CN101341243A - Method, apparatus and system for biodiesel production from algae - Google Patents

Method, apparatus and system for biodiesel production from algae Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101341243A
CN101341243A CNA2006800398900A CN200680039890A CN101341243A CN 101341243 A CN101341243 A CN 101341243A CN A2006800398900 A CNA2006800398900 A CN A2006800398900A CN 200680039890 A CN200680039890 A CN 200680039890A CN 101341243 A CN101341243 A CN 101341243A
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China
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algae
pipe
equipment
nutrient solution
roller
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CNA2006800398900A
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Chinese (zh)
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J·T·西尔斯
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索利克斯生物燃料公司
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Priority to US71131605P priority Critical
Priority to US60/711,316 priority
Priority to US73356905P priority
Priority to US60/733,569 priority
Priority to US60/740,855 priority
Priority to US74085505P priority
Priority to US75758706P priority
Priority to US60/757,587 priority
Priority to US81810206P priority
Priority to US60/818,102 priority
Application filed by 索利克斯生物燃料公司 filed Critical 索利克斯生物燃料公司
Publication of CN101341243A publication Critical patent/CN101341243A/en

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    • C12N1/00Microorganisms, e.g. protozoa; Compositions thereof; Processes of propagating, maintaining or preserving microorganisms or compositions thereof; Processes of preparing or isolating a composition containing a microorganism; Culture media therefor
    • C12N1/12Unicellular algae; Culture media therefor
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    • C12M23/00Constructional details, e.g. recesses, hinges
    • C12M23/02Form or structure of the vessel
    • C12M23/06Tubular
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    • C12M23/00Constructional details, e.g. recesses, hinges
    • C12M23/26Constructional details, e.g. recesses, hinges flexible
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    • C12M29/00Means for introduction, extraction or recirculation of materials, e.g. pumps
    • C12M29/20Degassing; Venting; Bubble traps
    • C12M29/22Oxygen discharge
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    • C12M33/00Means for introduction, transport, positioning, extraction, harvesting, peeling or sampling of biological material in or from the apparatus
    • C12M33/10Means for introduction, transport, positioning, extraction, harvesting, peeling or sampling of biological material in or from the apparatus by centrifugation ; Cyclones
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    • C12M33/00Means for introduction, transport, positioning, extraction, harvesting, peeling or sampling of biological material in or from the apparatus
    • C12M33/18Rollers
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    • C12M37/00Means for sterilizing, maintaining sterile conditions or avoiding chemical or biological contamination
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    • C12M41/00Means for regulation, monitoring, measurement or control, e.g. flow regulation
    • C12M41/12Means for regulation, monitoring, measurement or control, e.g. flow regulation of temperature
    • C12M41/18Heat exchange systems, e.g. heat jackets or outer envelopes
    • C12M41/24Heat exchange systems, e.g. heat jackets or outer envelopes inside the vessel
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    • C12M43/00Combinations of bioreactors or fermenters with other apparatus
    • C12M43/02Bioreactors or fermenters combined with devices for liquid fuel extraction; Biorefineries
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    • C12M43/00Combinations of bioreactors or fermenters with other apparatus
    • C12M43/04Bioreactors or fermenters combined with combustion devices or plants, e.g. for carbon dioxide removal
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    • C12PFERMENTATION OR ENZYME-USING PROCESSES TO SYNTHESISE A DESIRED CHEMICAL COMPOUND OR COMPOSITION OR TO SEPARATE OPTICAL ISOMERS FROM A RACEMIC MIXTURE
    • C12P1/00Preparation of compounds or compositions, not provided for in groups C12P3/00 - C12P39/00, by using microorganisms or enzymes
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    • C12P5/00Preparation of hydrocarbons or halogenated hydrocarbons
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    • C12PFERMENTATION OR ENZYME-USING PROCESSES TO SYNTHESISE A DESIRED CHEMICAL COMPOUND OR COMPOSITION OR TO SEPARATE OPTICAL ISOMERS FROM A RACEMIC MIXTURE
    • C12P7/00Preparation of oxygen-containing organic compounds
    • C12P7/64Fats; Fatty oils; Ester-type waxes; Higher fatty acids, i.e. having at least seven carbon atoms in an unbroken chain bound to a carboxyl group; Oxidised oils or fats
    • C12P7/6436Fatty acid esters
    • C12P7/649Biodiesel, i.e. Fatty acid alkyl esters
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/10Feedstock materials
    • C10G2300/1011Biomass
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P30/00Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industry
    • Y02P30/20Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industry using bio-feedstock

Abstract

The present disclosure concerns methods, apparatus, compositions and systems relating to closed bioreactors for algal culture and harvesting. In certain embodiments, the system may comprise bags with various layers, including a thermal barrier layer, that may be used to contain the algal culture and/or to thermally regulate the temperature of the algal culture. The system may comprise various mechanisms for moving fluid within the sytem, such as a roller type mechanism, and may provide temperature regulation by compartmentalization of the fluid to regulate absorption of solar radiation and/or conductive or emissive heat loss and gain. Various mechanisms may be used to harvest and process the algae and/or to convert algal oil into biodiesel and other products.

Description

By algae production method of bio-diesel oil, equipment and system
Technical field
[0001] the present invention relates to be used for growth and results algae and/or other hydrobiological methods, composition, equipment and system.Some embodiment relates to method, combination, device and the system that is produced useful products such as biofuel (biological example diesel oil, methyl alcohol, ethanol), biological polymer, precursor and/or animal or human's group food by algae.Other embodiments relate to and utilize such system from such as removing carbonic acid gas the sources such as power plant emission.
Background technology
[0002] in 1996, be positioned at Golden, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory of Colorado (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)) yields its 10 years water biological species projects of 2,000 5 hundred ten thousand dollars, and described project is put forth effort on from unusual productivity algae species and extracted biofuel.Before losing project fund, the governmental science men have confirmed to obtain to compare the oils productivity of every acre high 200 times of the fuel production that realize from soybean planting.Yet three basic problems have limited the some commercial potential of algal culture.
[0003] described three problems are: the oil price in [1] 1996 year is lower, is difficult to and its competition.[2] when growing in the pond in open environment, be difficult to protect described rich oil algae to exempt from and immerse biological consumption and replacement.[3] algae could production oils best in narrow temperature band, and night sky radiation and low temperature day and day with high temperature and excessive sun IR radiation by changing the pond test of NREL of having cultured temperature disturbance intensely.
[0004] there is following demand in the art, promptly need technology and method addressing these problems, and be provided at than open pond pattern and carry out the competitive algal culture class of price production of biodiesel in the temperature controlled biological closed system better.
Summary of the invention
[0005] in some embodiments, production of biodiesel is carried out in disclosed herein providing by algal culture with the method for being advocated, composition, equipment and system, and its price is equivalent to or is lower than the diesel oil cost of being produced by petroleum-type.Described sealing breed and harvesting system have greatly reduced the problem of algae pollution, algae expendable microorganism and/or other alien species.In preferred embodiment, described equipment design is installation and operation in outdoor environment, makes it be exposed to ambient light, temperature and weather.Described equipment, system and method provide improved heat regulation and control, and it is in design can remain on temperature the scope of compatible optimum growh and oils production.Another advantage of described system is that it can build and move on soil fertile or useless inadequately for the farming of common farm crop such as corn, wheat, soybean, rape or rice.
