CN101282680A - Eye tracker having an extended span of operating distances - Google Patents

Eye tracker having an extended span of operating distances Download PDF

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CN101282680A
CN101282680A CN 200680037562 CN200680037562A CN101282680A CN 101282680 A CN101282680 A CN 101282680A CN 200680037562 CN200680037562 CN 200680037562 CN 200680037562 A CN200680037562 A CN 200680037562A CN 101282680 A CN101282680 A CN 101282680A
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eye
data
ds
adapted
light
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CN 200680037562
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CN100589752C (en
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本特·伦斯特伦
约翰·埃尔韦舍
莫滕·斯科格
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托比技术有限公司
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Abstract

The present invention relates to automatic registration and tracking of the eyes (101 ; 102) of at least one subject (100). An optical system (110), including a lens structure (111 , 112), a mask (120) and an image sensor (130), receives incoming light (LS) from a scene containing the subject (100) and directs at least a portion of this light towards the image sensor (130), which registers spatially distributed light and thus produces primary data (Ds). The mask (120) is adapted to alter a basic optical transfer function of the lens structure (111 , 112) and the image sensor (130) into an enhanced optical transfer function, which is substantially less sensitive to variations (delta) of an unknown distance (R) between the optical system (110) and the at least one subject (100) than the basic optical transfer function. The proces- sing unit (140) is adapted to receive the primary data (Ds) and process this data (Ds) to produce resulting eye-tracking data (DEYE) representing a position estimate of the at least one eye (101; 102) and/or a gaze direction for the at least one eye (101; 102).

Description

具有延长范围的操作距离的眼跟踪器技术领域本发明一般地涉及自动眼跟踪,其中跟踪精度的增强是基于光学传递函数改进(modifying)的掩模,其使眼跟踪器能够在相对较大范围的距离内进行工作。 BACKGROUND have an extended operating range from the eye-tracking present invention relates generally to an automatic eye tracking, where tracking accuracy enhancement mask is improved based on the optical transfer function (modifying), which is capable of tracking the eye over a relatively large range work in the distance. 更具体地说,本发明涉及根据权利要求1的前文(preamble )所述的系统以及才艮据4又利要求14所述的方法。 More particularly, the present invention relates to systems and methods according Gen 4 and only the claims 14 hereinbefore (preamble) 1 according to claim. 本发明还涉及根据权利要求23所述的计算机程序和根据权利要求24所述的计算才几可读介质。 The present invention also relates to a computer program according to claim 23 and according to claim 24, the computing only a few-readable medium. 背景技术眼跟踪的概念在本技术领域是众所周知的,并且已经开发了许多不同的技术来完成自动眼和—见线跟踪(gaze tracking )。 Background The concept of eye tracking technology in the art is well known and has developed many different techniques to accomplish the automatic eye and - see line tracking (gaze tracking). 在远程、 非伸出(non-obtrusive)的眼跟踪领域,最通常使用的设计是基于瞳孔中心角膜反光点(PCCR)方法。 In the remote, non-extended (non-obtrusive) field of eye tracking, the most commonly used design (PCCR) based pupil center corneal reflection point. 这种方式的基本想法是1"吏用至少一个光源并且借助于招H象才几来捕获眼的一系列图像。在每个图像中,确定在角膜和瞳孔中的光源的反射(闪烁)。然后将确定的从闪烁到瞳孔中心的矢量用来估计眼睛的注视方向。另夕卜,在PCCR 眼3艮踪4页i或内存在两种主要策略来确定(识别)在上述图^f象中的瞳孔。可以将光源定位成尽可能靠近摄像机的光轴。这导致由光源照射的一部分眼的视网膜将光线反射回到摄像机中,并因此在配准的图像中瞳孔显得明亮。因此基于这种策略的跟踪解决办法被分类为明亮瞳孑L (bright-pupil, BP) PCCR。可替换地,可以将光源定位在离摄像机的光轴一定距离处。因此,基本上没有来自光源的光线会经由视网膜被反射到摄像机中,从而在配准的图像中瞳孔显得暗淡。因此,基于这种策略的跟踪解决办法被分类为暗淡瞳孔(dark-pupil, D The basic idea of ​​this approach is an "official with the aid of at least one light source and only a few strokes as H to capture a series of images of the eye in each image, determine the source is reflected at the cornea and the pupil (flashing). then from the scintillator to the determined pupil center vector used to estimate the gaze direction of the eye. another Bu Xi, the PCCR eye tracking Gen 3 or 4 i memory to determine (identify) above as in FIG ^ f Two main strategies the pupil. the light source may be positioned as close as possible to the camera axis. this results in a part of the retina of the eye of the light source the light reflected back into the camera, and thus the image registration appears bright pupil Therefore based on these trace species policy solutions are classified into a bright pupil larvae L (bright-pupil, BP) PCCR. Alternatively, the light source may be positioned at a distance from the optical axis of the camera. Thus, substantially no light from the light source will be It is reflected by the retina to the camera, so that the registered images in dim pupil. Therefore, based tracking solution of this strategy are classified as dim pupil (dark-pupil, D P ) PCCR。是BP-PCCR还是DP-PCCR为优选的尤其(ia)耳又决于环境照明条件、受实验者的年龄以及性别,因为这些因素影响瞳孔面积。 此夕卜,BP反应受到其眼睛正被跟踪的人的人种的4艮大影响。例如, 已经发现,西班牙裔人通常具有非常强的BP反应,而白种人具有稍樣i更弱的BP反应,然而仍然是相当足够的。然而,在许多情况下,亚洲人具有不充分的BP反应。因此,为了确保可靠的眼跟踪, 经常希望BP-PCCR和DP-PCCR跟踪的结合。/^开的国际专利申请WO 2004/045399描迷了一种系统,其中冲企测和^^宗眼的4立置和注一见方向。该系统包招「才聂^象才几和若千光源, 光源分布在显示器(例如计算机屏幕)的周围。通过用来自不同光源的光顺序地照射正在》见看显示器的受实-睑者,4吏得可以交替地才全测眼睛的位置和注碎见方向。然而,为了进行这种评估,4聂像机 P) PCCR. BP-PCCR is the DP-PCCR is particularly preferred (ia) in turn depends on the ear ambient lighting conditions, the age and sex by the experimenter, as these factors affect the pupil area. This Bu Xi, BP by its reaction 4 Burgundy big impact eye being tracked human race. For example, it has been found that Hispanics generally have a very strong reaction of BP, while Caucasians have a slightly weaker i like BP reaction, but still quite enough However, in many cases, it has insufficient Asians BP reaction. Thus, in order to ensure reliable eye-tracking is often desirable to combine ./^ BP-PCCR and DP-PCCR tracking open international Patent application WO 2004 / 045 399 describe a fan system, wherein the sensing and half red eyes were ^^ 4 and the upright direction, see Notes a. the packet system move "before ^ Nie and only a few, if one thousand as a light source distribution in a display (e.g., computer around the screen) by using the irradiation light sequentially from different light sources are "see watching the display by the solid - eyelid, 4 officials have alternately until the whole measured positions of the eyes and the injection broken see direction, however, in order to perform this. kind of assessment, 4 Nie camera 必须产生高图像质量的数据。这又需要高级光学装置、高性能图像传感器和/或很好受控的照明条件。同样非常重要的是,在跟踪操作期间, 受实验者的眼要保持在焦点。为了这个目的,摄像机必须装备有自动聚焦装置或用具有相对较小数值孔径(即高光圏数)的光学系统进行操作,以达到足够大的视野深度。前一种选择使得摄像机复杂、 笨重和昂贵,而后一种选择则进一步增加对图像传感器的性能要求,其是一种同样转变为成本的参数。美国专利第5,748,371号4皮露了一种系统,用于增加一见野深度并且降低波长灵敏度和非相关光学系统的透镜的散焦产生的象差H象差)。 Must generate data of high image quality. This in turn requires a high optical device, high-performance image sensor and / or well controlled lighting conditions is also very important that, during the tracking operation, to be held by the experimenter in the focus of the eye for this purpose, the camera must be equipped with an automatic focusing device having an optical system operating with a relatively small numerical aperture (i.e., a high number of rings of light) in order to achieve a sufficiently large depth of field. the former option so that the camera complex, bulky, and expensive, then one option is to further increase the performance requirements for the image sensor, which is a cost parameter into the same. U.S. Patent No. 5,748,371 a system exposed skin 4, for increasing the depth of field and to reduce a wavelength see defocusing lens optical system sensitivity and non-related aberration generated aberration H). 这种^支术称作波前编码(wavefront coding )。 This technique is referred to before the encoding branches ^ wave (wavefront coding). 在这里,专用光学掩模包括在非相关光学系统中。 Here, in the dedicated optical mask comprises a non-coherent optical system. 该掩模改变光学传递函数, 以致它在离未改变系统的焦点内(in-focus H立置的一定范围内基本上保持恒定。所得到的中间图像的信号处理会取消掩模的光学传递改进效应,其在增加的视野深度提供了焦点内图像。虽然就基于相对简单和低成本光学装置和传感器能够获得长聚焦范围而论,这种系统是有效的,但该设计并不很好地适合于在自动眼跟踪系统中直接实施。即,在这里,眼跟踪专用图像参数(如眼位置和注视方向) 必须是可导出的并且具有非常高的准确度,而基本上所有其它图像数据可以被丢弃。例如,当已经进行了眼位置的粗略估计时,眼跟踪才聂^f象才几通常移向(光学上或lt字上)该位置,和/或在该位置周围的图像传感器上选择所谓的感兴趣区域(ROI ),以改善视线跟踪精度和/或将凄t据速率降^氐(reduce)到图〗象处理器。然而目前, Changing the optical transfer function of the mask, so that it is not changed in the system away from the focal point (kept substantially constant within a certain range in-focus H upright the signal processing of the obtained intermediate image will cancel improved optical transfer of the mask effect, which is provided within the focal depth of field image is increased. Although it is based on a relatively simple and low cost optics and a sensor can obtain a long focus range is concerned, this system is effective, but this design is not well suited in direct automatic eye tracking system. That is, here, the eye tracking specific image parameters (such as eye gaze direction and the position) must be derived and has a very high accuracy, substantially all of the other image data may be discarded. For example, when the eye has been roughly estimated position, eye tracking Nie ^ f as it generally moves only a few (or optically lt word) the location, and / or selected on the image sensor around the location the so-called regions of interest (the ROI), to improve the accuracy of gaze tracking and / or reduced data rate sad t ^ Di (the reduce) to FIG〗 image processor. However, at present, 有基于波前编码的适合于允许这种类型的任何操作的设计。