CN101392653A - Three-dimensional attitude measuring set of tunneling construction guidance system - Google Patents

Three-dimensional attitude measuring set of tunneling construction guidance system Download PDF

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CN101392653A
CN101392653A CN 200810197284 CN200810197284A CN101392653A CN 101392653 A CN101392653 A CN 101392653A CN 200810197284 CN200810197284 CN 200810197284 CN 200810197284 A CN200810197284 A CN 200810197284A CN 101392653 A CN101392653 A CN 101392653A
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lens
ccd camera
inclinometer
shield
computer
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CN 200810197284
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朱国力
潘明华
蔡海洋
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华中科技大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a three-dimensional attitude measurement device for a tunneling construction guidance system, which belongs to a positioning measurement device and aims to solve the problems that the prior three-dimensional attitude measurement device has higher requirement on the light intensity and is not accurate to the processing of pulsed light signals so as to simplify the installation and use of equipment. A prism, a lens, a CCD camera and an inclinometer are sequentially arranged on a light path along the axial direction in a machine case of the device, and output signals of the CCD camera are sent to a computer through a gigabit network cable; and output signals of the inclinometer are sent to the computer through an asynchronous serial communication interface. The device has small volume, simplifies the operation, and directly utilizes infrared rays of a total station instrument to focus through the lens to project on the photosensitive surface of the CCD camera to produce a photosensitive signal, the photosensitive signal is processed to obtain deflection angle data of incident light, and the deflection angle data are output to an external computer along with inclination angle data measured by the inclinometer. The device is mainly used for attitude measurement during the construction process of a shield machine and obtains a pitching angle, a rolling direction angle and a horizontal deflection angle of a shield in a real-time mode.

Description

隧道掘进施工导向系统的三维姿态测量装置 Construction of three-dimensional pose tunneling guidance system measuring device

技术领域 FIELD

本发明属于定位测量装置,可用于矿井、水工隧道、地铁隧道、市政管道、共同沟等领域。 The present invention is in the position measuring device can be used for mine, hydraulic tunnel, subway tunnel, municipal pipes, common ditch art.

背景技术 Background technique

盾构隧道掘进技术是地下暗挖隧道的一种工程建设技术,是随着现代交通运输、地下工程、矿山开采、水利工程、市政建设以及电气通讯设施的发展而发展起来的。 Shield tunneling technology is an engineering construction technology bury underground tunnel, with the development of modern transportation, underground engineering, mining, water conservancy, municipal construction, and electrical and communication facilities developed. 早期的盾构机,主要是利用盾构机械所特有的盾壳作为支护,防止地层的坍塌,以保证在其内部安全地进行开挖和衬砌等各种作业,开挖基本上是采用人工开挖方式。 Early TBM, mainly using the mechanical characteristic of the shield case as a shield support, to prevent collapse of the formation, and to ensure that the excavation lining inside thereof and other operations safely, essentially artificial excavation excavation. 随着隧道工程的不断增多,为适应不同条件下的施工要求和提高施工效率,除不断完善软土隧道掘进机(即盾构)及应用技术,又开发出能够适应岩石地层施工的岩石隧道掘进机及应用技术。 With the growing number of tunnel project, to meet the construction requirements under different conditions and improve construction efficiency, in addition to continuously improve the soft soil tunnel boring machine (ie shield) and application technology, we have developed a rock formation rock tunnel construction to adapt to the excavation machine and application technology. 随着技术的发展,遥控控制技术、激光制导技术以及陀螺仪定位系统已普遍应用于盾构机中,使得盾构机的操作、地表沉降的控制更趋简易,隧道的施工质量也越来越好。 With the development of technology, remote control technology, laser guidance technology and gyroscope positioning system has been widely applied to the shield so that the shield machine operations, control of ground settlement become more simple, more and more quality of construction of the tunnel it is good.

