare soft flexible Pneumatic artificial muscle itself can bear and cushion impact with the mechanical arm that is driven of other types to arm.Therefore though arm is lightweight construction but also is extremely firm for peak load and vibration.It is very firm equally that Pneumatic artificial muscle itself is compared with piston-cylinder adjustment element, because the face that it does not have its each several part to slide mutually and seal thereon, and because owing to its flexible described Pneumatic artificial muscle in fact can not be damaged because of the object of collision as flexible pipe.
Because the simple coupling of this high fastness utilization just can be used mechanical arm of the present invention as therapeutic appliance under water, promptly as such therapeutic appliance, the leg that this therapeutic appliance for example makes a patient under water with periodic circulation according to an adjustable orbiting motion.One such coupling can be, the following part of water surface that puts in of mechanical arm is surrounded by the flexible pipe of the end sealing of a hose shape that is made of the large-area material of the flexibility of a water-stop.If do not adopt such flexible pipe, if promptly the each several part of mechanical arm directly by water around wash away-this does not constitute problem when corresponding material is selected, then in order to control, because the weight of water, must make each Pneumatic artificial muscle about fluid pressure and the characteristic curve that relates to the power that pressure sends with respect to the aerial pressure that mobile adjection is set (amount).Here also the discharge duct of Pneumatic artificial muscle is directed to the top of the water surface for fear of the foaming of worry;
-security
Even under the situation that the control device to utensil has fault ground to work, also can avoid danger in an advantageous manner to the people.For these needs for example can be by a pressure that is independent of in the additional control module restriction Pneumatic artificial muscle of centralized control unit work by excess pressure valve.In other make, need predetermined fracture location for this reason.Equally, as above illustrated as the application of tool holder in the face of mechanical arm of the present invention, be independent of the buffer element of the control of data technique by passive direct mechanical effect, as the collision bumper that the narrow positions in gas pipeline, centrifugal force brake or additional pressure medium promote, come the relative velocity between each movable relatively mutually part of limit mechanical arm;
-cheaply
Because simple structure Pneumatic artificial muscle compares with hydraulic cylinder or pneumatic linear actuator, or the electric driver that can use similarly is more economical.Except in order to control the control element that needs by standard, except that the data processing equipment at center, do not need the special control element that adds for utensil of the present invention;
-light-duty
Pneumatic artificial muscle has than using obviously littler weight of similar adjustment drive unit by the make of general other.Except that to also having realized the raising of a security the raising of activity thus, because the quality of motion is less.
Make by suggestion is for being used for the strong associating that therapeutic appliance passive and therapeutic gymnastics initiatively draws each advantage that does not reach so far: security, low cost and result's value.Can expect, by according to make of the present invention by means of passive and therapeutic gymnastics initiatively, this may be useful to it those patients in, can obtain effective treatment than the obvious bigger ratio of present circumstances.
In order to make bearing-surface also can apply the power that is different from pure pressure to patient, bearing-surface should be equipped with removable being used to and treat fixture by patient's four limbs of bearing-surface motion.These fixtures can for example be band or the radial type clamping elements that has bracelet or hasp.
Here be primarily aimed at the patient's who is seated to be treated arm and the passive purpose in the shoulder regions and described the present invention with therapeutic gymnastics initiatively.But in principle the present invention also be applicable to other body part for example leg or head and do not need to make forcibly people to be treated to be seated with respect to the passive and treatment campaign initiatively of driving body, and also can stand or lie on a bed.

Claims (18)

