CN101392191B - Two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier - Google Patents

Two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101392191B
CN101392191B CN 200810195490 CN200810195490A CN101392191B CN 101392191 B CN101392191 B CN 101392191B CN 200810195490 CN200810195490 CN 200810195490 CN 200810195490 A CN200810195490 A CN 200810195490A CN 101392191 B CN101392191 B CN 101392191B
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China
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nozzle
coal
shock chamber
nozzles
gasifier
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CN 200810195490
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101392191A (en
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唐志国
程建萍
陈长琦
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合肥工业大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/16Combined cycle power plant [CCPP], or combined cycle gas turbine [CCGT]
    • Y02E20/18Integrated gasification combined cycle [IGCC], e.g. combined with carbon capture and storage [CCS]

Abstract

The invention discloses a two-section dry coal dust air-fluidized bed gasifier, of which the external wall is a right cylinder and the internal structure is composed of an upside main gasification chamber and a downside shock chamber. The gasifier is characterized in that: upper layer nozzles and lower layer nozzles are respectively arranged at different horizontal levels in the main gasification chamber; spraying nozzles of shock water are arranged at the upper part of the shock chamber; the nozzles of all layers all center around the center of the horizontal section where the nozzles are located, at least two nozzles are distributed along a circumferential circle and the rotation directions of the nozzles at all layers are the same; in the shock chamber, a taphole is arranged at the bottom part of the shock chamber and a syngas outlet is arranged on the side wall of the shock chamber. The gasifier realizes the spatialization of gasification. The average temperature in the gasifier is high with an even temperature field. The slagging temperature in the gasifier can be over 50 DEG C higher than ash fusion point and ash residue can be discharged smoothly in liquid, thus realizing the safe and highly effective gasification of high ash fusion point coal.

Description

Two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier

Technical field

The present invention relates to gasification installation, the two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier of more specifically saying so.

Background technology

Clean coal technology has become the great guardian technique of China's Coal Chemical Industry, industrial combustion gas and power industry technologies upgrading, and coal gasification is one of important directions of clean coal technology, is to be most important core technology in the chemical system of the energy with coal-based.Be main up till now, industrialized in the world coal gasifying process has tens kinds, can reduce three classes: the fixed bed gasification technology that with Lurgi is representative; HTW (high temperature Winkler), molten gathering of ash to be the fluidized bed gasifying process of representative, and to be the entrained flow gasification technology of representative with Texaco, Shell, GSP.

The producing synthesis gas from coal of current integrated mill (or H 2) gasification technology generally admits is entrained flow gasification technology, has advantages such as the classes of compounds of processing is many, gasification efficiency is high, raw material consumption is low, device fabrication intensity is big.Wherein, dry coal powder pressurized air flow bed gasification technology, as technology such as Prenflo, Shell and GSP, have coal wide adaptability, divide advantages such as high, cold gas efficiency, the transformation efficiency height of carbon, single furnace capacity are big than oxygen consumption with than low, the effective pneumatolytic of coal consumption, be the developing direction of coal gasifying process technology, the very strong market competitiveness is arranged.

The characteristics of coal in China are, the ash fusion point height, and yield temperature accounts for about 50% of total reserves greater than 1400 ℃ coal; In addition, coal ash content is on average higher, reaches 23%, and the average ash content of steam coal reaches 25%, the average ash content of commercial steam coal even reach 27~28%." two high " coal of this high ash content high ash melting point is referred to as the coal of difficult gasification in the gasification field.