现在盾构中常用的导向系统有三种产品:陀螺仪、ZED导向系统、 Shield is now commonly used in the guidance system of three products: a gyroscope, ZED-oriented system,

VMT导向系统。 VMT guidance system. 它们都能测量盾构机施工过程中的姿态,得到盾构任意时刻的姿态数据,即实时获得盾构的俯仰角、滚向角和水平摆角;但各自的实现原理不同: They can measure the attitude shield construction process to obtain Shield attitude data at any time, that is in real time the pitch angle of the shield on, towards the corner and horizontal swing angle; but their different implementation principles:

1.陀螺仪:经典陀螺仪的基本结构是一个高速旋转的转子和各自分别固定在两个轴承上的两个框架。 1. gyro: The basic structure of the gyroscope is a classic high-speed rotation of the rotor and are fixed on two respective bearing two frames. 旋转转子的轴一般处于竖直的位置, 所以紧靠转子的内框架是在竖直面上,而另一个框架则位于水平面上。 Rotation of the rotor shaft in a generally vertical position, the inner frame against the rotor in a vertical plane, while the other frame is in a horizontal plane. 这样的装置的两个框架的轴线全部在水平面上。 The axes of the two frame surfaces of such devices at all levels. 姿态陀螺仪的基本原理 The basic principle of the attitude gyro

就是角动量守恒,在没有外力矩的情况下,高速旋转的转子的角动量的大小和方向在惯性空间中保持不变。 Is the conservation of angular momentum, in the absence of external torque, the high-speed rotation of the rotor angular momentum magnitude and direction in the inertial space remains constant. 一般外框架的外轴承固定在飞行器结构上,飞行器的轴线和外框架的轴线相平行,这样在飞行器姿态变化时,它的翻滚角和俯仰角可以在外框架的内外轴承上测量出来。 General outer bearing outer frame fixed to the aircraft structure, the outer frame and the axis of the aircraft parallel, so that when the aircraft attitude change, its roll and pitch angles can be measured on the outer frame of the inner and outer bearings. 在这一类陀螺仪中,结构的不平衡,结构重心的偏离和轴承的摩擦力是这种陀螺仪的最主要的误差来源。 In this type of gyroscope, an unbalanced structure, and the structure of the center of gravity offset from the bearing friction is the main source of error in such a gyroscope. 这些因素引起了一定的力矩,使得陀螺仪的方位产生漂移。 These factors caused a certain moment, so that the orientation of the gyroscope drift.

陀螺仪用于盾构掘进机的方位检测时,能自动显示方位角、倾斜角、 回转角。 A gyroscope for orientation when the shield tunneling machine is detected, automatically displaying the azimuth, tilt angle, rotation angle. 与掘进机的姿势管理软件连接可准确地实现顶管掘进机、盾构掘进机的施工管理。 Posture management software connected to the boring machine can be accurately realized construction management Top of the boring machine, the shield tunneling machine. 特点:陀螺仪是动态跟踪设备,通过与电脑联系, 直接反映盾构推进的过程数据,为盾构定位提供了有利的保障,这为盾构时刻处于良好的推进状态打下了基础。 Features: Gyro dynamic tracking device, contact the computer via a direct reflection of the shield forward process data, providing a favorable environment protection shield positioning, which is in a good state laid the foundation for advancing the shield moment. 缺点是时滞较大,盾构机受地势影响会产生震动,陀螺仪有可能不能保持静定精度。 The disadvantage is that a large time lag, the impact shield by the terrain will produce vibration, gyroscope may not remain statically determinate accuracy. 由于以上特点, 所以在施工中陀螺仪仅作为辅助参考,主要还是人工测量。 Because of these characteristics, it is only as the auxiliary reference gyroscope, mainly in the construction manual measurements.

2. ZED导向系统:由英国ZED Tunnel Guidance公司生产,是个具有透明屏幕的长方形盒子,在一端有用于连接电缆的插座。 2. ZED guide system: manufactured by ZED Tunnel Guidance British company, is a rectangular box with a transparent screen, the socket at one end for connecting a cable. 它用来接收激光信号,能测量激光束照射在其靶面上的位置和入射角度。 It is for receiving a laser signal, a laser beam is irradiated can measure the incident angle and position of the target surface thereof. 一般目标单元安装在盾构前部的托架上,可以每50mm间距水平移动,也可以3。 Usually the target unit is mounted on the front portion of the shield bracket can be moved 50mm per horizontal spacing may be 3. 的角度转动,因此能覆盖更大的目标区域。 The angular rotation, it is possible to cover a larger target area. 其工作原理为:激光束通过前部透明屏幕进入目标单元(部分散射),部分光击中安装在单元底部和侧面的传感器,传感器可以探测光束进入屏幕时的位置;其余的光束通过透镜到达安装在轴心上的传感器,此传感器装在单元的后部,用来测量光束的倾角。 Its working principle is: the laser beam enters the target cell (scattering portion) through the front transparent screen, part of the light hitting the sensor is mounted on the bottom and sides of the unit, the position sensor can detect the light beam enters the screen; the rest of the light beam reaches the lens mounting by the axis of the sensor, the sensor mounted on the rear of the unit for measuring the beam angle. 后部的传感器与前部透明屏幕距离较大。 The front portion and the rear portion of the sensor from a larger transparent screen. 因此,如果激光束很弱,就会造成读数不精确。 Therefore, if the laser beam is very weak, it will cause inaccurate readings. 从传感器出来的信号被转换成电子信号,并通过单元后部的电缆输入到控制单元。 Out from the sensor signal is converted into an electronic signal, and input to the control unit through a cable of the rear unit. 它的主要缺点:ZED导向系统在移站时要作大量的计算。 Its main disadvantage: ZED guide system when the station is to be shifted large amount of computation.