1. mechanical arm is constituted and is comprised a control device by one or more swing arms that interlink successively (1,2,3), wherein
One swing arm (3) comprises a pillar (3.2), a base (3.1), the element that can swing (3.4) and a plurality of Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3);
Base (3.1) is rigidly connected with first end of pillar (3.2), and the element that can swing (3.4) is bearing on second end of pillar (3.2) swingably around one or two axis that departs from the longitudinal direction orientation of pillar;
Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3) extends to the element that can swing (3.4) from base (3.1);
Each Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3) is acting on the opposed side of the axis of oscillation of the element that can swing (3.4) on the described element of swinging;
Under the situation of each swing arm (3,2) that links, the base of a swing arm (3.1,2.1) is rigidly connected with the next element of swinging (2.4,1.4) with its swing arm that links (2,1);
It is characterized in that:
Measure the position of each swing arm (3,2,1) and the pressure of existence in each Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3,2.3,1.3) by control device, and
The lever ratio of the pressure-displacement line chart by considering each Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3,2.3,1.3) and how much, recomputate by all swing arms (3,2,1) that is provided with Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3,2.3,1.3) outwards effect power and limit these power.
2. according to the described mechanical arm of claim 1, it is characterized in that this mechanical arm has the excess pressure valve that is used for upwards limiting the gas pressure in the Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3,2.3,1.3).
3. according to claim 1 or 2 described mechanical arms, it is characterized in that this mechanical arm has the passive buffer element that is used for mechanically limiting the relative velocity between each swing arm (3,2,1).
4. according to claim 1 or 2 described mechanical arms, it is characterized in that the position of the base (3.1,2.1) of a swing arm (3,2) can be installed in by different orientations on the element of swinging (2.4,1.4) of the swing arm (2,1) that is positioned at its front.
5. according to claim 1 or 2 described mechanical arms, it is characterized in that having the hole in the joint pin in the hinge ball that is arranged on the there or that be arranged on the there on the hinge of this mechanical arm between two swing arms, required pipeline is guided through these holes.
6. according to claim 1 or 2 described mechanical arms, it is characterized in that, one hinge that is used for the oscillating motion of a diaxon constitutes the ball-and-socket hinge, wherein a groove extends in the surface of ball (1.2.1), one puts in this groove with the rigidly connected pin of nest dish (1.4.1), and wherein said groove is positioned at the symmetrical plane that one of ball is parallel to the orientation of the Pneumatic artificial muscle (1.3) that acts on the nest dish.
7. according to the described mechanical arm of claim 1, it is characterized in that, a bearing-surface (5) that is used for a people to be treated limbs is set on one or two swing arm (3,2).
8. according to the described mechanical arm of claim 7, it is characterized in that, automatically
Length of each Pneumatic artificial muscle of-measurement (1.3,2.3,3.3) and pressure wherein;
-under the situation of the form of using the description feature that is used for each Pneumatic artificial muscle of storing or curvilinear system, determine the power that on each Pneumatic artificial muscle, exists by data technique ground by these information;
-by the length that records of each Pneumatic artificial muscle and the conversion by how much,, calculate the position of each lever that can swing (1,2,3) and bearing-surface (5) perhaps by direct position measurement to the element of mutual relative motion;
-by calculating power on each swing arm and on bearing-surface by how much conversion in the power on each Pneumatic artificial muscle.
9. according to claim 7 or 8 described mechanical arms, it is characterized in that, directly detect the physical location of bearing-surface (5) by programmable control module.
10. according to claim 7 or 8 described mechanical arms, it is characterized in that, during an operation treatment, repeatedly pass through each motion process in a similar fashion, wherein expect process accordingly, pass through from once passing through to another time, little by little from second form of the different regulation of first formal transformation to of a regulation, that is each expectation process during each time phase that passes through each time with the alternate position spike of the position of second form of regulation each time by in dwindle piecemeal during the identical time phase.
11. be used to control the method for mechanical arm, this mechanical arm is made of the swing arm that interlinks successively (1,2,3), wherein
One swing arm (3) comprises a pillar (3.2), a base (3.1), the element that can swing (3.4) and a plurality of Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3);
Base (3.1) is rigidly connected with first end of pillar (3.2), and the element that can swing (3.4) is bearing on second end of pillar (3.2) swingably around one or two axis that departs from the longitudinal direction orientation of pillar;
Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3) extends to the element that can swing (3.4) from base (3.1);
Each Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3) is acting on the opposed side of the axis of oscillation of the element that can swing (3.4) on the described element of swinging;
Under the situation of each swing arm (3,2) that links, the base of a swing arm (3.1,2.1) is rigidly connected with the next element of swinging (2.4,1.4) with its swing arm that links (2,1);
It is characterized in that: described method comprises the steps:
Measure the position of each swing arm (3,2,1) and the pressure of existence in each Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3,2.3,1.3) by a control device;
The lever ratio of the pressure-displacement line chart by considering each Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3,2.3,1.3) and how much recomputates by the outside power of effect of all swing arms (3,2,1) that is provided with Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3,2.3,1.3); And
These power are limited.
12. in accordance with the method for claim 11, it is characterized in that described method also comprises: the power that is applied by each swing arm (3,2,1) is limited by regulation technology.
13. according to claim 11 or 12 described methods, it is characterized in that, described method also comprises: directly measure the power that is applied by each Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3,2.3,1.3), wherein, than more directly measuring described power by the pressure that in each Pneumatic artificial muscle (3.3,2.3,1.3), exists.
14. according to claim 11 or 12 described methods, it is characterized in that, described method also comprises: repeat to implement one relevant with mechanical arm and therefore treat the expectation process of the motion of the element (4,5) that moves by it with such degree, that is under the situation of the power limit of automatically monitoring by mechanical arm itself of abiding by the regulations, be possible, as it.
15. in accordance with the method for claim 14, it is characterized in that, described method also comprises: each Pneumatic artificial muscle in adjust the counter-force that react on this deviation by control device at the position deviation of element (4,5) during in desired locations, wherein this counter-force can be edited ground preset with the correlation of the degree that deviates from desired locations.
16. in accordance with the method for claim 15, it is characterized in that described method also comprises:
-adjust the size of counter-force pro rata with deviation, wherein proportionality coefficient is adjustable, and the upper limit of counter-force is adjustable; And/or
-when surpassing a minimum deflection, be adjusted into a constant counter-force, there is not counter-force otherwise just be adjusted into; And/or
-vision or sound ground show deviation, and be adjusted into and do not have counter-force this moment.
17., it is characterized in that described method also comprises according to claim 11 or 12 described methods:
The record mechanical arm pass through the motion process that grips mechanical arm at an arbitrary position and its motion is caused by external force,
The motion process of record is received as the desired motion process of new pre-programmed.
18., it is characterized in that described method also comprises according to claim 11 or 12 described methods:
Detect the position or the motion of the mark of a vision via a video camera;
Press data technique ground preliminary treatment track to be performed like this;
The desired motion process of this track as the new pre-programmed of mechanical arm received.
CN2007800132032A 2006-02-24 2007-02-23 Robot arm and method for controlling the robot arm CN101421081B (en)

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