发明内容因此,本发明的目的是提供可靠(robust)且成本低的解决办法,其可以减轻上述问题并因此在离使用者相对较长范围的距离上可以进行可靠的自动眼跟踪,并且其还允许环境照明条件有相对较大的变化。才艮据本发明的一个方面,该目的是通过如最初描述的系统来实现,其中光学系统进一步包括掩模,该掩模配置在至少一位受实验者与图像传感器之间。该掩模适合于将基本光学传递函数改变成增强的光学传递函数,其适合于将来自空间一点的图像传播到在图像传感器的传感器表面上的一个以上的传感元件。增强的光学传递函数还对于光学系统与至少一位受实-验者之间的未知距离的变化的敏感性显著地小于基本光学传递函数。此外,处理单元适合于接收原始数据并处理这种数据以产 There wavefront coding is adapted to allow any of this type of operation based design. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide a reliable (Robust) and low-cost solution, which can alleviate the above problems and thus away from the user relatively long distance range may be reliable automatic eye tracking, and it also allows a relatively large ambient lighting conditions change. it is only a Gen aspect of the invention, this object is achieved by a system as initially described, wherein the optical system further comprises a mask which is disposed between the experimenter and the image sensor by at least one. the mask is adapted to substantially alter the optical transfer function to enhance the optical transfer function, which is adapted from the point in space image spread to more than one sensing element on the sensor surface of the image sensor further enhanced optical transfer function for the at least one receiving optical system and the solid - susceptibility unknown distance between the subject is significantly smaller than the The basic optical transfer function. Further, the processing unit is adapted to receive the raw data and processing such data to produce 所得到的眼跟踪H据,眼跟踪数据又表示至少一只眼的^f立置估计和/或至少一只眼的注;现方向。该系统的重要优点是,可以相对简单地制作图4象传感器。相对于由图像传感器配准的数据中的无用数据(干扰,noise),该系统还是相对可靠的。此外,对于透镜结构的质量要求可以相对4交^氐, 其保i正了低成本。根据本发明此方面的一种优选的实施方式,图Y象传感器适合于仅仅将原始数据的高相关部分传输到处理单元。基于先前导出的眼跟踪数据和/或由连接于系统的一个或多个辅助传感器配准的数据,该处理单元又适合于选l爭高相关部分。因此,可以更有步文;也<吏用该处理单元的资源。才艮据本发明此方面的另一种优选的实施方式,增强的光学传递函数适合于将反射自现场中单点的光投射到图像传感器的传感器表面的若千传感元件上。 The resulting data H eye tracking, the eye tracking data representative of at least one eye and the estimation ^ f upright and / or at least one eye of the injection; direction now important advantage of this system is relatively simple to produce 4. image sensor with respect to the data generated by the image sensor registration of useless data (interference, Noise), the system is relatively reliable. Moreover, the quality required lens structure may be relatively 4 post ^ Di, which guarantee i n low cost. according to a preferred embodiment of this aspect of the embodiment of the present invention, FIG Y image sensor is adapted to transmit only the relevant portion of the high raw data to the processing unit. based on previous data derived eye tracking and / or by a connection to a system or more auxiliary sensors registration data, the processing unit is adapted to turn the relevant portion is selected from high contention l Thus, the text can be more steps; also <official resources of the processing unit according to another with only Gen this aspect of the present invention. in a preferred embodiment, enhanced optical transfer function adapted to the field reflected from the single point of light onto the image sensor on the sensor surface of the sensor element if one thousand. 乂人而,分辨率水平得到提高,该分辨率水平高于由基本光学传递函^:和传感器表面的物理传感元件密度所给出的基本分辨率水平。 Qe person, improved resolution level, the resolution level higher than the basic optical transfer function ^: substantially horizontal resolution and the physical sensing elements of the sensor surface density given. 此外,处理单元适合于处理原始数据,以致可以以比仅仅基于眼跟踪数据(其以传统焦点内系统的基本分辨率水平由原始数据导出)可获得的最大精度更大的精度来导出眼跟踪数据。 Further, the processing unit is adapted to process the raw data, that may be larger than the maximum accuracy based only on the eye-tracking data (raw data which is derived from a substantially horizontal resolution of a traditional focus system) available to derive the eye tracking data accuracy . 当然,这是数据质量的一种非常希望的增强。 Of course, this is a very promising data quality enhancement. 例如,就眼跟踪数据而论,任何凄t字变焦操作的结果得到改善。 For example, in terms of eye-tracking data, the result of any word sad t zoom operation is improved. 此外,可以显著降低在图像传感器上的任何有缺陷传感元件的负面影响。 In addition, significantly reduce any negative impact on the image sensor defective sensor elements. 才艮据本发明此方面的又一种优选的实施方式,处理单元适合于相对于目标形状匹配原始数据,该目标形状表示通过光学传递函数变换的通常的眼形状。 Gen only this aspect of the invention, according to a further preferred embodiment, the processing unit is adapted to match the shape of the target with respect to the original data, generally the target shape represents the transfer function of the shape of the eye by optical transformation. 从而,可以在现场有效地4企测眼候选位置(candidate )。 Thus, the field can be effectively measured half-eye candidate position 4 (candidate). 根据本发明此方面的另一种优选的实施方式,处理单元适合于选择一部分原始凄t据,该部分原始数据表示在每一组传感元件周围的传感器表面上相应的感兴趣区域,其与高于匹配阈水平的目标形状具有相关性。 According to another preferred embodiment of this aspect of the embodiment of the present invention, the processing unit is adapted to select a portion of the original t desolate data, the data representing the corresponding portion of the original region of interest on the sensor surface around each set of sensing elements, which above a threshold level to match the target shape has a correlation. 因此,仅表示潜在有意义的信息的图像数据被传送到处理单元供进一步处理。 Thus, only the transmitted image data represents a potential meaningful information to the processing unit for further processing. 当然,考虑到处理单元处理容量的利用, 这是有效的。 Of course, considering the use of the processing capacity of the processing unit, which is effective. 才艮据本发明此方面的另一种优选的实施方式,处理单元适合于确定在现场中元件(element)的位置,该位置表示眼候选位置,即最初眼位置。 It was Gen embodiment of the present invention another preferred embodiment of this aspect, the processing unit is adapted to determine the position of the field in the element (element), which indicates the position of the eye candidate positions, i.e., the initial position of the eye. 于是,在已确定了一组候选位置以后,处理单元适合于匹配相对于眼才莫型(该眼才莫型表示通过光学传递函^t变换的理想的眼形状)表示每个候选位置的原始数据的数据子集,以获得一组相关测试值。 Then, after a set of candidate has been determined position, the processing unit is adapted to match only with respect to the MO type eye (the eye only type represented by Mo ^ t over the optical transfer function of the eye shape conversion) indicates the original position of each candidate data subset of data, to obtain a set of relevant test values. 其后,基于相关测试值,处理单元适合于从候选位置组中选4奪至少一个候选位置,以表示至少一只眼。 Thereafter, the test based on the correlation value, the processing unit is adapted to select at least one candidate wins 4 position from the candidate positions set to indicate at least one eye. 优选地,处理单元在这里选择具有高于阈水平的相关测试值的候选位置。 Preferably, where the processing unit selecting a candidate position having a correlation value above a threshold level test of. 因此,可以快速确定使用者的眼,以致其后可以开始跟踪。 Thus, the user can quickly determine the eye, so that thereafter begin tracking. 根据本发明此方面的另一种优选的实施方式,该系统包括至少一个第一和至少一个第二光源。 According to another preferred embodiment of this aspect of the present invention, the system comprises at least one first and the at least one second light source. 所述至少一个第一光源相对接近光学系统的光轴"i殳置,并且如此定向以致发射自光源的主光束基本上与光轴一致。来自所述至少一个第一光源的光能主要分布在第一波长范围内。所述至少一个第二光源适合于将主要在第二波长范围(基本上与第一波长范围分开)内的光发射向所述至少一位受实验者。所述至少一个第二光源是配置在离成像装置的光轴一定距离处,以致由其发射的主光束相对于此光轴是离轴(off-axis)定位。 因此,所述至少一个第一光源产生明亮瞳孔岁丈应,而所述至少一个第二光源则产生暗淡瞳孔岁文应。才艮据本发明此方面的又一种优选的实施方式,就在第一波长范围内的光而论,掩模适合于实现第一光学传递函数,并将在此范围内的光引到图像传感器的传感器表面上的第一区域。就在第二波长范围内的光而论,该掩才莫还适合于 At least one first light source is relatively close to the optical axis of the optical system "i Shu position, and oriented so that the main beam emitted from the light source substantially coincides with the optical axis of optical energy mainly from the first light source is at least one a first wavelength range of the at least one second light source is adapted to be mainly in the second wavelength range (substantially separated from the first wavelength range) of light emitted within the at least one subject to the experimenter. the at least one the second light source is disposed at a distance from the optical axis of the image forming apparatus, so that the light beam emitted by the main optical axis relative to this off-axis (off-axis) is positioned. Accordingly, at least one first light source generates a bright pupil Zhang should years, and the at least one second light source is generated text should be dark pupil years. Gen only this aspect of the invention, according to a further preferred embodiment, in respect to the light within a first wavelength range, the mask adapted to implement a first optical transfer function, and in this range of light directed to a first region on the sensor surface of the image sensor. respect to the light in a second wavelength range, the mask is further adapted to only Mo 实现第二光学传递函数,并将在此范围内的光引到传感器表面上的第二区域。处理单元适合于基于由第一区域内的传感元件配准的原始教:才居的第一子集产生明亮瞳孔眼5艮踪参凄t,和/或基于由第二区域内的传感元件配准的原始凄t据的第二子集相应;也产生暗淡瞳孔眼3艮踪参ft。因此,该受实3全者可以通过第一和第二光源两者恒定地4皮照射,同时处理单元并4亍i也导出明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参数和暗淡瞳孔眼跟踪参数。这提供了在各种环境和条件下的高跟踪质量。才艮据本发明此方面的又一种优选的实施方式,图4象传感器可*, 换地包括第一和第二组传感元件。在第一组中的每个元件适合于检测在第一波长范围内的光,而在第二组中的每个元件适合于检测在第二波长范围内的光。