CN101415944B - Axial plunger pump or motor - Google Patents

Axial plunger pump or motor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101415944B
CN101415944B CN2007800090190A CN200780009019A CN101415944B CN 101415944 B CN101415944 B CN 101415944B CN 2007800090190 A CN2007800090190 A CN 2007800090190A CN 200780009019 A CN200780009019 A CN 200780009019A CN 101415944 B CN101415944 B CN 101415944B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
plunger
wobbler
motor
axial piston
piston pump
Prior art date
Application number
CN2007800090190A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
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CN101415944A (en
Inventor
朱荣辉
Original Assignee
朱荣辉
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Priority to CN200620007920 priority Critical
Priority to CN200620007920.7 priority
Application filed by 朱荣辉 filed Critical 朱荣辉
Priority to CN2007800090190A priority patent/CN101415944B/en
Priority to PCT/CN2007/000807 priority patent/WO2007104257A1/en
Publication of CN101415944A publication Critical patent/CN101415944A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN101415944B publication Critical patent/CN101415944B/en

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04BPOSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS
    • F04B1/00Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders
    • F04B1/12Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders having cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis
    • F04B1/128Driving means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04BPOSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS
    • F04B1/00Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders
    • F04B1/12Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders having cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis
    • F04B1/14Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders having cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis having stationary cylinders
    • F04B1/141Details or component parts
    • F04B1/146Swash plates; Actuating elements
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04BPOSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS
    • F04B1/00Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders
    • F04B1/12Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders having cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis
    • F04B1/20Multi-cylinder machines or pumps characterised by number or arrangement of cylinders having cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis having rotary cylinder block
    • F04B1/2014Details or component parts
    • F04B1/2078Swash plates

Abstract

An axial plunger pump or motor includes a casing (1), a main shaft (2), a cylinder (14), a swash plate (9), some plunger assemblies (10). A constant velocity universal coupling (11) transfers torque between the main shaft and the rotating swash plate, and then the main shaft and the swash plate rotate around the axes of the main shaft or the swash plate respectively. The conversation between the hydraulic energy and the rotation mechanical energy is realized.

Description

Axial piston pump or motor
Technical field
The present invention relates to oil hydraulic pump or motor apparatus in a kind of hydraulic machinery, particularly a kind of axial piston pump or motor.
Background technique
In hydraulic machinery, oil hydraulic pump or motor are the hearts of hydraulic pressure installation.Theoretically, can switch mutually between oil hydraulic pump and the motor, only there are differences in some part.Therefore only discuss the design of pump in the specification of the present invention, the structure of motor is basic identical with it.Plunger pump is easy to characteristics such as variable adjusting and obtains more and more widely application in engineering machinery with its efficient high-pressure.
Plunger pump is divided into axial piston pump and radial plunger pump according to the direction of plunger stroke, and the mechanism according to movement conversion is divided into swash plate plunger pump and bent axis type axial piston pump again in axial piston pump, and its structure characteristic is respectively with reference to Fig. 1-shown in Figure 3.
Cam-type axial piston pump be a kind of high pressure, at a high speed, shock-resistant and integrated than higher variable displacement pump, as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, power drives the rotor rotation by main shaft by involute splines, being evenly distributed on epitrochanterian a plurality of plunger is pressed in the crawler shoe of plunger assembly on the friction board plane of swash plate by ball pivot, pressing plate, because there is an inclination angle on the swash plate plane for spin axis, therefore plunger body not only rotates with rotor, simultaneously also reciprocating along the plunger hole of rotor, the oil suction and the fuel feeding of realization plunger pump.Regulate the inclination angle size on swash plate plane, can change the stroke of plunger, carry out variable and regulate.Change the direction that swash plate tilts, can change the flow direction of high pressure oil again or the direction of rotor rotation during as oil hydraulic motor.
The variable of cam-type axial piston pump is regulated easily, can realize the switching between high pressure oil direction, rotor rotation direction and pump and the motor state easily.Structure is simple relatively, volume is little, cost is lower.But cam-type axial piston pump has three main fricting movements to pay: rotor and oil distribution casing, plunger and plunger hole, plunger crawler shoe and swash plate.Wherein between plunger and the plunger hole, because the plunger crawler shoe makes to also have tangential force and moment when plunger is bearing axial pressure in normal force suffered on the swash plate, this power and moment come balance for the pressure of plunger by the rotor plunger hole, and the sliding friction under this power and moment loading will be directed at the reduction of mechanical efficiency and the wearing and tearing of parts.The effect that therefore rotor also is subjected to turning torque needs the central shaft support or adds bearing to come balance.Therefore, there are three difficult problems in this pump: the one, total efficient is relatively low: the volumetric efficiency of oil pump is about 0.92~0.98, mechanical efficiency between 0.90-0.95, total efficient<=0.95; The 2nd, relatively more responsive to oil contamination, the life-span of pump is shorter; The 3rd, allow rotating speed not high.
