CN101416605B - Soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system - Google Patents

Soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101416605B
CN101416605B CN2008101538232A CN200810153823A CN101416605B CN 101416605 B CN101416605 B CN 101416605B CN 2008101538232 A CN2008101538232 A CN 2008101538232A CN 200810153823 A CN200810153823 A CN 200810153823A CN 101416605 B CN101416605 B CN 101416605B
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China
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liquid
cell
nutrient solution
cultivating
groove
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CN2008101538232A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101416605A (en
Inventor
邵玉翠
任顺荣
贺宏达
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天津市农业资源与环境研究所
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The invention relates to a soilless cultivation system of capillary hydroponics, comprising a plurality of culturing grooves, a liquid storage tank, a liquid feeding pipe, a water pump, a flowmeter, a timer, a first backflow pipe, a second backflow pipe, a backflow tank, a pressure pump, a water filtering and disinfecting device, and a fertilizer blending tank. The tables for fixing and putting plants in the culturing grooves of the soilless cultivation system of capillary hydroponics are set fixedly, such that there is no damage to the roots of plants because of the liquid level changes of the nutrient solution and no worry about water or power cut because of the 5cm height of the nutrient solution. The invention adopts the root separating method to solve the conflict of oxygen uptake and liquid supplement with low consumption of energy. in addition, The bottom of the culturing groove can be provided with a culturing frame having the function of supporting to completely change the traditional stooping or squatting working way of the workers in the past, which is not only good for easy operation and management, but also for easy cleaning of the residue roots after harvesting. So the labor intensity can be reduced.

Description

Soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system
Technical field
The invention belongs to the industrialized agriculture field, particularly relate to a kind of soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system.
Background technology
The mode of production that cultivation technique without soil is extensively adopt in world's industrialized agriculture a kind of most advanced, capital is the most intensive becomes one of main direction of world's facilities horticulture research and development in the last hundred years therefrom.Wherein not having native water planting culture technique is a kind of up-to-date planting type that works out along with the development of hothouse production, and existing in the world more than 100 country will not have native water culture technology and be used for hothouse production, and comparatively Xian Jin country comprises Holland, Israel etc.Nothing soil water planting cultivation system commonly used at present mainly is divided into following three kinds:
1, the no native water planting cultivation system of NFT (NFT) that was proposed by Britain Cooper in 1973, it constitutes as shown in Figure 1.Fig. 2 does not have the cultivating groove structural representation that is adopted in the native water planting cultivation system for this NFT.As shown in Figure 1, this NFT do not have that native water planting cultivation system comprises mainly that a plurality of cultivating grooves 2, liquid storage tank 40, feed flow house steward 41, a plurality of feed flow are in charge of 42, water pump 43 and liquid back pipe 44; Wherein an end of feed flow house steward 41 is connected on the liquid storage tank 40; Water pump 43 is installed on the feed flow house steward 41; Each feed flow is in charge of an end of 42 and is connected on the feed flow house steward 41, and the other end joins with the liquid feeding end of corresponding cultivating groove 2; One end of liquid back pipe 44 is connected the outlet end of cultivating groove 2, and its other end then is connected on the liquid storage tank 40.As shown in Figure 2, the top of described cultivating groove 2 is fixing with clip 5, the inner pot for growing seedlings 3 that is implanted with plant 1 of planting is placed on the inner bottom surface of cultivating groove 2, and the inside stream of cultivating groove 2 has one deck to be in charge of the thick nutrient solution 4 of the 42 about 0.5~1cm that provide by water pump 43 through feed flow.When nutrient solution 4 was flowed through the root system of plant 1, it not only can supply with plant 1 moisture and nutrient, but also can fresh oxygen was provided constantly for the root system of plant 1.But that the shortcoming of this system is the liquid stream of cultivating groove 2 is shallow (have only 0.5~1cm), liquid temperature is unstable, and in case cut off the water, nutrient solution 4 can't provide, thereby plant easily withers, and the rhizospheric environment poor stability.
2, the no native water planting cultivation system of dark liquid stream round-robin method (DFT), it constitutes as shown in Figure 3.Fig. 4 does not have the cultivating groove structural representation that native water planting cultivation system is adopted for this dark liquid stream round-robin method.As shown in Figure 3, this dark liquid stream round-robin method does not have native water planting cultivation system and mainly comprises a plurality of cultivating grooves 8, liquid storage tank 45, feed tube 46, water pump 47 and liquid back pipe 48.As shown in Figure 4, be covered with the plastic foil 7 that one deck is used to prevent the nutrient solution seepage on the inner surface of described cultivating groove 8, and the upper end of cultivating groove 8 is coated with cystosepiment 9, the inner pot for growing seedlings 6 that is implanted with plant 5 of planting is arranged in the hole that forms on the cystosepiment 9.The nutrient solution 10 that the 5~10cm that flows in the cultivating groove 8 is thick is injected through feed tube 46 by water pump 47.Because the liquid layer of nutrient solution 10 is darker, so the root system of plant 5 can be immersed in the nutrient solution 10.Though this cultivating groove 8 can solve the problem that above-mentioned NFT cultivating groove 2 outages can not run well, shortcoming is that the root system ventilation of plant 5 needs dependence continuous oxygenation in nutrient solution 10 to solve, thereby the energy consumption height.