[0006] described sealing bioreactor technology has been stablized the algal culture temperature with low energy expenditure, is applicable to any scale.By having solved the problem of temperature and invasive species with affordable cost, and add other technologies, the inventor has developed and can be used for the system that produces a large amount of high-value products from the algae of mainly being cultured by industry, agricultural and sanitary waste.In some embodiments, described algal culture can be directly used in provides animal or human's group food source, for example cultures the edible algae such as spirulina.In other embodiments, described algal culture can be used for supporting the growth of secondary food source, such as shrimp or other hydrobionts of edible algae.The method of the aquatic breed of shrimp culture and other edible species is known in the art and can adopt species such as japonicus (Penaeus japonicus), pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), west prawn (Penaeusoccidentalis), the Penaeus vannamei of knowing (Penaeus vannamei) or other are to shrimp species.Those skilled in the art will recognize that the disclosure and nonrestrictive, the edible species of other edible algaes also can be cultured and be gathered in the crops.
[0007] embodiment relates to method of bio-diesel oil, equipment and the system of making.High oily algae kind is cultured in closed system and is gathered in the crops.Algae fully or partly separates from nutrient solution, and described nutrient solution can be filtered, sterilizes and reuse.Oil from described alga cells, separate and utilize standard ester permutoid reaction technology as is known Connemann method (referring to No. the 5th, 354,878, United States Patent (USP) for example, it is introduced by reference at this in full) be processed as diesel oil.Yet what can imagine is anyly knownly the algae oil production is converted into method of bio-diesel oil all may be utilized.
[0008] in other embodiments, described system, equipment and method can be used for removing carbon dioxide pollution from for example being produced the exhaust gas discharged of source by power plant, factory and/or other carbon dioxide fixations.Can be with CO 2Introduce in the described closed-system reactor, for example by bubbling in hydrotropisms's nutrient solution.In a preferred embodiment, can be by the air-blowing of porous neoprene film with CO 2Introduce, this mode form have high surface volume ratio small bubbles to realize maximum exchange.In preferred embodiment, can introduce bubble in the water column bottom, wherein water (flow) direction is opposite with the bubble travel direction.Thereby this adverse current setting is farthest carried out gaseous interchange by the time that increases bubble contact water-based nutrient solution.For further improving CO 2Dissolving, thus the length that can increase described water column prolongs the time that bubble contacts nutrient solution.CO 2Be dissolved in and generate H in the water 2CO 3, can " fix " to generate organic compound by photosynthetic algae then.According to estimates, be installed in the system disclosed herein and the enough CO of device energy fixing foot of the surface-area of about 60 square mile (4.5 mile radius) 2To purify the carbon emission of gigawatt power plant fully.Simultaneously, carbonic acid gas will provide basic nutrition to support algal grown.Such device can produce algae grease and hydro carbons co-product, approximately can produce total fuel output in 14,000 gallon/acre/years, absorbs 600 ten thousand tons of/year CO that produced by power plant 2Add that by the biofuel that generates the methane that the hydro carbons by the described algae of anaerobic (anarobically) digestion partly generates adds that the value of the potential carbon amount (carbon credits) that is produced will produce huge net profit, it surpasses more than the electric power energy value twice that is produced by common coal-burning power plant or natural gas power factory.
[0010] though thousands of kinds of natural algaes are arranged, wherein anyly all can be used for production of biodiesel and form other products, in some embodiments, thereby described algae can further be improved the biofuel feed of per unit acre through genetic modification.The algae genetic modification that is used for specific product output adopt technology known in the art be simple and easy relatively directly.Yet breed cheaply disclosed herein, results and product extracting method can adopt transgenosis algae or non-transgenic algae.Those of skill in the art will recognize that different algae kinds (strains) will show different growths and oil yield rate, and under different condition, the mixture that described system can contain single algae kind or have kind of different nature, perhaps algae kind and symbiotic bacterium.Employed algae can be the calendar variation of geographical position, temperature sensitivity, light intensity, pH susceptibility, salinity, quality, available nutrition, temperature or illumination, finally wishes optimizations such as product and other various factorss by what described algae obtained.
[0011] disclosed sealing bioreactor system and method can expand to any needed manufacture level, make it to carry out the production of biofuel feed under the current wholesale price fully being lower than; Even do not need the factor of considering that government subsidizes biodiesel fuel.
[0012] some embodiments relate to temperature controlled device, the method and system that is used for algal culture.In a preferred implementation, described sealing bio-reactor is made up of softish plastic pipe and adjustable heat resistant layer (thermal barrier layer).Described pipe and heat resistant layer can be made of a variety of materials, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, urethane, polycarbonate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, Polyethylene Naphthalate, poly terephthalic acid 1,4-hexanaphthene two methylene esters, polyolefine, polybutene, polyacrylic ester and polyvinylidene chloride.In the embodiment of the breed of the organism that relates to photosynthetic algae or edible described algae, described thermal resistance material is preferably and shows under red and blue wavelength at least 50%, be preferably and surpass 60%, more preferably surpass 75%, more preferably surpass 90%, more preferably surpass 90%, most preferably be about 100% visible light transmissivity.In other preferred implementations, the bill of material that is used for described pipe end face reveals at least 90%, more preferably surpasses 95%, more preferably surpasses 98%, most preferably is about 100% visible light transmissivity.Adopt polyethylene in a preferred embodiment.Polyethylene can allow long wave blackbody radiation and redness and blue visible light see through simultaneously, make that described temperature controlling system can be with the thermal radiation of water inside to the night sky and make algae accept visible light supporting photosynthesis, and no matter described nutrient solution be positioned at heat resistant layer above or below.Compare with the plastics of some alternative type, polyethylene shows the higher LONG WAVE INFRARED light transmission relevant with the room temperature blackbody radiation.In various embodiments, UV blocking material thin layer can be coated in described tube surface to reduce the UV degraded of plastics.In other embodiments, can will be able to join the fluorescence dye that infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV) light change visible light (can carry out photosynthesis) in the pipe to improve the sun power capture rate of photosynthetic organism.These dyestuffs for example are used to apply the glass or the frosting in greenhouse known in the art, perhaps be used in UV is changed in the fluorescent lighting system of visible wavelength.(referring to for example Hemming et al., 2006, Eur.J.Hort.Sci.71 (3); Hemming et al., in International Conference on Sustainable Greenhouse Systems,(Straten et al., eds.) 2005.)
[0013] in pipe in the embodiment of employing heat resistant layer, the water-based nutrient solution that contains algae can be directed on the described heat resistant layer or under.Under cold condition, liquid can be directed on the described heat resistant layer, makes its solar radiation of accepting more to comprise infrared wavelength, thus elevated temperature.Under hot conditions, liquid can be directed to below the described heat resistant layer, and its partial occlusion is avoided solar radiation, simultaneously by contacting and the loss heat with the bottom surface layer (ground layer) of below.In more other embodiments, the ground that is positioned at described closed reactor below can be used as low-temperature receiver and/or thermal source, by day store heat and in the release of heat at night.
[0014] when described heat resistant layer is positioned at the top (at the pipe top), the radiant exchange in the liquid in the pipe and the external world and conduction heat exchange are all by isolated.Yet there is thermo-contact closely on the ground of itself and below.When described heat resistant layer is positioned at when below, liquid can be easily obtains heat or loss heat to environment by environment by radiation and conduction simultaneously.Effectively, described heat resistant layer is as thermal switch, thereby can be used for utilizing adapt circumstance condition such as night, daytime, rainwater, cloudy etc. to obtain or to block heat controlling described fluidic temperature.Ground under described device has thermal mass, and when heat resistant layer was positioned at the top position, surface temperature also can be regulated by the close thermal contact.Heat energy in this thermal mass can be used for further regulating the fluidic temperature.If forecast is colder night, fluid can be heated to a little more than optimum temps (optimum temperature) when then making heat resistant layer be positioned at lower position by day.Heat resistant layer is converted into the top position and positive heat can be passed in the ground level heat quality.Can carry out several fluid warming and ground heating cycle.Can transmit back again in the described liquid by make heat resistant layer remain on the heat that the top position is passed in the ground level heat quality in colder night, thereby make water temperature stability in optimized scope.