As shown in Figure 3, though bent axis type axial piston pump is quite similar to the working principle of swash plate pump, structurally have than big-difference, in addition, both are also different aspect stressing conditions.The inclined shaft pump has substituted crawler shoe and the swash plate in the swash plate pump with the method for hinged plunger ball, has improved the intensity and the impact resistance of structure.During pump work, because of the angle between connecting rod axis and the plunger axis little, so the side pressure between plunger and casing wall is also just much smaller than swash plate pump, so that work the time is is not only worn and torn is less, and angle of inclination beta also can be increased to 25~30 (swash plate pump is not more than 20), enlarged the flow mobility scale.And inclined shaft pump live axle size is little or do not pass oil distribution casing, can make that the cylinder rotor diameter is corresponding to be reduced, sew with frictional loss thereby reduce, so the overall efficiency of inclined shaft pump to be higher than swash plate pump, under equal technological level than the high 2-3% of swash plate pump.The oil absorbency of pump also because of the oil cylinder peripheral velocity reduce make moderate progress, the limit speed of pump can correspondingly improve.The required precision of inclined shaft pump oil strain is low, is generally 25m, and swash plate pump is 10~15m.
Because above-mentioned advantage causes the application of inclined shaft pump in hydraulic machinery to increase day by day.But this pump comes variable by tilting cylinder block, and boundary dimension is bigger; Deflection between rotor and the line shaft makes the outer turning type that forms, and is unfavorable for the place of narrow space and the matching requirements of oriented axle; Structure and technology are relatively complicated, and cost is also high.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to, a kind of axial piston pump or motor are provided, it can improve the efficient of plunger pump or motor, simplified structure reduces volume, reduces cost, enlarge the application area of plunger pump or motor, particularly can in place that has special mounting to require such as vehicle transmission, use.
Above-mentioned purpose of the present invention can adopt following technological scheme to realize, a kind of axial piston pump or motor, and it comprises:
Housing;
Main shaft, its rotational support is on housing;
Rotor cylinder with a plurality of plunger holes, it is incorporated on the main shaft, drive it by main shaft and rotate around main-shaft axis, and this rotor cylinder has and joins oily end face;
Oil distribution casing, its with joining of rotor cylinder oily end face match;
Wobbler, a plurality of plunger holes of its end face and rotor cylinder axially are oppositely arranged, and can be around being the swash plate rotational of angle with main-shaft axis;
A plurality of plunger assemblies, one end are articulated on the described wobbler end face, and the other end is slidingly arranged in the plunger hole of rotor cylinder;
Constant-speed universal coupling, it is arranged between wobbler and the main shaft, and this constant-speed universal coupling is transmitting torque between main shaft and wobbler, makes main shaft and wobbler respectively around being main-shaft axis and the swash plate rotational that angle is provided with.
In the present invention, described constant-speed universal coupling can be Rzeppa constant velocity joint, half-angle Rzeppa constant velocity joint, ball pivot constant-speed universal coupling or curved grooved type constant-speed universal coupling.
Rzeppa constant velocity joint among the present invention comprises the outer ring of alley in inner ring, even number steel ball, retainer and the band of being with outer alley, described steel ball is installed on the retainer and is positioned at alley and outer alley, described inner ring is incorporated on the main shaft, described outer ring is incorporated on the wobbler, thereby makes main shaft and wobbler respectively around main-shaft axis that is angle and swash plate rotational by Rzeppa constant velocity joint.
In the present invention, as a concrete example, described outer ring can be integrally formed on the wobbler.
In the present invention, as a kind of optional example, described wobbler can be supported on the housing by swashplate bearing.
In the present invention, as the optional example of another kind, described wobbler can be supported on the balance by swashplate bearing, and this balance is supported on the housing by disc-swing bearing, this disc-swing bearing rotation axis perpendicular to main-shaft axis and the center by constant-speed universal coupling.
In above-mentioned example, on described balance, can be connected with the variable controlling mechanism of regulating this balance deflection angle, thereby the variation of the deflection angle by balance makes the swash plate axis and the main-shaft axis variable angle of support wobbler thereon, changes the stroke of plunger assembly, carries out variable and regulates.
As an optional example, the variable controlling mechanism among the present invention can be the variable oil cylinder, and the piston of this variable oil cylinder is connected on the balance, thereby drives balance deflection by stretching of this piston.
As another optional example, this variable controlling mechanism is a gudgeon formula stroking mechanism, it comprises the gudgeon that is connected on the balance and drives the driving mechanism that this gudgeon rotates that the rotation axis of this gudgeon overlaps with the balance rotation axis, thereby drives balance deflection by rotating gudgeon.
In the present invention, described rotor cylinder is taper, and its diameter of an end that is close in wobbler is greater than the diameter of the other end.
