CN101325431B  Method for interception of impulse radio signal based on amplitude statistics  Google Patents
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 CN101325431B CN101325431B CN2008101231614A CN200810123161A CN101325431B CN 101325431 B CN101325431 B CN 101325431B CN 2008101231614 A CN2008101231614 A CN 2008101231614A CN 200810123161 A CN200810123161 A CN 200810123161A CN 101325431 B CN101325431 B CN 101325431B
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Abstract
Description
技术领域 FIELD
[0001] 本发明属于无线通信信息安全技术领域，特别涉及脉冲无线电信号的截获方法。 [0001] The present invention belongs to the technical field of wireless communication of information security, and more particularly to a method interception impulse radio signal.
背景技术 Background technique
[0002] 美国《国际电子与电气工程师协会快报》（IEEE Communication Letter) 1998第2 期第3638页首先提出了脉冲无线电的概念。 [0002] United States, "International Association of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Letters" (IEEE Communication Letter) 1998, No. 2, page 3638 first proposed the concept of impulse radio. 脉冲无线电信号具有典型的低功率谱密度的特点，脉冲无线电通信是当前超宽带通信的重要技术手段，在短距离通信中有着广泛的应用。 Characteristics of typical pulsed radio signal having low power spectral density, current impulse radio communications is an important means of ultrawideband communication technology, it has been widely used in short distance communication.
[0003] 对脉冲无线电信号的截获方法研究是信息安全领域的重要问题。 [0003] study of the pulse method interception of radio signals is an important issue in the field of information security. 目前尚未见到公开文献讨论对脉冲无线电通信信号的截获问题，对脉冲无线电截获问题的研究尚处于空白状态。 It has yet to see the open literature discussion on intercepting problem impulse radio communication signals, the study of impulse radio interception problem is still in the blank.
发明内容 SUMMARY
[0004] 本发明的目的是提出一种基于幅度统计的脉冲无线电信号的截获方法，以解决低占空比条件下传统截获方法无法对脉冲无线电信号进行截获的问题。 [0004] The object of the present invention is to propose a method of amplitude statistics intercepted radio signal based on the pulse, in order to solve problems of the conventional methods can not be intercepted intercepted radio signal pulse at low duty cycles.
[0005] 本发明提出的基于幅度统计的脉冲无线电信号的截获方法，其特征在于： [0005] The method proposed by the present invention, the amplitude of the statistical interception of the radio signal based on the pulse, wherein:
[0006] 对从来自天线的接收信号r(t)所获得的平方后取样序列re(n) = r2 (nT)进行幅度统计，式中的η是取样点序号，T是取样间隔；并将平方后取样序列^ (η)按照幅度将其从小到大排列成增序排序序列Aq (η)；根据噪声点删除因子P和增序排序序列Aq (η)选择对应的删除门限Ath = \([ΡΝ])，式中的N是取样点总数，[□]表示与变量最接近的整数；将平方后取样序列re(n)与删除门限Ath进行比较得到去噪声序列(η)为：当re(n) > Ath时， 去噪声序列r,(n) =re(n)；当r>)彡Ath时，去噪声序列r,(η) = 0 ；对去噪声序列r>) 进行离散傅立叶变换（DFT)得到变换序列djk) = DFT(r<1(n))，k是变换序列的标号；进一步对变换序列djk)取模并去除直流分量后，选择M个极大值点，将M个极大点的位置记录为初始位置序列s (m)，这里m是极大值点的序号；对初始位置序列s (m)进行增序排序得到位置序列P (m)， [0006] The sampling sequence re (n) = r2 (nT) obtained from the squared received signal r (t) from the antenna the amplitude statistics of the formula η is the sampling point number, T is the sampling interval; and squared sampling sequence ^ (η) according to the amplitude of which is small to large are arranged in increasing order of the sorted sequence Aq (η); selecting the corresponding deletion threshold Ath noise point deletion factor P and in increasing order of the collating sequence Aq (η) according to = \ ( [ΡΝ]), where the N is the sampling point total, [□] represents the variable nearest integer; squaring the sampling sequence re (n) and deletion threshold Ath comparing obtained tonoise sequence ([eta]) as follows: when the when re (n)> Ath, denoise sequences r, (n) = re (n); when r>) San