CN101416767A - Cured tobacco baking technique capable of improving quality and flavoring - Google Patents

Cured tobacco baking technique capable of improving quality and flavoring Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101416767A
CN101416767A CNA2008102336331A CN200810233633A CN101416767A CN 101416767 A CN101416767 A CN 101416767A CN A2008102336331 A CNA2008102336331 A CN A2008102336331A CN 200810233633 A CN200810233633 A CN 200810233633A CN 101416767 A CN101416767 A CN 101416767A
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temperature
dry
relative humidity
wet
bulb
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CN101416767B (en
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崔国民
邓云龙
孔光辉
余砚碧
尹东
张晗
杨懿德
马翠玲
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云南省烟草科学研究所
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Abstract

The invention relates to a quality-improving, flavouring, roasting technique of tobacco leaves, belonging to the technical field of roasting tobacco technique. The key technology lies in that: (1) adjusting humidity at a low temperature until turning yellow, roasting the tobacco leaves on the base frame of a roasting room until stems turn green and leaves turn yellow, with the temperature in a furnace less than 39 DEG C, the temperature of a wet bulb less than 35 DEG C and the relative humidity between 92% and 75%; (2) stabilizing the temperatures and discharging moisture until the leaves wilt, roasting until all the tobacco leaves in the furnace fully wilt and diachyma is 7.5-8.5 dried, with the temperature in the furnace between 40 DEG C and 48 DEG C, and the relative humidity in the furnace between 67% and 38%; (3) ventilating and dehydrating until the leaves are dry, roasting until the tobacco leaves on the base frame roll a lot and the upper leaves are 7.5-8.5 dried and roll a little, with the temperature in the furnace between 49 DEG C and 53 DEG C, and the relative humidity in the furnace between 42% and 31%; (4) controlling temperature and humidity until the stems are dry, roasting until all the tobacco leaves in the furnace are dry, with the temperature in the furnace between 54 DEG C and 68 DEG C, and the relative humidity in the furnace between 29% and 12%. The invention has advantages of a simple operation, safety, stable yellow tobacco leaves keeping property, good wrinkling degree of leaves, increased oil, and greatly increased fragrance of leaves; and is applied to roasting tobacco leaves in different ecological environments.

Description

A kind of baking of flue-cured tobacco technology that can make tobacco leaf upgrading flavouring
Technical field:
The present invention relates to a kind of baking of flue-cured tobacco technology that can make tobacco leaf upgrading flavouring, belong to flue-cured tobacco modulation process technical field.
Background technology:
In cured tobacco production, kind, cultivation are the bases, and baking is crucial.Baking is the key link of decision quality of tobacco, also is the weak link that Chinese tobacco is produced, and is the bottleneck that the production of restriction Chinese tobacco further develops.Because baking process is improper and method of operating error aspect, the situation that causes baking quality of tobacco to descend and bake bad tobacco leaf is seen everywhere.According to investigations, the loss of tobacco grower in bake process is usually between 20%~30%.The cigarette district masses are generally reflected: tobacco leaf is in bake process, and " flavescence is easy, the fixation difficulty." vivo illustrated and selected the combination of appropriate humiture to the fixing importance of flavescence tobacco leaf color and luster.From tobacco flue-curing practice, under identical temperature and humidity conditions, can only continue 8~12 hours after the tobacco leaf flavescence in the baking, surpassed this time range, tobacco leaf will blackening, has had a strong impact on the presentation quality and the interior quality of tobacco leaf.
After the tobacco flue-curing flavescence, percentage of water loss between 30%~40%, chlorophyll degradation 80%~90%, starch decomposition and inversion 55%~65%, protein decomposition and inversion 20%~30%.The quality of tobacco of this moment is not an optimum state, needs one can keep the time of stable yellow tobacco leaves and the further decomposition and inversion that process realizes the inner a series of macromolecular compounds of tobacco leaf, forms more fragrance hyle.
The present syllogic method for flue-curing tobacco leaves of carrying out, emphasis is to improve the presentation quality of tobacco leaf.This technology after the tobacco leaf flavescence, the fixation that in time heats up, undecomposed macromolecular compound is fixed in the tobacco leaf cell, bakes the tobacco leaf " stiff ", " flat board ", " the dry hand " that come, the perfume quantity deficiency, oil content is poor.
In the existing external baking process, Brazilian baking process, Zimbabwe's baking process, U.S.'s baking process, Japanese baking process, Canadian baking process all do not address this problem well.
By literature search, do not see the open report identical with the present invention.