In above-mentioned example, the also tapered distribution of a plurality of plunger holes on the described rotor cylinder, wherein, with heart place, the plunger hole hole circular diameter of plunger assembly abutting end heart place, plunger hole hole circular diameter greater than the other end.
In the present invention, described plunger assembly can be specially the ball pivot plunger assembly, it comprises that two ends have the ball head connecting rod and the plunger of bulb, on the end face of described wobbler, be provided with ball-and-socket, one end bulb of this ball head connecting rod is arranged in the ball-and-socket and is connected with wobbler formation ball pivot, the other end bulb is arranged in the plunger and is connected with plunger formation ball pivot, described plunger slides and is arranged in the plunger hole, have the oilhole that is communicated in plunger hole in the centre of this ball head connecting rod and plunger, thereby introduce the bulb at the lubricated two ends of pressure oil.
In the present invention, described a plurality of plunger assemblies are hinged being centered close on the same plane on the wobbler, and this plane overlaps with the center of constant-speed universal coupling with the intersection point of main-shaft axis.
In the present invention, backend arrangement at described rotor cylinder has oil distribution casing, this rotor cylinder on main shaft by stage clip and stage clip back-up ring axially locating, offer oilhole and radial direction oil in the end of main shaft, thereby regulate pressure between rotor cylinder and the oil distribution casing by injection pressure oil in oil duct radially.
In the present invention, as a kind of optional mode of execution, the oily end face of joining of described rotor cylinder can be sphere, and described oil distribution casing is joined oily end face formation sphere with this and cooperated.
In the present invention, described swashplate bearing can be the combination bearing of needle bearing and cylinder or taper roller thrust bearing.Disc-swing bearing of the present invention can be the crescent shape needle bearing.
Adopt said structure of the present invention, axial piston pump of the present invention or motor, when main shaft drives the rotor cylinder rotation, can be by constant-speed universal coupling rotary driving swash plate around being the swash plate rotational of angle with main-shaft axis, thereby it is reciprocating in the plunger hole of rotor cylinder to drive plunger assembly, form the volume-variation in the cylinder body, and under the cooperation of the oil distribution casing of rotor cylinder rear end, successively be communicated with oil inlet and outlet, realize oil suction and press oily process, also promptly realized the conversion between rotary machine energy and the hydraulic pressure energy.Wherein and since constant-speed universal coupling main shaft rotatablely move and transmission of torque is given with respect to main shaft and is made the wobbler that inclined shaft rotates, like this, just can drive the balance swing and change the wobbler inclination angle and realize the variable adjusting very easily by stroking mechanism.
Axial piston pump of the present invention or motor and existing cam-type axial piston pump or motor and angle type axial piston pump or motor are compared, and have following effect:
A), compare with the variable swash plate pump: substituted crawler shoe and the swash plate in the swash plate pump owing to add the method for rotating swash plate with the ball pivot plunger assembly, like this, corresponding to the main fastness of three couple of swash plate pump, very big change has all taken place: 1. the sliding friction between plunger crawler shoe and the swash plate is converted to rolling friction, and friction and leakage reduce; And the bulb surface area that forms the ball pivot connection is greater than same diameter crawler shoe disk area, and the radial dimension of swash plate reduces; 2. the friction pair between the plunger hole wall of plunger and rotor cylinder, because side pressure is more much smaller than swash plate pump, frictional force reduces naturally, the oil strain required precision also reduces significantly, the minimizing of wearing and tearing; 3. the friction pair between rotor cylinder and oil distribution casing because main shaft does not bear bending moment, only plays a supportive role in rotor-end, size can reduce, thereby can make corresponding the reducing of oil distribution port diameter of rotor cylinder, hydraulic fluid port girth and relative movement linear velocity reduce, and friction power loss and leakage reduce.In addition,, enlarged the flow mobility scale, reduced the size of pump because the wobbler angle of inclination beta of pump can be increased to 25 °~30 ° (swash plate pump is not more than 20 °), the oil absorbency of pump also because of the oil cylinder peripheral velocity reduce make moderate progress; Simultaneously, the suffered hydraulic thrust of plunger supports by bulb, wobbler, bearing and balance directly to be transferred on the housing, make moving elements such as main shaft and rotor cylinder not be subjected to the effect of other additional forces or moment, improved the force structure of moving element, reduce friction and leak.More than all multifactor effects of bringing be:
1) overall efficiency is higher than swash plate pump.
2) improved structural strength, impact resistance, oil resistant dirt, wearing and tearing reduce, and the life-span improves.
3) limit speed of this pump or motor improves.
4) size of this pump or motor further reduces.