与上述类似,处理单元在这里适合于基于由第一组传感元件配准的原始据的第 To achieve a second optical transfer function, and in this range of light directed to the second region on the sensor surface based on the processing unit is adapted to the sensing element in the first region of the original teachings registration: only a first home produce a bright pupil subset eye tracking parameters desolate Gen 5 t, and / or the second subset based on the sensing element in the second region of the original registration data corresponding to sad t; also produced dark pupil of eye tracking reference Gen 3 ft Therefore, the subject's whole solid 3 through the first and the second light source 4 is irradiated skin both constant, while the processing unit 4, and also i right foot derived bright and dark pupil of eye tracking parameters pupil eye tracking parameters. this provides tracking high quality and a variety of environmental conditions. Gen only this aspect of the invention, according to yet another preferred embodiment, the image sensor of FIG. 4 *, for the first and second sets comprises a sensing element. in the first each group member is adapted to light within a first wavelength range is detected, and each element in the second group is adapted to detect light in a second wavelength range. similar to the above, where the processing unit is adapted to based on the original data by the first set of sensor element registration 子集产生明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参婆t,以及基于由第二组传感元件配准的原始数据的第二子集产生暗淡瞳孔眼跟踪参^L同样在这种情况下,通过第一和第二光源两者可以恒定地照射受实-验者,同时并行地导出明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参萄: 和暗淡瞳孔眼跟踪参数。优选地,在第一组传感元件中的每个元件与第二组传感元件中的至少一个元件相邻。例如,在第一和第二组4专感元4牛中的元4牛可以i殳置成方才各图案(checkered pattern )力。以配置。借助于上述变换函凄t,由这种构造造成的原始数据中的分辨率损失可以在眼跟踪数据中得到一定程度的补偿,上述变换函数适合于以增加的图^f象分辨率水平产生数据。具体地,根据本发明此方面的一种优选的实施方式,增强的光学传递函数适合于将反射自现场中单点的光投射到第一和第二组传感元件中的若干元4牛上。 Subset produce a bright pupil eye tracking parameters Po t, and a second subset of the second set of sensing elements based on the original registration data generating dark pupil eye tracking parameters ^ L Also in this case, the first and second both two constant light sources may be illuminated by the solid - subject, in parallel derive a bright pupil eye tracking parameters grapes: dark pupil and the eye tracking parameter preferably, each of the first element and the second set of sensing elements. at least one sensor element group adjacent elements. For example, the first and second sets of dedicated sensing element 4 4 4 bovine cattle element i can be set to just Shu each pattern (checkered pattern) force to the configuration. by sad conversion to the letter t, loss of resolution caused by the raw data can be obtained in this configuration to some extent compensate for the eye tracking data, wherein the transformation function f is adapted to increase the resolution of image data generated horizontal ^ FIG. in particular, according to one preferred embodiment of this aspect of the present invention, and increasing the optical transfer function adapted to the light reflected from the scene is projected to a single point on the first and second sets of sensing elements in several bovine element 4 . 乂人而,可以实J见分辨率水平的仿真,该分辨率水平高于由基本光学传递函^t和传感器表面的物理传感元件密度给出的基本分辨率水平。 Qe person can see the simulated real J level of resolution, the resolution level is higher than the resolution of the transfer function substantially horizontal physical density sensor element and the sensor surface of t given by the basic optical ^. 处理单元适合于处理原始数据,以致可以以比仅仅基于眼跟踪数据(其以传统焦点内光学系统的基本分辨率水平由原始数据导出)可获得的最大精度更大的精度来导出眼i?艮踪凌丈据。 The processing unit is adapted to process the raw data, so that the ratio may be based solely on eye-tracking data (which is derived in a substantially horizontal resolution of a traditional focus of the optical system from the raw data) greater accuracy can be obtained to derive the maximum precision ophthalmic I? Gen According to Zhang Ling track. 才艮据本发明此方面的另一种优选的实施方式,处理单元适合于基于明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参数和/或暗淡瞳孔眼跟踪参数(例如,借助于中间(intermediate)复合表示)产生眼跟踪凝:据。 It was Gen Another preferred embodiment of this aspect of the embodiment of the present invention, the processing unit is adapted to generate the bright pupil eye tracking eye tracking coagulation parameters and / or dim eye pupils tracking parameters (e.g., by means of intermediate (Intermediate) compound shown) based :according to. 再一次,这4呆i正了在各种环境和条件下的可靠性和高跟踪质量。 Once again, I stayed 4 i n the track quality and high reliability in various environments and conditions. ^4居本发明的一个进一步的方面,通过自动配准和跟踪至少一位受实验者的至少一只眼的方法来达到目的。 A further aspect of the present invention UN ^ 4, by automatic registration and tracking method of at least one of the at least one eye by the experimenter to achieve. 在这里假设,原始数据4皮配准,其表示空间分布的光。 It is assumed here, the original data registration 4 skin, which represents the spatial distribution of light. 进一步作l/没,借助于光学系统(包括透镜结构和掩模),来自包括至少一位受实验者的现场的光已被传输到图像传感器,其中原始数据被配准。 For further l / No, by means of an optical system (including a lens and a mask structure), the light from a scene comprising at least one receiving experimenter has been transmitted to the image sensor, wherein the raw data is registered. 掩模适合于将透镜结构和图像传感器的基本光学传递函数改变成增强的光学传递函数,该增强的光学传递函数对于光学系统与至少一位受实验者之间的未知距离的变化的敏感性显著地小于基本光学传递函数。 A mask adapted to the basic structure of an optical lens and the image sensor transfer function is changed to enhance the optical transfer function of the optical transfer function enhanced significantly for at least one receiving optical system and the change in the distance between the unknown sensitivity experimenter substantially less than the optical transfer function. 该方法涉及接收原始数据,以及处理原始数据以产生所得到的眼跟踪数据,该眼跟踪数据表示至少一只眼的位置估计和/或至少一只眼的注一见方向。 The method involves receiving raw data, and processes the raw data to produce the eye-tracking data is obtained, the eye-tracking data representing at least one eye position estimate and / or at least one eye to see a note direction. 根据以上参照所提出系统的讨论,这种方法的优点以及其优选的实施方式是显而易见的。 The discussion above with reference to the proposed system, the advantages of this method and its preferred embodiments will be apparent. 才艮据本发明的一个更进一步的方面,通过计算才几程序来达到目的,其中计算机程序可直接装入计算机的内存储器,并且其包括软件,该软件用于当在计算才几上运行所述程序时对上述l是出的方法进行控制。 According to a still further Gen only aspect of the invention, only a few procedures by calculation to achieve the object, wherein the computer program directly loadable into the internal memory of a computer, and includes software which is used when calculating the run only a few l of above-described control method when said program is out. 根据本发明的另一个方面,通过计算机可读介质(在其上记录有程序)来达到目的,其中程序是用来控制计算机以进行以上^是出的方法。 According to another aspect of the present invention, a computer-readable medium (having a program recorded thereon) to achieve the object, wherein the program is used to control a computer to perform a method of the above ^. 本发明适用于在心理学和一见觉研究、可用性和广告评估(例如所谓的在大商店橱窗中的注意传感器)中的所有种类的眼^艮i?宗应用,即用于控制计算机和计算机程序。 The present invention is applicable to psychology and see a sleep study to assess the availability and advertising of all kinds of eye (such as the so-called attention to the sensor in a large shop window) in Burgundy ^ i? Cases of application, namely for controlling a computer and the computer program. 本发明还具有医疗用途:各种眼疾病和阿尔茨海默病的i貪断、以及在进行激光眼外科手术时。 The present invention also has medical applications: various ocular diseases and Alzheimer's disease i greedy off, and during laser eye surgery. 另夕卜,本发明可以用于自动立体显示器、模拟器、以及各种汽车的^f口^t空电子的应用。 ^ F ^ t empty port Bu Xi another application, the present invention can be used for autostereoscopic displays, simulator, and a variety of automotive electronics. 根据以下描述和所附权利要求,本发明的其它优点、有利特征以及应用将是显而易见的。 The following description and the appended claims, other advantages of the present invention, advantageous features and applications will be apparent. 附图说明现将通过披露为实施例的优选实施方式并参照附图,对本发明进4亍更详细的i兌明。 Brief Description will now be disclosed by the embodiments is a preferred embodiment and with reference to the accompanying drawings, the intake 4 of the present invention in more detail i right foot against the next. 图1示出才艮据本发明的眼跟踪系统的示意图;图2示出根据本发明的一种实施方式的系统的概要;图3图解说明根据本发明的一种实施方式的照明和成像装置配置的细节;间的关系的示意图;图5图解说明根据本发明的第一实施方式的掩模的工作原理;图6图解说明才艮据本发明的第二实施方式的图像传感器的传感器区域的构造;图7a-c图解说明根据本发明的第一和第二实施方式,明亮瞳孔图j象和暗淡睡:^图<象如4可可以用来确定用于受实验者眼^f立置^古计的基石出;以及图8通过流程图图解说明根据本发明的一般方法。 Figure 1 shows a schematic eye was Gen tracking system according to the present invention; Figure 2 shows a schematic embodiment of the system according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 3 illustrates the illumination and imaging in accordance with an embodiment of the apparatus of the present invention. configuration details; showing the relationship between; FIG. 5 illustrates the working principle of the embodiment of the mask of the first embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 6 illustrates a sensor according Gen only area image sensor of the second embodiment of the present invention. configuration; FIG. 7a-c illustrate a first embodiment and a second embodiment of the present invention, a bright pupil image and a dark sleep FIGS j: ^ FIG <4 such as may be used to determine the eye by the experimenter upright ^ F ^ cornerstone of the old meter; and 8 according to the invention the general procedure described flowchart illustrated in FIG. 具体实施方式我们首先参照图1,其示出根据本发明的眼跟踪系统的示意图, 该眼3艮踪系统用于自动配准和跟踪至少一位受实-验者(例如计算机系统的用户)的至少一只眼101和102。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION We first to Figure 1, a schematic of eye tracking system according to the invention, the eye tracking system for automatically Gen 3 registration and tracking by at least one solid - (e.g. a user's computer system) subject at least one eye 101 and 102. 该眼跟踪系统包括光学系统110和处理单元140。 The eye tracking system 110 includes an optical system and a processing unit 140. 光学系统110适合于接收和配准反射自包括至少一位受实-验者100的现场的入射光。 