Ath, denoise sequences r, (η) = 0; the denoise sequence r>) discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to obtain a sequence of transformations djk) = DFT (r <1 (n)), k is a numeral sequence conversion; after further transformation sequence modulo DJK) and removing a DC component, select M maxima, the locations of the m maximum point is recorded as the initial position of the sequence s (m), where m is the maximum number of points; initial position of the sequence S (m) to obtain a position for sorting in increasing order of the sequence P (m), 位置序列ρ (m)的相邻位置差δ (m) =p(m+l)p(m)为某一常数Cs的整数倍，对于不同的极大值点序号m，δ (m)是。 Position sequence ρ (m) adjacent to the position difference δ (m) = p (m + l) p (m) is an integer multiple of a constant Cs, maxima for different number m, δ (m) Yes. 的不同整倍数，则相邻位置差δ (m)与常数C5的比值δ (m)/C5与其最接近整数[δ (m)/Cj之间的偏离绝对值I δ (m)/Cs[5 (m)/ C5] I小于允许误差Cot时，判决为截获；若偏离绝对值大于等于允许误差Cot则判定为未截 Different from an integral multiple of the adjacent position difference δ (m) C5 constant ratio of [delta] (m) / C5 departing from its nearest integer absolute value I δ (m) between [δ (m) / Cj / Cs [5 (m) / C5] I Cot less than the allowable error, the answer is intercepted; if not less than the absolute value of deviation from the permissible error is determined not to cut Cot
M犾。 M l is.
[0007] 所述对从来自天线的接收信号r (t)，可以采用以下两种方式之一来获得平方后取样序列re(n)：—种是先将来自天线的接收信号r(t)进行平方操作后得到平方信号r2(t)， 再对平方信号r2(t)进行取样得到平方后取样序列(η) =r2(nT)；或，另一种是，先将来自天线的接收信号Ht)进行模拟数字转换得到取样序列Im (Π) [!•(!！乃，再对!^^!)进行平方得到平方后取样序列^ (η) = T1ne {n) = r2 (nT),这里T是取样间隔。 [0007] After the received signal from r (t) from the antenna in one of two ways can be employed to obtain the square of the sampling sequence re (n):  a first kind from the antenna the received signal r (t) after the operation to obtain the square of squared signal r2 (t), and then the squared signal r2 (t) sampled after the sequence of samples to obtain squared (η) = r2 (nT); or, the other is, the first received signal from antenna HT) obtained digital conversion sampling sequence Im (Π) [! • (!! is the, again! ^^!) squares of sampled sequence squared ^ (η) = T1ne {n) = r2 (nT), where T is the sampling interval.
3 3
[0008] 本发明的上述处理方法由于利用了脉冲无线电信号占空比低、瞬时幅度大的特点，对接收信号的取样序列进行幅度统计，利用小幅度点中信号有效成分低，取出后对信号能量收集影响小，但却可以有效去除大部分噪声能量的进入，从而提高了频谱分析的信噪比，改善了脉冲无线电信号由于极低的功率谱密度所引起的无法截获的问题。 [0008] The processing method of the present invention, since the low duty cycle pulse radio signal, the characteristics of a large instantaneous amplitude, the sampled sequence of the received signal amplitude statistics, with a small signal amplitude point of the low active ingredient, after removing the signal energy harvesting is small, but it can effectively remove access to most of the noise energy, thereby improving the signal to noise ratio spectrum analysis, improved the problem can not be intercepted impulse radio signals due to very low power spectral density caused.
附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION
[0009] 图1是基于噪声点去除的脉冲无线电信号的截获设备框图1。 [0009] FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an apparatus intercepted radio signal based on the noise pulse removal point.
[0010] 图2是基于噪声点取出的脉冲无线电信号的截获设备框图2。 [0010] FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a device based on intercepted radio signal pulse noise points extracted 2.
[0011] 图3是不采用噪声点去除的脉冲无线电信号频谱。 [0011] FIG 3 is not a pulse noise spectrum radio signal point removal.
[0012] 图4是采用噪声点去除截获方法得到的频谱。 [0012] Figure 4 is a noise removal spectrum intercept point obtained by the method.