[0015] another situation, when forecasting that daytime is overheated, heat resistant layer can be in lower position at night and be lower than optimum temps slightly until the temperature of mixture, then it is moved to the top position, makes water coolant contact with ground, reduces surface temperature.This circulation can repeat for several times at night.When an ensuing weather temperature rise, rise heat resistant layer, thereby so that fluid contact the time of prolongation fluid with the acceptably low temp maintenance with ground level heat.
[0016] other embodiments can comprise the apparatus and method of wherein carrying out liquid circulation and extracting oxygen or other gases from described sealing bio-reactor.In a preferred embodiment, can assemble Large Roller, promote liquid along sack so that it rolls on the closed tube surface.Except that mobile fluid, described roller also is used to collect the bubble of gas dissolved, such as the oxygen that is produced by photosynthetic organism, suppresses thereby it can be removed the oxygen that reduces algal grown from system.Because roll-in does not extend to the pipe bottom always, therefore roller move " to reflux (backwash) " under the roller high-speed part of formations thus reduce the bur of tube surface and the biology of tube surface is damaged with the tube surface that is used to purify the below, and the organism that is deposited on bottom the pipe is suspended once more.Similarly, the gathering bubble before described pipe top is positioned at roller is gentle/water termination move tube surface above also having purified, reduced biological spot and formed and improved the light transmission rate that sees through upper surface.Described roller system enables to suppress hydrobiont growth and the shearing of splitted water simultaneously to reduce to minimum is preferable methods for move fluid along pipe.Another advantage of described roller system is when fluid is diverted on it under by heat resistant layer, because described roller is semiclosed to the pipe bottom with heat resistant layer when pipe rolls, so this roller provides and is used for floating heat resistant layer is moved to less energy-consumption machinery bottom the pipe.
[0017] configurable gathering system goes out described system such as sucking pump with the suspension siphon with spissated oil-containing algae.In preferred embodiment, the current of the bio-reactor of flowing through produce " whirlpool (whirlpool) " effect through design, for example in the cell of sack one end.Described whirlpool causes algae to concentrate and partly separates from liquid medium, allows more effective results, perhaps removes unwanted metabolism byproduct such as dead cell and contains mucous bacterium.Also can provide other devices to add nutrition and/or from described sealing bio-reactor, to remove refuse.Thereby the described whirlpool of one or more sucking pump Guan Keyu system operationally links to each other and improves the efficient of gathering in the crops and/or adding nutrition from described device in described device.
[0018] some embodiment relate to axial vortex impeller so that algae suspension zone (volume) at the top of bio-reactor one inch scope internal rotation, this may be unique zone that can receive level at enough photosynthetic sunshine in intensive water is cultured.The rotation of water column causes organism in bright and clear zone and the cyclical movement between the dark area of pipe bottom at the pipe top in the pipe.In a preferred embodiment, the flexible pipe that algae is housed has 12 inches high approximately.Under high algae density, daylight only can penetrate the about 1 inch layer in suspension top.When not making the device of water column rotation, the hydrobiont that is positioned at one inch at top will too be exposed to daylight and the hydrobiont that is positioned at 11 inches of bottoms will expose inadequately.In a preferred embodiment, described axial whirlpool impeller is included in the interior stream inflector (structurizing axial flow turner) in the flexible plastic tube, is discussed below.
[0019] in the exemplary embodiment, described inflector can have along pipe vertically extending 6 inches wide, 12 inches long soft plastics bar (strip), and be 2 inches in the middle part constriction, and turn round to the bottom by described top and to turn 90 degrees.In the exemplary description of Figure 17 B, observe described therefore 2 inches intermediate width is invisible from the edge.For example, can place (square thruster is defined as the thruster of its advance distance=its diameter) with about 1 foot interval across the width of pipe for described.In this exemplary description, when fluid flowing pipe structure, the 1 foot thick algae that fills in the pipe will move forward in a spiral manner, and swing circle is vertical 3.14 inches.Consider that a horizontal row strides the bar that the pipe width extends, the alternative bar will be shown as clockwise or be rotated counterclockwise.The angle that axially moves down from water column along pipe, single water column will be along the whole length of pipe downwards clockwise or be rotated counterclockwise, and adjacent water column is reverse rotation.This liquid stream disorder that friction between adjacent water column will be brought out is reduced to minimum.The width, angle of rotation and described spacing (comprising the spacing between adjacent two row's bars) thus can through adjustment to independent alga cells pass in and out structurized (structured) the low friction in high luminosity zone, low disorderly at random axially rotation is optimized.Adopt in the embodiment of heat resistant layer at tube interior, one group of axial vortex impeller can be placed on a side of described heat resistant layer, and another group can be placed on the opposite side of described heat resistant layer.Owing to turbulent flow can be reduced to minimum by the stretching, extension of axial vortex impeller, estimate when adopting inner heat resistant layer, but thereby direct fluid puberty deflection makes most of current, preferred Waterflow-guiding about 90% or 90% or more to more than the described heat resistant layer or below.In such structure, one group of axial vortex impeller is folded between the top or bottom of heat resistant layer and pipe, and another group is with full extension.Although these axial vortex impellers can be envisioned for 0.01 " thick polyethylene soft bar; they also can be hard hinge fixed plastic structures or or even protrude in the orienting piece or the verge ring of sack internal surface, and described heat resistant layer in fact is not connected one deck with another layer.In all cases, the directional property element is through being provided with the axial current with the reverse rotation that produces the periodicity side-by-side that slightly equals the sack channel height.The flow model that is caused by axial vortex impeller is in Figure 17 A~B illustrated.
[0020] in some embodiments, the radiative property of heat resistant layer can be adjusted by adding other materials with selected optical characteristics.For example, the quartz sand from specific seedbed can have the upper surface that desirable optical property also can embed described heat resistant layer.(referring to for example Figure 10).Alternatively, has the upper surface that the doped-glass of selected optical characteristics or quartzy globule or ceramic tile can embed described heat resistant layer.Figure 11 has shown the exemplary light transmissison characteristic of Utopian heat resistant layer.The heat resistant layer material (polyethylene foamed) of current use can see through about 60% photosynthesis light, can adopt transmission 75% or 75% material with polished yarn.
[0021] various embodiments can relate to the apparatus and method of algal culture being carried out modeling under envrionment conditions.The example that is used for the remote sensing bio-reactor that condition optimizing and algae kind select is shown in Figure 8.
Description of drawings
[0022] the following drawings constitutes the part of this specification sheets, and comprises in this manual to further describe some embodiment of the present invention.Can understand described embodiment better by the detailed description of also uniting the embodiment that proposes with reference to one or more accompanying drawings herein.