3. VMT导向系统:由德国Vermessungstechnik公司生产。 3. VMT guidance system: Vermessungstechnik produced by the German company. 电子激光系统ELS固定在盾体上,它接收到入射激光束时,在水平及垂直方向上确定入射点的位置,从而确定水平摆角。 Electronic laser system ELS is fixed on the shield member, which upon receipt of the incident laser beam, to determine the position of the point of incidence in the horizontal and vertical directions, thereby determining the horizontal swing angle. 另外,其内部倾角计测量滚动角与俯仰角。 Further, the interior angle measured pitch angle and roll angle. 其工作原理:电子激光系统ELS内部与ELS前面板平行的是所谓的"阴屏"。 How it works: internal electron laser system ELS and ELS front panel parallel to the so-called "negative screen." 当给ELS通电以后,阴屏就会转动。 When the power to the ELS female screen will rotate. 阴屏之间有空隙所以能够透光。 There can be a gap between the light transmissive cathode screen. 阴屏转动所处的角度的不同,当激光束入射在阴屏上时,透过的光多少不一。 Female screen rotation at different angles at which, when the laser beam is incident on the screen on the female, a number of different light transmission. 在阴屏的背后是光敏感电子元件,激光射到这些电子元件上从而测出入射激光的强度。 Behind the female screen light sensitive electronic components, a laser is irradiated on the electronic components so that the measured intensity of the laser emitted out. 当激光的强度达到最大值时, 此时"阴屏"所处的角度被记录下来。 When the maximum intensity of the laser, in which case the angle "a female screen" is recorded. 这个位置的角度与激光束在ELS耙上的入射角(水平摆角)精确吻合。 The angle of the laser beam angle of incidence on this position the rake ELS (horizontal swing angle) precisely coincide. 在ELS靶内置两个倾斜计。 Two built-in tilt meter ELS target. 一个为纵向放置, 一个为横向放置。 Placing a longitudinal, a transverse placement. 这两个倾斜计最终测出隧道掘进机TBM的绝对滚动角和绝对俯仰角。 Both measure the tilt of the final tunnel boring machine TBM absolute absolute roll angle and pitch angle. VMT每2秒输出一次数据。 VMT output data every 2 seconds. ELS耙和全站仪之间距离通过全站仪测距激光测定,为此需要在ELS靶下方安装一个特制的棱镜。 The distance between the total station and the rake ELS laser distance measuring total station, which requires the installation of a special prism ELS below target. VMT导向系统的主要缺点:为提供照射阴屏的激光束,需要改装全站仪,在全站仪上加装一个激光器,并确保激光器光轴与全站仪测距激光轴线平行。 The main drawback of the guiding system VMT: providing a laser beam to the screen of the female, requires modification total station, the total station installed in a laser, and to ensure that the laser total station and parallel to the optical axis of the laser ranging.