B) compare with variable inclined shaft pump,, bring certain loss in efficiency (usually at 1-3%), obtained four big incomes though structurally increased synchronous constant-speed universal coupling:
1) volume weight reduces: the swing that substitutes rotor body is regulated in the deflection by balance, and the required radial dimension of same deflection angle reduces; Because force way changes, line shaft originally also bears very big moment of flexure effect when bearing moment of torsion, must have certain axial length to come balance, so line shaft is longer; The oil distribution casing, wobble-plate and the variable controlling mechanism that are afterbody in addition also take than large space.New Variable plunger pump is compared with conventional inclined shaft pump under equal parameter, and axial length and radial dimension reduce more than 1/3.
2) realize coaxial or axis transmission: it is limited to be suitable for some space mounting sizes, and the occasion with shaft drive or axis transmission requirement is arranged, and such as many series connections of pumps, in some applied environment, can simplify or optimize mechanical system.
3) adjusting is switched simple and convenient: flow output size is just regulated at the inclination angle that changes balance, and the change inclination direction has just changed direction of the traffic or realized the switching of pump and motor.Bent axis type axial piston pump originally then will have very big stroke space and driving force to realize.
4) efficient further improves: the constant-speed universal coupling of increase has reduced a point efficiency, but because line shaft is not subjected to the bending moment force effect, the end face bearing only plays the role of positioning, need three heavy-duty bearings to bear the suffered radial force of main shaft in the original structure, axial force and moment of flexure, be simplified to a heavy-duty bearing now, friction power loss reduces; New structure has reduced the face that is slidingly matched between an oil distribution casing and the speed disk than original rotor swing speed regulating mechanism, and corresponding the leakage reduced, and volumetric efficiency improves; Like this, total efficient still will be higher than general variance inclined shaft pump.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of existing swash plate pump;
Fig. 2 is the A-A sectional view of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is existing inclined shaft pump structure schematic representation;
Fig. 4 is a structure principle chart of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the main TV structure schematic representation of embodiments of the invention 1;
Fig. 6 is the A-A sectional view of Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is the B-B sectional view of Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is the main TV structure schematic representation of the embodiment of the invention 2;
Fig. 9 is a Rzeppa constant velocity joint assembly structure schematic representation;
Figure 10 is the Rzeppa constant velocity joint three-dimensional exploded view.
Main figure number explanation:
The 1-housing, spring bearing back-up ring before the 2-disc-swing bearing, 3-main shaft, the 4-main shaft, spring bearing before the 5-main shaft seal end cap, 6-main shaft, the 7-balance, 8-combination bearing, 9-wobbler and Rzeppa constant velocity joint outer ring, the ball head connecting rod and the plunger of 10-ball pivot plunger assembly, 11-Rzeppa constant velocity joint steel ball and ball cage and inner ring, 12-Hooks coupling universal coupling inner ring back-up ring, 13-advances/oil outlet, 14-rotor cylinder, 15-oil distribution casing, spring bearing behind the 16-main shaft, 17-impacting force control oil duct, 18-rear end cover, the 19-stage clip, 20-goes out/filler opening, 21-stage clip shelves ring and back-up ring, and 22 leak oilhole, 23-backhaul dish, 24-variable gudgeon, 25-variable gudgeon end cover, 26-variable gudgeon fixed base, the 27-threaded piece, 28-variable oil cylinder, 90-swash plate axis, 41-main-shaft axis, the 111-inner ring, the 112-steel ball, 113-retainer, 114-outer ring.
Embodiment
Referring to shown in Figure 4, axial piston pump of the present invention or motor mainly comprise: housing 1; Main shaft 4, its rotational support is on housing 1; Rotor cylinder 14 with a plurality of plunger holes, it is incorporated on the main shaft 4, drive it by main shaft 4 and rotate around main-shaft axis 41, and this rotor cylinder 14 has and joins oily end face; Oil distribution casing 15, its with joining of rotor cylinder 14 oily end face match; Wobbler 9, a plurality of plunger holes of its end face and rotor cylinder 14 axially are oppositely arranged, and can rotate around the swash plate axis 91 that is angle with main-shaft axis 41; A plurality of plunger assemblies 10, one end are articulated on described wobbler 9 end faces, and the other end is slidingly arranged in the plunger hole of rotor cylinder 14; Constant-speed universal coupling 11, it is arranged between wobbler 9 and the main shaft 4, this constant-speed universal coupling 11 is transmitting torque between main shaft 4 and wobbler 9, and makes main shaft 4 and wobbler 9 respectively around being main-shaft axis 41 and 91 rotations of swash plate axis that angle is provided with.Like this, when the present invention uses as axial piston pump, drive main spindle 4 is rotated around main-shaft axis 41, can driven rotary swash plate 9 rotate by constant-speed universal coupling 11 around the swash plate axis 91 that is angle with this main-shaft axis 41, make plunger assembly 10 axially reciprocating in the plunger hole that rotates cylinder body 14, thereby form the volume-variation of rotating in the cylinder body 14, realize the process of oil suction and pressure oil, also promptly realized the conversion between rotary machine energy and the hydraulic pressure energy.In the present invention during as axial piston motor, under the hydraulic oil effect in entering plunger hole, wobbler 9 rotates around swash plate axis 91, driving main shaft 4 by constant-speed universal coupling 11 rotates around main-shaft axis 41, and the rotor cylinder 14 that drive simultaneously combines with main shaft 4 rotates, plunger assembly 10 is moved reciprocatingly in plunger hole, thereby hydraulic pressure can be transferred to the rotary machine energy of main shaft.Since axial piston pump of the present invention or motor use as pump or when using as oil hydraulic motor, its basic structure is identical, mainly is elaborated with its situation as the pump use in the present invention.