[0023] Fig. 1 exemplary system diagram
[0024] the exemplary aquatic products of Fig. 2 plant birds-eye view
[0025] the exemplary bio-reactor of Fig. 3 with roller and results whirlpool
[0026] Fig. 4 exemplary hot Controlling System
[0027] the exemplary biofouling countermeasure of Fig. 5 (nano coating)
[0028] Fig. 6 continuous flowing type autoclave
[0029] the exemplary extraction roller of Fig. 7
[0030] Fig. 8 exemplary remote drives bioreactor technology
[0031] the two bag systems of the substituting bio-reactor of Fig. 9
[0032] Figure 10 is by Goleta Beach, the radiation characteristic of the sand sample that CA obtains
The transmissison characteristic of the idealized material that is used for heat resistant layer that [0033] Figure 11 is exemplary
[0034] CO that is used for gas dissolving that Figure 12 is exemplary 2Bubbler
[0035] model of the exemplary whirlpool device of Figure 13
[0036] more details of the exemplary whirlpool device of Figure 14 have shown resident pipe and acceleration cone and fixed tube (stator fins)
[0037] fluidic structures of Figure 15 A whirlpool device
[0038] Figure 15 B has the whirlpool of sucking pump pipe
[0039] computer simulation of Figure 16 water temperature when sealing has in the bio-reactor and do not have heat resistant layer
[0040] current that cause to the vortex impeller by exemplary shaft of Figure 17
[0041] the closed system model of 1/5 scale of the exemplary bio-reactor of Figure 18
[0042] Figure 19 exemplary rollers, sidewall (side wall) and have CO 2The terminal cell of bubbler
[0043] Figure 20 exemplary rollers, sidewall and be placed with the terminal cell of whirlpool device
[0044] preferred implementation of the current bypass of the two-way roller of Figure 21 system
[0045] Figure 22 is exemplary is used for " the convexity formula flat chassis (bellpan) " of two-way roller system
[0046] the descriptive embodiment of Figure 23 whirlpool device
[0047] example of Figure 24 hose construction and accessories apparatus
[0048] example of the preferred roller drive system of Figure 25
[0049] the exemplary reaction bag sidewall design of Figure 26
[0050] the exemplary bioreactor device Controlling System of Figure 27
[0051] the exemplary Control Circulation of Figure 28
[0052] the Frenel pattern that is used to manage top surface that Figure 29 is exemplary
Embodiment
[0053] there is not the term of definition in addition to use herein according to its clear and definite implication that often has.
[0054] " a " as used herein or " an " can refer to one or more article.
[0055] " pact " as used herein refers to add and subtract ten percentage points, and for example " about 100 " refer to any number between 90~110.
Improve the transgenosis algae of oil yield
[0056] in some embodiments, the algae that is used to make biofuel can pass through genetic modification (transgenosis) thereby contain one or more independently nucleotide sequences, and described nucleotide sequence improves oils production or is provided for other characteristics of algal culture, growth, results or use.The method of stable conversion algae is being known in the art with the composition that contains useful independent nucleic acid, and can adopt any such method and composition in practice of the present invention.Useful exemplary method for transformation comprises micropellet bombardment method, electroporation, protoplastis fusion, PEG-mediated transformation, covers the DNA of silicon carbide whisker or use virus-mediated conversion (referring to for example Sanford et al., 1993, Meth.Enzymol.217:483-509; Dunahay et al., 1997, Meth.Molec.Biol.62:503-9; U.S.Patent Nos.5,270,175; 5,661,017, introduce by reference at this).
[0057] for example, United States Patent (USP) the 5th, algae such as the diatom (Bacillariophyceae) that contains chlorofucine is disclosed for 661, No. 017, chrysophyceae (Chrysophyceae), brown alga (Phaeophyceae), xanthophyta (Xanthophyceae), pin born of the same parents algae (Raphidophyceae), the soil algae (Prymnesiophyceae) that dwells, latent algae (Cryptophyceae), little ring algae (Cyclotella), boat-shaped algae (Navicula), letter post algae (Cylindrotheca), Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Phaeodactylum), two eyebrow algaes (Amphora), Chaetoceros muelleri (Chaetoceros), the algae method for transformation of rhombus algae (Nitzschia) or dicyclo hailian seaweed (Thalassiosira).The composition that contains useful nucleic acid such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase is also disclosed.
[0058] in various embodiments, selected marker (selectable marker) also can join the algae to select to have transformed in independent nucleic acid or the carrier.Useful selected marker can comprise neomycin phosphotransferase, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, the aminoglycoside Transacetylase, E.C. 2.3.1.28, hygromycin B phosphotransferase, bleomycin is conjugated protein, grass fourth phosphinothricin acetyl transferring enzyme, the bromoxynil lytic enzyme, glyphosate tolerant 5-enol acetone shikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase, the ribosomal protein of anti-cryptopleuridine S14, the ribosomal protein of anti-ipecamine S14, the urea of anti-sulphur acetolactate synthestase, the acetolactate synthestase of anti-the imidazolone, the 16S of anti-Streptonigrin ribosome-RNA(rRNA), the 16S of anti-spectinomycin ribosome-RNA(rRNA), the 23S of anti-erythromycin ribosome-RNA(rRNA) or the tubulin of anti-the tolimidazole.The adjusting nucleotide sequence that strengthens transgene expression also is known, such as diatom acetyl-CoA carboxylase 5 '-untranslated adjusting control sequence, diatom acetyl-CoA carboxylase 3 '-untranslated adjusting control sequence and combination thereof.
The extraction of separation of algae and oil
[0059] in various embodiments, can adopt any method known in the art from nutrient solution, to separate algae and extract various phycobionts such as oil.For example, adopt in upright whirlpool circulation, results whirlpool and/or the sucking pump Guan Kecong nutrient solution and partly separate algae, as discussed below.Alternatively, the commercial whizzer of the technical scale of large volume capacity also can be used for replenishing or substituting of other separation methods.Such whizzer can obtain (for example Cimbria Sket or IBG Monforts, Germany by known commercial sources; Alfa Laval A/S, Denmark).Centrifugal, sedimentation and/or filter and also can be used for purifying oil from other phycobionts.Can promote from the water-based nutrient solution, to separate algae by adding flocculation agent such as clay (for example particle diameter is less than 2 microns), Tai-Ace S 150 or polyacrylamide.In the presence of flocculation agent, algae can separate by simple gravitational settling, perhaps can more easily separate by centrifugal.It is open that the cohesion class of algae for example is separated in No. the 20020079270th, US patent application publication, introduces by reference at this.
[0060] technician will recognize that any method of isolated cell from liquid nutrient medium such as algae known in the art can be used.For example, No. the 20040121447th, US patent application publication and United States Patent (USP) the 6th, 524, No. 486 (introducing respectively by reference at this) disclose the grossflow filtration equipment and the device that are used for partly separating from the water-based nutrient solution algae.Other methods of separating algae from nutrient solution are at United States Patent (USP) the 5th, 910, and No. 254 and the 6th, 524, open in No. 486, introduce respectively by reference at this.Also can adopt other open methods of being used for that algae separates and/or extracting (referring to for example, Rose et al., Water Scienceand Technology 1992,25:319-327; Smith et al., Northwest Science, 1968,42:165-171; Moulton et al., Hydrobiologia 1990,204/205:401-408; Borowitzka et al., Bulletin of Marine Science, 1990,47:244-252; Honeycutt, Biotechnology and Bioengineering Symp.1983,13:567-575).
[0061] in various embodiments, algae is broken to promote separating of oil and other compositions.Can adopt any known cell rupture method, such as ultrasonic, French press filtration, osmotic shock, mechanical shearing, cold pressing, thermal shocking, rotor-stator disruptor, valve type treater, fixedly geometrical processor, nitrogen decompression or any other currently known methods.The commercial cell rupture machine of large vol can be buied (for example, GEA Niro Inc., Columbia, MD by known approach; ConstantSystems Ltd., Daventry, England; Microfluidics, Newton, MA.).The method of microalgae of breaking in waterborne suspension is open in United States Patent (USP) the 6th, 000,551 for example, introduces by reference at this.