3, the no native water planting cultivation system of kickboard hollow billet method (FCH), it constitutes as shown in Figure 5.Fig. 6 does not have the cultivating groove structural representation that native water planting cultivation system is adopted for this kickboard hollow billet method.As shown in Figure 5, this kickboard hollow billet method does not have native water planting cultivation system and mainly comprises cultivating groove 11, liquid storage tank 49, feed tube 50, water pump 51, liquid back pipe 52 and air mixer 53; Wherein air mixer 53 is installed in the front end place that links to each other with cultivating groove 11 on the feed tube 50, with the dissolved oxygen amount of the liquid that has additional nutrients.As shown in Figure 6, the end face of described cultivating groove 11 and ground are positioned at same plane, be covered with one deck on its inner surface and be used to prevent the polyethylene film 15 of nutrient solution seepage, and the nutrient solution 13 that 3~6cm that inner stream has one deck to be provided through feed tube 50 by water pump 51 is thick, floating on the liquid level has polystyrene foam plate 14, and covering one deck on the cystosepiment 14 quantitatively is 50g/cm 2Hydrophilic non-woven 12, and the both side ends of nonwoven 12 extends in the nutrient solution 13, the inner pot for growing seedlings 17 that is implanted with plant 16 of planting hangs or is fixed on the cystosepiment 14.This cultivating groove 11 is that to utilize the capillarity of fiber in the nonwoven 12 that cystosepiment 14 is remained moistening, and the aerial root of plant 16 is grown in the upper and lower surface of nonwoven 12, and absorbs oxygen in moisture.Though this cultivating groove 11 can overcome the shortcoming that NFT does not have the cultivating groove 2 that native water planting cultivation system adopted, promptly has rhizospheric environment conditional stability, the liquid temperature changes little, the rhizosphere oxygen supply is abundant, and can not influence the advantages such as supply of nutrient solution because of temporary interruption, but its shortcoming is that its position can change along with the lifting of nutrient solution 13 liquid levels because cystosepiment 14 is to swim on the liquid level of nutrient solution 13.Particularly in summer high temperature season, nutrient solution 13 is subjected to Temperature Influence bigger, therefore its evaporation rate is very fast, plant 16 then is to be draped or to be fixed on the cystosepiment 14, therefore the major part of plant root reaches the surface of cystosepiment 14 or has got into nonwoven 12 the insides, at this moment, and when making the liquid level decline of nutrient solution 13 when the influence that is subjected to high temperature, easily cause pulling of plant root, thereby influence the normal growth of plant.In addition, as mentioned above, this cultivating groove 11 is to be in below ground, thereby the staff need bend over or couchant the operation, and so not only labour intensity is big, and remaining undesirable root easy to clean not behind the crop harvesting.
Summary of the invention
In order to address the above problem, the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of can not causing to the pulling of plant root, there are not oxygen uptake and feed flow contradiction, and can alleviate the soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system of intensity of workers.
In order to achieve the above object, soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system provided by the invention comprises a plurality of cultivating grooves, fluid reservoir, feed tube, water pump, flowmeter, timer, first liquid back pipe, second liquid back pipe, returns flow container, force pump, water filtration chlorination equipment and the fertilizer jar that is mixed; Wherein feed tube is connected between the inlet of fluid reservoir and a plurality of cultivating grooves; Water pump, flow are taken into account timer and are installed on the feed tube; First liquid back pipe is connected back between the liquid outlet of flow container and a plurality of cultivating grooves; The two ends of second liquid back pipe then reach back flow container with fluid reservoir respectively and link to each other, and on it force pump are installed; Fluid reservoir also is mixed with water filtration chlorination equipment and fertilizer simultaneously and jar joins.
Described soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system also comprises the bottom that is arranged on cultivating groove, is used for the cultivating stand of supporting culture groove.
Described cultivating groove comprises cell body, antiseep film, field planting platform, hydrophilic non-woven and groove lid; Wherein cell body is the cube shaped of upper end open, is covered with the antiseep film that one deck is used to prevent the nutrient solution seepage on its inner surface; The field planting platform is cube shaped, and it is protruding upward and form from the inner bottom surface of cell body middle part, and height is less than the height of cell body, thereby nutrient solution can circulate in the space between cell body medial surface and the field planting platform side; Hydrophilic non-woven covers on the end face and two sides of field planting platform; The groove lid then covers the upper end open place of cell body, and is formed with a plurality of perforates that are used to run through plant stem on it.