In the present invention, in a concrete example, shown in Fig. 4-7, housing 1 and rear end cover 18 form the casing of a sealing by being threaded togather; Main shaft 9 is supported in the casing by front and back bearings 6,16.Oil-feed tank on the described oil distribution casing 15, go out oil groove and be communicated with oil inlet and outlet 13,20 respectively.Main shaft 9 passes oil distribution casing 15, rotor cylinder 14, stage clip 19, constant-speed universal coupling 11, wobbler 9 successively, and stretches out through end cover 5 from casing one end.Wherein, rotor cylinder 14 circumferentially is fixed on the main shaft 4 by spline, and is pressed on the oil distribution casing 15 by the stage clip 19 that is enclosed within on the main shaft 4, realizes the initial sealing between rotor cylinder 14 and the oil distribution casing 15.Main shaft 4 rotates, driving rotor cylinder 14 rotations through spline when, rotate around swash plate axis 91 by constant-speed universal coupling 11 rotary driving swash plates 9, thereby it is reciprocating in the plunger hole of rotor cylinder 4 to drive plunger assembly 10, form the volume-variation in the plunger hole, and under the cooperation of oil distribution casing 15, successively be communicated with oil inlet and outlet 13,20, realize oil suction and press oily process, also promptly realized the conversion between rotary machine energy and the hydraulic pressure energy.
In the present invention, constant-speed universal coupling 11 can adopt constant-speed universal couplings such as Rzeppa type, half-angle Rzeppa type, ball pivot, curved grooved type, mainly be that example is elaborated in the present invention with the Rzeppa constant velocity joint, other constant-speed universal couplings such as half-angle Rzeppa type, ball pivot, curved grooved type etc., though with Rzeppa type Hooks coupling universal coupling structure compared relative complex some, as long as bulk allows, also all can use, describe in detail no longer one by one at this.Shown in Fig. 5-10, at constant-speed universal coupling 11 is in the example of Rzeppa constant velocity joint, Rzeppa constant velocity joint 11 is by the inner ring 111 of the outer alley of band, even number steel ball 112, the outer ring 114 of alley is formed in retainer 113 and the band, wherein outer ring 114 combines with wobbler 9, inner ring 111 is incorporated on the main shaft 4, thereby drive rotary inner rings 111 when main-shaft axis 41 rotates at main shaft 4, can drive the wobbler 9 that combines with outer ring 114 and rotate around the swash plate axis 91 (being the rotation axis of outer ring 114) that has an angle with main-shaft axis 41.As a concrete example, thereby the endoporus of outer ring and wobbler 9 can be united two into one outer ring 114 is integrally formed on the wobbler 9, to save the radial space size.And thereby inner ring 111 also can unite two into one with main shaft 4 and is integrally formed on the main shaft 4, but consider the manufacturability of processing and the feasibility of installation, divide in the present embodiment to be arranged, circumferentially fixedly connected with main shaft 4 by spline, and make axially locating by back-up ring on the axle 21.As shown in Figure 9, according to the Rzeppa constant velocity joint principle, the inner ring centre of sphere and the outer ring centre of sphere all should be positioned on the main-shaft axis 41, and equidistantly are respectively in the central point both sides of constant-speed universal coupling 11.Retainer 113 is limited to even number steel ball 112 in the same plane, and this plane is also by the coupling central point.
As an optional object lesson, a plurality of plunger assemblies 10 among the present invention can be the ball pivot plunger assembly, and it is made up of ball head connecting rod and plunger that two ends have bulb, and the centre has oilhole, introduce the bulb at the lubricated two ends of pressure oil, its structure is identical with the plunger assembly of inclined shaft pump.The right-hand member of wobbler 9 is evenly distributed with central point and is positioned at conplane a plurality of ball-and-socket, the bulb end of plunger assembly 10 embeds and is limited to by backhaul dish 23 in the ball-and-socket of wobbler 9, the plunger end of plunger assembly 10 extend in the plunger hole of rotor cylinder 14, and the number of ball-and-socket and the number of epitrochanterian plunger hole equate on the number of plunger assembly 10 and the wobbler 9.The central plane of a plurality of ball-and-sockets overlaps with the intersection point of main-shaft axis on the central point of constant-speed universal coupling 11 and the wobbler 9.