[0013] 图5是采用噪声点去除截获方法的漏警概率曲线。 [0013] FIG. 5 is a method for removing intercept missed alarm probability curve using noise points.
具体实施方式 Detailed ways
： :
[0014] 实施例1 ：先平方操作后取样的基于幅度统计的脉冲无线电信号的截获 [0014] Example 1: After the square operation of the first sample based on the magnitude of the statistical interception of the impulse radio signal
[0015] 本实施例采取先平方操作后取样的基于幅度统计的脉冲无线电信号的截获，附图1给出了基于幅度统计的脉冲无线电信号的截获处理框图1。 [0015] The present embodiment adopted the square after the first capture operation based on the sampling pulse amplitude statistics of the radio signals, Figure 1 shows a block diagram of an amplitude statistic processing intercepted radio signal based on a pulse. 具体处理过程为：由天线0接收到的空间中存在的无线电波，经放大步骤1进行放大后送入滤波步骤2进行滤波得到接收信号r(t)，信号r(t)经过平方操作4得到平方信号re(t) = r2 (t)，在取样步骤3对平方信号取样得到平方后取样序列(η)，将平方后取样序列(η)送到截获处理步骤5进行截获算法处理，即得到判决结果；这里放大步骤1中所采用的放大器可以是覆盖检测信号频段的任意线性放大器；滤波步骤2中所采用的滤波器是通带为覆盖检测信号频段的任意带通滤波器或者任意低通滤波器，所述平方操作4中所采用的平方律器件可以是工作频带覆盖检测信号所在频段的任一平方律器件，例如，对于频带为12GHZ的脉冲信号，取样器可以选用Maxim公司出品的Maxl09利用多相时钟实现，放大器选择美国模拟器件公司（Analog Device)的AD8353，ADA9537实现，平方律器件选择魏音谢 The specific process is: Space received by the antenna 0 in the presence of radio waves, after amplified by an amplification step 2 into the filtering step is filtered to obtain a reception signal r (t), to obtain a signal r (t) through the operation of the square 4 the squared signal re (t) = r2 (t), after sampling the squared signal is sampled in step 3 to obtain the square of the sampling sequence ([eta]), the squared sampling sequence ([eta]) to intercept the processing of step 5 intercepting the arithmetic processing, i.e., to obtain verdict; step 1 amplifier employed herein may be any linear amplifier band covering a detection signal; 2 filter filtering step uses a passband bandpass filter cover any detection signal or any lowpass band filter, the square operation in the squarelaw device 4 may be employed REN Yiping squarelaw device where the operating band covers the frequency band of the detection signal, e.g., a frequency band for the pulse signal 12GHZ, the sampler can use Maxim company Publisher Maxl09 implemented using a multiphase clock, select the amplifier Analog devices (Analog device) the AD8353, ADA9537 implement squarelaw audio device selection Xie Wei 公司（AeroFlex) MTD001 ；本实施例中可使用的器件包括但不限于上述器件。 Company (AeroFlex) MTD001; device in the present embodiment may be used include, but are not limited to the above device.
[0016] 图1中虚线所框的部分为截获处理步骤5，它具体包括幅度统计51、门限选择52、 噪声点去除53、离散傅立叶变换M以及判决55处理过程：所述平方后取样序列re (η)经幅度统计过程51进行幅度统计后，输出的增序排序序列Atl(η)送入到门限选择过程52，该门限选择过程52根据系统设定的噪声点删除因子P和增序排序序列Aq (η)得到删除门限Ath、 平方后取样序列和删除门限Ath;经噪声点去除过程53去除平方后取样序列中幅度小于去除门限Ath的取样点后，得到去噪声序列Γ(1(η)；该去噪声序列I^(Ii)经离散傅立叶变换过程讨后的结果d,(k)输入到判决过程55，根据d,(k)的幅度的极大值点之间的位置差是否满足倍数关系判决是否有脉冲无线电信号并输出结果。 [0016] FIG 1 in a broken line frame portion to intercept the processing of step 5, which comprises amplitude statistics 51, threshold selection 52, the noise point removal 53, a discrete Fourier transform M and a decision 55 processes: the squared sampling sequence re ([eta]) after 51 amplitude statistics by amplitude statistical process, increasing order sorting sequence Atl output ([eta]) is fed to the threshold selection process 52, the threshold selection process 52 deleted factor P and in increasing order of sorted noise points set by the system sequence Aq (η) obtained delete threshold Ath, squared sampling sequence and deletion threshold Ath; the noise point removal after the process 53 is removed squared sampling sequence amplitude is less than the removal threshold sampling point Ath obtain a denoised sequence Γ (1 (η ); denoise sequence I ^ (Ii) through the discrete Fourier transform process to discuss the results of d, (k) 55 is input to the decision process, if a difference between the position d, maxima (k) the amplitude of the satisfy the multiple relation deciding whether there is an impulse radio signal, and outputs the result.