Described cell body is formed with a plurality of inlets on one side, then be formed with a plurality of liquid outlets on the another side, and the height of inlet is higher than the height of liquid outlet.
Described field planting platform is hollow state, can reduce the consumption of material like this.
The width of described field planting platform is 1/2~3/5 of a cell body width.
The field planting platform that is used to place plant in the cultivating groove of no native water planting hollow billet method provided by the invention system fixedly installs, even the liquid level of nutrient solution is subjected to the influence of external temperature and changes like this, can not cause pulling to plant root yet, and since the liquid level of nutrient solution about 5cm, therefore be not afraid of and cut off the water and electricity supply.In addition, the present invention has used plant root division technology, even the root system part of plant is grown in the surface of nonwoven to absorb airborne oxygen, another part is grown in the nutrient solution to absorb needed nutrient and moisture, thereby oxygen uptake and feed flow contradiction are resolved, and energy consumption is low.In addition, the bottom of above-mentioned cultivating groove can also be provided with passive cultivating stand, can change traditional the bending over or couchant operating type of staff in the past so fully, not only be convenient to operation and management, and remaining undesirable root is cleared up easily behind the crop harvesting, therefore can alleviate staff's labour intensity significantly.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 does not have native water planting cultivation system formation schematic diagram for the NFT of prior art.
Fig. 2 does not have the cultivating groove structural representation that native water planting cultivation system is adopted for above-mentioned NFT.
Fig. 3 does not have native water planting cultivation system for the dark liquid stream round-robin method of prior art and constitutes schematic diagram.
Fig. 4 does not have the cultivating groove structural representation that native water planting cultivation system is adopted for above-mentioned dark liquid stream round-robin method.
Fig. 5 does not have native water planting cultivation system for the kickboard hollow billet method of prior art and constitutes schematic diagram.
Fig. 6 does not have the cultivating groove structural representation that native water planting cultivation system is adopted for above-mentioned kickboard hollow billet method.
Fig. 7 is that soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system provided by the invention constitutes schematic diagram.
Fig. 8 is the cultivating groove structural representation that soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system provided by the invention adopted.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system provided by the invention is elaborated.
As shown in Figure 7, soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system provided by the invention comprises a plurality of cultivating grooves 20, fluid reservoir 60, feed tube 61, water pump 62, flowmeter 63, timer 64, first liquid back pipe 65, second liquid back pipe 65 ', returns flow container 66, force pump 67, water filtration chlorination equipment 68 and fertilizer and be mixed jars 69; Wherein feed tube 61 is connected between the inlet of fluid reservoir 60 and a plurality of cultivating groove 20; Water pump 62, flowmeter 63 and timer 64 are installed on the feed tube 61; First liquid back pipe 65 is connected back between the liquid outlet of flow container 66 and a plurality of cultivating groove 20; The two ends of second liquid back pipe 65 ' then reach back flow container 66 with fluid reservoir 60 respectively and link to each other, and force pump 67 is installed on it; Fluid reservoir 60 also is mixed with water filtration chlorination equipment 68 and fertilizer simultaneously and jars 69 joins.
Described soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system also comprises the bottom that is arranged on cultivating groove 20, is used for the cultivating stand 28 of supporting culture groove 20.
As shown in Figure 8, described cultivating groove 20 comprises cell body 26, antiseep film 24, field planting platform 23, hydrophilic non-woven 27 and groove lid 25; Wherein cell body 26 is the cube shaped of upper end open, is covered with the antiseep film 24 that one deck is used to prevent nutrient solution 22 seepages on its inner surface; Field planting platform 23 is cube shaped, and it is protruding upward and form from the inner bottom surface of cell body 26 middle part, and height is less than the height of cell body 26, thereby nutrient solution 22 can circulate in the space between cell body 26 medial surfaces and field planting platform 23 sides; Hydrophilic non-woven 27 covers on the end face and two sides of field planting platform 23; Groove lid 25 then covers the upper end open place of cell body 26, and is formed with a plurality of perforates 29 that are used to run through plant 21 canes on it.
Described cell body is formed with a plurality of inlets 31 on 26 1 sides, then be formed with a plurality of liquid outlets 32 on the another side, and the height of inlet 31 is higher than the height of liquid outlet 32.
Described field planting platform 23 is hollow state, can reduce the consumption of material like this.
The width of described field planting platform 23 is 1/2~3/5 of cell body 26 width.