The optical system 110 is adapted to receive registration and reflected from the subject comprises at least one solid - subject field 100 of the incident light. 为了这个目的,系统110包括图l象传感器130, 其适合于配准由空间分布的光表示的原始婆t据Ds。 For this purpose, the system 110 includes a image sensor 130 in FIG. L, which is suitable for registration of the original represented by po t of the spatial distribution of the optical data Ds. 光学系统110还包括透镜结构(在这里由示意性的一对透4竟111 和112表示)以及掩模120。 The optical system 110 further comprises a lens structure (111 and 112 actually here represented schematically by a pair of permeable 4) and the mask 120. 根据本发明,透镜结构lll、 112和掩模120的具体次序可以变化。 According to the present invention, the lens structure LLL, specific order 112 and the mask 120 may vary. 例如,掩才莫120可以位于整个透镜结构lll、 112的前面或后面,或如图l所示,可以在其中的某些元件之间。 For example, cover 120 may be located only Mo LLL entire lens structure, the front or back 112, or as shown in FIG. L, which may be between some of the elements. 掩模120影响来自现场的入射光LS投射到图像传感器130上的方式。 Effects of the mask 120 from the scene of the incident light LS is projected to the image sensor 130 in the embodiment. 具体地,我们假设,包括透镜结构lll、 112和图像传感器的基本光学系统具有基本光学传递函数。 Specifically, we assume that the structure includes a lens LLL, the basic optical system 112 and the image sensor having substantially optical transfer function. 掩模120适合于将此基本光学传递函凌t改变成增强的光学传递函凄史,其》于于光学系统110与至少一位受实验者IOO之间的未知距离R的变化A的4文感性显著地小于基本光学传递函数。 This mask 120 is adapted to substantially alter the optical transfer function to enhance t Ling optical transfer function history desolate that "in the text 1104 of the optical system by at least an unknown distance R A variation between the experimenter IOO sensibility significantly less than the basic optical transfer function. 换言之,通过在光学系统110中包括掩模120扩大所提出系统的操作范围。 In other words, the operating range of the system proposed by the optical system 110 includes a mask 120 to expand. 例如,在一种其中距离R处于60cm等级的典型的眼跟踪应用中,操作范围可以扩大到大约80 cm的距离范围A ,从而目艮101和102可以^f立于与光学系统110相隔20 cm至100 cm的4壬何地方。 For example, in one typical eye-tracking applications where the distance R is 60cm level, the operating range can be extended to about 80 cm distance range A, so that 101 and 102 can mesh Gen ^ f of the optical system 110 remain spaced 20 cm 4 to 100 cm of non anywhere. 然而,因为由图像传感器130那样配准的原始数据Ds并不表示在焦点处的图^f象内容,所以必须对原始翁:才居Ds进4亍后处理以实J见上述操作范围的改善。 However, since the image sensor 130 such as the original registration data Ds is not shown in FIG ^ f the focal point as the content, the original must Weng: solid handling only home see J improving the above range after the operation right foot 4 into Ds . 因此,处理单元140适合于接收原始数据Ds,并处理此数据,以便产生所得到的眼跟踪数据DEYE,眼跟踪数才居表示至少一只眼101、 102的^f立置估计和/或至少一只眼101、 102的、;主^见方向。 Thus, the processing unit 140 is adapted to receive raw data Ds, and processes the data to produce the eye-tracking data obtained DEYE, eye tracking number represents only at least a home eye 101, ^ f opposed upright estimate 102 and / or at least an eye 101, 102; see main direction ^. 出于效率原因,希望的是,如果处理单元140适合于相对于目标形状匹配原始数据Ds,该目标形状表示典型的眼形状,其已通过光学传递函数加以变换。 For reasons of efficiency, it is desirable, if the processing unit 140 is adapted to match the shape of the target with respect to the original data Ds, the target shape represents a typical shape of the eye, it has to be converted by the optical transfer function. 从而,可以进行相关数据的最早可能的选即基本上在单元140进行任何其它处理以前。 It may be selected so that the first, i.e., data can be substantially any other processing unit 140 previously. 尤其优选的是, 如果处理单元140适合于选择一部分原始数据Ds,该部分原始数据表示在每一组传感元件周围的传感器表面上相应的ROI (感兴趣区域),其与高于匹配阈水平的目标形状具有相关性。 Particularly preferred is, if the processing unit 140 is adapted to select a portion of the original data Ds, the data representing the corresponding portion of the original ROI (region of interest), which is higher than the matching threshold level on the sensor surface around each set of sensing elements relevant target shape. 如果图像传感器130的传感器表面具有物理传感元件密度,则基本分辨率水平是由传感元件的数量给定,基本光学传递函数将反射自记录现场中的物体的焦点内光线4更射到传感元件上。 If the sensor surface of the image sensor 130 has a physical sensor element density, the resolution level is substantially the number of elements of a given sensor, the optical transfer function will be substantially reflected from the record within the focal field of an object more incident light pass 4 sensing element. 然而,根据本发明的一种优选的实施方式,增强的光学传递函数适合于将反射自现场中单点的光投射到相对较大数目的图像传感器130的传感元件上。 However, according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and increasing the optical transfer function is adapted to be reflected from the sensing element on the single point of light onto the field of a relatively large number of image sensor 130. 这使得可以仿真比由基本光学传递函凄t和物理传感元件密度纟合出的分辨率7jC平更高的分l岸率水平。 This allows the simulation of sub-levels than l shore transfer function from the basic optical and physical t sad sensing element density of the bonded Si 7jC higher resolution level. 即,处理单元140适合于处理原始数据Ds,以致可以以比可获得的最大4青度更大的精度来导出眼跟踪数据DEYE,如果仅仅基于原始数据D,以传统的焦点内光学系统的分辨率水平来进4亍处理可获得该最大4青度。 That is, the processing unit 140 is adapted to process the raw data Ds, so that the accuracy may be greater than the maximum obtainable degree of 4 Green eye tracking data to derive DEYE, if only based on the original data D, to the focus of the optical system of the conventional resolution 4 horizontal feed rate to handle the maximum right foot 4 of the green is obtained. 下面我们将详细说明背后的推理。 Below we will explain in detail the reasoning behind it. 在传统光学系统中,焦点内的小件物体被成像在图像传感器上的较小的"单"点。 In conventional optical systems, small objects imaged in focus is smaller "single" point on the image sensor. 然而,根据本发明,提出的掩模会改进光学传递函数,使其对于到要成像物体的距离变化的敏感性低于传统成像系统对于到要成像物体的距离变化的敏感性(即由基本光学传递函数给出)。 However, according to the invention, the mask can improve the optical transfer function, so that the sensitivity with respect to changes in the distance to the imaged object distance changes in sensitivity than conventional imaging systems for the object to be imaged (i.e., the basic optical The transfer function is given). 提出的增强的光学传递函数适合于将小件物体成像到传感器表面的区域上,该区域大于传统成像系统中相应图像区域的面积。 Proposed enhanced optical transfer function adapted to the imaging area of ​​the small objects to the sensor surface, which region is larger than the area of ​​the corresponding image areas in the conventional imaging system. 例如,增强的光学传递函数可以将物体一点的图像传播到图像传感器130的传感器区域的若干传感元件上,而基本光学传递函数将此点才更射到单个传感元件上。 For example, the optical transfer function to enhance the image of the object that can be propagated to the plurality of the sensing elements of the sensor area of ​​the image sensor 130, and the optical transfer function substantially more light to this point only a single sensor element. 在传统光学系统中,确定小物体的准确位置有时是成问题的, 例如在眼角膜中反射的闪烁。 In the conventional optical system, determining the exact location of small objects may be problematic, for example in the cornea reflected flashes. 通常,这样的闪烁被成像到一个、或非常少的像素上。 Typically, such a scintillator is imaged onto, or very few pixels. 在闪烁的情况下,成像物体的尺寸因此最终限制了可以如4可好;也确定物体的质量中心(质心)。 In the case of flickering, and therefore the size of the imaged object may ultimately limit these days as 4; also determining the center of mass of the object (centroid). 尤其是,当确定小物体图像的质量中心时,结果很大程度上取决于像素反应变化(pixel response variation )、小于100%的》真充系凄1以及石並到有击夹陷传感元件(即"死i象素")的危险。 In particular, when determining the center of mass of the small object images, the results of the reaction largely depends on the change pixel (pixel response variation), less than 100% of the "true sad charging system and to have a hit, and stone entrapment sensing element (ie, "dead pixel i") of danger. 在眼跟踪应用中,这样的波动可能严重降低系统的性能。 In the eye-tracking applications, such fluctuations can seriously degrade system performance. 即,对于通常的操作距离,就估计的注一见位置而论,重复地以一个像素错放闪烁的眼跟踪器可以容易地导致若干厘米的误差,例如在计算机屏幕上。 That is, the distance for normal operation, it is estimated in terms of position, see Notes a, to a repeatedly flashing pixel misplaced eye tracker may easily lead to errors of several centimeters, for example on a computer screen. 当然,这是不可接受的。 Of course, this is unacceptable. 如上所述,才艮据本发明的一种优选的实施方式,增强的光学传递函数适合于将来自空间中一点的图像传播到传感器表面上的一个以上的传感元件。 As described above, according to a preferred only Gen embodiment of the present invention, enhanced optical transfer function adapted from the one or more sensing elements on the sensor surface of the image point in space to spread. 因此,在眼角膜中反射的闪烁的情况下,在空间中定位有闪烁的点以覆盖多个传感元件的图案形式被投射到图像传感器130的传感器表面上。 Thus, in the case where the reflected cornea flashing, the flashing point is positioned in the space to cover a plurality of sensing elements form a pattern is projected onto the sensor surface of the image sensor 130. 这意味着,通过增强的光学传递函数的理想闪烁的数学才莫式(pattern)可以对准(align)来自图Y象传感器的数据,以便发现最好的模式匹配。 This means that, over the flashing by mathematical transfer function was enhanced optical Mo formula (pattern) may be aligned (align = left) image sensor data Y from FIG order to find the best pattern match. 因为通过增强的光学传递函数的理想闪烁的模式不是离散的模式,而是连续函数,所以与在传统成^象系统的焦点内捕获的图Y象可以确定的相比,数学上总是可以确定小闪烁的更准确的位置。 Because the ideal transfer function by blinking enhanced optical mode is not discrete mode, but continuous functions, and so on as compared with the conventional ^ into focus capture system of FIG Y image can be determined, it can be determined mathematically always small flashes of a more accurate position. 因此,根据本发明的设计策略还对于上述像素反应变化、小于100%的填充系数以及具有"死像素"的危险不太壽丈感。 Thus, variations in the pixel but also the reaction according to the design strategy of the invention, the filling factor of less than 100% and the risk of having a "dead pixel" is less sense life husband. 