公开号CN1560434的发明专利申请"隧道掘进施工导向系统的电子激光靶",提供了一种三维姿态测量装置,机箱内沿轴向在光路上依序装有棱镜、平凸透镜、光敏位置传感器及其信号处理电路、倾角计;克服了上述三维姿态测量装置不能保持静定精度、或计算复杂、或需要改装全站仪的问题,但其对于光强的要求较高,不能适应隧道掘进施工中的远距离测量,并且对于全站仪发出的脉冲光信号的处理不够精确。 Patent Application Publication No. CN1560434 the invention "Construction tunneling electron laser target guidance system", there is provided a three-dimensional attitude measurement means, provided with axially sequentially on the optical path within the prism chassis, plano-convex lens, the light position sensor and a signal processing circuit inclinometer; overcomes the above three-dimensional measuring apparatus can not maintain the attitude statically determinate accuracy or computational complexity, problems or require retrofit total station, but the higher the light intensity requirements, tunneling construction can not meet the distance measurement, and not precise enough signal processing of the pulsed light emitted from the total station. ' '

发明内容本发明提供一种隧道掘进施工导向系统的三维姿态测量装置,解决现有三维姿态测量装置对于光强的要求较高、对脉冲光信号处理不够精确的问题,以简化设备的安装和使用,用于隧道掘进施工导向系统。 The present invention provides a tunneling construction of three-dimensional attitude measurement system guiding means, solve the problem of less accurate conventional pulsed optical signal processing device for measuring three-dimensional pose a high light intensity required to simplify the installation and use of equipment for tunneling construction-oriented system.

本发明的一种隧道掘进施工导向系统的三维姿态测量装置,机箱内沿轴向在光路上依序装有棱镜、光敏位置传感器及其信号处理电路、倾角计,其特征在于- Dimensional attitude measuring device according to the present invention, the tunnel excavation construction guide system chassis axially fitted sequentially on the optical path of the prism, the light position sensor and a signal processing circuit, an inclinometer, characterized in that -

所述光敏位置传感器及其信号处理电路为CCD相机;所述棱镜和CCD 相机之间设有镜头;CCD相机的传感器光敏面位于镜头的焦平面上且与镜头轴线垂直,CCD相机的传感器光敏面的中心在镜头轴线上,CCD相机的输出信号通过千兆网线送往计算机;倾角计的输出信号通过异步串行通信接口送往计算机。 The light position sensors and the signal processing circuit of the CCD camera; lens is provided between the prism and the CCD camera; light-sensitive sensor on the surface of a CCD camera lens is located in the focal plane of the lens, and the vertical axis, the photosensitive surface of the CCD camera sensor centered on the axis of the lens, the output signal of the CCD camera is sent to the computer through a Gigabit Ethernet cable; inclinometer output signal sent to the computer through the asynchronous serial communication interface.

所述的隧道掘进施工导向系统的三维姿态测量装置,其特征在于: 所述镜头为凸透镜或者凸透镜组。 The three-dimensional attitude measurement apparatus construction tunneling guidance system, wherein: the lens is a convex lens or lens group.

所述的隧道掘进施工导向系统的三维姿态测量装置,其特征在于: 所述棱镜和镜头之间设有滤光镜;所述倾角计为双轴倾角传感模块, 由电解质型检测器件和相关电路组成;所述机箱密封、充氮。 The three-dimensional attitude measurement apparatus construction tunneling guidance system, comprising: a filter provided between the prism and the lens; the inclinometer is a two-axis tilt sensing module, and a detection means associated electrolyte circuit; said sealed enclosure, nitrogen.

本发明倾角计选用双轴倾角传感模块,它是采用电解质型检测器件和相关电路组成,电解质型检测器件由一定化学成分的电解质溶液和电极构成,通过向电极提供交流激励电源后,激发溶液中力子之间的运动, 便会形成相应的电场。 The present invention is selected inclination gauge axis tilt sensor module, which is the use of electrolyte composition detecting device and associated circuits, electrolyte solution and electrolyte from the detection device electrodes certain chemical components, by providing the AC power to the excitation electrode, excitation solution movement between the sub force, will form a corresponding electric field. 电场的强度与电极浸入电解质溶液的深度由密切的关系。 A close relationship with the intensity of the electric field by the depth immersed in an electrolyte solution. 当检测器件发生倾斜时,激励电源引入的两个电极浸入电解质溶液的深度会不同,他们相对于中间电极地电场也有差异。 When the detection device is tilted, the depth of two excitation electrodes immersed in an electrolyte solution introduced power will be different, their electric fields with respect to the intermediate electrodes are different. 通过测量这个差异,便可得知倾斜方向和倾斜角度的大小值。 By measuring this difference, that can tilt direction and tilt angle size value. 对倾角计所要求的指 Required for the inclinometer means

标主要有:测量范围、分辨率、零点温漂、灵敏度温漂、非线性、外形尺寸等;现有的倾角计产品中有:单轴和双轴模式、数字和模拟输出、 还有带线性和温度补偿的,需按实际需要选择。 There are marked: measuring range, resolution, zero drift, sensitivity drift, nonlinearity, dimensions and the like; conventional inclinometer products are: uniaxial and biaxial mode, analog and digital outputs, as well as with a linear and temperature compensation, selected according to actual needs.