In the present invention, shown in Fig. 4-8, the middle casing and the front cover of housing 1 can be monolithic construction, and cylinder iron casting or alloy aluminum die casting form, and rear end cover 18 is connected with middle casing by screw thread.Can certainly adopt other structural types, be split type such as middle casing and front cover, and this front cover and middle casing are by being threaded togather.All-in-one-piece intensity height and difficulty of processing is big, the latter is then opposite, respectively has superiority.
Shown in Fig. 4-7, as an optional embodiment of the present invention, in embodiment 1, axial piston pump of the present invention or motor can carry out variable to be regulated, described wobbler 9 can embed in the balance 7 by the swashplate bearing 8 of energy while bearing radial force, axial force and moment of flexure, this balance 7 is supported on the housing 1 by disc-swing bearing 2, this disc-swing bearing 2 rotation axis perpendicular to main-shaft axis 41 and the center by constant-speed universal coupling 11, promptly balance 7 can only be swung around constant-speed universal coupling 11 centers in being parallel to plane, main-shaft axis 41 place; Thereby can regulate the tilt angle of wobbler 9 (being the tilt angle of swash plate axis 91) by making balance 7 deflections, thereby realize the variable adjusting with respect to main-shaft axis 41.In embodiment 1, shown in Fig. 4-7, described balance 7 can on be connected with the variable controlling mechanism of regulating these balance 7 deflection angles, since constant-speed universal coupling 11 main shaft 4 rotatablely move and transmission of torque is given wobbler 9 around 91 rotations of swash plate axis, like this, drive balance 7 by stroking mechanism and swing the variable adjusting that can realize pump or motor very easily in the inclination angle that changes wobblers 9.
Shown in Fig. 4-6, in this embodiment 1, balance 7 is two incomplete cylndrical surface up and down, is supported on the housing 1 by disc-swing bearing 2, and right-hand member has the stepped shaft inner cylindrical surface, for embedding swashplate bearing 8.An example as the variable controlling mechanism, as Fig. 6-shown in Figure 7, the variable controlling mechanism can be gudgeon formula exogenousd variables and regulates, it comprises the gudgeon 24 that is connected on the balance 7 and drives the driving mechanism that gudgeon 24 rotates, the rotation axis of variable gudgeon 24 overlaps with the axis of oscillation of balance 7, realizes the variable adjusting thereby drive gudgeon 24 rotations by the peripheral hardware driving mechanism.In this example, can by threaded piece 27 variable trunnion base 26 be installed in a side of balance 7, thereby this variable gudgeon 24 is installed in variable gudgeon 24 on the balance 7 with trunnion base 26 circumferential fixedlying connected by spline or flat key.Like this, rotate gudgeon 24 and just can drive balance 7 swings, not only simple in structure, also relatively more directly perceived.As another example of variable controlling mechanism, as shown in Figure 4, the variable controlling mechanism also can be variable oil cylinder 28, and the piston of this variable oil cylinder 28 is connected on the balance 7, thereby drives balance 7 deflections by stretching of this piston, thereby realizes the variable adjusting.Certainly this variable controlling mechanism can also have a lot of other modes, can use the stroking mechanism in the various swash plate pump, as long as can change the deflection angle of balance 7 by this variable controlling mechanism, describes in detail no longer one by one at this.
Shown in Fig. 5-6, the disc-swing bearing 2 in embodiment 1 can be laterally zygomorphic two crescent shape needle bearings, and its rotation axis is perpendicular to the axis of main shaft 4, and by constant-speed universal coupling 11 centers.The outer ring of this bearing is fixed on the bearing support of housing 1, and inner ring is fixed on the cylndrical surface of balance 7 left ends, perhaps unites two into one with this cylndrical surface.The effect of this bearing is that balance 7 suffered thrusts are delivered on the housing 1, and reduces the swing resistance of balance 7.This bearing also can be the bearing of other types, such as sliding bearing etc.
In should embodiment 1, wobbler 9 left ends can be provided with the horn mouth endoporus, pass through for main shaft 4, and do not interfere with main shaft 4 with balance 7 swings the time, wobbler 9 left ends also have external cylindrical surface, in order to swashplate bearing 8 to be installed, wobbler 9 right-hand member planes have a plurality of central points to be positioned at conplane ball-and-socket, and the ball-and-socket number is generally odd number, as 5-11, in the middle of wobbler 9 right-hand members is spherical pore, and is carved with along the interior alley of main shaft 4 directions, as the outer ring of Rzeppa constant velocity joint 11.
As shown in Figure 8, as an alternative embodiment of the invention, in embodiment 2, axial piston pump of the present invention or motor are also applicable to metering pump, because need not variable regulates, balance 7, disc-swing bearing 2 and stroking mechanism all can omit among the embodiment 1, and wobbler 7 directly is supported on by swashplate bearing 8 on the inclined-plane of housing 1, and total will be very simple compact.