Algae is converted into biofuel
[0062] the whole bag of tricks that photosynthetic derived material is converted into biofuel is known in the art, and any known like this method all can be used among the practice of the present invention.For example, algae can be by results, separation from liquid nutrient medium, cytolysis and separating oil composition.The oil that algae is made is rich in tri-glyceride.Such oil can be converted into biofuel by known method such as Connemann method (referring to No. the 5th, 354,878, United States Patent (USP) for example, introducing by reference at this).The standard ester transfer method relates to tri-glyceride and the pure transesterification reaction that is generally the base catalysis between the methyl alcohol.The lipid acid of tri-glyceride is transferred to methyl alcohol, generates alkyl ester (biofuel) and discharge glycerine glycerine to be removed and to can be used for other purposes.
[0063] preferred implementation can relate to the use of Connemann method (United States Patent (USP) the 5th, 354, No. 878).With batch reaction method (for example J.Am.Oil Soc.61:343,1984) difference, described Connemann method adopts the continuous flow of reaction mixture by reaction column, and wherein flow velocity is lower than the lowering speed of glycerine.This makes glycerine separate from biofuel continuously.Described reaction mixture can be handled to finish the transesterify process through other reaction column.Can remove residual methyl alcohol, glycerine, free fatty acids and catalyzer by the water extraction.Described Connemann method is the maturation method that generates biofuel from plant origin such as rapeseed oil, by the end of 2003, when using, Germany produced annual about 100 ten thousand tons biofuel (Bockey, " Biodiesel production and marketing in Germany, " Www.projectbiobus.com/IOPD_E_RZ.pdf)
[0064] yet, the technician also will recognize can adopt any method that is used for making from the triglyceride level that contains oil biofuel known in the art, for example United States Patent (USP) the 4th, 695, No. 411; The 5th, 338, No. 471; The 5th, 730, No. 029; The 6th, 538, No. 146; The 6th, 960, No. 672, introduce respectively at this by reference.Also can adopt the alternative method that does not relate to transesterify.For example, by pyrolysis, gasification or Thermochemical Liquefaction (referring to for example Dote, 1994, Fuel 73:12; Ginzburg, 1993, Renewable Energy 3:249-52; Benemannand Oswald, 1996, DOE/PC/93204-T5).
Other algae products
[0065] in some embodiments, disclosed method, composition and device can be used for the breed of animal or human's class edible algae.For example, spirulina (Spirulina) is the blue-green algae that swims of being rich in nutrition such as protein, amino acid, vitamin B-12 and carotenoid.That grows in the algal culture field has surpassed 1 thousand metric tons every year for the human spirulina that consumes.The technician will recognize that system that employing is claimed can grow, gathers in the crops and utilize the free growing algae of any kind, comprise that edible algae such as spirulina Spirulina, salt algae Dunaliella or flat algae Tetraselmis are (referring to United States Patent (USP) the 6th, 156, No. 561 and the 6th, 986, No. 323, introduce respectively by reference at this.)
[0066] adopt the methods, devices and systems of being claimed to produce other products based on algae.For example, United States Patent (USP) the 5th, 250, No. 427, introduce by reference at this, disclosing organic substance is the method for biodegradable plastics such as the algae phototransformation.Can adopt any by culturing currently known methods common or that the transgenosis algae makes useful product.
Embodiment
[0067] disclosed herein and method, composition, device and the system of its claimed related to the technology of supporting that large-scale low-cost is cultured and the results hydrobiontic algae is cultured.The industrial production of the various products that this technology can be used for supporting that different types of algae can provide.This technology can be used for supporting economically large-scale farming and the results of algae.Disclosed device is commonly referred to " bio-reactor ", " bioreactor ", " closed system bio-reactor " and/or " bioreactor device " herein.The machine that other and bio-reactor together use, device and/or technology comprise sterilising technology, CO 2Implantttion technique and/or extractive technique.
Embodiment 1. bioreactor systems
[0068] Fig. 1 has described the synoptic diagram of example system.The key element of this example system comprises bioreaction technology, results technology, sterilising technology, CO 2Implantttion technique, extractive technique, long-range driving bioreactor technology.Describe as Fig. 1, the algal culture running can obtain nutrient by the animal rearing running, such as pig fertilizer.After through processing and sterilization, such organotrophy can be saved and/or join cultures in the nutrient solution to support algal grown.Because photosynthetic algae " is fixed " CO 2To be converted into organic carbon compound, CO 2Source such as power plant's waste gas can be utilized with dissolved CO 2Join in the substratum.CO 2With nutrition can by the algae utilization with make oil and the other biological product.Algae is through results and can extract fuel-displaced, protein, grease, carbohydrate and other compositions.Be not used for the recyclable nutrition of organic composition that biofuel is made, as feed or other products of methane producer for animal-feed, fertilizer, algal grown.The oil that is extracted can be handled, for example by including but not limited to that with low-molecular-weight alcohol methyl alcohol carries out transesterification reaction to generate glycerine, fatty acid ester and other products.Fatty acid ester can be used for the production biofuel.As known in the art, transesterify can be undertaken also can adopting multiple catalyzer by batch or continuous flow method, such as metal alcohol hydrochlorate, metal hydride, metal carbonate, metal acetate, various acid or alkali, especially sodium alkoxide or sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
[0069] product of described sealing bioreactor system is unrestricted, can comprise that biofuel, aviation kerosene, spark ignition fuel, methane, biological polymer (plastics), human food prods, animal-feed, medicament production such as VITAMIN and medicine, oxygen, waste water soften (product removing), waste-gas cleaning (is for example held back CO 2).
Embodiment 2. bio-reactors are cultured
[0070] some illustrative embodiments is described in Fig. 2, and it has shown the birds-eye view of the sealing bioreactor system of algal culture.In this exemplary description, the algae crop grows in lying against the clean plastics tubing of ground basic horizontal, has capacity grown cultures liquid to flow through in the pipe, thereby keeps algae to suspend.(basic horizontal means at the slope of the ground surface under the single bio-reactor greatly in 1 inch horizontal extent, therefore mixes, water flows and plastics tubing pressure etc. acts in the whole pipe and is generally constant.Yet those of skill in the art can recognize in other embodiments, also can adopt the tableland mode to realize the large-scale array of independent bio-reactor, wherein with fluid by in the total system than the lower curtate wheel cylinder to higher part).In a preferred embodiment, described pipe is a thin-walled realizing economy, and is subjected to the sidewall restriction and scatters and be full of about 8~12 inches thick water until it on the ground.Thereby approximately to be the water of load algae rotatable for this by making all parts can accept the red and blue light cooperation maximum ga(u)ge with illumination equably, and owing to absorption and the occlusion effect of other algae, this photosynthesis illumination only can penetrate about 1 inch.Nominally the width of pipe can be approximately 10~20 feet, length is about 100~600 feet.Yet those of skill in the art can recognize such yardstick and nonrestrictive, also can adopt other length, width and thickness.Usually, in described water-based nutrient solution, there are nutrition, suitable salinity or content of mineral substances, CO 2And daylight.Put into required algae in the described nutrient solution, described algae is through selecting to provide special the finished product and can well growth in bio-reactor, and therefore as long as growth conditions is suitable, it closes propagation with breeding.With reference to figure 1 preferred systems synoptic diagram, described bio-reactor only is an integral part from the total system of algae to this reactor feed that also therefrom gather in the crops.