When needs utilize the no native water planting hollow billet genealogy of law provided by the invention to unite cultivated plant 21, at first make the plant growth of seedling on mineral wool block 30, during field planting mineral wool block 30 and growth plant seedling in the above evenly are placed on the field planting platform 23 of cultivating groove 20 together.Meanwhile, utilize water filtration chlorination equipment 68 and to carry out disinfection, offer fluid reservoir 60 then from impurity filtering in the water at water source; To also offer fluid reservoir 60 at the fertilizer fertilizer that prepare in jars 69 that is mixed simultaneously, be made into the required nutrient solution 22 of plant 21 so that above-mentioned water and fertilizer mix in fluid reservoir 60.Afterwards, start water pump 62, nutrient solution 22 in the fluid reservoir 60 is measured after the inlet 31 on first feed tube 61 and the cell body 26 is injected into the inside of cell body 26 by flowmeter 63, and make in the space of nutrient solution 22 between cell body 26 medial surfaces and field planting platform 23 sides and circulate, reach about 5cm until the liquid level of nutrient solution 22.Then, nutrient solution 22 through above-mentioned circulation will be flowed into back in the flow container 66 through first liquid back pipe 65 by the liquid outlet on the cell body 26 32, the last nutrient solution 22 that will be returned in the flow container 66 by force pump 67 sends back in the fluid reservoir 60 through second liquid back pipe 65 ', so repeatedly circulation.Because the both side ends of hydrophilic non-woven 27 is to extend in the nutrient solution 22 in the cultivating groove 20, therefore, utilizes the capillarity of fiber in the nonwoven 27 can make nonwoven 27 remain moisture state.The surface that the root system part of plant is grown in nonwoven 27 to be absorbing airborne oxygen, and another part is grown in the nutrient solution 22 absorbing needed nutrient and moisture, thereby oxygen uptake and feed flow contradiction are resolved.After the plant seedling grows up to plant 21, can utilize static line to be suspended on the top of field planting platform 23 and service time and the number of times of the needs of nutrient being regulated nutrient solution 22 by timer 64 and flowmeter 63 according to size and the plant strain growth of plant every day.

Claims (5)

1. soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system is characterized in that: described soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system comprises a plurality of cultivating grooves (20), fluid reservoir (60), feed tube (61), water pump (62), flowmeter (63), timer (64), first liquid back pipe (65), second liquid back pipe (65 '), return flow container (66), force pump (67), water filtration chlorination equipment (68) and fertilizer be mixed jar (69); Wherein feed tube (61) is connected between the inlet of fluid reservoir (60) and a plurality of cultivating groove (20); Water pump (62), flowmeter (63) and timer (64) are installed on the feed tube (61); First liquid back pipe (65) is connected back between the liquid outlet of flow container (66) and a plurality of cultivating groove (20); The two ends of second liquid back pipe (65 ') then reach back flow container (66) with fluid reservoir (60) respectively and link to each other, and on it force pump are installed (67); Fluid reservoir (60) also simultaneously with water filtration chlorination equipment (68) and fertilizer be mixed jar (69) join; Described cultivating groove (20) comprises cell body (26), antiseep film (24), field planting platform (23), hydrophilic non-woven (27) and groove lid (25); Wherein cell body (26) is the cube shaped of upper end open, is covered with the antiseep film (24) that one deck is used to prevent nutrient solution (22) seepage on its inner surface; Field planting platform (23) is cube shaped, it is protruding upward and form from the inner bottom surface of cell body (26) middle part, and height is less than the height of cell body (26), thereby nutrient solution (22) can circulate in the space between cell body (26) medial surface and field planting platform (23) side; Hydrophilic non-woven (27) covers on the end face and two sides of field planting platform (23); Groove lid (25) then covers the upper end open place of cell body (26), and is formed with a plurality of perforates (29) that are used to run through plant (21) cane on it.
2. soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system also comprises the bottom that is arranged on cultivating groove (20), is used for the cultivating stand (28) of supporting culture groove (20).
3. soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described cell body is formed with a plurality of inlets (31) on (26) one sides, then be formed with a plurality of liquid outlets (32) on the another side, and the height of inlet (31) is higher than the height of liquid outlet (32).
4. soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described field planting platform (23) is hollow state, can reduce the consumption of material like this.
5. soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the width of described field planting platform (23) is 1/2~3/5 of cell body (a 26) width.
CN2008101538232A 2008-12-08 2008-12-08 Soilless capillary hydroponics rearing system CN101416605B (en)

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CN2239138Y (en) * 1995-09-18 1996-11-06 俞坚 Soilless cultivating implement
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CN2239138Y (en) * 1995-09-18 1996-11-06 俞坚 Soilless cultivating implement
CN1207866A (en) * 1998-08-15 1999-02-17 黑龙江省农业科学院绥化农业科学研究所 Matrix-less potato cultivating method and equipment
CN1726762A (en) * 2004-07-30 2006-02-01 刘明池 Negative pressure adjusted and controlled close type cultivation system and operation method
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