Summary of the invention:
The objective of the invention is to overcome the deficiency of existing technology, provide a kind of easy and simple to handle, can keep stable yellow tobacco leaves, the leaf-shrinkage degree is good, and oil content increases, the method for flue-curing tobacco leaves that tobacco incense tolerance increases substantially.
Scientific basis of the present invention is: in the baking of flue-cured tobacco process, after the tobacco leaf flavescence, the degraded of different pigments is to the requirement difference of ambient air relative humidity scope.Relative air humidity wider range that chlorophyll degradation is suitable, the relative air humidity scope that carrotene and lutein degraded suit is narrower.After the tobacco leaf flavescence, the relative humidity of surrounding air drops to below 67% and (contains 67%), and its yellow degree remains unchanged in a long time, and variable quantity is very little in other words; The relative humidity of barn air is between 67%~51%, and chlorophyll is degraded in a large number still, and the decomposition and inversion of starch, protein and a series of macromolecular compound is still being carried out with fast speed; This just provides means for the yellow degree of tobacco leaf keeps relative stability, and also for the decomposition and inversion of chlorophyllous degraded, starch and protein has won the time, makes tobacco leaf on scalding, the basis of drying, and has realized the upgrading flavouring of tobacco leaf.The present invention just is to have studied and defined the technological measure that meets above-mentioned tobacco flue-curing Physiology and biochemistry rule, is the innovation and the development of the slow flavescence of low temperature, low humidity slow curing leaf baking principle.
Technology of the present invention is as follows:
(1) common air-flow ascending manner barn method for flue-curing tobacco leaves sees Table 1.
The common air-flow ascending manner of table 1 barn method for flue-curing tobacco leaves
(2) intensive automation barn method for flue-curing tobacco leaves sees Table 2.
The intensive automation barn of table 2 method for flue-curing tobacco leaves
Easy and simple to handle, security insurance that the present invention has can keep the advantage that stable yellow tobacco leaves, leaf-shrinkage degree are good, oil content increases, tobacco incense tolerance increases substantially; Be applicable to the tobacco flue-curing of different ecological environment.
The specific embodiment:
The common air-flow ascending manner of embodiment 1:(barn method for flue-curing tobacco leaves)
1. low temperature damping flavescence
Tobacco leaf is at low temperature damping yellowing stage, and to internal physiological biochemistry, changing bigger chemical composition is chlorophyll from the tobacco leaf mode of appearance.Concrete measure is: adopt lower temperature, high slightly humidity is heated → dehydration → feel like jelly → fall down → flavescence tobacco leaf.The principle of grasping is " make a fire want little and bear "." dehydration and flavescence adapt, limit hydrofuge limit flavescence ".
Before the igniting, exhausting window, air intake hole open 1/3~1/4.After making a fire, programming rate with average 1 ℃/h, in 14~17 hours, base frame dry-bulb temperature is raised to 32~33 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature reaches 30~31 ℃, keeps wet and dry bulb temperature stable, relative humidity is between 92%~82%, continue 5~8 hours, make the tobacco leaf preheating, adapt to the unsuitable environmental condition of barn inside.From 32~33 ℃, with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, be raised to 35~37 ℃ then, wet-bulb temperature is adjusted at 33~34 ℃, and relative humidity is between 92%~82%.Under this wet and dry bulb temperature condition, bake the flavescence of base frame tobacco leaf more than 3 one-tenth, base frame blade tip, leaf margin must flavescence.With the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, from 35~37 ℃, be raised to 38~39 ℃ again, wet-bulb temperature is adjusted at 34~35 ℃, and relative humidity is between 80%~75%.Under this wet and dry bulb temperature condition, roasting to base frame tobacco leaf blue veins pornographic movie.
2. steady temperature hydrofuge is wilting
The central task of wilting phase of tobacco leaf is the decomposition and inversion that promotes starch, protein to greatest extent, forms more fragrance hyle.Concrete measure is: equilibrium temperature, reduce humidity, and when guaranteeing the yellow tobacco leaves stable in properties, actively promote the decomposition and inversion of the inner a series of macromolecular compounds of tobacco leaf.The principle of grasping is: steady temperature hydrofuge, and temperature is unsuitable high, and humidity is unsuitable big, " burning till moderate heat ".