[0071] refer again to Fig. 2, described figure has described the exemplary layout that can produce the less relatively plant of 6000 gallons of biofuel every day.Described diagrammatic sketch shown 1400 independently bio-reactor link to each other with the center service track as the pteridophyte leaf.Those of skill in the art can recognize that other structures also are possible, though what adopt in a preferred embodiment is that the straight line bag more or less that fills the algae in the growth is arranged.
Embodiment 3. closed system bioreactor devices
[0072] Fig. 3 A~D has shown the limiting examples of closed system bioreactor device.The water-based nutrient solution is contained in the flexible pipe (sack) of substantially transparent, below will discuss in more detail.The liquid contents of sack circulates by the liquid that the removable roller that rolls across the sack surface promotes its place ahead.In this limiting examples, described roller is advanced and by hawser traction along the roller supporting track, described hawser be connected at described track top rolling progressive vehicle frame (carriage).The roller drive system of describing in Figure 25 provides the motivating force of roller motion.In the unshowned herein substituting embodiment, when described roller arrived at bag terminal, they can rotate or upwards rise, and returned starting point along elliptical path continuously.Yet, shown in the preferred implementation, adopt two-way roller, its end by sack moves to the other end, oppositely gets back to starting point then, as discussed below.The use of roller system provides liquid circulation and has produced the standard mechanical pump that hangs down hydrodynamic shear and be used for flow motion and formed contrast.
[0073] Fig. 3 A has shown exemplary two bag systems, and every bag operationally combines with roller.Described bag links to each other endways by cell, is fixed with CO in the described cell 2Bubbler, whirlpool device, various transmitter (for example pH, dissolved O 2, electric conductivity, temperature), the actuator (actuator) of mobile heat resistant layer and be used to transport water, nutrition and/or the pipe connection head of hydrobiont such as the algae of having gathered in the crops.
[0074] shown in Fig. 3 B, in two-way roller system, pipe can be placed on the ground, and described roller is basically parallel to ground and advances.Yet at tube end, the ground under the pipe can form recess, its available " convexity flat chassis " described below lining through excavation.This setting can make the water of managing when described roller arrives at tube end and be positioned on the described convexity flat chassis in the roller current downflow.After slowing down current fully, described roller can oppositely and move and return its zero position, forms the clockwise and counter-clockwise current of alternative thus in described device.
[0075] described roller forms certain peristaltic pump, but exists different both ways.One, peristalsis propels power are provided by the effect of evening up (leveling action) of gravity convection body rather than common screen resilience (elastic return) in many pumps.Its two, roller only push downwards pipe 85% rather than all.This means that the fluid pressure differential before and after the roller causes forming the reverse liquid stream of relative high speed under described roller, as discussed below.In some embodiments, described roller speed (and flow stream velocity therefore) can be approximately 1 feet per second.
[0076] in various embodiments, described water-based nutrient solution can be used for culturing photosynthetic algae.In photosynthesis, described algae absorbs CO 2And discharge oxygen.When roller when the upper surface of sack moves, before oxygen, other gases, flow nutrient solution and algae are pushed to roller.This not only makes described algae by bag, and the mixing effect for nutrient solution is provided.Described roller can promote the bubble in its place ahead.Described gas is gas, the unabsorbed CO that is discharged by water 2The combination of the oxygen that discharges with photosynthetic algae.The airbag in roller the place ahead cell place is endways collected and is disposed in the atmosphere or preserves, and suppresses to avoid photosynthetic oxygen.In some embodiments, the oxygen of being preserved can re-inject in the device to support the algae metabolism in non-photosynthesis stage at night.Alternatively, the oxygen of collection can through pipe-line transportation to power plant to improve the efficient of its combustion processes.Described roller also can cause the photogyration (optical turnover) of algae, and this is favourable for adjusting its light input.Light supersaturation or light scarcity otherwise algae will become, and oil yield reduces.
[0077] shown in Fig. 3 B-D, roller does not extend to the pipe bottom always.This causes forming backflow at a high speed under roller, and the power that is applied on the preceding fluid of roller causes the fluid under roller to move backward.This backflow has multiple effect, comprises that the basal surface that washes away pipe is to reduce biodeterioration and the algae or other hydrobionts that are deposited on the sack bottom are suspended in the nutrient solution again.
[0078] in described bag, can comprise heat resistant layer, liquid portion is divided into levels to carry out thermal control.According to the regulative mode of liquid motion, liquid can mainly flow to the upper strata (Fig. 3 D) that is positioned at the above pipe of described heat resistant layer or flow to the lower floor (Fig. 3 C) that is positioned at the following pipe of described heat resistant layer.Fig. 3 B shows that the roller that is positioned at two different positionss is to describe barrier film control.When liquid is positioned at the upper strata, the upper surface of the bubble squeezing tube of collection (Fig. 3 D).The gas-water table that moves that is positioned at roller the place ahead washes away the upper surface of described flexible pipe, the light transmission that reduces biodeterioration and keep the pipe upper surface thereupon.Can be by adding the low floating flushing dish raising washing action of 1 inch diameter, 1/4 inch thickness, described flushing dish has purpose to circulate in fluid and tends to be pushed the place ahead at roller.Art technology people also can design class like other solid shape things of size inside with the flush fluid system.In the practice, can in described bio-reactor, place thousands of this class plate or other solid shape things, but can not be how to light transmission is obviously reduced.Available sieve separates it from the algae mixture before results, thereby and the enough low main liquid stream flushing that can be caused of its buoyancy by the roller in the place ahead go into to be arranged in bubble space before the roller.When liquid is positioned at lower floor (Fig. 3 C), the downside of described heat resistant layer is also washed away to keep seeing through its light transmission in the same manner.
[0079] shown in Fig. 3 A~B, various parts (mechanism) can incorporating said apparatus in, for example at the end of bag,, inject or discharge gas, nutrition and/or refuse or be used for other purposes to be used to gather in the crops algae.In a preferred embodiment, the terminal hydraulic fluid motion of bag can be designed to promote vertical whirlpool round-robin to form, and will describe in detail hereinafter, it can be used to improve the hydrobiont results, gas and/or nutrition are introduced, waste scavenging, the perhaps efficient of other purposes.The right side demonstration of Fig. 3 A~B is used to gather in the crops hydrobiological whirlpool device, will describe in more detail hereinafter.
[0080] described descriptive embodiment has shown only 65 feet long research models, and the width of the independent bio-reactor bag of each that has is 52 inches.In preferred industrial scale embodiment, any in two sacks will be about 300 feet long, and 10~20 feet wide, and the photosynthesis total area of single bioreactor device is 0.15~0.30 acre.Each so bio-reactor every day (or longer) will produce about 7~14 gallons biofuel.
[0081] in some embodiments, individual tubes can form and comprise upper strata, inner heat resistant layer and lower floor, shown in the right side of Fig. 4 and Figure 23.In the disclosed substituting embodiment of Fig. 9, adopted two bag systems, have upper strata bag and lower floor's bag and heat resistant layer therebetween separately.When operation, such system will be identical with single bag system discussed above.The advantage of two bag systems has been to eliminate potentially the requirement of seal side seam, better structural stability is provided and has reduced cost.In addition, because high radiating layer and thermal insulator (following discussion) do not need waterproof, therefore provide more material to select.And,, eliminated described material by the possibility of biodeterioration because described heat resistant layer does not contact with algae.At last, when changing sack, can keep described thermal insulator and high radiating layer, realize extra cost savings.Fig. 9 has shown that also optional one deck promptly is placed on the ground smooth layer between bag and the ground, and such as flying dust, it can be used for single bag or two bag system.Flying dust is the lower cost materials that can be obtained by local power plant, thereby and is that the material with abundant corrosion property stops plant to grow under described bio-reactor bag.The other materials that comprises salt also can be placed on the below of described bag to stop growth.The net that covers the upper strata bag is optional.