[0017] 上述截获处理步骤5的基于噪声点去除的脉冲无线电截获处理过程可具体操作如下： [0017] The capture step process based on the pulse intercepted radio noise point removal processing operation 5 may be embodied as follows:
[0018] 1、将平方后取样序列re(n)输入到幅度统计51，按照平方后取样序列的幅度从小到大对平方后取样序列re(n)进行排序，得到增序排列序列Atl(η)，这里η是取样点序号； [0018] 1, the sampling sequence re (n) after squaring the input to the amplitude statistics 51, an amplitude sequence of samples from small to large sampling of sequence re (n) squared sorted by squaring, to give increasing order sequence Atl (η ), where η is the number of sampling points;
[0019] 2、计算需要删除的取样点总数Ii1 = [PN]，这里N是取样点的总数目，P是噪声点删除因子，即后续操作过程准备删除的取样点比例，[PN]是最接近PN的整数； [0019] 2 is calculated to be deleted sample point Number of Ii1 = [PN], where N is the total number of sampling points, P is a noise point deletion factor, i.e., during the subsequent operations to prepare to remove sampling point ratio, [the PN] is the most PN close of integer;
[0020] 3、将增序排列序列Aq (η)输入到门限选择52，得到门限Ath ： [0020] 3, will increase the sequence arranged in order Aq (η) is input to the selected threshold 52, to give the threshold Ath:
[0021] Ath = Aq(H1) =Aq ([PN]) [0021] Ath = Aq (H1) = Aq ([PN])
[0022] 4、输入序列&(11)在去噪声点53中与Ath进行比较，得到去噪声序列： [0022] 4, & input sequence (11) with the Ath in point 53 to the noise, noise sequence to obtain:
[0024] 5、将去噪声序列Γ(1(η)输入到离散傅立叶变换M进行离散时间傅立叶变换得到变换序列djk)，k是变换序列的序号： [0024] 5, the denoised sequence Γ (1 (η) is input to the discrete Fourier transform M discrete time Fourier transform conversion series djk), k is the number of the transformation sequence:
[0025] <(Α:) = ^("Χ'这里扭 [0025] <(Α :) =  ^ ( "Χ 'twist here
»=0 W = e N »= 0 W = e N
[0026] 6、将变换序列dr(k)输入到判决55，对dr(k)取模并去除直流分量，然后寻找M个极大点，将极大点的位置记录为初始位置序列s (m) (0彡m彡M1)，这里m是极大点序号， 将s(m)按照增序排列得到位置序列p(m)，若相邻极大点的位置差δ (m) =p(m+l)p(m) (0 ^ m ^ M2)为某一常数Cs的整数倍，对于不同的极大值点序号m，δ (m)是。 [0026] 6, the sequence of transformations dr (k) is input to the decision 55 of dr (k) modulo DC component removed and then look for the M maximum point, the maximum point position as the initial position of the recording sequence s ( m) (0 m San San m1), where m is the maximum point number, the S (m) to obtain a position sequence P (m) according to increasing order, if the position of the maximum point adjacent the difference [delta] (m) = p (m + l) p (m) (0 ^ m ^ m2) is an integer multiple of a constant Cs, maxima for different number m, δ (m) Yes. 的不同整倍数：即相邻位置差δ (m)与常数Cs的比值δ (m)/C5与其最接近整数[δ (m)/Cj之间的偏离绝对值I δ (m)/C5[ δ (m)/C5] 小于允许误差Cot时，判决为截获；若偏离绝对值大于等于允许误差Cm则判定为未截获；这里[δ (m)/C5]表示最接近δ (m)/C5的整数。 Different integer multiples of: i.e. a position adjacent to a difference δ (m) and a constant ratio of Cs δ (m) / C5 its nearest integer [δ (m) / Cj between the absolute value of deviation from I δ (m) / C5 [δ (m) / C5]  is smaller than the allowable error Cot, the answer is intercepted; if not less than the absolute value of deviation from the permissible error is determined not to Cm intercept; where [δ (m) / C5] represents the closest δ (m) / C5 is an integer.