The common method of improving the coal ash melting characteristic has the additive of use and coal blending.Use additive to change the coal ash melting characteristic and can cause ash oontent to increase to a certain extent, therefore also increase energy consumption." big nitrogenous fertilizer " (1999,22 (3): 154~156.) report, under same reaction conditions, ash content increases by 1%, and the oxygen consumption increases by 0.7%~0.8%, and coal consumption increases by 1.3%~1.5%.Also can improve the coal ash melting characteristic by coal blending." coal conversion " (2006,29 (1): 11~18.) high-ash-fusion coal A (FT=1397 ℃) is mixed with the coal blending sample with low-ash-fusion coal G (FT=1332 ℃) and B (FT=1171 ℃) by different proportionings respectively, measures its melting characteristic temperature under weak reducing atmosphere.Be under the proportioning of 1:1, the coal blending ash fusion point of A and G has been reduced to 1370 ℃, and the coal blending ash fusion point of A and B has been reduced to 1280 ℃, and the A coal has reduced by 27 ℃, 117 ℃ respectively relatively.As seen, the nonlocal low-ash-fusion coal that the allocation and transportation of coal blending Technology Need are a large amount of, this has run counter to China and has developed the policy of Coal Chemical Industry on the spot, and does not have so a large amount of low-ash-fusion coals adjustable.

At high ash content high-melting-point coal, as typical " two high " coal---Huainan coal, though correlation technique department had carried out a systematic research, the result will add a certain amount of fusing assistant or adopt the coal blending technology." big nitrogenous fertilizer " (2005,28 (5): 317) report on dry coal powder pressurized entrained-bed GSP pilot plant, still needs to add just gasifiable processing Huainan coal of fusing assistant.

" high ash melting point coal seed gasification method and the devices thereof " that Chinese patent application numbers 200810019552.1 proposes are injected to coal dust in the oxidative airstream of high-temperature low-oxygen of high speed rotating, contacting with reaction of coal dust and oxygenant occurred in the whole swirling eddy, temperature is even in the stove, the heat of gasification load significantly improves, gasification reaction carries out in the space rather than on some peaks face, avoid producing the tongues of fire or torch, avoided traditional reaction local temperature too high; Simultaneously, the high speed rotating of material has increased coal dust and vaporized chemical contacting and the reaction times in stove in the stove, makes gasification reaction more complete, thereby helps further to improve gasification efficiency; Moreover, adopt the downward and stream mode of synthetic gas and melt cinder, the temperature of slag notch is remained on more than the lime-ash yield temperature, and utilize the good rolling action of high-temperature synthesis gas the high viscosity slag, realized the slag tap of high ash melting point coal dust smoothly.But because the single coal dust radial nozzles enter material way that adopts makes the direct impinger oven inner bag of coal dust easily, and single vaporized chemical easily makes the gasification reaction zone depart from the vapourizing furnace center along the tangential nozzle rotation of circumference enter material way; In addition, the water vapour that the nozzle of hypomere sprays into reduces the temperature of synthetic gas rapidly, and will keep the slag tap of high ash melting point gasification, the medial temperature level of the body of heater epimere that must raise, and this will propose harsher requirement to the furnace internal-lining material.

Chinese patent application CN01131780.9 has proposed " double-section dry coal powder gasifying furnace ", is vapourizing furnace is divided into upper furnace and lower hearth, and gas exit is located at the upper end of upper furnace, and slag notch is located at the lower end of lower hearth.The material that the up mode of this coal gas can utilize upper furnace to spray into reduces outlet temperature of gas, impel the slag in the coal gas to solidify separation, avoid the obstruction of follow-up gas cooler, the heat interchanging area and the quantity of water cooler have also been reduced, but, if be applied to the high ash melting point gasification,, cause the slag notch deslagging not smooth easily because the up and descending mode of deslagging of coal gas does not make full use of the good rolling action of coal gas liquid towards deslagging; And burner hearth only has been symmetrical arranged two relative nozzles thereon, and material can't guarantee at the spatially uniform of upper furnace reaction and the homogeneity in temperature field.

" a kind of New-type dry coal powder gas flow bed pressurizing gasifying furnace " that Chinese patent application CN01134311.7 proposes also is divided into vapourizing furnace epimere first vaporizer and hypomere second vaporizer, but what its feeding manner adopted is at top of gasification furnace single feed coal and vaporized chemical nozzle to be installed, in gasification, can produce the tongues of fire that obviously spray downwards, can cause the local temperature field height, thermograde is big in the stove.