另夕卜,可以用相反的方式应用光学传递函凄l是连续函凄t (即不是离散模式)的事实。 Another Bu Xi, may be applied in a manner opposite to the optical transfer function of the sad fact that the continuous function is sad l T (i.e., not discrete mode). 根据本发明的一种优选的实施方式,在传统焦点内成像系统中将不会被配准、或"隐藏在像素之间"(由于相应的光线被聚焦在两个传感元件之间)的信息可以被配准。 According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention will not be registered in a traditional imaging system focus, or "hidden between the pixel" (since the corresponding light is focused between the two sensing elements) of information can be registered. 为了达到此目的,增强的光学传递函^t和由图4象传感器130配准的原始凄史据Ds的对准可以变化。 For this purpose, enhanced optical transfer function ^ t and the image sensor 130 in FIG. 4 the original registration data aligned Ds sad history may vary. 起因于传感元件密度,物理上必要的是,以全像素间隔对原始数据Ds进行采样。 Due to the density of the sensing element, it is necessary physically to the original full pixel interval sampling data Ds. 然而,增强的光学传递函数不必对准特定的传感元件/像素位置、或甚至特定的子像素位置。 However, enhancers do not have to align the optical transfer function of a particular sensor element / pixel location, or even to a particular sub-pixel position. 代之以, 此函数的原点可以被放置在每个相应维(X和Y)的任何位置,例^口在X二0.345。 Instead, the origin of this function can be placed in each respective dimension (X and Y) at any position, for example, X = 0.345 ^ port. 嗦口果3口it匕,^夺在X =0.345、 X= 1.345、 X=2.345等处对增强的光学传递函H进行釆样。 If it mouth winded three dagger, wins in ^ X = 0.345, X = 1.345, X = 2.345, etc. of the optical transfer function H for enhanced preclude comp. 当然,对于Y方向相同的情况也同样有效。 Of course, the same is also valid for the case of the Y-direction. 和由图像传感器130的传感元件密度所支持的(如果用于传统焦点内i殳计中)相比,这4吏得可以产生分辨率高许多倍的传统闪烁图^f象。 And FIG conventional scintillation density image sensor from the sensor element 130 as compared to the support (if used in a traditional focus i Shu meter), which have 4 officials can produce a number of ^ f times higher resolution image. 通过以子<象素间隔对增强的光学传递函凄t进4亍采样,则可以简单地实现分辨率的改善。 By sub <desolate pixel spacing of the transfer function t enhanced optical sample into the right foot 4, it can be easily implemented to improve the resolution. 当i殳计算法时可以-使用相同的概念(concept),该算法从原始数据Ds抽取眼跟踪数据。 When i Shu calculation can - with the same concept (concept), the eye-tracking algorithm to extract data from the original data Ds. 该概念可以用来获得高精度眼跟踪数据DEYE,而不必通过产生传统图像作为措施。 This concept can be used to obtain high-precision eye tracking data DEYE, rather than by a conventional image generated as a measure. 当然,上述质量改善可用于所有种类的眼5艮踪原理,即dp-pccr跟踪、bp-pccr跟踪以及其任何组合。 Of course, the above can be used to improve the quality of all types of eye tracking principle Gen 5, i.e. dp-pccr tracking, bp-pccr tracking and any combination thereof. 现筒短地转向图7c,我们看到在现场中具有一位置(其是由一对坐标x、 y给定)的瞳孔的示意表示。 Now turning to FIG short cylinder 7c, we see that with a position (which is by a pair of coordinates x, y given) schematic representation of the pupil in the field. 才艮据本发明的一种优选的实施方式,处理单元140适合于最初确定用于眼101和102的至少一只的至少一个候选位置,即粗略的x和y估计值。 According to a preferred before Gen embodiment of the present invention, the processing unit 140 is adapted to initially determine at least one candidate eye positions 101 and 102 of at least one, i.e., a rough estimate of x and y. 然后,在已确定了一组候选4立置x、 y以后,处理单元140适合于相对于描述理想眼形状的眼模型匹配原始数据ds(表示每个候选位置x、 y)的不同数据子集,其已经通过光学传递函数加以变换。 Then, a set of candidate has been determined upright 4 x, after y, the processing unit 140 is adapted to different subsets of data is described with respect to an ideal eye shape eye model matches the original data ds (representing each candidate position x, y) of which has to be converted by the optical transfer function. 因此,获得一组相关测试4直。 Thus, a set of 4 linear correlation test. 其后,基于相关测试4直,处理单元适合于,人所述候选位置组选l奪至少一个候选位置,以表示至少一只眼,例如借助于阈水平。 Thereafter, based on the linear correlation test 4, the processing unit is adapted to, the candidate position selected from the group who wins at least one candidate position l to indicate at least one eye, for example by means of a threshold level. 图2示出根据本发明的一种实施方式的系统的概要,而图3图解说明根据该实施方式可以如何照射受实-险者100以及他的/她的目艮101 ,口102的进——步纟田节。 Figure 2 shows an overview of a system according to an embodiment of the present invention, while FIG. 3 illustrates how the irradiation of the solid can according to this embodiment - by 100 insurance and his / her head Gen 101, inlet 102 - - step Si Tian section. 除了以上参照图1所描述的单元110和140之外,该系统还分别包4舌至少一个第一光源Ll和至少一个第二光源L2a和L2b。 In addition to the unit 1 described above with reference FIGS. 110 and 140, respectively, the system further packet 4 at least one first tongue and at least one second light source Ll light L2a and L2b. 所述至少一个第一光源li中的每一个是相对接近光学系统110的光轴Ac进行S己置。 At least one first light source in each of li is relatively close to the optical axis of the optical system 110 Ac has the S configuration. 此外,光源Ll被定向为使得由其发射的相应的主光束B1基本上与光轴Ac相一致。 Further, the light source Ll is oriented such that the respective main beam B1 emitted therefrom substantially coincides with the optical axis Ac. 因此,相对于由摄像机(其中结合有光学系统110)配准的图〗象,光束B1适于引起明亮瞳孔效应。 Thus, with respect to the camera (optical system 110 incorporated therein) FIG〗 image registration, adapted to cause the light beam B1 bright pupil effect. 图4示出了曲线图,其表示沿水平轴的波长X以及沿垂直轴的光谱强度U。 FIG 4 shows a graph which along the horizontal axis represents the wavelength and the spectral intensity of X along the vertical axis of the U. 来自至少一个第一光源Ll的光能主要分布在第一波长范围Vl-人au内。 Energy from the at least one first light source Ll mainly in the first wavelength range within au Vl- al. 才艮据本发明,在这里基本上任何可见光或不可见光都是可能的。 According to the present invention was Burgundy, where substantially no visible or invisible are possible. 然而,第一波长范围优选在下端波长xal (大约900nm至950 nm )与上端波长XAU (大约1000 nm )之间扩展。 However, expansion in the first wavelength range is preferably lower XAL wavelength (about 900nm to 950 nm) and an upper end XAU wavelength between (about 1000 nm). 所述至少一个第二光源L2a和L2b的每一个适合于将主要在第二波长范围x乱-xbu的光发射向受实验者100。 At least one second light L2a and L2b each adapted to emit light mainly in the second wavelength range x mess -xbu to 100 by the experimenter. 和所述至少一个第一光源Ll相反,每一个所述至少一个第二光源L2a和L2b配置在离成像装置110的光轴Ac—定距离du处,以致由其发射的相应的主光束B2相对于该光轴Ac是离轴定位。 And said at least one first light source Ll contrast, each of the at least one second light source arranged on the optical axis L2a and L2b du Ac- at a given distance from the imaging device 110, so that the respective main beam B2 emitted therefrom opposite Ac to the optical axis is off-axis positioning. 因此,相对于由摄像机(其中结合有光学系统110)配准的图像,光束B2适合于引起暗淡瞳孔效应。 Thus, with respect to the camera (optical system 110 incorporated therein) registered images, beam B2 is adapted to cause dark pupil effect. 鉴于以上失见定的X乱和Xau但,第二波长范围优选在下端波长X肌(大约400 nm至800 nm )与上端波长? In view of the above loss and disorder see Xau given X but, in the second wavelength range is preferably lower wavelength X muscle (approximately 400 nm to 800 nm) and an upper wavelength? ^BU (大约800 nm至950 nm)之间扩展。 Between the extension (approximately 800 nm to 950 nm) ^ BU. 总之,第二波长范围X肌至^u基本上与第一波长范围X乱至人au分离。 In short, the second wavelength range to muscle X ^ u au substantially separated from the first wavelength range X chaos humans. 这意味着范围的较小重叠是可以接受的,如在曲线图中所示。 This means that a smaller overlapping range is acceptable, as shown in the graph. 图5图解说明根据本发明的第一实施方式的掩模120是如何可以用来4寻益于上述明亮瞳孔承丈应和暗;炎瞳^^丈应的,该岁丈应是在由所4是出的处理装置140进行的处理中分别通过至少一个第一光源Ll和至少一个第二光源L2a和L2b来实;见。 FIG 5 illustrates a mask according to a first embodiment of the present invention is how to 120 can be used to find benefit from 4 feet above should bright and dark pupil bearing; ^^ inflammation pupil corresponding feet, the feet should be in the age of the 4 is a processing apparatus 140 for each of the at least one first and at least one second light source Ll light L2a and L2b by Lysaght; see. 在此实施例中,掩才莫120和透镜113适合于相对于第一波长范围Xal-Xau内的光实现第一光学传递函数,并且相对于第二波长范围X肌-人bu内的光实现第二光学传递函数。 In this embodiment, the mask 120 and lens 113 Mo was adapted with respect to light in a first wavelength range of Xal-Xau achieve a first optical transfer function, with respect to the second wavelength range muscle X - ray implemented within the human bu a second optical transfer function. 因此,在第一波长范围人aiAau内的光被引向图像传感器130的传感器表面上的第一区域Al,并且在第二波长范围xbl-xbu内的直射光被引向传感器表面上的第二区域A2。 Thus, the light in a first wavelength range is directed to the first person aiAau area Al on the sensor surface of the image sensor 130, and a second wavelength range in direct xbl-xbu second light is directed on the sensor surface area A2. 为了清楚表达,在这里,第一和第二光学传递函凄t是分别用掩才莫120中的两个分开的体禾口、 ( volume ) 121禾口122力口以表示。 In order to articulate here, first and second optical transfer function is respectively mask the bitter t Mo only in two separate bodies 120 Wo port, (volume) 121 122 Wo mouth opening force to FIG. ,然而, 实际上,这些体积可以非常好地占据掩模120中的一个空间和相同空间。 However, in practice, these volumes can be very good mask 120 occupies a space and the same space. 此夕卜,第一和第二区域A1和A2可以物理上;f皮此分开(如图5 所示)、或这些区i或可以或多或少重叠。 , The first and second areas A1 and A2 may be physically this Bu Xi; F This separate sheath (Figure 5), or combinations of these or may be more or less overlapping zones i. 如果第一和第二光学传递函凄t表示正交基(orthogonal bases ),那么区i或Al和A2可以;f皮此完全重叠。 If the first and second optical transfer function group sad t represents an orthogonal (orthogonal bases), then the area Al and A2 may or i; F This skin completely overlap. 处理单元140适合于基于原始凄t据Ds的第一子集产生明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参数,该第一子集已被第一区域Al内的传感元件所配准。 