本发明将包括滤光镜、镜头、CCD相机和倾角计的电子激光系统ELS 与棱镜合二为一,极大地减小ELS的体积,简化操作。 The present invention comprises a filter, lens, CCD camera, and an electronic inclinometer ELS laser system combined with a prism, greatly reduced the volume of ELS, simplify operation. 不用红激光,直接利用全站仪的红外线,红外线部分穿过棱镜,其方向不变,打在镜头上,经镜头聚焦,打在处于焦平面上的CCD传感器上,产生感光数据, 经处理产生角度信号输出到外部计算机。 No red laser total station directly using infrared, the infrared portion passes through the prism, and the direction change, hit on the lens, the lens was focused on the CCD sensor is hit in the focal plane, the photosensitive generating data, produce processed angle signal output to the external computer. 输出信号可由标准异步串行通信接口和千兆网卡连接计算机进行数据处理。 Output signal may be a standard asynchronous serial communication interface and a Gigabit Ethernet connection computer data processing.

本发明的三维姿态测量装置主要用于盾构机施工过程中的姿态测量。 Dimensional attitude measuring device of the invention is mainly used for measuring the attitude of the shield machine construction. 该装置固定安装在盾构的某个己知位置,并确保镜头光路轴线与盾构轴线平行,则该装置所测得的三维姿态数据就是盾构的俯仰角、滚向角和水平摆角数据。 The mounting means is fixed at a known position of the shield, and to ensure that the pitch angle of the lens and the light path axis parallel to the axis of the shield, the means of the measured three-dimensional attitude data of the shield is on, towards the horizontal angle and the swing angle data . 该装置与全站仪之间应确保光路畅通,就可以利用全站仪的一束激光同时测量棱镜到全站仪的距离以及盾构的水平摆角。 The total station means between the optical path and ensure smooth, you can use a laser beam to the prism total station while measuring the distance and the horizontal shield swing angle of the total station.

本发明与计算机相连可实现以下功能: The present invention may be connected to a computer implement the following functions:

(1) 非掘进状态盾构姿态数据采集:在盾构推进时通过传感器实时 (1) a non-excavation state shield attitude data collection: when the shield forward by the sensor in real time

测量出盾构前端中心的位置和姿态(偏转角度)以及盾构尾端中心的位 Measuring the position and attitude of the bit tip end center shield (deflection angle) and the center of the shield tail

置和姿态,在主控计算机内与设计轨道(DTA)中的数据比较,可计算偏 Position and posture, compared with the design data track (DTA) is in the host computer, may calculate partial

(2) 实时通信检测:通过控制电脑实时显示各项测量值和计算值以及最后的偏差量; (2) real-time communication detection: displaying the measured and calculated values ​​of the deviation and finally by a control computer in real time;

(3) 掘进、管理计算机数据共享:只要提供与地面办公室电脑的接口,就可使得地面办公室得到盾构机实时的推进状况,以便实现远程控制; (3) driving, manage computer data sharing: as long as the ground office computer interface, you can make real-time shield ground office to get the promotion situation, in order to achieve remote control;

(4) 每环历史曲线图表:盾构的掘进过程中的偏差量数据都要用日志的形式储存下来,随时可以调出查看; (4) each ring history curve chart: the amount of deviation during shield tunneling of data must be in the form of log saved, they could be released at any time to view;

(5)纠偏曲线:施工中实际线路与设计轨道(DTA)总有偏差,能够按照设计轨道(DTA)纠正过来。 (5) Correction Curve: actual circuit construction and design of the track (DTA) total deviation can be rectified by design orbit (DTA).