Summary of the invention

The present invention is for avoiding above-mentioned existing in prior technology weak point, a kind of two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier is provided, in the hope of obtaining in gasification reaction spatialization, the stove medial temperature height and the temperature field is even, deslagging temperature can be higher than ash fusion point more than 50 ℃ in the stove, so that the technique effect that lime-ash is in a liquid state and discharges smoothly, safety, the high-efficiency gasification of realization high-ash-fusion coal.

Technical solution problem of the present invention adopts following technical scheme:

Two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier of the present invention, its outer wall are upright cylinder, and internal structure is made of epimere master vaporizer and hypomere shock chamber;

Constructional feature of the present invention is on the level attitude different in main vaporizer upper strata nozzle and lower floor's nozzle to be set respectively; Top in the shock chamber is provided with the chilled water atomizing nozzle; Each layer nozzle is the center with the center of circle of its place horizontal section respectively, is at least two along hoop circle of contact uniform distribution, and the sense of rotation of each layer nozzle is identical; In the shock chamber, slag notch is arranged on the bottom of shock chamber, and syngas outlet is arranged on shock chamber's sidewall.

Constructional feature of the present invention also is:

The upper strata nozzle that is provided with in the described main vaporizer is coal dust, oxygen and water vapour mixing import, and lower floor's nozzle is coal dust and oxygen mix import.

The inner side-wall of described main vaporizer is set to the coil tube type water wall, between described coil tube type water wall and outer wall refractory insulating layer is set.

Around the inside of described shock chamber, arrange the shell and tube water wall.

The imaginary circle radius that described upper strata nozzle ejection material forms is greater than the imaginary circle radius of lower floor's nozzle.

The imaginary circle radius that the atomized water of described chilled water atomizing nozzle ejection forms is less than main vaporizer outlet at bottom radius.

Compare with the prior art scheme, unusual effect of the present invention is embodied in:

1, the present invention adopts upper and lower two-layer feeding, coal dust is evenly distributed under the drive of high speed vaporized chemical rotating jet in the whole vapourizing furnace space, make gasification reaction also occur in the vapourizing furnace space thereupon, rather than on some peaks face, make more uniform temperature in the vapourizing furnace, realize the space gasification of dry coal powder, the ultrahigh-temperature tongues of fire of conventional gasification mode or the appearance of torch have been avoided, avoid traditional gasification reaction local temperature too high, thereby reduced top temperature and thermograde in the stove significantly; Simultaneously, the medial temperature level obviously raises, and the top temperature decrease to some degree, and this is for providing gasification efficiency or the flame retardant coating of protection vapourizing furnace all is helpful.

2, the present invention is arranged on syngas outlet on shock chamber's sidewall, and the mode that adopts synthetic gas and melt cinder also to flow is downwards utilized the good rolling action of high-temperature synthesis gas to the high viscosity slag, has realized the slag tap of high ash melting point coal dust smoothly.

3, the present invention at the middle and upper levels nozzle adopt bigger imaginary circle radius, by the cold material that just enters vapourizing furnace to around rotation to water down the elevated temperature heat flue gas that upwards gushes in the stove, greatly help protecting the vapourizing furnace inboard wall of furnace.

4, the dry coal powder that the present invention can be by regulating upper strata nozzle and lower floor's nozzle respectively and the supply ratio of vaporized chemical make upper strata O 2Littler with the content ratio of coal, prevent the coal gasifier peroxide, the efficient height, and by spraying into temperature that reduction thermo-negative reaction that water vapour forms makes top area below ash fusion point, and the nozzle O of lower floor 2Relatively large with the content ratio of coal, temperature is higher, forms the high temperature oxidation district of ash melting.By regulating oxygenant O 2Feed rate, make main vaporizer lower floor nozzle to the medial temperature in slag notch zone a little more than ash fusion point more than 50 ℃, realize the gasification of high ash melting point coal seed and deslagging smoothly.