The processing unit 140 is adapted to sad t based on the raw data of the first subset Ds produce a bright pupil eye tracking parameters, the first subset has been registration sensor element in the first region Al. 类似地,处理单元140适合于基于原始凄t据Ds的第二子集产生暗淡瞳孔眼跟踪参数,该第二子集已一皮第二区域A2内的传感元件所配准。 Similarly, the processing unit 140 is adapted to sad t based on the original data to generate a second subset of Ds dark pupil eye tracking parameters, a subset of the second sheath sensing element in the second region A2 of registration. 图6图解说明根据本发明的第二实施方式如何配置图像传感器130的传感器区域。 Figure 6 illustrates how to configure the sensor area of ​​the image sensor 130 according to a second embodiment of the present invention. 同样在此实施方式中,该设计使由处理装置140 进行的处理能够得益于明亮瞳孔效应和暗淡瞳孔效应,该效应是分别通过所述至少一个第一光源Ll和所述至少一个第二光源L2a和L2b来实现。 Also in this embodiment, the design of the processing performed by the processing device 140 can benefit from bright and dark pupil effect pupil effect, which respectively the at least one first light source Ll and the at least one second light source L2a and L2b to achieve. 然而,在这里,传感器130具有两种类型的传感元件,即第一组元件OOa,其中每个元件(用白色方格表示)适合于才佥测第一波长范围Xal-人au内的光,以及第二组传感元件130b,其中每个元件(用暗色方才各表示)适合于4全测第二波长范围Xb。 However, here, sensor 130 has two types of sensing elements, i.e., a first set of elements OOA, wherein each element (indicated with white squares) is adapted to only light in the first wavelength range measured Xal- al au Qian and a second set of sensing elements 130b, wherein each element (each represented by just dark) adapted to measure a second wavelength range of 4 full Xb. Xbu内的光。 Light in Xbu. 因此,第一组传感元件130a配准原始凄t据Ds的第一子集(表示明亮瞳孔信息),而第二组传感元件130b配准原始数据Ds的第二子集(表示暗淡瞳孔^言息)。 Thus, the first set of original registration sensing element 130a according to a first subset of sad t Ds (represented bright pupil information), while a second group of sensor elements 130b with a second subset of the original data registration Ds (indicating dark pupil ^ speech information). 才艮据本发明的一种优选的实施方式,图l象传感器115的光4企测区i或配置成在第一组传感元〗牛130a中的每个元4牛与第二组传感元件130b中的至少一个元件相邻。 According to a preferred before Gen embodiment of the present invention, image sensor 115 of FIG. L light sensing region i or 4 half of each element 4 is configured to the second group of cattle in the first set of transmission sensor element 130a of bovine〗 sensing element 130b adjacent at least one element. 因此,作为该实施方式的特歹未情况,在第一和第二组传感器元件130a和130b中的元件可以配置成方才各图案,如图6所示。 Therefore, not as bad Laid case of this embodiment, elements in the first and second set of sensor elements 130a and 130b may be configured to just the patterns, as shown in FIG. 总之,处理单元140适合于基于原始数据Ds的第一子集产生明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参数,以及基于原始数据Ds的第二子集产生暗淡瞳孔眼i?艮踪参凄史。 In summary, the processing unit 140 is adapted to produce a bright pupil eye-tracking parameter based on a first subset of the original data Ds, and the dark pupil of eye is generated based on the raw data of the second i subset of Ds? Gen sad reference trace history. 为了进一步说明根据本发明的第一和第二实施方式明亮瞳孔图<象和暗淡瞳孔图<象是如<可可以用来确定用于估计受实-验者眼位置x、 y的基础,我们现在参照图7a、图7b以及图7c。 To further illustrate the bright pupil according to the first embodiment and the second embodiment of the present invention <dark pupil image and FIG. <Like as <can be used to determine estimates are real - test eye location x, y of the base, we Referring now to Figures 7a, 7b and FIG. 7c. 图7a示出具有明亮瞳孔710的眼IOI。 7a shows the eye with a bright pupil IOI 710. 在这里,由于至少一个第一光源Ll的强一见网月莫反射,目艮101的瞳孔710显4寻相乂十明亮。 Here, since at least one first light source Ll strong network see a reflective Mo January, pupil 101 of eye 710 Burgundy significant 4 qe ten homing phase bright. 也可以存在起因于至少一个光源Ll的一个或多个闪烁715。 It may also be present due to the at least one light source Ll 715, one or more flashes. 图7b示出另一只眼,其具有瞳孔710,该瞳孔在没有视网膜反射的情况下显得暗淡。 Figure 7b shows the other eye, with the pupil 710, the pupil appears dark in the absence of retinal reflection case. 然而,可以存在起因于至少一个第二光源L2a 和L2b的一个或多个闪烁725。 However, due to the presence of the at least one second light source or a plurality of L2a and L2b of 725 flashes. 因为由图Y象传感器130配准的原始凄t据Ds不在焦点,所以在这里在图7a或图7b本身中没有图像被配准。 Since the image sensor 130 in FIG Y registration original data Ds sad t is not in focus, so there are no image registration in FIGS. 7a or 7b itself in FIG. 然而,原始数据Ds 包含等价信息,其可以分成如上所述的第一和第二子集(即,分别表示明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参数和暗淡瞳孔眼跟踪参数)。 However, the original data Ds containing equivalent information, which can be divided into a first and a second subset as described above (i.e., respectively, bright and dark pupil of eye tracking parameters pupil eye tracking parameters). 因此,根据本发明的一种优选的实施方式,处理单元140适合于基于明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参数和暗淡瞳孔眼跟踪参数两者产生眼跟踪数据DEYE。 Thus, according to one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the processing unit 140 is adapted to generate based on eye-tracking data DEYE both bright and dark pupil of eye tracking parameters pupil eye tracking parameters. 借助于合成图j象,图7c对此进行了说明,其中合成图^f象表示从图7a中明亮瞳孔图像表示的图像内容减去图7b中暗淡瞳孔图像表示的图像内容。 J by means of the montage image, This is illustrated in FIG 7c, wherein the synthetic image represented by the image ^ f FIG. 7b dark pupil image contents represented by the image content represented by the bright pupil image from Figure 7a subtracting FIG. 因此,合成图像包括来自原始数据Ds的第一子集的闪烁数据715'以及来自原始数据Ds的第二子集的闪烁数据725'。 Thus, the synthesized image from the original data Ds includes a first data subset scintillator 715 'and a second subset of the data flashes from the original data Ds of 725'. 当然,在图7c中的合成图像仅需作为处理单元140中的抽象表示而存在(即, 不是作为实际图像),以便使得可以确定眼101的位置估计x、 y。 Of course, the composite image in Figure 7c as the processing unit only abstract representation 140 is present (i.e., not as the actual image), so that the position can be determined so that the eye 101 estimates x, y. 总之,现将参照图8的流程图描述根据本发明的用于自动配准和跟踪至少一位受实验者的至少一只眼的一4S:方法。 In short, it will now be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG. 8 automatic registration and tracking at least one of the at least one eye by the experimenter in a 4S according to the invention: Method.最初步骤810接收来自包括至少一位受实验者(并且因此还假设包括至少一只眼)的现场的入射光。然后,借助于具有增强的光学传递函数的光学系统,步骤820变换入射光,其中和等效光学系统的基本光学传递函凄t相比,增强的光学传递函凄t对于纟是出的光学系统与至少一位受实验者之间的未知距离的变化显著地较'J、敏感。具体地,提出的光学系统包括透镜结构和掩模,其中掩模适合于将基本光学传递函数改变成如上所述的增强的光学传递函数。在已通过光学系统以后,借助于图像传感器,步骤830配准空间分布的变换的光,从而完成原始数据D,。其后,步骤840处理原始数据Ds以产生所得到的眼跟踪数据DEYE。该^Ut又表示至少一只眼的^f立置〗古计和/或至少一只眼的注一见方向。参照以上图8描述的所有过程步骤以及步骤的任何子序列可以借助于程序控制的计算积/i殳备加以控制。此外,虽然以上参照附图描述的本发明的实施方式包括计算机设备和在计算机设备中进行的过程,但本发明还扩展到计算机程序,尤其是在载体上或载体中的计算机程序,其适合于实施本发明。该程序可以具有以下形式: 源4戈石马、目标"、石马、4戈石马中间源(code intermediate source )以及卞者如部分编译形式的目标代码、或具有适用于实施才艮据本发明的过程的任4可其它形式。该禾呈序可以是才喿作系统的一部分、或是单独应用程序。载体可以是能够携带程序的任何实体或装置。例如,该载体可以包括存储介质,如闪存,ROM(只读存储器),例如DVD(数字多功能/视频盘),CD (光盘)或半导体ROM, EPROM (可擦可编程只读存储器),EEPROM (电擦除可编程只读存储器),或磁记录介质,例如4欠盘或石更盘。另外,该载体可以是可传丰lr载体(如电信号或光信号),其可以通过电缆或光缆或^f昔助于无线电或^f昔助于其它i殳备加以传递。当程序体现在可以直4妄通过线缆或其它装置或设备加以传递的信号中时,该载体可以由这样的线缆或装置或i殳备 成。可替换地,该载体可以是其中嵌入程序的集成电i?各,该集成电^各适合于进^亍、或用于进4于相关的过程。当在本说明书中使用时,术语"包括/包含"用来明确说明所陈述的特征、整体、步骤或组件的存在。然而,该术语并不排除存在或加入一个或多个另外的特4i、整体、步备聚或组件或其组合。在本说明书中对任何在先技术的参照不是、并且不应看作是对下述的7f^人或〗壬何纟是示:参照的在先纟支术在澳大利亚形成共有一豸殳知"i只的一部分。本发明并不限于在附图中所描述的实施方式,而是可以在权利要求的范围内自由地变4匕。

Claims (24)

1.一种用于自动配准和跟踪至少一位受实验者(100)的至少一只眼(101、102)的系统,包括: 光学系统(110),包括:图像传感器(130),适合于配准空间分布的光并产生所得到的原始数据(Ds);以及透镜结构(111、112),适合于接收反射自包括所述至少一位受实验者(100)的现场的入射光(LS)并将至少一部分所述入射光(LS)引导到所述图像传感器(130),所述光学系统(110)具有基本光学传递函数,以及处理单元(140),适合于基于所述原始数据(Ds)导出眼跟踪数据(DEYE), 其特征在于,所述光学系统(110)进一步包括配置在所述至少一个受实验者(100)与所述图像传感器(130)之间的掩模(120),所述掩模(120)适合于将所述基本光学传递函数改变成增强的光学传递函数,所述增强的光学传递函数适合于将来自空间中一点的图像传播到所述图像传感器(130)的传感器表面上的一个以上的传感元 1. A system for automatic registration and tracking by the experimenter at least one (100) of at least one eye (101, 102), comprising: an optical system (110), comprising: an image sensor (130) adapted registration in the spatial distribution of light and generates raw data (Ds) obtained; and a lens structure (111, 112) adapted to receive at least one reflected from the receiving site comprising experimenter (100) incident light ( LS) and at least a portion of the incident light (LS) directed to the image sensor (130), said optical system (110) having a substantially optical transfer function, and a processing unit (140) adapted to, based on the raw data (Ds) derived eye-tracking data (DEYE), characterized in that the optical system (110) further comprises a mask disposed between said at least one experimenter receiving (100) the image sensor (130) ( 120), the mask (120) adapted to substantially the optical transfer function is changed to enhance the optical transfer function, the enhanced optical transfer function adapted to a point in space from the image sensor to the image propagated ( one or more sensor 130 on) the surface of the sensor element ,并且所述增强的光学传递函数对于所述光学系统(110)与所述至少一位受实验者(100)之间的未知距离(R)的变化(Δ)的敏感性显著地小于所述基本光学传递函数,以及所述处理单元(140)适合于接收所述原始数据(Ds),并处理所述原始数据(Ds)以产生所得到的眼跟踪数据(DEYE),所述眼跟踪数据表示所述至少一只眼(101、102)的至少一个位置估计以及所述至少一只眼(101、102)的注视方向。 And the enhanced optical transfer function (110) receiving the at least one unknown distance between the experimenter (100) sensitive to the optical system (R) of variation ([Delta]) is significantly less than the the basic optical transfer function, and the processing unit (140) adapted to receive the raw data (Ds), and processing the raw data (Ds) to produce the eye-tracking data (DEYE) thus obtained, the eye-tracking data representing the at least one eye (101, 102) at least one location estimate and the at least one eye (101, 102) the gaze direction.