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图l为本发明的实施例示意图; 图2为本发明的光学原理图。 Figure l is a schematic diagram of the present embodiment of the invention; FIG. 2 is an optical schematic diagram of the invention.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

图l为本发明的实施例,其中棱镜l: (j)60mm ;滤光镜2的透光率为0.1%;镜头3为两片凸透镜组成的凸透镜组:(j)27mm, f =35mm ; CCD 相机4的传感器尺寸:1600像素xl200像素;倾角计5选用型号:数字输出双轴倾角传感模块NS-15/PL2 ; CCD相机4的传感器所产生的水平摆角信号以及倾角仪产生的角度信号通过千兆网卡和异步串行通信接口传送到主控计算机。 Figure l embodiment of the invention, wherein the prism l: (j) 60mm; light-transmitting filter 2 was 0.1%; convex lens group 3 is composed of two convex: (j) 27mm, f = 35mm; 4 of the CCD camera sensor size: 1600 pixels xl200 pixels; 5 inclinometer model selection: digital output axis tilt sensor module NS-15 / PL2; horizontal CCD camera angle sensor 4 yaw angle of the generated signal is generated and the inclinometer signal is sent to the host computer through the Gigabit Ethernet and asynchronous serial communication interface. 考虑到实际应用,标准异步串行通信接口可采用RS誦485。 Considering the actual application, a standard asynchronous serial communication interface 485 may employ RS chant.

各部件安装时加工精度要求达到设计精度:6级精度;机箱密封、充氮、防震。 When the components are assembled to achieve the design accuracy of the machining accuracy: accuracy 6; sealed enclosure, nitrogen, and shock.

图2为本发明的光学原理:通过任一角度Ot入射棱镜1的平行光束, The optical principle of the present invention. FIG. 2: Ot parallel light beam incident on the prism 1 through any angle,

通过镜头3聚焦,在位于镜头3焦平面上的CCD相机4的传感器上汇集 3 by the focusing lens, CCD camera pooled sensor 3 located on the focal plane of the lens 4

为一点,设该点与轴线距离h,镜头3的焦距为f,则有以下公式成立: That is, it is assumed that the focal point distance of the axis H, the lens 3 is f, the following expression is satisfied:

"=arctanf ,则a即为所求水平摆角。 "= Arctanf, then a swing angle is also desired level.

Claims (3)

1. 一种隧道掘进施工导向系统的三维姿态测量装置,机箱内沿轴向在光路上依序装有棱镜、光敏位置传感器及其信号处理电路、倾角计,其特征在于:所述光敏位置传感器及其信号处理电路为CCD相机;所述棱镜和CCD相机之间装有镜头;CCD相机的传感器光敏面位于镜头的焦平面上且与镜头轴线垂直,CCD相机的传感器光敏面的中心在镜头轴线上,CCD相机的输出信号通过千兆网线送往计算机;倾角计的输出信号通过异步串行通信接口送往计算机。 A three-dimensional measuring apparatus pose tunneling construction guide system chassis axially fitted sequentially on the optical path of the prism, the light position sensor and a signal processing circuit, an inclinometer, wherein: said light position sensors and a signal processing circuit for the CCD camera; lens-fitted between the prism and the CCD camera; on a CCD camera located at the lens surface of the photosensitive sensor and the focal plane of the lens perpendicular to the axis, the center of the sensor photosensitive surface of the CCD camera lens axis , the output signal of the CCD camera is sent to the computer through a Gigabit Ethernet cable; inclinometer output signal sent to the computer through the asynchronous serial communication interface.
2. 如权利要求1所述的隧道掘进施工导向系统的三维姿态测量装置, 其特征在于:所述镜头为凸透镜或者凸透镜组。 The three-dimensional measuring apparatus 2. Driving Construction pose guide tunnel system according to claim 1, wherein: the lens is a convex lens or lens group.
3. 如权利要求1或2所述的隧道掘进施工导向系统的三维姿态测量装置,其特征在于:所述棱镜和镜头之间设有滤光镜;所述倾角计为双轴倾角传感模块, 由电解质型检测器件和相关电路组成;所述机箱密封、充氮。 3. The tunnel of claim 1 or claim 2 Attitude Heading dimensional measuring apparatus of the construction of the guide system, wherein: the filter is provided between the prism and the lens; the inclinometer is a two-axis tilt sensing module , by the detection means and associated electrolyte circuit; said sealed enclosure, nitrogen.
CN 200810197284 2008-10-17 2008-10-17 Three-dimensional attitude measuring set of tunneling construction guidance system CN101392653A (en)

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