[0027] 实施例2 ：先取样后平方操作的基于幅度统计的脉冲无线电信号的截获 [0027] Example 2: After the first sample capture operation based on the square of the amplitude statistics of the impulse radio signal
[0028] 本实施例采取先平方操作后取样的基于幅度统计的脉冲无线电信号的截获，附图2给出了基于幅度统计的脉冲无线电信号的截获处理框图2。 [0028] The present embodiment adopted the square after the first capture operation based on the sampling pulse amplitude statistics of the radio signal, Figure 2 shows the processing based on the intercepted radio signal pulse amplitude statistics block diagram 2. 具体处理过程为：由天线0接收到的空间中存在的无线电波，经放大步骤1进行放大后送入滤波步骤2进行滤波得到接收信号r (t)，经取样步骤3得到取样序列(n) = r (nT)，再经平方操作步骤4得到平方后取样序列re (η)，送到截获处理步骤5进行截获算法处理，即得到判决结果；这里放大步骤1 中所采用的放大器可以是覆盖检测信号频段的任意线性放大器；所述滤波步骤2中所采用的滤波器是通带为覆盖检测信号频段的任意带通滤波器或者任意低通滤波器，例如，对于频带为l2GHz的脉冲信号，取样器可以选用Maxim公司出品的Maxl09利用多相时钟实现， 放大器选择美国模拟器件公司（Analog Device)的AD8353，ADA9537实现，本实施例中可使用的器件包括但不限于上述器件。 The specific process is: Space received by the antenna 0 in the presence of radio waves, after amplified by an amplification step 2 into the filtering step is filtered to obtain a reception signal r (t), 3 to obtain the sequence of samples (n) sampled in step = r (nT), then the step 4 to obtain the square of the sampled sequence re (η), the process of step 5 to intercept interception arithmetic processing, i.e., to obtain judgment results; amplifier in an amplification step herein may be employed to cover detecting any signal band linear amplifier; filter step of filtering uses a two pass bands so as to cover the detection signal of any frequency bandpass filter or any low pass filter, e.g., a pulse for a frequency band of l2GHz signal, the sampler can use the company Maxim produced Maxl09 achieved using multiphase clock, select the amplifier Analog devices (Analog device) the AD8353, ADA9537 achieved, the device according to the present embodiment may be used include, but are not limited to the above device.
[0029] 本实施例中的截获处理步骤5的具体处理过程与实施例1中描述的完全一致。 [0029] In this example the process of step intercepted specific processing procedure of embodiment 5 embodiment exactly as described in Example 1.
[0030] 考虑一个这样的脉冲无线电信号： [0030] Consider one such impulse radio signals:
[0031] r ) = Σ adI^ec [t  ITf  ClTc) + «(/) [0031] r) = Σ adI ^ ec [t  ITf  ClTc) + «(/)
/=00 / = 00
[0032] 这里a为接收信号幅度，Wrec(t)是接收到的脉冲波形，Cl1是第1个脉冲调制的数据，Cl1 e {+1,0}或者Cl1 e {+1，1}，Tf是脉冲重复周期，C1是跳时序列，T。 [0032] where a is the amplitude of the received signal, Wrec (t) is the received pulse waveform, Cl1 is a first pulsemodulated data, Cl1 e {+1,0} or Cl1 e {+ 1, 1}, Tf is the pulse repetition period, C1 is the time hopping sequence, T. 是跳时间隔，1 是脉冲序号。 Jump time interval, a pulse number.