2. 根据权利要求1所述的系统,特征在于,所述图像传感器(130) 适合于仅仅将所述原始数据(Ds)的高相关部分传输到所述处理单元(140),所述高相关部分是基于先前导出的眼跟踪数据(DEYE )和由连4妄于所述系统的一个或多个辅助传感器配准的凄史才居的至少之一由所述处5里单元(140)力卩以选冲奪。 2. The system according to claim 1, wherein the image sensor (130) adapted to only the relevant portion of the high-transmit the original data (Ds) to the processing unit (140), a high correlation part (140) a force based on eye-tracking data (DEYE) and at least one previously derived by the 4 connected by a jump to the system one or more auxiliary sensors sad history registration only at 5 in the living unit Jie wins to choose red.
3. 根据权利要求1或2中任一项所述的系统,其特征在于,所述增强的光学传递函数适合于将反射自所述现场单点的光投射到所述图像传感器(130)的传感器表面的多个传感元件上, 从而仿真比由所述基本光学传递函数和所述传感器表面的物理传感元件密度所》合出的基本分辨率水平更高的分辨率水平, 以及所述处理单元(140)适合于处理所述原始l史据(Ds), 乂人而可以以比<又4义基于以传统焦点内光学系统的基本分辨率水平由原始数据(Ds)导出的眼跟踪数据(DEYE )获得的最大精度更大的精度来导出所述眼跟踪数据(DEYE)。 3. A system according to one of claims 1 or claims 2, wherein the enhanced optical transfer function adapted to the light reflected from a single point of the scene is projected to the image sensor (130) a plurality of sensing elements on the sensor surface, so that the sensing element higher than the physical simulation is transmitted by the basic optical density function and the sensor surface of the "substantially the combined level of resolution resolution level, and the the processing unit (140) adapted to process the raw l history data (Ds), qe person can than <sense and 4 based on eye-tracking in a substantially horizontal resolution of a traditional focus of the optical system is derived from the raw data (Ds) maximum precision data (DEYE) obtained greater precision deriving the eye-tracking data (DEYE).
4. 才艮据前述4又利要求中任一项所述的系统,其特4正在于,所述处理单元(140 )适合于相对于目标形状匹配所述原始数据(Ds ), 所述目标形状表示由所述光学传递函数变换的通常的眼形状。 4. It was Gen system as claimed in any of the preceding claims 4 and which are to Patent 4, the processing unit (140) adapted to match the shape of the target with respect to the raw data (Ds), the target eye shape representation shape function normally converted by the optical transmission.
5. 才艮据一又利要求4所述的系统,其特4i在于,所述处理单元(140) 适合于选纟奪一部分所述原始凌t据(Ds),所述部分原始数据表示在每一组传感元件周围的所述传感器表面上的相应的感兴趣区域,所述部分原始数据与高于匹配阈水平的所述目标形状具有相关性。 5. It was Gen and claims a system according to which Japanese 4i wherein the processing unit (140) adapted to capture a selected portion of the original Si Ling t data (Ds), said part of the original data is represented in the corresponding region of interest on the sensor surface around each set of sensing elements, the portion of the original data with a threshold level of matching is higher than the target shape has a correlation.
6. 根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的系统,其特征在于,所述处理单元(140)适合于确定所述至少一只目艮(101、 102)的至少一个4吳选4立置,并在已确定一组^f夷选^f立置(x, y)以后,所述处理单元(140)适合于:相对于表示由所述光学传递函数变换的理想眼形状的眼模型,匹配表示每个所述候选位置(x, y)的所述原始数据Ds的数据子集,以获得一组相关测试值,以及基于所述相关测试值,从所述候选位置组中选4奪至少一个4夷选<立置,以表示至少一只眼。 6. The system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, wherein the processing unit (140) adapted to determine the at least one mesh Burgundy (101, 102) at least one selected from 4 Wu upright 4 , and has been determined is selected from a group Yi ^ f ^ f upright (x, y) after the processing unit (140) adapted to: represents an ideal eye with respect to the shape of the eye model function converted by the optical transmission, matching a subset of the data representing each of the candidate position (x, y) of the original data Ds to obtain a set of values ​​related test, test and based on the correlation value selected at least 4 capture position from the candidate set Yi is selected from a 4 <upright, to represent at least one eye.
7. 才艮据前述4又利要求中4壬一项所述的系统,特4i在于,所述系统包括:至少一个第一光源(Ll),配置成相对4妻近所述光学系统(110)的光轴(Ac),所述至少一个第一光源(Ll)被定向为使得由其发射的主光束(Bl)基本上与所述光轴(Ac) — 致,来自所述至少一个第一光源(Ll)的光能主要分布在第一波长范围(Vl-Xau)内,以及至少一个第二光源(L2a、 L2b),适合于将主要在第二波长范围(XBL-XBU )内的光发射向所述至少一位受实马全者(100 ), 所述第二波长范围(X肌Abu)基本上与所述第一波长范围(Vl-Xau)分开,并且所述至少一个第二光源(L2a、 L2b) 配置在离所述成^f象装置(110 )的所述光轴(Ac )—定距离(dL2 ) 处,使得由其发射的主光束(B2)相对于所述光轴(Ac)离库由《4立。 7. It is only the Gen in claims 4 and one of the 4-nonyl system, wherein Laid 4i, the system comprising: at least one first light source (Ll), arranged near the optical system is relatively wife 4 (110 ) optical axis (Ac), said at least one first light source (Ll) is oriented such that its main beam (Bl) is substantially transmitted to the optical axis (Ac) - induced from said at least one first a light source (Ll) mainly in the light of a first wavelength range (Vl-Xau), and at least one second light source (L2a, L2b), adapted to be predominantly in a second wavelength range (XBL-XBU) of transmitting to said at least one light receiving real horse's full (100), the second wavelength range (X muscle Abu) substantially separate from the first wavelength range (Vl-Xau), and at least one of two light sources (L2a, L2b) disposed from said image means to ^ f (110) of the optical axis (Ac) - a given distance (dL2), the main beam therefrom such that (B2) with respect to the emission optical axis (Ac) from the library of "4 legislation.
8. 根据权利要求7所述的系统,特征在于,所述掩模(120)适合于,相对于在所述第一波长范围(人al-Xau)内的光实现第一光学传递函数并将在所述范围内的光引导到所述图像传感器(130)的传感器表面上的第一区域(Al ),以及相对于在所述第二波长范围(XBlj-XBU)内的光实现第二光学传递函数,并将在所述范围内的光引导到所述传感器表面上的第二区域(A2),以及所述处理单元(140)适合于产生至少下述之一:明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参数,其基于由所述第一区域(Al )内的传感元件配准的所述原始数据(Ds)的第一子集,以及暗淡睹孔眼跟踪参数,其基于由所述第二区域(A2)内的传感元件配准的所述原始lt据(Ds)的第二子集。 8. The system of claim 7, wherein the mask (120) adapted to, with respect to light in the first wavelength range (human al-Xau) implementation of a first optical transfer function and in the light guided to within the range of the first area (Al) on the sensor surface of the image sensor (130), and with respect to light in the second wavelength range (XBlj-XBU) to achieve a second optical transfer function, and leading the light to the second area (A2) on the sensor surface within the range, and the processing unit (140) adapted to produce at least one of the following: a bright pupil eye tracking parameters, based on the original data (Ds) by a first subset of the sensing elements in the first area (Al) registration, tracking and dim eyelet see parameters, by the second region based on (A2) the sensing elements within the original lt registration data (Ds) of the second subset.
9. 才艮据权利要求7所述的系统,其特征在于,所述图《象传感器(130)包括:第一组传感元件(130a),其中每个元件适合于4企测在所述第一波长范围(XAL-XAU)内的光,以及第二组传感元件(130b),其中每个元件适合于检测在所述第二波长范围(人BL-人Bu)内的光,以及所述处理单元(140)适合于:产生明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参数,其基于由所述第一组传感元件(130a)配准的所述原始数据(Ds)的第一子集,以及产生暗淡瞳孔眼跟踪参数,其基于由所述第二组传感元件(130b)配准的所述原始^:据(Ds)的第二子集。 9. It was Gen system according to claim 7, wherein said map "image sensor (130) comprising: a first set of sensor elements (130a), wherein each element is adapted to measure the half 4 light sensing element and a second set of a first wavelength range (XAL-XAU) of (130b), wherein each element is adapted to detect light within the second wavelength range (human BL- al Bu), and said processing unit (140) adapted to: produce a bright pupil eye tracking parameters, based on the sensing element by said first group (130a) registered raw data (Ds) of the first subset, and generating a dim eye pupils tracking parameters based on said second set of said sensing elements (130b) with the original registration ^: data (Ds) of the second subset.
10. 根据权利要求9所述的系统,其特征在于,在所述第一组传感元件(130a)中的每个元件与所述第二组传感元件(130b)中的至少一个元4牛^目4卩。 10. The system according to claim 9, characterized in that at least one element of the unit 4 in each of the first set of sensing elements (130a) in the second set of sensing elements (130b) of Niu Jie 4 ^ head.
11. 根据权利要求10所述的系统,其特征在于,以方格图案配置所述第一和第二组传感元4牛(130a、 130b)中的所述元件。 11. The system of claim 10, wherein, in a checkered pattern configuring the first and second sets of sensing element 4 cows (130a, 130b) of the elements.