The thermal control of embodiment 4. water-based nutrient solutions
[0082] in the illustrative embodiments of Fig. 3, the pipe with preferable configuration has the structure comprising the high radiation adiabatic diaphragm of installing along the centre level (heat resistant layer).These membranous last several inches can be utilized rod and indurate, and it can be actuated device and raise to isolate the upper strata pipe or to force down the pipe with sealing lower floor.Described rod has the softish sealing the margin with as one-way cock through structure, even make when the clamped in case fluid stopping body of described barrier film enters fluid or gas also can flow out the upper strata pipe or lower floor manages.This make described roller can from cell, extrude residual liquid or gas and no matter the position of barrier film valve how.Left roller (Fig. 3 C) is shown as the bottom that liquid is rolled enter pipe, through the below of heat resistant layer, flows out and enters in the cell of left-hand side.Afterwards, liquid is recycled back into the right side, and barrier film is positioned at lower position herein, and liquid flow makes it to be full of the top of pipe through the top of heat resistant layer.This is how described membranous position causes liquid motion and do not consume the example of a large amount of energy between the top section of pipe and underclad portion.The purpose of this motion is carried out thermal control to liquid.
[0083] limiting examples of bio-reactor thermal control is described in Fig. 4, and it has shown along the cross section of a flexible pipe of its length direction observation.The purpose of thermal control is to keep the algae in the nutrient solution to be in its optimum temps and to prevent that pipe is freezing under the envrionment temperature that is lower than 0 degree, and it is overheated perhaps to prevent in the summer of sweltering heat.Described thermal control aspect relates to the use of the different bag parts with selected optics and/or thermal radiation property.For example, top flat (for example 0.01 inch thick transparent polyethylene) can allow light to enter and the turnover of heat.Inner heat resistant layer comprises that through design to absorb infrared but allow to be used for the soft sheet material of photosynthetic visible light transmissive, it covers on the thermal insulator (conductive insulator).In some embodiments, described heat resistant layer can be the molectron that comprises the soft thermal insulator sheet material that links to each other with the IR absorbent sheet.Described thermal insulator can for example comprise 1/ 2Inch (R2) or 1 inch (R4) thick polyethylene foamed layer.Described pipe also comprises bottom sheet, and its common but also nonessential composition with top-sheet is identical.
[0084] described pipe can form by two of side seals (going up laminated lower floor) or three (upper strata, inner heat resistant layer and lower floor) soft plasticss, but also can adopt other modes, provide seamless tube such as continuous extrusion or blowing by the cylindrical plastic sheet material.Anti-physical/mechanical is broken but the ground facesheet of heat conduction can be placed between ground and the described pipe.Ground can be through handling or be prepared as relatively flat, smooth, heat conduction and anti-plant.Can provide sidewall with the physical support full of liquid pipe and/or provide extra adiabatic and additionally support and guide described roller frame in the side of described pipe.
[0085] as shown in Figure 4, in nonadiabatic pattern, the top of the heat resistant layer in the water flowing pipe, allow thermal radiation to cold (night) air or in the daytime by infrared solar radiation draw heat.This pattern also can obtain to be used for the maximum absorption of photosynthetic visible light.Conduct heat also and can be undertaken by conduction or convection current and IR radiation or absorption.In adiabatic model, liquid flow is through the below of heat resistant layer, thereby by the thermally-stabilised described fluid temperature that contacts with the ground level heat quality.Described heat resistant layer is isolated liquid and sun IR radiation.Visible light still can see through heat resistant layer with support photosynthesis, but transmitance is lower than 100%.At night, with contacting of ground liquid is warmed, and, will make liquid cooling with contacting of ground in the daytime.In some embodiments, thereby and back and forth heat passage between the ground can be with ground as low-temperature receiver or thermal source in the daytime or regulate fluid temperature night.For example, transferring heat to ground in the daytime and absorbing heat from it to keep described liquid warm in month in the winter time at night, perhaps night conduct heat by ground and use in the daytime ground as low-temperature receiver to cool off described liquid in summer.
[0086] in substituting embodiment, can adopt the active thermal conditioning of using Water of Power Plant.Hot water from power plant's cooling tower can pump into the plastics blanket that is arranged in below the part biological pipe reactor.When weather was cold, this extra thermal source can be used for preventing freezing and/or is lower than best algal grown temperature.Those skilled in the art will recognize and can adopt various thermals source, such as sun power or other alternative heat energy of power plant's waste gas, underground heat, storage.In addition, hot season or strong sunshine the area, the evaporation that can effectively turn round or other cooling systems can be used for preventing that algae is overheated.
[0087] in some embodiments, the radiation characteristic of heat resistant layer can be adjusted by the other materials that adding has a selected optical characteristics, can embed the upper surface of described heat resistant layer such as the quartz sand with selected optical characteristics (ee, for example Figure 10), doped-glass or quartzy globule or ceramic tile.
[0088] thermal control machinery discussed above remains on controlled temperature in the best algal grown scope very effectively.Figure 16 has shown the water temperature data of calculating modeling, adopts Fort Collins between in January, 2006 to June, the envrionment conditions of Colorado, and R-4 (1 inch thick foam) heat resistant layer and ideal infrared absorption layer (referring to Figure 11).When having heat resistant layer (grey) and not having heat resistant layer (black), described water temperature range is carried out modeling.As can be seen, the temperature in spring and summer mainly is stabilized in 20~30 ℃ when having heat resistant layer, and when not having described heat resistant layer, the water temperature in summer reaches 45 ℃ or higher.Described heat resistant layer makes the highest summer water temperature reduce about 10 ℃.This heat resistant layer is relatively poor in the effect that water temperature in winter is maintained in the optimum range.Various alternative method can be used for hydrobiont production in winter, and such as the heat of using from supplementary source (for example power plant's waste gas), productive unit is arranged in the not too cold warmer weather of winter temperature, perhaps adopt cold-resistant algae such as haematococcus pulvialis.
Embodiment 5. whirlpools and sucking pump
[0089] the exemplary results whirlpool of alternative designs is described on the right side of Fig. 3, and preferred resident pipe design is presented among Figure 15 A and the 15B in detail.Though the preferred implementation of bio-reactor comprises such whirlpool device, described device is not limited to this, and in substituting embodiment, also can adopt additive method and the equipment of results algae from nutrient solution.The main purpose of described whirlpool is to draw the enhanced liquid by the algae that contains desired product (or other hydrobionts) institute.Secondary objective is to extract the liquid component that need take out from described nutrient solution, such as the mucilage or the foam that mainly are made of unwanted bacteria.Density separation type (densityseparating) whirlpool has a large amount of potential uses, corresponding to the many different product type that can grow in light-bio-reactor.Different sorts and be in varying environment or the comparable liquid medium of the algae of life stage heavy or light, this depends on oil, sugar and bubble, and has the concentration of the grown cultures liquid of different densities according to its salts contg and temperature.Hydrobiont except that algae also can separate from liquid by density variation after this manner.