Exhausting window opens 1/2, air intake wide open 1/3~1/4.Dry-bulb temperature by 38~39 ℃, is raised to 42~44 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h.At this moment, the exhausting window standard-sized sheet, air intake is wide open 1/2~1/3, and wet-bulb temperature is adjusted at 35~36 ℃, and relative humidity is between 64%~51%.Stablize this wet and dry bulb temperature, continue 8~12 hours, be the flavescence transitional period, roasting to 2 tobacco leaf blue veins pornographic movies.From 42~44 ℃, with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, be raised to 47~48 ℃ then, wet-bulb temperature is adjusted at 35~36 ℃, and relative humidity is between 45%~38%.Stablize this wet and dry bulb temperature, continue 24~36 hours, roasting master pulse turns over more than white 8.5 one-tenth to the little tube of beating of base frame tobacco leaf bill crimping, till full stove tobacco leaf flavescence is wilting.
3. the dehydration cured leaf ventilates
The central task in this stage is with tobacco leaf changing yellow stage, wilting phase, and what accumulated is that the small-molecule substance of representative is compound, fixing with glucose, fructose and amino acid, synthetic tabacco fragrance material.Concrete measure is: with higher temperature, lower humidity, standard-sized sheet exhausting window, air intake hole, strengthen ventilation dewetting, slough moisture content in leaves, the quality factor that tobacco leaf changing yellow stage, wilting phase are obtained is fixed up.The principle of grasping is: " keep certain programming rate, and carry out steady temperature, constant, lasting, do not fall temperature, do not heat up suddenly, time expand, accelerate dehydration, dry offshoot and mesophyll ".Make a fire " wanting big and steady ".
Exhausting window, air intake hole standard-sized sheet.Dry-bulb temperature by 47~48 ℃, is raised to 51~53 ℃ with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature is adjusted at 36~37 ℃, and relative humidity is between 37%~31%.Stablize this wet and dry bulb temperature, continue 24~36 hours, roastingly play tube greatly to the base frame tobacco leaf, in 7.5~8.5 one-tenth dryings of tobacco leaf of appearing on the stage, the little tube of beating.
4. temperature control, the wet dried muscle of control
Enter this stage, the residual moisture of tobacco leaf is few, and just epidermis is thick, tissue tight, and water evaporates is slower, but does not need a large amount of ventilation dewettings.Simultaneously, blade is drying, and the space is big between the interior cigarette pole of barn, turns down exhausting window, air intake hole, and it is little to make a fire, and temperature also rises easily, reduces thermal loss, shortening time, fuel savings.The principle of grasping is: " make a fire by evenly, heat up slowly in the big change, steady temperature, drain moisture, dry master pulse ".
Dry-bulb temperature is with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, directly is raised to 62~63 ℃ from 51~53 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature is adjusted at 37~38 ℃, and relative humidity is between 18%~15%.Kept such wet and dry bulb temperature 12~18 hours, full stove tobacco leaf master pulse abovely changes fiery for dry 5 one-tenths.Dry-bulb temperature rises to 67~68 ℃ again with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature also rises to 38~40 ℃ thereupon, and relative humidity is between 16%~12%.Stablize this wet and dry bulb temperature, continue 24~48 hours, roasting to the tobacco leaf master pulse of top platform 90% or more when dry, truce utilizes waste heat that not dried master pulse is dried.During truce, close the air intake hole, exhausting window opens 1/3, avoids closing fully, and the residue moisture can be vexed red dark brown.
The baking result: color is golden yellow, orange, and oil content is more, and not roasting bad tobacco leaf occurs; Better-than-average tobacco leaf ratio 80%~88%; The expert is to the smoking result of tobacco leaf: fragrance matter is purer, and perfume quantity is more sufficient, and flue gas concentration is comparatively full, abundant, and excitant is less, and strength is moderate, and assorted gas is lighter, and mouthfeel is fair, and use value is higher.
The intensive automation barn of embodiment 2:(method for flue-curing tobacco leaves)
1. low temperature damping flavescence
The tobacco leaf changing yellow stage, to internal physiological biochemistry, influencing bigger factor is chlorophyllous degraded from the tobacco leaf mode of appearance.Concrete measure is: under the condition of suitably low temperature, low humidity, tobacco leaf is heated → dehydration → feel like jelly → fall down → flavescence.The principle of grasping is: " make a fire want little and bear "." dehydration and flavescence adapt, limit hydrofuge limit flavescence ".Key problem in technology is " wet with temperature control ".
After on fire, with the programming rate of average 1 ℃/h, in 14~17 hours, base frame dry-bulb temperature is raised to 35~39 ℃ from natural temperature, and wet-bulb temperature reaches 33~35 ℃, between the relative humidity 92%~82%, 48~60 hours time, roasting reach the blue veins pornographic movie to the base frame tobacco leaf.This stage will keep the vitality of tobacco leaf cell, strengthens the activity of enzyme, time expand, promote tobacco leaf internal substance decomposition and inversion, and make tobacco leaf become yellow.