5, the present invention adopts the coal dust and the vaporized chemical nozzle of many hoop circle of contact formulas, has avoided using the coal dust that enter material way caused of single coal dust radial nozzles directly to clash into the vapourizing furnace inner bag; Enter material way of the present invention makes coal dust and vaporized chemical high speed rotating in stove, fully guarantee the residence time of particle, increased coal dust and the vaporized chemical reaction times in stove, strengthened the reaction of unreacted carbon slag, make gasification reaction more thorough, thereby help further to improve gasification efficiency.

6, simple in structure, the handling ease of the present invention, easy to operate, investment is low.

7, the effective pneumatolytic branch of the efficiency of carbon conversion of vapourizing furnace of the present invention, cold gas efficiency and synthetic gas (CO+H 2) the content height, products obtained therefrom can be used for that chemical industry is synthetic, coal gasification power generation, hydrogen manufacturing, synthetic liquid fuel, or the gas etc. that acts as a fuel.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is an internal structure synoptic diagram of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is the A-A sectional view of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is the B-B sectional view of Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is the C-C sectional view of Fig. 1.

Number in the figure: 1 slag notch, 2 slag baths, 3 lower collecting box, 4 shell and tube water wall, 5 upper headers, 6 chilled water atomizing nozzles, 7 lower floor's nozzles, 8 upper strata nozzles, 9 coil tube type water wall, 10 refractory insulating layers, 11 outer walls, 12 main vaporizers, 13 shock chambers, 14 syngas outlet.

Further specify the embodiment of two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier of the present invention below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.

Embodiment

Referring to Fig. 1, outer wall 11 is set is upright cylinder, internal structure is made of epimere master vaporizer 12 and hypomere shock chamber 13;

Shown in Figure 1, in main vaporizer 12, on the different level attitude upper strata nozzle 8 and lower floor's nozzle 7 are set respectively; 13 the top in the shock chamber is provided with chilled water atomizing nozzle 6;

Referring to Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, each layer nozzle is respectively that the center of circle with its place horizontal section is the center, is at least two along hoop circle of contact uniform distribution, and the sense of rotation of each layer nozzle is identical;

As shown in Figure 1, in the present embodiment, in shock chamber 13, slag notch 1 is the end mouth of shock chamber 13, and 13 bottom is a slag bath 2 in the shock chamber, and syngas outlet 14 is arranged on the sidewall of shock chamber 13.

In concrete the enforcement, the upper strata nozzle 8 in the main vaporizer 12 is set to coal dust, oxygen and water vapour mixing import, lower floor's nozzle 7 is coal dust and oxygen mix import.

In order to protect the furnace wall, as shown in Figure 1, the inner side-wall of main vaporizer 12 is set to coil tube type water wall 9, between coil tube type water wall 9 and outer wall 11 refractory insulating layer 10 is set.

Arrange shell and tube water wall 4 in the shock chamber around 13 the inside, and lower collecting box 3 and the upper header 5 that is communicated with shell and tube water wall 4 arranged.

The setting of each layer nozzle also comprises:

The imaginary circle radius of the imaginary circle radius of upper strata nozzle 8 ejection materials formation greater than lower floor's nozzle 7 is set, and the imaginary circle radius that the atomized water of chilled water atomizing nozzle 6 ejections forms is less than main vaporizer 12 outlet at bottom radiuses.

During operation, coal dust, oxygen and water vapour from the main vaporizer 12 upper strata nozzle 8 and spray in the stove, coal dust and oxygen spray into from lower floor's nozzle 7, by regulating upper strata nozzle and the dry coal powder of lower floor's nozzle and the supply ratio of vaporized chemical, make epimere O 2Little with the content ratio of coal, and the nozzle O of lower floor 2Big with the content ratio of coal, the temperature that makes upper strata nozzle 8 near zones in the main vaporizer 12 is below ash fusion point, lower floor's nozzle 7 to the medial temperature in slag notch 1 zone a little more than ash fusion point more than 50 ℃, form grey fused high-temperature zone, realize the gasification of the coal of high ash melting point, and, realize slag tap by the downward rolling action of synthetic gas.