[0090] as shown in figure 15, when liquid leaves the pipe barrier film valve region that is positioned at the left side (be labeled as and become a mandarin), it is being positioned at 1/ 2Pile up and must quicken about 2 times at the place, slope of depth location.Described fluid then around and clash into acceleration cone, flow through its edge then and pass resident pipe and fall and enter bottom the cell.Fall into resident pipe and cause the whirlpool behavior, will change faster and faster after the described liquid inlet handhole.Its rotation polylith no matter, the centrifugal force degree that is formed by whirlpool are all proportional with the ratio of the area in hole and the cross-sectional area of bag and roller speed and pipe extrusion ratio.The purpose of resident pipe be liquid must slow down enter lower cell before, described centrifugation tried hard to keep holds as far as possible long residence time.When algae water that contains a large amount of salt or mineral substance and weight or flocculation was pushed to the outside of described rotation whirlpool (spinning whirlpool) in resident pipe, bubble, low density algae and other low density compositions migrated to the center of whirlpool." sucking pump " pipe can be placed on the center (Figure 15 B) of described whirlpool, optionally has the hole of variable-diameter, to collect the center thing of this whirlpool that may be rich in certain specific product.Described sucking pump makes slow down rotation and it is imported the dehydrator filter of screw drive of mixture, perhaps high speed continuous centrifuge, perhaps the two, perhaps other extractions and dewatering unit.After pipetting product contain nutraceutical water can be after filtration with remove may support bacteria growth the relict fragment, then with the sterilization of UV light and return described bio-reactor.Described dewatering unit can be gone up spissated algae or other Product transport to be transported to Central Processing Facility with extract oil by collection algae in a plurality of bio-reactors of linear arrangement and with a large amount of algae to collecting travelling belt or other devices.Described algae can split into block and arrive on the travelling belt by the space, whereabouts, perhaps can transmit to prevent that the adventive on the travelling belt from entering bio-reactor and causing the destruction of single breed or " infection " diffused to another reactor by a reactor possibility by the bioseptic one-way cock.In another kind of structure, be also shown among Figure 15 B, thereby can constituting collection liquid by the through hole that is arranged in resident pipe inboard, described sucking pump has the most highdensity composition.For example, these can be the algae of being rich in oil and sugar, and wherein the ratio of oil and sugar makes described algae overweight described nutrient solution.
[0091] another purpose of described whirlpool can be used as substituting CO 2Injection device.This can occur in the bottom of described whirlpool, and liquid is rotated after leaving the control mouth and throws away.Gas is such as pure CO 2, or from the substituting CO that is rich in power plant, factory or other sources 2Waste gas can be injected into the central zone of whirlpool or just be positioned under the opening of center sucking pump pipe.In this position, because therefore the restriction of described sucking pump pipe and downward reverse flow can prevent that bubble from trending towards the center of whirlpool.Yet because buoyancy and downward current exist simultaneously, thereby bubble changes to one section residence time of existence when enough big by its hole, source.Its current are on every side also quickened in the size compression of bubble, make this bubble leave its generation hole as the small bubbles of load in slower current.In a preferred embodiment, before bubble merged and rises to the pipe top, a large amount of gases were inhaled in the liquid.
[0092] for described bio-reactor, might air be blasted by the chloroprene rubber syringe, perhaps directly from air, obtain CO through the direct infiltration of described bio-reactor top surface 2In some embodiments, at the configurable sodium hydroxide mixture pouch that 1 inch diameter is arranged of the inside top of described pipe, be enclosed in after the breathing waterproof film, described breathing waterproof film can be by to CO 2The Polystyrene Film that has shown high permeability forms.When these pouches partly contacted ambient atmosphere, they can optionally absorb airborne CO 2Composition.Then when roller when these pouches, they are subjected to the physics extruding of roller and make top seal, CO 2Dividing potential drop be higher than dividing potential drop in the water of described film bottom side, and take place to stride film fast and diffuse in the liquid.In this structure, top-sheet seems the Blister Package (bubblewrap) that has the point image bubble to be positioned at the top a little, and has been full of the sodium hydroxide mixture, and top and bottom include CO 2Penetrating film.Be used for directly obtaining CO 2Other embodiments in, the end face of described bio-reactor is by as the perforate fabric of reinforcing composition be full of CO 2The molectron of the aperture of permeability and absorbent material is made.This can be the polystyrene microcapsule of sodium hydroxide.Be in operation, described capsule absorbs CO from air 2, then when each described capsule of the inswept extruding of roller, by passive diffusion or by the pressurization diffusion with CO 2Directly discharge in the liquid.
[0093] exemplary model of whirlpool device is presented among Figure 13.Water enters cell, and first controlling box for example meets with acceleration ramp, and described slope can be accelerated the speed of water and water be moved to the dull and stereotyped top that is positioned at liquid total depth middle part.Described water further passes through the acceleration of acceleration cone and is downward through resident pipe, forms whirlpool naturally.The water that flows out resident pipe bottom enters the cell that is positioned under the flat board of center, and outwards flows out by the deceleration ramp above oblique before leaving described controlling box.The effect on described slope is to change the speed of current gradually to prevent that working as it flows at dull and stereotyped top at the center, causes the turbulent flow that destroys whirlpool when perhaps flowing out from the below.The details of resident pipe and acceleration cone is described in Figure 14.As mentioned above, form whirlpool naturally, resemble very much the toilet of washing by water through shrinking the water that flow to lower level downwards.Resident pipe discussed below, quicken vertebra and stator fin and help whirlpool in resident pipe, to be formed centrally and stablize through design.The length of described resident pipe can increase liquid suspension residence time under centrifugal force through design, at utmost separating between composition such as the algae that is full of lighter or heavier product of realizing different densities and the water nutrient solution.Stator fin around described resident pipe provides the central force of stable whirlpool in resident tube hub position.This is important, because described sucking pump device need accurately be positioned at whirlpool to draw 1/8 " the thick water layer that flows fast.Described stable stator fin is as the turbulent strainer around whirlpool.Because its angle, rocking back and forth in the controlling box are eased to avoid upsetting vortex location, the spiral motion of the water that constantly enters simultaneously is not interrupted.Under test conditions, the model whirlpool device that shows in Figure 13~14 forms stable whirlpool.
[0094] hydromechanics of described whirlpool device is described among Figure 15 A.The water that flows into cell runs into acceleration ramp and cone, concentrates on to make liquid be reduced to lower level aperture.This will form whirlpool.By whirlpool central stator fin whirlpool is stabilized in correct position.Liquid is flowed out by the whirlpool bottom and meet with deceleration ramp before leaving cell, forms the inflow velocity and the discharge velocity of relative constant turnover cell.(Figure 15 B) in some embodiments, sucking pump pipe and pump can be used for removing low density composition (for example oil-overflow algae) or high-density composition (for example being full of the algae of sugar).Though utilize unimodal current that exemplary whirlpool device is described, in substituting embodiment, the position that can regulate acceleration ramp and deceleration ramp makes current enter all from any direction can form whirlpool, such as in two-way roller system.
[0095] purpose of acceleration ramp and cone is when liquid quickens to enter whirlpool turbulent flow to be reduced to minimum, further quickens its spiral motion so that centrifugal force to be provided in whirlpool.According to estimation, device shown in Figure 13~15 only consumes 50 watts energy from turbulent flow in the full-scale system that can carry 90 Gallons Per Seconds by whirlpool.Exist various alternative method from nutrient solution, separating algae as mentioned above, and can adopt any known method.
Embodiment 6.CO 2Absorb
[0096] in some embodiments, be rich in CO 2Waste gas can be used for supporting the photosynthesis carbon fixation, the CO in the purifying exhaust air simultaneously 2Content