2. steady temperature hydrofuge is wilting
The central task of wilting phase of tobacco leaf is the decomposition and inversion that promotes starch, protein to greatest extent, forms more fragrance hyle.Concrete measure is: equilibrium temperature, reduce humidity, and when guaranteeing the yellow tobacco leaves stable in properties, actively facilitate the decomposition and inversion of the inner a series of macromolecular compounds of tobacco leaf.The principle of grasping is: steady temperature hydrofuge, and temperature is unsuitable high, and humidity is unsuitable big, " burning till moderate heat ".Key problem in technology is " application of yellow critical value 67% ".
Dry-bulb temperature in 3~5 hours, by 39 ℃ of programming rates with average 1 ℃/h, is raised to 42~44 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature reaches 35~36 ℃, and relative humidity is controlled between 64~51%.Stablize this wet and dry bulb temperature, continue 8~12 hours, roasting to base frame tobacco leaf bill crimping, the little tube of beating; The middle and upper part tobacco leaf reaches till the blue veins pornographic movie.Dry-bulb temperature is in 3~5 hours, programming rate with average 1 ℃/h, be raised to 47~48 ℃ by 44 ℃, wet-bulb temperature remains on 36~37 ℃, between the relative humidity 49%~42%, continue 24~36 hours, roasting to the little tube of beating of base frame tobacco leaf bill crimping, master pulse turns over more than white 8.5 one-tenth, and full stove tobacco leaf flavescence is wilting.
3. the dehydration cured leaf ventilates
The central task of cured leaf phase is with tobacco leaf changing yellow stage, wilting phase, and what accumulated is that the small-molecule substance of representative is compound, fixing with glucose, fructose and amino acid, synthetic tabacco fragrance material.Concrete measure is: strengthen ventilation dewetting, with higher temperature, lower humidity, slough moisture content in leaves, the quality factor that tobacco leaf changing yellow stage, wilting phase are obtained is fixed up.The principle of grasping is: " keep certain programming rate, and accomplish steady temperature, constant, lasting, do not fall temperature, do not heat up suddenly, time expand, accelerate dehydration, dry offshoot and mesophyll ".Make a fire " wanting big and steady ".Key problem in technology is " first hydrofuge, heat up in the back " or " hydrofuge steadily heats up ".
Dry-bulb temperature with the programming rate of average 1 ℃/h, was raised to 51~53 ℃ from 48 ℃ in 4~6 hours, wet-bulb temperature remains on 37~38 ℃, between the relative humidity 40%~32%, continues 24~36 hours, bake and play tube greatly to the base frame tobacco leaf, 7.5~8.5 one-tenth on middle and upper part tobacco leaf is dry, little beating till the tube.Be blade drying 2/3, only near the mesophyll leaf base and the master pulse is also soft.
4. temperature control, the wet dried muscle of control
The central task of drying muscle stage is: drain master pulse moisture, realize full stove drying tobacco.Concrete measure is: with higher temperature with than low humidity, quicken the eliminating of master pulse moisture.In this stage, the residual moisture of tobacco leaf master pulse is few, and just epidermis is thick, tissue tight, and water evaporates is slower, does not need a large amount of ventilation dewettings; Simultaneously, tobacco leaf is drying, and the space becomes big between the inner cigarette pole of barn; If continue out big exhausting window, air intake hole, will inevitably cause the loss of heat and the waste of fuel.Therefore, the wet-bulb temperature of intensive automation barn in this stage, can be controlled between 38~43 ℃, suitably turns down exhausting window, air intake hole, reduces thermal loss, shortens stoving time, energy savings.The principle of grasping is " make a fire by evenly, burning till moderate heat in the big change, intensification slowly, steady temperature drain moisture, dry master pulse ".Key problem in technology is " temperature is unsuitable high, and humidity is unsuitable big ".
Dry-bulb temperature is with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, is raised to 62~63 ℃ from 53 ℃, and wet-bulb temperature is adjusted at 38~40 ℃, between the relative humidity 23%~20%.Keep such wet and dry bulb temperature, continue 12~18 hours.Be the transitional period in dried muscle stage during this period of time, the dry 5 one-tenth above fire that change of the stove tobacco leaf master pulse of demanding perfection.Dry-bulb temperature rises to 67~68 ℃ again with the programming rate of 1 ℃/h, and wet-bulb temperature also rises to 41~43 ℃ thereupon, between the relative humidity 20%~17%.Stablize wet and dry bulb temperature, continue 24~48 hours.Roasting to the tobacco leaf master pulse of top platform 90% or more when dry, truce utilizes waste heat that not dried master pulse is dried.