[0033] 假定通信速率为~，脉冲能量为&，则信号能量为BdEp,带宽为B，于是得到谱密度信噪比为5^=¾¾";—般情况下考虑比特信噪比^ 15dB时可正常通信，当通信速率 [0033] assumed that the communication rate of ~, & pulse energy, the signal energy of BDEP, the bandwidth is B, then spectral density obtained SNR 5 ^ = ¾¾ ";  consider the general case where the bit 15dB SNR ^ It may be a normal communication, when the communication rate
Bd小于20Mbps，信号带宽B = 2GHz时，可以计算得到谱密度信噪比SNR < _5dB，此时应用传统的频谱分析方法无法看出数据信号的存在。 When Bd is less than 20Mbps, the signal bandwidth B = 2GHz, the spectral density can be calculated signal to noise ratio SNR <_5dB, conventional spectral analysis methods applied at this time can not be seen that there is a data signal. 附图3给出了比特信噪比=15dB， 跳时序列C1 = {2，1，2，0，0}，脉冲重复周期Tf = 210ns，跳时间隔Tc = 42ns时的离散傅立叶变换结果的幅度部分，横坐标为频率，单位赫兹，纵坐标是归一化幅度，使用对数坐标，此时无法判断是否存在脉冲无线电信号。 Figure 3 shows the bit SNR = 15dB, time hopping sequence C1 = {2,1,2,0,0}, the pulse repetition period Tf = 210ns, jump time interval Tc = results of the discrete Fourier transform of 42ns amplitude portion, the abscissa is the frequency in hertz, the ordinate is the normalized amplitude, using the logarithmic scale, this time can not be determined whether the presence of impulse radio signal.
[0034] 考虑到脉冲无线电信号是一个占空比很低的信号，很多取样点没有包含有用的信号信息。 [0034] Considering the impulse radio signal is a signal of low duty cycle, many sampling points do not contain useful signal information. 能量平均分布于傅立叶变换结果的各点。 The average energy distribution of the points in the Fourier transformation result. 因此采用幅度统计后去除绝大部分的没有包含信号信息的取样点，将降低傅立叶变换各点中噪声贡献部分，而信号贡献部分得以最大部分的保留。 With amplitude statistics thus remove most of the sampling points does not contain information signal, the Fourier transform to reduce the noise contribution of each section point, while retaining part of the signal contribution to the greatest part. 附图4给出了同样参数下采用本发明方法所得到的傅立叶变换结果的幅度部分，横坐标为频率，单位赫兹，纵坐标为相对幅度，采用对数坐标，从图中可以看出存在若干离散谱线，谱线间隔正好为1/T。 Figure 4 shows the Fourier transform result of the process of the present invention obtained under the same amplitude parameters part, the abscissa is the frequency in hertz, the ordinate is relative amplitude, logarithmic scale, it can be seen from the figure there are several discrete spectral lines, line spacing of exactly 1 / T. ，由此可有效判断是否存在脉冲无线电信号并提取到时间参数T。 , Thereby effectively determines whether a pulse is present and a radio signal to extract a time parameter T. 。 .
[0035] 附图5给出了在比特信噪比&/N。 [0035] Figure 5 shows the bittonoise ratio & / N. 从4dB到12dB的截获性能，横坐标为比特信噪比&/队，单位dB，纵坐标为漏警概率，采用对数坐标。 From 12dB to 4dB performance intercepts the abscissa is the SNR & bits / team, the unit dB, the ordinate is the missed alarm probability logarithmic scale. 必须指出的是，在此情况下对应的谱密度信噪比SNR变化范围是16dB到8dB。 It must be noted that, in this case corresponding to the spectral density of the SNR varies in the range 16dB to 8dB. 数值模拟中噪声点删除因子P = 0. 99，极大值点个数M = 3，，给定的允许误差Cot = 0. 01。 Numerical Simulation of the point remove noise factor P = 0. 99, the number of maxima M = 3 ,, given tolerance Cot = 0. 01. 此时对应的虚警概率为0. 0014。 At this time, the false alarm probability corresponding to 0.0014. 极大值点个数M增加或者给定的允许误差Cot减小都将提高漏警概率，降低虚警概率；反之若极大值点个数M减小或者给定的允许误差Cm增加都将降低漏警概率，提高虚警概率。 Increasing the number of maxima or M given tolerance Cot reduced leakage alarm probability will increase, reducing the probability of false alarm; conversely if the number of maxima M reduced or given tolerances are increased Cm reduce leakage alarm probability, increase the probability of false alarm.
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