The crude synthesis gas and the melt cinder that generate in main vaporizer 12 enter shock chamber 13 in the lump, and under the injection of the chilled water that is the distribution of hoop circle of contact formula, cooling and generating gasification reduction reaction rapidly once more make the effective constituent of crude synthesis gas be further enhanced.Synthetic gas is drawn by syngas outlet on the sidewall 14, and melt cinder falls into slag bath 2 backs of bottom and discharged by slag notch 1 after Quench.

Claims (5)

1. two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier, its outer wall (11) is upright cylinder, internal structure is made of epimere master vaporizer (12) and hypomere shock chamber (13); It is characterized in that being provided with respectively on the level attitudes different in described main vaporizer (12) upper strata nozzle (8) and lower floor's nozzle (7); Top in described shock chamber (13) is provided with chilled water atomizing nozzle (6); Described each layer nozzle is the center with the center of circle of its place horizontal section respectively, is at least two along hoop circle of contact uniform distribution, and the sense of rotation of each layer nozzle is identical; In described shock chamber (13), slag notch (1) is arranged on the bottom of shock chamber (13), and syngas outlet (14) is arranged on shock chamber's sidewall; The upper strata nozzle (8) that is provided with in the described main vaporizer (12) is coal dust, oxygen and water vapour mixing import, and lower floor's nozzle (7) is coal dust and oxygen mix import.
2. two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier according to claim 1, the inner side-wall that it is characterized in that described main vaporizer (12) is set to coil tube type water wall (9), between described coil tube type water wall (9) and outer wall (11) refractory insulating layer (10) is set.
3. two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier according to claim 1 is characterized in that arranging shell and tube water wall (4) around the inside of described shock chamber (13).
4. two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier according to claim 1 is characterized in that the imaginary circle radius of the imaginary circle radius of described upper strata nozzle (8) ejection material formation greater than lower floor's nozzle (7).
5. two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier according to claim 1, the imaginary circle radius that it is characterized in that the atomized water formation that described chilled water atomizing nozzle (6) sprays is less than main vaporizer (12) outlet at bottom radius.
CN 200810195490 2008-10-15 2008-10-15 Two stage type dry coal powder entrained flow gasifier CN101392191B (en)

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CN102939361B (en) * 2010-04-16 2015-07-15 新日铁住金工程技术株式会社 Thermal decomposition coal gasification method and thermal decomposition coal gasification device
JP5552157B2 (en) * 2010-04-16 2014-07-16 新日鉄住金エンジニアリング株式会社 Coal gasifier
CN102071065A (en) * 2011-01-26 2011-05-25 东方电气集团东方锅炉股份有限公司 Back flow coal gasification device
JP5674517B2 (en) * 2011-03-15 2015-02-25 新日鉄住金エンジニアリング株式会社 Coal gasification method
CN102453550B (en) * 2011-05-06 2013-12-04 华东理工大学 Multi-nozzle multi-stage oxygen supplying entrained-flow gasifier and gasification method thereof
CN102777890B (en) * 2012-08-16 2014-06-25 合肥工业大学 Biomass fuel boiler
CN102965155A (en) * 2012-11-16 2013-03-13 中国石油大学(华东) Liquid slag solid discharging structure of downward entrained-flow bed gasifier
CN102952588B (en) * 2012-11-20 2014-11-12 华中科技大学 High-temperature synthetic gas chilling method for gasification furnace
CN104017605A (en) * 2014-06-24 2014-09-03 中国神华能源股份有限公司 Coal gasification furnace and coal water slurry gasification treatment device with same

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