The baking result: color is golden yellow, orange, and color and luster is stronger, and not roasting bad tobacco leaf occurs; Better-than-average cigarette ratio 80%~92%; The expert is to the smoking result of tobacco leaf: fragrance matter is pure, the perfume quantity foot, and flue gas concentration is full, abundant, and excitant is less, and strength is moderate, and assorted gas is lighter, and mouthfeel is better, and use value is higher.

Claims (1)

1, a kind of baking of flue-cured tobacco technology that can make tobacco leaf upgrading flavouring is characterized in that concrete baking process step is as follows:
(1) common air-flow ascending manner barn method for flue-curing tobacco leaves is:
1. low temperature damping yellowing stage technological parameter: on fire → 32.0~33.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 30.0~31.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 92%~82%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 5~8h; 35.0~37.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 33.0~34.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 92%~82%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 24~36; 38.0~39.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 34.0~54.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 80%~75%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 18~24h;
2. the wilting stage process parameter of steady temperature hydrofuge: 42.0~44.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 35.0~36.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 64%~51%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 8~12h; 47.0~48.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 35.0~36.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 24~36h;
3. the dehydration cured leaf stage process parameter of ventilating: 51.0~53.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 36.0~37.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 37%~31%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 24~36h;
4. the dried muscle stage process of temperature and humidity control parameter: 62.0~63.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 37.0~38.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 18%~15%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 12~18h; 67.0~68.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 38.0~40.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 16%~12%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 24~48h;
(2) intensive automation barn method for flue-curing tobacco leaves is:
1. low temperature damping yellowing stage technological parameter: on fire → 35.0~39.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 30.0~31.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 92%~82%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 48~60h;
2. the wilting stage process parameter of steady temperature hydrofuge: 42.0~44.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 35.0~36.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 64%~51%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 8~12h; 47.0~48.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 36.0~37.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 49%~42%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 24~36h;
3. the dehydration cured leaf stage process parameter of ventilating: 51.0~53.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 37.0~38.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 40%~32%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 24~36h;
4. the dried muscle stage process of temperature and humidity control parameter: 62.0~63.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 38.0~40.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 23%~20%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 12~18h; 67.0~68.0 ℃ of dry-bulb temperatures, 41.0~43.0 ℃ of wet-bulb temperature, relative humidity 20%~17%, 1 ℃/h of programming rate, stoving time 24~48h.
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CN102987540B (en) * 2012-11-26 2014-06-25 湖北省烟草科研所 Tobacco leaf prewilting baking process for bulk curing barn
CN102987540A (en) * 2012-11-26 2013-03-27 湖北省烟草科研所 Tobacco leaf prewilting baking process for bulk curing barn
CN102920000B (en) * 2012-11-30 2015-07-01 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 Flue-cured tobacco leaf modulation technology for increasing proportion of saffron yellow tobacco leaves
CN102920000A (en) * 2012-11-30 2013-02-13 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 Flue-cured tobacco leaf modulation technology for increasing proportion of saffron yellow tobacco leaves
CN103653226A (en) * 2013-12-30 2014-03-26 云南一通太阳能科技有限公司 Tobacco leaf curing method
CN103876269A (en) * 2014-03-06 2014-06-25 川渝中烟工业有限责任公司 Baking technology method capable of reducing phenol release amount in flue-cured tobaccos
CN103798945A (en) * 2014-03-06 2014-05-21 川渝中烟工业有限责任公司 Flue-curing process method capable of reducing protein content in flue-cured tobacco
CN103876269B (en) * 2014-03-06 2016-03-02 川渝中烟工业有限责任公司 The baking process method of phenol release amount in flue-cured tobacco can be reduced
CN103798945B (en) * 2014-03-06 2016-03-02 川渝中烟工业有限责任公司 The baking process method of protein content in flue-cured tobacco can be reduced
CN107594607A (en) * 2017-11-17 2018-01-19 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 A kind of wet flue-cured tobacco dense drying method of steady temperature drop
CN107594607B (en) * 2017-11-17 2019-11-12 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 A kind of flue-cured tobacco dense drying method that steady temperature drop is wet
CN109330013A (en) * 2018-11-30 2019-02-15 云南省烟草农业科学研究院 A kind of dry muscle baking process method of flue-cured tobacco low temperature
CN110506969A (en) * 2019-07-31 2019-11-29 贵州省烟草公司黔西南州公司 A kind of method of tobacco leaf flavouring baking

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