Important rubbing surface among the present invention can pass through the plated film or the processing of filming, and as plating molybdenum disulfide, the loss of reducing friction is raised the efficiency and the life-span.
Among the present invention swash plate spring bearing 8 need bear axial force from swash plate, radial force and turning torque, therefore can select the combination bearing of needle roller/cylinder (awl) roller thrust block for use, also can select the bearing or the combination bearing of other types for use with said function.
In the present invention, as Fig. 4-6 and shown in Figure 8, wounded in the battle key of the front end of main shaft 4 or flat key link to each other with other prime mover or working machine.Have spline circumferentially to fixedly connected with rotor cylinder 14 with constant-speed universal coupling 11 respectively in the middle of the main shaft 4, driven rotary swash plate 9 and rotor cylinder 14 rotate transmitting torque.Support dish-shaped stage clip 19 by stage clip back-up ring 21 and press spring base in the middle of the main shaft 4, stage clip 19 also can be a pillar shaped helical spring.The precompression of spring adopts the residual pressure method to calculate usually, to guarantee that the reliable sealing between rotor cylinder 14 and the oil distribution casing 15 is a principle.For regulating the pressure between rotor cylinder 14 and the oil distribution casing 15 more easily, have oilhole and radial direction oil at main shaft 4 right-hand members, introducing pressure oil outside the pump housing acts on rotor cylinder 14 right sides, regulate external pressure oil pressure, just can regulate the pressure between rotor cylinder 14 and the oil distribution casing 15, higher overall efficiency is arranged under different operating modes to satisfy this pump.
As Fig. 4-6 and shown in Figure 8, the rotor cylinder 14 among the present invention can be a cylindrical body, along circumferentially being evenly equipped with a plurality of plunger holes, forms movingly closely with the plunger of plunger assembly 10.As Fig. 5, shown in Figure 8, the oily end face of joining of this rotor cylinder 14 is a sphere, thereby it closely cooperates with sphere oil distribution casing 15 and forms sphere and cooperate, and has good Self-centering Action.Rotor cylinder 14 can be made by materials such as copper, spheroidal graphite cast iron, cast steel, forged steel, at the plunger hole internal surface with join oily sphere and make anti-friction wear-resistant and handle, as nested or coating.Consider that wobbler 9 centers need install constant-speed universal coupling 11, its radial dimension must increase when little displacement pump, can make cone shape this moment with rotor cylinder 14, be that the left end diameter is bigger than right-hand member diameter, the also tapered distribution of a plurality of plunger holes, wherein, with heart place, the plunger hole hole circular diameter of plunger assembly 10 abutting ends (being the left end in the drawing) heart place, plunger hole hole circular diameter greater than the other end (right-hand member in the drawing).Like this, just needn't the whole diameter that increases rotor cylinder 14, the oil distribution port diameter can reduce simultaneously.As shown in Figure 4, it also can be plane form that rotor cylinder 14 is joined oily end face, easy processing.
Below in conjunction with a discharge capacity is 161/r, and rated pressure is that the concrete calculation of parameter of the embodiment of the invention 1 described variable displacement pump of 35Mpa is further set forth physical dimension feature of the present invention.
If the number of plungers of this pump is 7, then the actual volume of each plunger is 2.3ml, and the piston range is 1.8-2.0cm, and then the diameter of plunger is 12-13mm.The diameter of place, plunger center circumference is decided by the pivot angle of balance 7.Rule of thumb selecting pivot angle is 20 degree, and the diameter that can calculate place, plunger center circumference should be 56mm.The external diameter of rotor cylinder 14 is 75mmx40mm.The output rated torque of this pump is 89Nm, adopts the diameter of the line shaft (main shaft 4) of plain carbon steel material to get final product at 15-20mm.Consider the intensity of constant-speed universal coupling 11 itself, the strength and stiffness of size and angle limits and line shaft, do rotor cylinder 14 tapered, the rotor Outside diameter is 82mm, end diameter is 72mm, the diameter of wobbler 9 is 85mm, and the diameter of balance 7 is 100mm, and then entire pump is of a size of 120mmx150mm (not containing the axle head extrusion).Obviously, the size of this pump and weight are littler than the swash plate pump with discharge capacity, and is littler a lot of than inclined shaft pump.

Claims (18)

1. axial piston pump or motor, it comprises:
Housing;
Main shaft, its rotational support is on housing;
Rotor cylinder with a plurality of plunger holes, it is incorporated on the main shaft, drive it by main shaft and rotate around main-shaft axis, and this rotor cylinder has and joins oily end face;
Oil distribution casing, its with joining of rotor cylinder oily end face match;
Wobbler, a plurality of plunger holes of its end face and rotor cylinder axially are oppositely arranged, and can be around being the swash plate rotational of angle with main-shaft axis;
A plurality of plunger assemblies, one end are articulated on the described wobbler end face, and the other end is slidingly arranged in the plunger hole of rotor cylinder;
Constant-speed universal coupling, it is arranged between wobbler and the main shaft, and this constant-speed universal coupling is transmitting torque between main shaft and wobbler, and makes main shaft and wobbler respectively around being main-shaft axis and the swash plate rotational that angle is provided with.
2. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 1 or motor is characterized in that, described constant-speed universal coupling is Rzeppa constant velocity joint, half-angle Rzeppa constant velocity joint, ball pivot constant-speed universal coupling or curved grooved type constant-speed universal coupling.
3. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 2 or motor, it is characterized in that, described Rzeppa constant velocity joint comprises the outer ring of alley in inner ring, even number steel ball, retainer and the band of being with outer alley, described steel ball is installed on the retainer and is positioned at alley and outer alley, described inner ring is incorporated on the main shaft, thereby described outer ring is incorporated on the wobbler and makes main shaft and wobbler respectively around main-shaft axis that is angle and swash plate rotational by Rzeppa constant velocity joint.
4. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 3 or motor is characterized in that described outer ring is integrally formed on the wobbler.
5. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 1 or motor is characterized in that described wobbler is supported on the housing by swashplate bearing.
6. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 1 or motor, it is characterized in that, described wobbler is supported on the balance by swashplate bearing, this balance is supported on the described housing by disc-swing bearing, this disc-swing bearing rotation axis perpendicular to main-shaft axis and the center by constant-speed universal coupling.
7. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 6 or motor, it is characterized in that, on described balance, be connected with the variable controlling mechanism of regulating this balance deflection angle, thereby the variation of the deflection angle by balance makes the swash plate axis of support wobbler thereon and the variable angle of main shaft.
8. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 7 or motor is characterized in that, described variable controlling mechanism is the variable oil cylinder, and the piston of this variable oil cylinder is connected on the balance, thereby drives balance deflection by stretching of this piston.
9. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 7 or motor, it is characterized in that, described variable controlling mechanism is a gudgeon formula stroking mechanism, it comprises the gudgeon that is connected on the balance and drives the driving mechanism that this gudgeon rotates, the rotation axis of this gudgeon overlaps with the balance rotation axis, thereby drives balance deflection by rotating gudgeon.
10. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 1 or motor is characterized in that, described rotor cylinder is taper, and its diameter of an end that is close in wobbler is greater than the diameter of the other end.
11. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 10 or motor is characterized in that, the also tapered distribution of a plurality of plunger holes on the described rotor cylinder.
12. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 1 or motor, it is characterized in that, described plunger assembly is the ball pivot plunger assembly, it comprises that two ends have the ball head connecting rod and the plunger of bulb, be provided with ball-and-socket at described wobbler, one end bulb of this ball head connecting rod is arranged in the ball-and-socket and is connected with wobbler formation ball pivot, and the other end bulb is arranged in the plunger and is connected with plunger formation ball pivot, and plunger slides and is arranged in the plunger hole.
13. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 12 or motor is characterized in that, have the oilhole that is communicated in plunger hole in the centre of this ball head connecting rod and plunger, thereby introduce the bulb at the lubricated two ends of pressure oil.
14. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 1 or motor is characterized in that, described a plurality of plunger assemblies are hinged being centered close on the same plane on the wobbler, and this plane overlaps with the center of constant-speed universal coupling with the intersection point of main-shaft axis.
15. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 1 or motor, it is characterized in that, this rotor cylinder on main shaft by stage clip and stage clip back-up ring axially locating, offer oilhole and radial direction oil in the end of main shaft, thereby regulate pressure between rotor cylinder and the oil distribution casing by injection pressure oil in oil duct radially.
16. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 1 or motor is characterized in that, the oily end face of joining of described rotor cylinder is a sphere, and described oil distribution casing is joined oily end face formation sphere with this and cooperated.
17., it is characterized in that described swashplate bearing is the combination bearing of needle bearing and cylinder or taper roller thrust bearing as claim 5 or 6 described axial piston pump or motors.
18. axial piston pump as claimed in claim 6 or motor is characterized in that, described disc-swing bearing is the crescent shape needle bearing.
CN2007800090190A 2006-03-14 2007-03-13 Axial plunger pump or motor CN101415944B (en)

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CN200620007920 2006-03-14
CN200620007920.7 2006-03-14
CN2007800090190A CN101415944B (en) 2006-03-14 2007-03-13 Axial plunger pump or motor
PCT/CN2007/000807 WO2007104257A1 (en) 2006-03-14 2007-03-13 An axial plunger pump or motor

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CN101415944A (en) 2009-04-22
US20090007773A1 (en) 2009-01-08
JP2009529619A (en) 2009-08-20
WO2007104257A1 (en) 2007-09-20
EP2012010A1 (en) 2009-01-07
KR20090020549A (en) 2009-02-26

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