12. 根据权利要求10或11中任一项所述的系统,其特征在于,所述增强的光学传递函^t适合于将反射自所述现场中单点的光才更射到所述第一和第二组传感元件(130a、 130b)中的多个元件上,从而仿真比由所述基本光学传递函数和所述传感器表面的物理传感元件密度所给出的基本分辨率水平更高的分辨率水平,以及所述处理单元(140)适合于处理所述原始凄t据(Ds), 使得可以以比仅仅基于以传统焦点内光学系统的基本分辨率水平由原始数据(Ds)导出的眼跟踪^:据(DEYE)可获得的最大精度更大的精度来导出所述眼跟踪数据(DEYE )。 12. The system of 10 or 11 to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said enhanced optical transfer function ^ t is adapted to the reflection from a single point in the scene of the incident light is more a plurality of substantially horizontal resolution and a second set of elements a sensing element (130a, 130b), thereby sensing element density than the physical simulation is transmitted by the base function and the optical sensor surface given more high level of resolution, and the processing unit (140) adapted to process the raw data sad t (Ds), so that the ratio may be based solely on a substantially horizontal resolution of a traditional focus of the optical system from the original data (Ds) derived eye tracking ^: According larger (DEYE) is obtained the maximum precision accuracy deriving the eye-tracking data (DEYE).
13. 根据权利要求7至12中任一项所述的系统,其特征在于,所述处理单元(140)适合于基于所述明亮瞳孔眼^艮踪参凄t和暗淡瞳孔眼跟踪参数来产生所述眼跟踪数据(DEYE )。 13. Based on the bright pupil in the eye tracking reference Gen ^ t sad and dark pupil eye tracking parameters to generate the system of claim 7 according to any one of claim 12, wherein the processing unit (140) adapted the eye-tracking data (DEYE).
14. 一种自动配准和3艮踪至少一位受实-验者(100)的至少一只眼(101、 102)的方法,其中表示空间分布光的原始数据(Ds) 被配准,借助于包括透镜结构(111、 112)和掩模(120)的光学系统(110),所述光已^皮/人包括所述至少一位受实验者(100 )的现场传输到图像传感器(130 ),所述掩模(120 )适合于将所述透4竟结构(111、 112)和所述图Y象传感器(130) 的基本光学传递函数改变成增强的光学传递函数,所述增强的光学传递函凄t对于所述光学系统(110)与所述至少一位受实验者(100)之间的未知距离(R)的变化(△)的敏感性显著地小于所述基本光学传递函数,并且所述方法包括:接收所述原始数据(Ds),以及处理所述原始lt据(Ds)以产生所得到的眼3艮踪凄1据(DEYE),所述眼跟踪凄t据表示所述至少一只眼(101、 102)的至少一个位置估计和所述至少一只目艮(101、 102)的注 14. An automatic registration and tracking Gen 3 by at least one solid - subject (100) at least one eye (101, 102), wherein the raw data represents the spatial distribution of light (Ds) of the registration, by means of an optical system comprising a lens structure (111, 112) and the mask (120) (110), said light has been transdermal ^ / person comprises at least one receiving experimenter (100) is transmitted to the image sensor field ( 130), the mask (120) adapted to the actually permeable structure 4 (111, 112) and the image sensor in FIG Y (130) is substantially an optical transfer function is changed to enhance the optical transfer function, the enhancement t sad optical transfer function to the optical system (110) receiving the at least one unknown distance (R) between the experimenter (100) change (△) is significantly less than the sensitivity of the optical transfer substantially function, and the method comprises: receiving the original data (Ds), and processing the raw lt data (Ds) to produce the resulting eye tracking Gen 3 1 sad data (DEYE), the eye tracking data sad t representing the at least one eye (101, 102) and at least one of said at least one location estimate Gen mesh (101, 102) Note 见方向。 See direction.
15. 根据权利要求14所述的方法,其特征在于,仅仅处理所述原始数据(Ds)的高相关部分以产生所述眼跟踪数据(DEYE), 所述方法包括基于先前导出的眼^艮踪凄t梧(DEYE )和由一个或多个辅助传感器配准的数据中至少之一来选择所述高相关部分。 15. The method according to claim 14, characterized in that only the relevant portion of the high processing raw data (Ds) to produce the eye-tracking data (DEYE), the method comprising the previously derived based eye ^ Gen Wu sad trace t (DEYE) and one or more auxiliary sensor registration data selecting said at least one portion of high correlation.
16. 根据权利要求14或15中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,所述增强的光学传递函数适合于将反射自所述现场中单点的光投射到所述图像传感器(130)的传感器表面的多个传感元件上,从而仿真比由所述基本光学传递函数和所述传感器表面的物理传感元件密度所l会出的基本分辨率水平更高的分辨率水平,并且所述方法包4舌:处理所述原始数据(Ds),使得可以以比仅仅基于以传统焦点内光学系统的基本分辨率水平由原始数据(Ds)导出的眼跟踪数据(DEYE )可获得的最大精度更大的精度来导出所述眼^艮^宗凄t才居(DEYE)。 14 or 16. A method as claimed in any one of claims 15, wherein said enhanced optical transfer function adapted to the reflection from a single point in the field of light onto the image sensor (130) the higher the plurality of sensor elements the sensor surface to the sensor element than the physical simulation of the density of the optical transfer function substantially the sensor surface and the l-resolution will be a substantially horizontal resolution level, and the said method tongue package 4: process the raw data (Ds), making it possible to the maximum resolution level based solely on a substantially traditional focus of the optical system is derived from the raw data (Ds) eye tracking data (DEYE) ratio obtainable greater precision accuracy deriving the eyes were sad t ^ ^ Burgundy was living (DEYE).
17. 根据权利要求14至16中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,相对于表示通过所述光学传递函数变换的通常眼形状的目标形状匹配所述原始凄t据(Ds)。 14 to 16 17. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that, with respect to the generally represents the transfer function of the shape of the eye by converting the optical target shape data matches the original sad t (Ds).
18. 才艮寺居斗又利要求17所述的方法,其特征在于,选才奪一部分所述原始^:据(Ds)以表示所述原始^t据(Ds)每个子集的相应的感兴趣区域,所述部分原始凝:据与高于匹配阈水平的所述目标形状具有相关性。 18. Temple was Gen UN hopper method of claim 17 further claims, characterized in that it won the election part of the original ^: data (Ds) to represent the original data ^ t (Ds) corresponding to each subset a region of interest, the portion of the original condensate: data matching with the above target shape has a correlation threshold level.
19. 根据权利要求14至18中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,确定所述至少一只眼(101、 102)的至少一个候选〗立置,其后相对于表示由所述光学传递函数变换的理想眼形状的眼模型,为每个所述至少一个候选位置匹配表示所述候选位置(x, y)的所述原始数据(Ds)的相应的ft据子集,以获得相应的才目关观'H式丫直,以及基于所述相关测试值,从所述候选位置组中选冲奪至少一个候选位置,以表示至少一只眼。 14 to 18 19. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein determining the at least one eye (101, 102) at least one candidate〗 upright, followed with respect to the optical represented by the passing over the eye of the eye shape model transformation function for each of said at least one candidate match represents the position of the candidate position (x, y) of the original data (Ds) corresponding ft subset of data, to obtain the corresponding the only purpose off concept 'H Ah linear formula, and the test based on the correlation values ​​from the selected set of candidate red capture position at least one candidate position to indicate at least one eye.
20. 根据权利要求14至19中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于:借助于配置成相对接近所述光学系统(110 )的光轴(Ac ) 的至少一个第一光源(Ll)照射所述i见场,所述至少一个第一光源(Ll )被定向为使得由其发射的主光束(Bl )基本上与所述光轴(Ac) —致,所述至少一个第一光源(Ll)发射主要在第一波长范围(ViAau)内的光能,以及借助于配置在离所述成像装置(110)的所述光轴(Ac) 一定距离(dL2)处的至少一个第二光源(L2a、 L2b)照射所述现场,〗吏得由其发射的主光束(B2)相对于所述光轴(Ac) 离轴定位,所述至少一个第二光源(L2a, L2b)发射主要在第二波长范围(XbiAbu)内的光,所述第二波长范围基本上与所述第一波长范围(XAL-XAU)分开。 14 to 19 20. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that: by means arranged relatively close to the at least one first light source (Ll) of said illumination optical system (110) of the optical axis (Ac) of see the field i, the at least one first light source (Ll) is oriented such that its main beam (Bl) is substantially transmitted to the optical axis (Ac) - induced by said at least one first light source ( LL) in a first main emission wavelength range (ViAau) light energy, and means of configuration (dL2) at a distance from the optical axis of the imaging means (110) (Ac) at least one second light source (L2a, L2b) of the irradiation field, officials have〗 its main beam (B2) emitted with respect to the optical axis (Ac) located off-axis, the at least one second light source (L2a, L2b) in the main emission light, the second wavelength range is substantially separated from the first wavelength range (XAL-XAU) within a second wavelength range (XbiAbu) a.
21. 根据权利要求20所述的方法,其特征在于,所述掩模(120) 适合于变换来自所述现场的所述入射光(LS ),使得:在所述第一波长范围(XaiAau)内的光被引导向在传感器表面上的第一区域(Al ),以及在所述第二波长范围(XBL-XBU)内的光被引导向在所述传感器表面上的第二区域(A2),以及所述方法包括产生以下的至少之一:明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参数,其基于由所述第一区域(Al )内的传感元件配准的所述原始数据(Ds)的子集,以及暗淡瞳孔眼跟踪参数,其基于由所述第二区域(A2)内的传感元件配准的所述原始凄t据(Ds)的子集。 21. The method of claim 20, wherein the mask (120) is adapted to transform the incident light from the scene (the LS), such that: in the first wavelength range (XaiAau) the light is guided to the first region on the sensor surface (Al), and the light in the second wavelength range (XBL-XBU) is guided to the second region on the sensor surface (A2) and the method comprises generating at least one of the following: a bright pupil eye tracking parameters based on the sensing element within said first region by (Al) of the original registration data (Ds) of the subset, and dark pupil eye tracking parameters, a subset of t data (Ds) from the sensor element based on the second region within (A2) of the original registration sad.
22. 才艮据4又利要求21所述的方法,其特4正在于,基于所述明亮瞳孔眼跟踪参数和暗淡瞳孔眼跟踪参数的至少之一,产生所述眼跟踪ft据(DEYE)。 4 and 22. It is only Gen method according to claims 21, which is in Laid-4, based on at least one of the parameters of the bright and dark pupil of eye tracking eye pupils tracking parameters to produce the eye-tracking data ft (DEYE) .
23. —种可直接装入计算机内存的计算机程序,包括当在所述计算机上运行所述程序时用于控制根据权利要求14至22中任一项所述步骤的软件。 23. - species can be loaded directly into the computer's memory a computer program, comprising software for controlling the claims 14 to 22 said step of a program when run on the computer.
24. —种计算机可读介质(145 ),具有记录在其上的程序,其中所述程序用来4吏计算才几控制才艮据权利要求14至22中任一项所述的步-骤。 24. - computer readable medium (145), having a program recorded thereon, where the program is used to calculate only a few clerks 4 before the control step 14 Gen according to claim any one of claims 22 - step .
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